A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
A type of schizophrenia characterized by frequent incoherence; marked loosening of associations, or grossly disorganized behavior and flat or grossly inappropriate affect that does not meet the criteria for the catatonic type; associated features include extreme social withdrawal, grimacing, mannerisms, mirror gazing, inappropriate giggling, and other odd behavior. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An obsolete concept, historically used for childhood mental disorders thought to be a form of schizophrenia. It was in earlier versions of DSM but is now included within the broad concept of PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENT DISORDERS.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A type of schizophrenia characterized by abnormality of motor behavior which may involve particular forms of stupor, rigidity, excitement or inappropriate posture.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
The artificial language of schizophrenic patients - neologisms (words of the patient's own making with new meanings).
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)
A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.
The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.
Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with research, overall planning, promoting, and administering mental health programs and research. It was established in 1949.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Dibenzothiazepines are a class of heterocyclic chemical compounds that contain a dibenzothiazepine ring structure, which have been used in the development of various pharmaceutical drugs, particularly as tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, and anticonvulsants, but their use has declined due to side effects and the development of newer drugs.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.
Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.
Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.
The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Groups that serve as a standard for comparison in experimental studies. They are similar in relevant characteristics to the experimental group but do not receive the experimental intervention.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.
A phenothiazine used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)
A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)
Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.
A peptide factor originally identified by its ability to stimulate the phosphorylation the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2). It is a ligand for the erbB-3 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-3) and the erbB-4 receptor. Variant forms of NEUREGULIN-1 occur through alternative splicing of its mRNA.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Age of the biological father.
Inability to experience pleasure due to impairment or dysfunction of normal psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. It is a symptom of many PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MAJOR; and SCHIZOPHRENIA).
Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.
Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.
Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.
'Nerve tissue proteins' are specialized proteins found within the nervous system's biological tissue, including neurofilaments, neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, and neural cell adhesion molecules, which facilitate structural support, intracellular communication, and synaptic connectivity essential for proper neurological function.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.
A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.
The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.
Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.

CNR1, central cannabinoid receptor gene, associated with susceptibility to hebephrenic schizophrenia. (1/30)

To examine the cannabinoid hypothesis for pathogenesis of schizophrenia, we examined two kinds of polymorphisms of the CNR1 gene, which encodes human CB1 receptor, a subclass of central cannabinoid receptors, in schizophrenics and age-matched controls in the Japanese population. Allelic and genotypic distributions of polymorphism 1359G/A at codon 453 in the coding region and AAT triplet repeats in the 3' flanking region in the Japanese population were quite different from those in Caucasians. Although the polymorphism 1359G/A was not associated with schizophrenia, the triplet repeat polymorphism of the CNR1 gene was significantly associated with schizophrenia, especially the hebephrenic subtype (P = 0.0028). Hebephrenic schizophrenia showed significantly increased rate of the 9 repeat allele (P = 0.032, OR = 2.30, 95% CI (1.91-2.69)), and decreased rate of the 17 repeat allele (P = 0.011, OR = 0.208, 95% CI (0.098-0.439)). The present findings indicated that certain alleles or genotypes of the CNR1 gene may confer a susceptibility of schizophrenia, especially of the hebephrenic type.  (+info)

Cortical coordination dynamics and the disorganization syndrome in schizophrenia. (2/30)

There has been a long history of investigation in the fields of neuropsychology and cognitive psychology into the question of functional integration in the brain. Each of the several dominant themes in that history can be interpreted as representing an important feature of a unitary general mechanism that integrates distributed processes in the cerebral cortex. This mechanism must allow local areas to function within the large-scale anatomical structure of the cortex so as to satisfy competing requirements for stability and flexibility. Each specialized cortical area must perform a unique role by expressing its own form of information, yet must have its performance constrained by interactions with other areas to which it is connected. In order to generate adaptive behavior within changing and not fully predictable environments, the cortex as a whole must be able to rapidly coordinate the activities of variable assemblages of areas that can collectively express consensual information that is appropriate for the functional requirements engendered by each successive stage of behavioral performance. This paper proposes that the phase synchronization of neuronal population activity from different cortical areas may serve a role in large-scale coordination. Theoretical studies suggest that the cortex normally operates in a metastable dynamic regime in which groups of areas are able to coordinate rapidly and reversibly their activities through changes in their degree of phase synchronization. A disruption of phase synchronization, leading to an excess of local information expression by cortical areas, is proposed as a contributing factor to the disorganization syndrome in schizophrenia.  (+info)

No association between the sigma receptor type 1 gene and schizophrenia: results of analysis and meta-analysis of case-control studies. (3/30)

BACKGROUND: Several lines of evidence have supported possible roles of the sigma receptors in the etiology of schizophrenia and mechanisms of antipsychotic efficacy. An association study provided genetic evidence that the sigma receptor type 1 gene (SIGMAR1) was a possible susceptibility factor for schizophrenia, however, it was not replicated by a subsequent study. It is necessary to evaluate further the possibility that the SIGMAR1 gene is associated with susceptibility to schizophrenia. METHODS: A case-control association study between two polymorphisms of the SIGMAR1 gene, G-241T/C-240T and Gln2Pro, and schizophrenia in Japanese population, and meta-analysis including present and previous studies. RESULTS: There was no significant association of any allele or genotype of the polymorphisms with schizophrenia. Neither significant association was observed with hebephrenic or paranoid subtype of schizophrenia. Furthermore, a meta-analysis including the present and previous studies comprising 779 controls and 636 schizophrenics also revealed no significant association between the SIGMAR1 gene and schizophrenia. CONCLUSION: In view of this evidence, it is likely that the SIGMAR1 gene does not confer susceptibility to schizophrenia.  (+info)

The cognitive basis of disorganization symptomatology in schizophrenia and its clinical correlates: toward a pathogenetic approach to disorganization. (4/30)

This article focuses on the schizophrenic disorganization syndrome, which was initially described by Bleuler (who used the term "dissociation") as lying at the heart of schizophrenia. While adopting a neo-Bleulerian approach, we describe schizophrenic disorganization using a pathogenetic hypothesis and a three-part structure. First, we discuss previous approaches to characterizing and defining schizophrenic disorganization, providing arguments in favor of a complementary approach to describing schizophrenic disorganization that relies on a pathogenetic analysis of the disorganization syndrome, and especially thought and language disorders. Second, we present two possible cognitive pathophysiological mechanisms that may explain schizophrenic disorganization: (1) a deficit in the integration of contextual information, based on the results of semantic priming studies; and (2) a theory of mind deficit, based on the results of studies of the attribution of mental states to others. We propose a cognitive model of schizophrenic dysfunctioning on the basis of these two anomalies. Third, we summarize our published findings to examine the implications of these two cognitive pathophysiological mechanisms for schizophrenic disorganization. On the basis of the same two anomalies, we then propose and illustrate a neo-Bleulerian approach to the assessment of communication disorders that is critical to the improvement of schizophrenic disorganization's clinical description.  (+info)

The assessment of "prodromal schizophrenia": unresolved issues and future directions. (5/30)

Because of the novelty of research with clinical high risk ("prodromal") patients, many unresolved issues exist concerning how the prodromal state is defined and measured. Data are presented from the Recognition and Prevention (RAP) program at the Zucker Hillside Hospital to address several outstanding questions. Baseline attenuated positive symptoms were rated in 42 putatively prodromal patients in the RAP program using the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS). Followup data of 6 months or more were available on 34 of these subjects; 9 of these (26.5%) developed psychotic disorders. Patients who developed psychosis had significantly higher SOPS positive symptom scores at baseline than those who did not. Various thresholds, using both total SOPS positive symptom scores and highest single item score, significantly predicted transition to psychosis, which calls into question appropriate cutoffs for the distinction between health, prodromal status, and psychosis. The SOPS positive symptom "conceptual disorganization" was found to be significantly related to disorganized behavior but not to other positive symptoms or to psychotic outcome, suggesting the importance of examining dimensions of psychopathology. The dimensional quantification of prodromal symptom severity may be an important direction for future studies of the assessment of at-risk states.  (+info)

Adult metachromatic leukodystrophy: disorganized schizophrenia-like symptoms and postpartum depression in 2 sisters. (6/30)

We describe the cases of 2 sisters with adult metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). Whereas one sister presented with disorganized schizophrenia-like symptoms as the initial manifestation of MLD, the other remained symptom free except for a 4-week period of postpartum depression. In both patients, there was some residual activity of leukocyte arylsulfatase A (1.7% and 5.5% of normal), and a marked increase in urinary sulfatides was present, as measured by tandem mass spectrometry. An arylsulfatase A pseudodeficiency was therefore excluded. The most common mutations of the adult phenotype, Ile-179-Ser and Pro-426-Leu, were not found. In the literature, only 1 case of adult MLD manifesting as disorganized schizophrenia-like symptoms has been described, whereas postpartum depression has been so far unknown as a presenting symptom of MLD.  (+info)

Genome-wide linkage scan of schizophrenia: a cross-isolate study. (7/30)

Genetic isolates are exceptional resources for the detection of susceptibility genes for complex diseases because of the potential reduction in genetic and clinical heterogeneity. However, the outcome of these mapping efforts is dependent upon the demographic history of a given isolated population, with the most significant factors being a constant population size, the number of generations since founding, and the pathogenic loci and their allele frequencies among founders. Here we employed a cross-isolate genome-wide multipoint linkage study design using uniform genetic and clinical methods in four Daghestan ethnically and demographically diverse isolates with an aggregation of schizophrenia. Our previous population-genetics study showed that Daghestan has an extremely high genetic diversity between ethnic populations and a low genetic diversity within them. The isolates selected for this study include some with more than 200 and some with fewer than 100 generations of demographical history since their founding. Updated clinical data using DSM-IV criteria showed between-isolate differences in aggregation of distinct types of schizophrenia: one of the isolates had a predominant aggregation of disorganized schizophrenia, while the other three had predominantly paranoid schizophrenia. The summarized cross-isolate results indicated prominent within and between-isolate differences in clinical and genetic heterogeneity: the most ancient isolates have roughly twofold fewer incidences of distinct clinical phenotypes and fewer linked genomic regions compared to the demographically younger isolates, which exhibit higher clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Affected individuals in the demographically ancient isolate of ethnic Dargins (No. 6022) who suffered from disorganized schizophrenia showed the highest linkage evidence at 17p11-p12 (LOD=3.73), while isolates with a predominant aggregation of paranoid schizophrenia (Nos. 6005, 6011, and 6034) showed the highest linkage evidence at 22q11 (LOD=3.0 and 4.4). The unified clinical, genomic, and statistical design we used enabled us to separate the linked and unlinked pedigrees in an unbiased fashion for each genomic location. Overall maximized heterogeneity lod scores for the combined pedigrees ranging from 3.5 to 8.7 were found at 2p24, 10q26, 11q23, 12q24, 17p11-p12, 22q11, and 22q13. The cross-isolate homogeneity in linkage patterns may be ascribed to an identical-by-descent "metahaplotype" block with pathogenic loci derived from the Daghestan ethnic groups' common ancestral metapopulation, while the cross-isolate differences may reflect differences in gene drift and recombination events in the history of local isolates. The results obtained support the notion that mapping genes of any complex disease (e.g., schizophrenia) in demographically older genetic isolates may be more time and cost effective in comparison with demographically younger isolates, especially in genetically heterogeneous outbred populations, due to higher clinical and genetic homogeneity of the primary isolates. A study at higher genotyping density across the regions of interest and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses are currently underway.  (+info)

Electrophysiological insights into conceptual disorganization in schizophrenia. (8/30)

Disorganized speech, or thought disorder, in schizophrenia may reflect abnormal processing of meaningful concepts. To examine whether schizophrenia involves abnormalities in how a meaningful context influences processing of concepts strongly, weakly, or not related to it, we used the N400, an event-related brain potential (ERP) index of semantic relatedness. ERPs were recorded from schizophrenia patients (n=18) and normal controls (n=18) while they viewed category definitions (e.g., a type of fruit), each followed by a target word that was either a high-typicality category exemplar (apple), low-typicality exemplar (cherry), or non-exemplar (clamp). Participants' task was to indicate via button-press whether or not the target belonged to the category. In both patients and controls, N400 amplitude was largest (most negative) for non-exemplars, intermediate for low-typicality exemplars, and smallest (least negative) for high-typicality exemplars. Compared to controls, patients showed a trend toward reduced N400 amplitude differences between non-exemplars and low-typicality exemplars. Most importantly, within patients, reduced N400 amplitude differences between high- and low-typicality exemplars were correlated with psychotic symptoms. This association of an N400 index of semantic processing with psychotic symptoms suggests that psychosis in schizophrenia may be associated with greater similarity in how concepts strongly and weakly meaningfully related to their context are processed.  (+info)

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thought, perception, emotion, and behavior. It often includes hallucinations (usually hearing voices), delusions, paranoia, and disorganized speech and behavior. The onset of symptoms typically occurs in late adolescence or early adulthood. Schizophrenia is a complex, chronic condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. It significantly impairs social and occupational functioning, and it's often associated with reduced life expectancy due to comorbid medical conditions. The exact causes of schizophrenia are not fully understood, but research suggests that genetic, environmental, and neurodevelopmental factors play a role in its development.

I must clarify that there is no such thing as "Schizophrenic Psychology." The term schizophrenia is used to describe a specific and serious mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It's important not to use the term casually or inaccurately, as it can perpetuate stigma and misunderstanding about the condition.

Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based on reality), disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. These symptoms can impair a person's ability to function in daily life, maintain relationships, and experience emotions appropriately.

If you have any questions related to mental health conditions or psychology, I would be happy to provide accurate information and definitions.

Paranoid Schizophrenia is a subtype of Schizophrenia, which is a chronic and severe mental disorder. It is characterized by the presence of prominent delusions and auditory hallucinations. The delusions in paranoid schizophrenia often involve themes of persecution or grandiosity. Individuals with this subtype usually have a clear sense of self and maintain relatively well-preserved cognitive functions and affect. However, their symptoms can significantly impact their ability to function in daily life, social relationships, and vocational activities. It's important to note that schizophrenia is a complex disorder, and its diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation of the individual's symptoms, history, and mental status examination.

Antipsychotic agents are a class of medications used to manage and treat psychosis, which includes symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, disordered thought processes, and agitated behavior. These drugs work by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is believed to play a role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Antipsychotics can be broadly divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (also known as typical antipsychotics) and second-generation antipsychotics (also known as atypical antipsychotics).

First-generation antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and fluphenazine, were developed in the 1950s and have been widely used for several decades. They are generally effective in reducing positive symptoms of psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions) but can cause significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as rigidity, tremors, and involuntary movements, as well as weight gain, sedation, and orthostatic hypotension.

Second-generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole, were developed more recently and are considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antipsychotics. They are generally effective in reducing both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis (such as apathy, anhedonia, and social withdrawal) and cause fewer EPS. However, they can still cause significant weight gain, metabolic disturbances, and sedation.

Antipsychotic agents are used to treat various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, delusional disorder, and other conditions that involve psychosis or agitation. They can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or via long-acting injectable formulations. The choice of antipsychotic agent depends on the individual patient's needs, preferences, and response to treatment, as well as the potential for side effects. Regular monitoring of patients taking antipsychotics is essential to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Disorganized Schizophrenia is a subtype of Schizophrenia, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DS-5) published by the American Psychiatric Association. It is characterized by disorganized speech, behavior, and/or flat or inappropriate emotional expression.

The individual with Disorganized Schizophrenia may have difficulty organizing their thoughts and conveying them coherently, leading to speech that is rambling, fragmented, or irrelevant. Their behavior can be disorganized or bizarre, and they may have trouble with routine activities like grooming and hygiene. Emotional expression may be inappropriate to the situation, such as laughing at a sad event, or it may be flattened, with minimal emotional response.

It's important to note that only a qualified mental health professional can make a diagnosis of Disorganized Schizophrenia or any other mental health disorder. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of schizophrenia or any other mental health concern, it's important to seek professional help.

Childhood-onset schizophrenia is a rare and severe form of schizophrenia that begins before the age of 13. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defines it as a disorder characterized by the presence of at least two active symptom categories (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, or negative symptoms) for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period (with some symptoms persisting for at least 6 months).

The onset of schizophrenia in children can be insidious and may present with subtle changes in behavior, social interactions, and emotional expression. Symptoms may include:

* Delusions: False beliefs that are not based on reality and are firmly held despite evidence to the contrary.
* Hallucinations: Perception of stimuli without an external source, such as hearing voices or seeing things that are not there.
* Disorganized speech: Incoherent or irrelevant speech, frequent derailment, or inability to maintain a conversation.
* Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior: Marked impairment in personal hygiene, self-care, and interpersonal relationships, or unusual motor behaviors such as rigidity, stupor, or agitation.
* Negative symptoms: Reduced emotional expression, avolition (lack of motivation), alogia (poverty of speech), or anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure).

Childhood-onset schizophrenia can have a profound impact on a child's development, academic performance, and social relationships. Early identification and intervention are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of long-term disability. Treatment typically involves a combination of antipsychotic medication, psychotherapy, and supportive services to address the complex needs of children with this disorder.

Psychotic disorders are a group of severe mental health conditions characterized by distorted perceptions, thoughts, and emotions that lead to an inability to recognize reality. The two most common symptoms of psychotic disorders are hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are when a person sees, hears, or feels things that aren't there, while delusions are fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality.

Other symptoms may include disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, catatonic behavior, and negative symptoms such as apathy and lack of emotional expression. Schizophrenia is the most well-known psychotic disorder, but other types include schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, brief psychotic disorder, shared psychotic disorder, and substance-induced psychotic disorder.

Psychotic disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, trauma, and substance abuse. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support services to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Catatonic Schizophrenia is a subtype of Schizophrenia characterized by severe psychomotor disturbances such as stupor (reduced reaction to stimuli), mutism (inability to speak), negativism (resistance to instructions or movements), posturing (assuming and maintaining unusual poses), rigidity, agitation, or excitation. These symptoms can lead to significant impairment in daily functioning and quality of life. It is important to note that this subtype is less commonly used in current psychiatric classification systems, as the focus has shifted towards a more comprehensive description of symptom dimensions that cut across traditional diagnostic categories.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Schizotypal Personality Disorder is defined by the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a pervasive pattern of social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and reduced capacity for, close relationships, as well as by cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior. The disorder is often characterized by individuals having difficulty with expressing emotions and relating to others. They may also experience unusual perceptions, such as hearing voices or seeing things that aren't there, but these are not as severe as in Schizophrenia. It is important to note that this disorder can cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning.

Cognitive disorders are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem-solving. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as brain injury, degenerative diseases, infection, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. Examples of cognitive disorders include dementia, amnesia, delirium, and intellectual disability. It's important to note that the specific definition and diagnostic criteria for cognitive disorders may vary depending on the medical source or classification system being used.

'Schizophrenic language' is not a formal medical term, but the concept refers to the unusual and often disturbed patterns of speech that can be observed in individuals with schizophrenia. These language abnormalities are considered one of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and can include:

1. **Word Salad (Incoherent Speech)**: This is when a person's speech becomes disorganized, fragmented, and lacks logical or understandable connections between words, phrases, or sentences. It may seem like the individual is randomly stringing together words without any clear meaning.

2. **Neologisms (Made-Up Words)**: These are new words or phrases that have been invented by the individual. They may be understandable only to the person using them.

3. **Tangentiality (Straying Off Topic)**: This is when a person's responses are indirect and unrelated to the topic being discussed, although they may start off on topic. The speaker may stray further and further from the original point until they are no longer discussing it at all.

4. **Perseveration (Persistent Repetition)**: This is when a person repeats certain words, phrases, or ideas over and over again, even when they are not relevant to the conversation.

5. **Illogical Thinking/Conclusions**: A person's thoughts may not follow a logical sequence, leading to illogical conclusions or statements that do not make sense in the context of the conversation.

6. **Thought Disorder**: This is a broader term that includes various disturbances in thinking and thought processes, which can then manifest as abnormalities in speech.

It's important to note that these symptoms can vary widely from person to person, and not everyone with schizophrenia will experience all of them. Furthermore, these symptoms should be evaluated and diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows (depression). When you become depressed, you may feel sad or hopeless and lose interest or pleasure in most activities. When your mood shifts to mania or hypomania (a less severe form of mania), you may feel euphoric, full of energy, or unusually irritable. These mood swings can significantly affect your job, school, relationships, and overall quality of life.

Bipolar disorder is typically characterized by the presence of one or more manic or hypomanic episodes, often accompanied by depressive episodes. The episodes may be separated by periods of normal mood, but in some cases, a person may experience rapid cycling between mania and depression.

There are several types of bipolar disorder, including:

* Bipolar I Disorder: This type is characterized by the occurrence of at least one manic episode, which may be preceded or followed by hypomanic or major depressive episodes.
* Bipolar II Disorder: This type involves the presence of at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode, but no manic episodes.
* Cyclothymic Disorder: This type is characterized by numerous periods of hypomania and depression that are not severe enough to meet the criteria for a full manic or depressive episode.
* Other Specified and Unspecified Bipolar and Related Disorders: These categories include bipolar disorders that do not fit the criteria for any of the other types.

The exact cause of bipolar disorder is unknown, but it appears to be related to a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes to help manage symptoms and prevent relapses.

Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to treat certain mental/mood disorders (such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and irritability associated with autistic disorder). It works by helping to restore the balance of certain natural substances in the brain. Risperidone belongs to a class of drugs called benzisoxazole derivatives.

This medication can decrease aggression and schizophrenic symptoms such as hallucinations, delusional thinking, and hostility. It may also help to improve your mood, thoughts, and behavior. Some forms of risperidone are also used for the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder (a developmental disorder that affects communication and behavior).

It's important to note that this is a general medical definition, and the use of risperidone should always be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have potential side effects and risks.

Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to treat schizophrenia in patients who have not responded to other antipsychotic treatments. It is also used off-label for the treatment of severe aggression, suicidal ideation, and self-injurious behavior in individuals with developmental disorders.

Clozapine works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, particularly the D4 receptor, which is thought to be involved in the development of schizophrenia. It also has a strong affinity for serotonin receptors, which contributes to its unique therapeutic profile.

Clozapine is considered a medication of last resort due to its potential side effects, which can include agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cell count), myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle), seizures, orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure upon standing), and weight gain. Because of these risks, patients taking clozapine must undergo regular monitoring of their blood counts and other vital signs.

Despite its potential side effects, clozapine is often effective in treating treatment-resistant schizophrenia and has been shown to reduce the risk of suicide in some patients. It is available in tablet and orally disintegrating tablet formulations.

The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is a widely used clinician-rated scale for assessing the severity of psychopathology in individuals with mental illness. It consists of 18 items, each rated on a 7-point scale (1=not present to 7=extremely severe), that measure various symptoms such as depression, anxiety, hostility, hallucinations, and unusual thoughts. The BPRS is often used in research and clinical settings to monitor treatment response and symptom changes over time.

A delusion is a fixed, false belief that is firmly held despite evidence to the contrary and is not shared by others who hold similar cultural or religious beliefs. Delusions are a key symptom of certain psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and delusional disorder. They can also be seen in other medical conditions, such as dementia, brain injury, or substance abuse.

Delusions can take many forms, but some common types include:

* Persecutory delusions: the belief that one is being targeted or harmed by others
* Grandiose delusions: the belief that one has special powers, talents, or importance
* Erotomanic delusions: the belief that someone, often of higher social status, is in love with the individual
* Somatic delusions: the belief that one's body is abnormal or has been altered in some way
* Religious or spiritual delusions: the belief that one has a special relationship with a deity or religious figure

Delusions should not be confused with overvalued ideas, which are strongly held beliefs based on subjective interpretation of experiences or evidence. Overvalued ideas may be shared by others and can sometimes develop into delusions if they become fixed and firmly held despite contradictory evidence.

A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimuli. They are sensory experiences that feel real, but are generated from inside the mind rather than by external reality. Hallucinations can occur in any of the senses, causing individuals to hear sounds, see visions, or smell odors that aren't actually present. They can range from relatively simple experiences, such as seeing flashes of light, to complex experiences like seeing and interacting with people or objects that aren't there. Hallucinations are often associated with certain medical conditions, mental health disorders, or the use of certain substances.

The prefrontal cortex is the anterior (frontal) part of the frontal lobe in the brain, involved in higher-order cognitive processes such as planning complex cognitive behavior, personality expression, decision making, and moderating social behavior. It also plays a significant role in working memory and executive functions. The prefrontal cortex is divided into several subregions, each associated with specific cognitive and emotional functions. Damage to the prefrontal cortex can result in various impairments, including difficulties with planning, decision making, and social behavior regulation.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Affective disorders, psychotic are a category of mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in mood, thinking, and behavior. These disorders combine the symptoms of both mood disorders (such as depression or bipolar disorder) and psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia).

In psychotic affective disorders, individuals experience severe changes in their mood, such as prolonged periods of depression or mania, along with psychotic features like hallucinations, delusions, or disorganized thinking and speech. These symptoms can significantly impair a person's ability to function in daily life and may require intensive treatment, including medication and therapy.

Examples of psychotic affective disorders include:

1. Psychotic Depression: A severe form of major depressive disorder that includes psychotic symptoms like delusions or hallucinations, often with a theme of guilt or worthlessness.
2. Bipolar Disorder with Psychotic Features: During manic or depressive episodes, some individuals with bipolar disorder may experience psychotic symptoms such as delusions or hallucinations. These symptoms can vary in intensity and may require hospitalization and intensive treatment.
3. Schizoaffective Disorder: A mental health condition that includes features of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder, such as depression or bipolar disorder. Individuals with this disorder experience psychotic symptoms like hallucinations and delusions, along with significant changes in mood.

It is essential to seek professional help if you suspect you or someone you know may have a psychotic affective disorder. Early intervention and treatment can significantly improve outcomes and quality of life.

Sensory gating is a term used in neuroscience and psychology to describe the brain's ability to filter out redundant or unnecessary sensory information. It is a fundamental process that allows the nervous system to focus attention on relevant stimuli while suppressing irrelevant ones, thereby preventing overwhelming of the brain with too much information.

In medical terms, sensory gating is often assessed through the use of electrophysiological measures such as event-related potentials (ERPs) or auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). One commonly used measure of sensory gating is the P50 suppression ratio, which compares the amplitude of the P50 waveform in response to the first and second stimuli in a paired-stimulus paradigm. A reduced P50 suppression ratio indicates impaired sensory gating, which has been associated with various neurological and psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Overall, sensory gating is a crucial mechanism for maintaining appropriate sensory processing and cognitive functioning in everyday life.

Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorders are conditions that affect cognitive abilities such as thinking, memory, perception, and judgment. Here are brief medical definitions of each:

1. Delirium: A serious disturbance in mental abilities that results in confused thinking and reduced awareness of the environment. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and disorientation. Delirium often comes on suddenly and can be caused by various factors such as medication side effects, infection, or illness.
2. Dementia: A chronic and progressive decline in cognitive abilities that affects memory, language, problem-solving, and judgment. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other conditions such as vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia can also cause it. Dementia can significantly interfere with daily life and activities.
3. Amnestic Disorders: A group of conditions that primarily affect memory. These disorders can be caused by brain injury, illness, or substance abuse. The most common amnestic disorder is Korsakoff's syndrome, which is caused by alcohol abuse and results in significant memory loss and confusion.
4. Other Cognitive Disorders: This category includes a range of conditions that affect cognitive abilities but do not fit into the categories of delirium, dementia, or amnestic disorders. Examples include mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is a decline in cognitive abilities that does not interfere significantly with daily life, and various cognitive disorders caused by brain injury or disease.

It's important to note that these conditions can overlap and may co-occur with other mental health or neurological disorders. Proper diagnosis and treatment require a comprehensive evaluation by a qualified healthcare professional.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Haloperidol is an antipsychotic medication, which is primarily used to treat schizophrenia and symptoms of psychosis, such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, or disordered thought. It may also be used to manage Tourette's disorder, tics, agitation, aggression, and hyperactivity in children with developmental disorders.

Haloperidol works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain, which helps to regulate mood and behavior. It is available in various forms, including tablets, liquid, and injectable solutions. The medication can cause side effects such as drowsiness, restlessness, muscle stiffness, and uncontrolled movements. In rare cases, it may also lead to more serious neurological side effects.

As with any medication, haloperidol should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider, who will consider the individual's medical history, current medications, and other factors before prescribing it.

Social adjustment, in the context of mental health and psychology, refers to an individual's ability to adapt and function effectively within their social environment. It involves developing and maintaining positive relationships with others, fulfilling various social roles (such as being a family member, friend, or employee), and meeting the expectations and demands of one's social group.

Social adjustment can be affected by various factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, mental and physical health status, and life experiences. Poor social adjustment can lead to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and dissatisfaction with life, as well as increased risk for mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

Assessing social adjustment is an important aspect of mental health care, as it can provide valuable insights into an individual's overall functioning and quality of life. Treatments such as psychotherapy and social skills training may be used to help improve social adjustment in individuals who are struggling in this area.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

An endophenotype is a measurable biological or neurophysiological characteristic that is associated with a particular disease or disorder. It is thought to be a heritable component that contributes to the development and expression of the disease, and can be used to help understand the underlying genetic and neural mechanisms of the disorder. Endophenotypes are often quantifiable and can be observed in individuals both with and without the disorder, making them useful for research purposes. They may include biochemical measures, neurophysiological measures, neuroanatomical measures, or cognitive/neural performance measures.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

A startle reaction is a natural, defensive response to an unexpected stimulus that is characterized by a sudden contraction of muscles, typically in the face, neck, and arms. It's a reflexive action that occurs involuntarily and is mediated by the brainstem. The startle reaction can be observed in many different species, including humans, and is thought to have evolved as a protective mechanism to help organisms respond quickly to potential threats. In addition to the muscle contraction, the startle response may also include other physiological changes such as an increase in heart rate and blood pressure.

Benzodiazepines are a class of psychoactive drugs that have been widely used for their sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. They act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders, insomnia, seizures, and muscle spasms. They can also be used as premedication before medical procedures to produce sedation, amnesia, and anxiolysis. Some examples of benzodiazepines include diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), and temazepam (Restoril).

While benzodiazepines are effective in treating various medical conditions, they can also cause physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms. Long-term use of benzodiazepines can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses are needed to achieve the same effect. Abrupt discontinuation of benzodiazepines can result in severe withdrawal symptoms, including seizures, hallucinations, and anxiety. Therefore, it is important to taper off benzodiazepines gradually under medical supervision.

Benzodiazepines are classified as Schedule IV controlled substances in the United States due to their potential for abuse and dependence. It is essential to use them only as directed by a healthcare provider and to be aware of their potential risks and benefits.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

Cerebral dominance is a concept in neuropsychology that refers to the specialization of one hemisphere of the brain over the other for certain cognitive functions. In most people, the left hemisphere is dominant for language functions such as speaking and understanding spoken or written language, while the right hemisphere is dominant for non-verbal functions such as spatial ability, face recognition, and artistic ability.

Cerebral dominance does not mean that the non-dominant hemisphere is incapable of performing the functions of the dominant hemisphere, but rather that it is less efficient or specialized in those areas. The concept of cerebral dominance has been used to explain individual differences in cognitive abilities and learning styles, as well as the laterality of brain damage and its effects on cognition and behavior.

It's important to note that cerebral dominance is a complex phenomenon that can vary between individuals and can be influenced by various factors such as genetics, environment, and experience. Additionally, recent research has challenged the strict lateralization of functions and suggested that there is more functional overlap and interaction between the two hemispheres than previously thought.

In a medical or psychological context, attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring other things. It involves focusing mental resources on specific stimuli, sensory inputs, or internal thoughts while blocking out irrelevant distractions. Attention can be divided into different types, including:

1. Sustained attention: The ability to maintain focus on a task or stimulus over time.
2. Selective attention: The ability to concentrate on relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones.
3. Divided attention: The capacity to pay attention to multiple tasks or stimuli simultaneously.
4. Alternating attention: The skill of shifting focus between different tasks or stimuli as needed.

Deficits in attention are common symptoms of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as ADHD, dementia, depression, and anxiety disorders. Assessment of attention is an essential part of neuropsychological evaluations and can be measured using various tests and tasks.

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain, located on each side of the head roughly level with the ears. It plays a major role in auditory processing, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe contains several key structures including the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for analyzing sounds, and the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, memory impairment, and changes in emotional behavior.

Dibenzothiazepines are a class of heterocyclic chemical compounds that contain a dibenzothiazepine ring structure. This structure is composed of a benzene ring fused to a thiazepine ring, which is itself formed by the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring (a seven-membered ring containing two nitrogen atoms).

In the medical field, dibenzothiazepines are known for their pharmacological properties and have been used in the development of various drugs. Some dibenzothiazepine derivatives exhibit antipsychotic, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant activities. However, due to their potential for adverse effects and the availability of safer alternatives, they are not widely used in clinical practice today.

It is important to note that specific dibenzothiazepine compounds may have unique properties and uses beyond their general classification as a chemical class. Always consult medical literature or healthcare professionals for accurate information on specific drugs or compounds.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Short-term memory, also known as primary or active memory, is the system responsible for holding and processing limited amounts of information for brief periods of time, typically on the order of seconds to minutes. It has a capacity of around 7±2 items, as suggested by George Miller's "magic number" theory. Short-term memory allows us to retain and manipulate information temporarily while we are using it, such as remembering a phone number while dialing or following a set of instructions. Information in short-term memory can be maintained through rehearsal, which is the conscious repetition of the information. Over time, if the information is not transferred to long-term memory through consolidation processes, it will be forgotten.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "thinking" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a cognitive process, which is a general term used to describe various mental activities related to perception, reasoning, memory, attention, language use, learning, and problem-solving. These processes are studied across many fields, including psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics.

If you're looking for medical definitions of cognitive processes or conditions that affect cognition, I'd be happy to help! Please provide more details.

The gyrus cinguli, also known as the cingulate gyrus, is a structure located in the brain. It forms part of the limbic system and plays a role in various functions such as emotion, memory, and perception of pain. The gyrus cinguli is situated in the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere, adjacent to the corpus callosum, and curves around the frontal portion of the corpus callosum, forming a C-shaped structure. It has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, and chronic pain syndromes.

Substance-induced psychosis is a type of psychosis that is caused by the use of drugs, alcohol, or other substances. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) defines substance/medication-induced psychotic disorder as follows:

A. Presence of one (or more) of the following symptoms:

1. Delusions.
2. Hallucinations.
3. Disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence).

B. There is evidence from the history, physical examination, or laboratory findings that the disturbance is caused by the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a combination of substances.

C. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a delirium and is not better explained by a psychotic disorder that is not substance/medication-induced. The symptoms in Criterion A developed during or soon after substance intoxication or withdrawal, or after exposure to a medication.

D. The disturbance causes significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

E. The disturbance is not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g., major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder).

It's important to note that the diagnosis of substance-induced psychosis requires a thorough medical and psychiatric evaluation to determine if the symptoms are caused by substance use or another underlying mental health condition.

Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the brain in response to sound stimuli. These tests are often used to assess hearing function and neural processing in individuals, particularly those who cannot perform traditional behavioral hearing tests.

There are several types of AEP tests, including:

1. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER) or Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEP): This test measures the electrical activity generated by the brainstem in response to a click or tone stimulus. It is often used to assess the integrity of the auditory nerve and brainstem pathways, and can help diagnose conditions such as auditory neuropathy and retrocochlear lesions.
2. Middle Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (MLAEP): This test measures the electrical activity generated by the cortical auditory areas of the brain in response to a click or tone stimulus. It is often used to assess higher-level auditory processing, and can help diagnose conditions such as auditory processing disorders and central auditory dysfunction.
3. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (LLAEP): This test measures the electrical activity generated by the cortical auditory areas of the brain in response to a complex stimulus, such as speech. It is often used to assess language processing and cognitive function, and can help diagnose conditions such as learning disabilities and dementia.

Overall, AEP tests are valuable tools for assessing hearing and neural function in individuals who cannot perform traditional behavioral hearing tests or who have complex neurological conditions.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, characterized by its intricate folded structure and wrinkled appearance. It is a region of great importance as it plays a key role in higher cognitive functions such as perception, consciousness, thought, memory, language, and attention. The cerebral cortex is divided into two hemispheres, each containing four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. These areas are responsible for different functions, with some regions specializing in sensory processing while others are involved in motor control or associative functions. The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter, which contains neuronal cell bodies, and is covered by a layer of white matter that consists mainly of myelinated nerve fibers.

Perceptual disorders are conditions that affect the way a person perceives or interprets sensory information from their environment. These disorders can involve any of the senses, including sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. They can cause a person to have difficulty recognizing, interpreting, or responding appropriately to sensory stimuli.

Perceptual disorders can result from damage to the brain or nervous system, such as from a head injury, stroke, or degenerative neurological condition. They can also be caused by certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia or severe depression.

Symptoms of perceptual disorders may include:

* Misinterpretations of sensory information, such as seeing things that are not there or hearing voices that are not present
* Difficulty recognizing familiar objects or people
* Problems with depth perception or spatial awareness
* Difficulty judging the size, shape, or distance of objects
* Trouble distinguishing between similar sounds or colors
* Impaired sense of smell or taste

Perceptual disorders can have a significant impact on a person's daily life and functioning. Treatment may involve medication, therapy, or rehabilitation to help the person better cope with their symptoms and improve their ability to interact with their environment.

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of catecholamines, which are neurotransmitters and hormones such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. COMT mediates the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to a catechol functional group in these molecules, resulting in the formation of methylated products that are subsequently excreted.

The methylation of catecholamines by COMT regulates their concentration and activity in the body, and genetic variations in the COMT gene can affect enzyme function and contribute to individual differences in the metabolism of these neurotransmitters. This has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Reality testing is a psychological concept that refers to the ability to distinguish between what is real and what is not. It is the process of comparing one's thoughts, beliefs, expectations, or perceptions with external reality, to determine their accuracy and validity. This skill is essential for effective functioning in daily life, as it helps individuals to navigate their environment, make sound decisions, and respond appropriately to different situations.

In psychiatric and psychological assessments, reality testing is often evaluated as a measure of cognitive and emotional stability. Individuals with impaired reality testing may have difficulty distinguishing between what is real and what is imagined, which can be indicative of various mental health conditions, such as psychosis, schizophrenia, or severe depression. Reality testing is an essential aspect of maintaining a grasp on consensual reality and is crucial for successful social interactions and interpersonal relationships.

Memory disorders are a category of cognitive impairments that affect an individual's ability to acquire, store, retain, and retrieve memories. These disorders can be caused by various underlying medical conditions, including neurological disorders, psychiatric illnesses, substance abuse, or even normal aging processes. Some common memory disorders include:

1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects older adults and is characterized by a decline in cognitive abilities, including memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making skills.
2. Dementia: A broader term used to describe a group of symptoms associated with a decline in cognitive function severe enough to interfere with daily life. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia, but other causes include vascular dementia, Lewy body dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.
3. Amnesia: A memory disorder characterized by difficulties in forming new memories or recalling previously learned information due to brain damage or disease. Amnesia can be temporary or permanent and may result from head trauma, stroke, infection, or substance abuse.
4. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI): A condition where an individual experiences mild but noticeable memory or cognitive difficulties that are greater than expected for their age and education level. While some individuals with MCI may progress to dementia, others may remain stable or even improve over time.
5. Korsakoff's syndrome: A memory disorder often caused by alcohol abuse and thiamine deficiency, characterized by severe short-term memory loss, confabulation (making up stories to fill in memory gaps), and disorientation.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you or someone you know experiences persistent memory difficulties, as early diagnosis and intervention can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and utilizing information. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive functions allow us to interact with our environment, understand and respond to stimuli, learn new skills, and remember experiences.

In a medical context, cognitive function is often assessed as part of a neurological or psychiatric evaluation. Impairments in cognition can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections, toxins, and mental health conditions. Assessing cognitive function helps healthcare professionals diagnose conditions, monitor disease progression, and develop treatment plans.

A control group, in the context of medical research or clinical trials, is a group of participants in a study who do not receive the experimental intervention or treatment that is being tested. Instead, they typically receive standard of care, a placebo, or no treatment at all. The control group serves as a comparison group to help researchers evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the new intervention or treatment being studied. By comparing the outcomes of the experimental group (those who received the new intervention) to the control group, researchers can determine whether any observed differences in outcomes are likely due to the intervention itself, rather than other factors.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

Social perception, in the context of psychology and social sciences, refers to the ability to interpret and understand other people's behavior, emotions, and intentions. It is the process by which we make sense of the social world around us, by observing and interpreting cues such as facial expressions, body language, tone of voice, and situational context.

In medical terminology, social perception is not a specific diagnosis or condition, but rather a cognitive skill that can be affected in various mental and neurological disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and dementia. For example, individuals with autism may have difficulty interpreting social cues and understanding other people's emotions and intentions, while those with schizophrenia may have distorted perceptions of social situations and interactions.

Healthcare professionals who work with patients with cognitive or neurological disorders may assess their social perception skills as part of a comprehensive evaluation, in order to develop appropriate interventions and support strategies.

Phencyclidine (PCP) is a dissociative drug that was originally developed as an intravenous anesthetic in the 1950s. It can lead to distortions of time, space and body image, hallucinations, and a sense of physical invulnerability.

It can also cause numbness, loss of coordination, and aggressive behavior. High doses can lead to seizures, coma, and death. Long-term use can lead to memory loss, difficulties with speech and thinking, and mental health issues such as depression and suicidal thoughts. It is classified as a Schedule II drug in the United States, indicating it has a high potential for abuse but also an accepted medical use.

The term "family" in a medical context often refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who consider themselves to be a single household. This can include spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members. In some cases, the term may also be used more broadly to refer to any close-knit group of people who provide emotional and social support for one another, regardless of their biological or legal relationship.

In healthcare settings, understanding a patient's family dynamics can be important for providing effective care. Family members may be involved in decision-making about medical treatments, providing care and support at home, and communicating with healthcare providers. Additionally, cultural beliefs and values within families can influence health behaviors and attitudes towards medical care, making it essential for healthcare professionals to take a culturally sensitive approach when working with patients and their families.

In psychology, the term "ego" is used to describe a part of the personality that deals with the conscious mind and includes the senses of self and reality. It is one of the three components of Freud's structural model of the psyche, along with the id and the superego. The ego serves as the mediator between the unconscious desires of the id and the demands of the real world, helping to shape behavior that is socially acceptable and adaptive.

It's important to note that this definition of "ego" is specific to the field of psychology and should not be confused with other uses of the term in different contexts, such as its use in popular culture to refer to an inflated sense of self-importance or self-centeredness.

Fluphenazine is an antipsychotic medication that belongs to the class of phenothiazines. It works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain, which helps to reduce the symptoms of psychosis such as delusions, hallucinations, and disordered thought.

Fluphenazine is available in several forms, including oral tablets, orally disintegrating tablets, and injectable solutions. It may be used for the treatment of schizophrenia, psychotic disorders, and other conditions associated with elevated levels of dopamine in the brain.

Like all antipsychotic medications, fluphenazine can cause side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as stiffness, tremors, and spasms of the face and neck muscles, as well as other systemic side effects like weight gain, sedation, and orthostatic hypotension. It is essential to use fluphenazine under the close supervision of a healthcare provider who can monitor for side effects and adjust the dosage accordingly.

Human chromosome pair 22 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each cell in the human body. Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled around histone proteins, forming a complex structure called a chromatin.

Chromosome pair 22 is one of the 22 autosomal pairs of human chromosomes, meaning they are not sex chromosomes (X or Y). Chromosome 22 is the second smallest human chromosome, with each arm of the chromosome designated as p and q. The short arm is labeled "p," and the long arm is labeled "q."

Chromosome 22 contains several genes that are associated with various genetic disorders, including DiGeorge syndrome, velocardiofacial syndrome, and cat-eye syndrome, which result from deletions or duplications of specific regions on the chromosome. Additionally, chromosome 22 is the location of the NRXN1 gene, which has been associated with an increased risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia when deleted or disrupted.

Understanding the genetic makeup of human chromosome pair 22 can provide valuable insights into human genetics, evolution, and disease susceptibility, as well as inform medical diagnoses, treatments, and research.

Neural pathways, also known as nerve tracts or fasciculi, refer to the highly organized and specialized routes through which nerve impulses travel within the nervous system. These pathways are formed by groups of neurons (nerve cells) that are connected in a series, creating a continuous communication network for electrical signals to transmit information between different regions of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.

Neural pathways can be classified into two main types: sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent). Sensory neural pathways carry sensory information from various receptors in the body (such as those for touch, temperature, pain, and vision) to the brain for processing. Motor neural pathways, on the other hand, transmit signals from the brain to the muscles and glands, controlling movements and other effector functions.

The formation of these neural pathways is crucial for normal nervous system function, as it enables efficient communication between different parts of the body and allows for complex behaviors, cognitive processes, and adaptive responses to internal and external stimuli.

Functional laterality, in a medical context, refers to the preferential use or performance of one side of the body over the other for specific functions. This is often demonstrated in hand dominance, where an individual may be right-handed or left-handed, meaning they primarily use their right or left hand for tasks such as writing, eating, or throwing.

However, functional laterality can also apply to other bodily functions and structures, including the eyes (ocular dominance), ears (auditory dominance), or legs. It's important to note that functional laterality is not a strict binary concept; some individuals may exhibit mixed dominance or no strong preference for one side over the other.

In clinical settings, assessing functional laterality can be useful in diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, where understanding any resulting lateralized impairments can inform rehabilitation strategies.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is a type of genetic variation that occurs when a single nucleotide (A, T, C, or G) in the DNA sequence is altered. This alteration must occur in at least 1% of the population to be considered a SNP. These variations can help explain why some people are more susceptible to certain diseases than others and can also influence how an individual responds to certain medications. SNPs can serve as biological markers, helping scientists locate genes that are associated with disease. They can also provide information about an individual's ancestry and ethnic background.

Methylazoxymethanol Acetate (MAM) is not a medication or therapeutic agent used in human medicine. It is a research tool, specifically a neurotoxin, that is used in laboratory studies to help understand the development and organization of the nervous system, particularly in relation to neurodegenerative disorders and brain injuries.

MAM is primarily used in animal models, often rats or mice, to study the effects of early life exposure to neurotoxic substances on brain development. It is known to cause widespread degeneration of nerve cells (neurons) and disruption of normal neural connections, which can provide valuable insights into the processes underlying various neurological conditions.

However, it's important to note that MAM is not used as a treatment or therapy in human medicine due to its neurotoxic properties.

Dopamine D2 receptor is a type of metabotropic G protein-coupled receptor that binds to the neurotransmitter dopamine. It is one of five subtypes of dopamine receptors (D1-D5) and is encoded by the gene DRD2. The activation of D2 receptors leads to a decrease in the activity of adenylyl cyclase, which results in reduced levels of cAMP and modulation of ion channels.

D2 receptors are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system (CNS) and play important roles in various physiological functions, including motor control, reward processing, emotion regulation, and cognition. They are also involved in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, drug addiction, and Tourette syndrome.

D2 receptors have two main subtypes: D2 short (D2S) and D2 long (D2L). The D2S subtype is primarily located in the presynaptic terminals and functions as an autoreceptor that regulates dopamine release, while the D2L subtype is mainly found in the postsynaptic neurons and modulates intracellular signaling pathways.

Antipsychotic drugs, which are used to treat schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders, work by blocking D2 receptors. However, excessive blockade of these receptors can lead to side effects such as extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), tardive dyskinesia, and hyperprolactinemia. Therefore, the development of drugs that selectively target specific subtypes of dopamine receptors is an active area of research in the field of neuropsychopharmacology.

The "age of onset" is a medical term that refers to the age at which an individual first develops or displays symptoms of a particular disease, disorder, or condition. It can be used to describe various medical conditions, including both physical and mental health disorders. The age of onset can have implications for prognosis, treatment approaches, and potential causes of the condition. In some cases, early onset may indicate a more severe or progressive course of the disease, while late-onset symptoms might be associated with different underlying factors or etiologies. It is essential to provide accurate and precise information regarding the age of onset when discussing a patient's medical history and treatment plan.

"Postmortem changes," also known as "autolysis" or "decomposition," refer to the natural biological processes that occur in a deceased body after death. These changes include various chemical, physical, and biological alterations such as livor mortis (pooling of blood), algor mortis (drop in body temperature), rigor mortis (stiffening of muscles), putrefaction (breakdown by microorganisms), and decomposition by insects and other animals. These changes help forensic experts estimate the time since death, known as the postmortem interval.

Dopamine is a type of neurotransmitter, which is a chemical messenger that transmits signals in the brain and nervous system. It plays several important roles in the body, including:

* Regulation of movement and coordination
* Modulation of mood and motivation
* Control of the reward and pleasure centers of the brain
* Regulation of muscle tone
* Involvement in memory and attention

Dopamine is produced in several areas of the brain, including the substantia nigra and the ventral tegmental area. It is released by neurons (nerve cells) and binds to specific receptors on other neurons, where it can either excite or inhibit their activity.

Abnormalities in dopamine signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric conditions, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.

Personal Construct Theory (PCT) is not a medical term per se, but rather a psychological theory developed by George Kelly in the 1950s. It is a theory of personality and psychotherapy that emphasizes an individual's unique way of construing or making sense of their experiences. According to PCT, people are active scientists who constantly test their assumptions about the world through their personal construct systems.

In medical settings, PCT may be used as a framework for understanding patients' perspectives and beliefs about their illnesses and treatments. This can help healthcare professionals tailor interventions to individual patients' needs and improve communication and collaboration between patients and healthcare providers. However, it is important to note that PCT is not a widely recognized or established medical concept, but rather a psychological theory that has been applied in various fields, including healthcare.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

A facial expression is a result of the contraction or relaxation of muscles in the face that change the physical appearance of an individual's face to convey various emotions, intentions, or physical sensations. Facial expressions can be voluntary or involuntary and are a form of non-verbal communication that plays a crucial role in social interaction and conveying a person's state of mind.

The seven basic facial expressions of emotion, as proposed by Paul Ekman, include happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise, anger, and contempt. These facial expressions are universally recognized across cultures and can be detected through the interpretation of specific muscle movements in the face, known as action units, which are measured and analyzed in fields such as psychology, neurology, and computer vision.

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

Auditory perceptual disorders, also known as auditory processing disorders (APD), refer to a group of hearing-related problems in which the ears are able to hear sounds normally, but the brain has difficulty interpreting or making sense of those sounds. This means that individuals with APD have difficulty recognizing and discriminating speech sounds, especially in noisy environments. They may also have trouble identifying where sounds are coming from, distinguishing between similar sounds, and understanding spoken language when it is rapid or complex.

APD can lead to difficulties in academic performance, communication, and social interactions. It is important to note that APD is not a hearing loss, but rather a problem with how the brain processes auditory information. Diagnosis of APD typically involves a series of tests administered by an audiologist, and treatment may include specialized therapy and/or assistive listening devices.

Statistics, as a topic in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the scientific discipline that involves the collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of numerical data or quantifiable data in a meaningful and organized manner. It employs mathematical theories and models to draw conclusions, make predictions, and support evidence-based decision-making in various areas of medical research and practice.

Some key concepts and methods in medical statistics include:

1. Descriptive Statistics: Summarizing and visualizing data through measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode) and dispersion (range, variance, standard deviation).
2. Inferential Statistics: Drawing conclusions about a population based on a sample using hypothesis testing, confidence intervals, and statistical modeling.
3. Probability Theory: Quantifying the likelihood of events or outcomes in medical scenarios, such as diagnostic tests' sensitivity and specificity.
4. Study Designs: Planning and implementing various research study designs, including randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies, case-control studies, and cross-sectional surveys.
5. Sampling Methods: Selecting a representative sample from a population to ensure the validity and generalizability of research findings.
6. Multivariate Analysis: Examining the relationships between multiple variables simultaneously using techniques like regression analysis, factor analysis, or cluster analysis.
7. Survival Analysis: Analyzing time-to-event data, such as survival rates in clinical trials or disease progression.
8. Meta-Analysis: Systematically synthesizing and summarizing the results of multiple studies to provide a comprehensive understanding of a research question.
9. Biostatistics: A subfield of statistics that focuses on applying statistical methods to biological data, including medical research.
10. Epidemiology: The study of disease patterns in populations, which often relies on statistical methods for data analysis and interpretation.

Medical statistics is essential for evidence-based medicine, clinical decision-making, public health policy, and healthcare management. It helps researchers and practitioners evaluate the effectiveness and safety of medical interventions, assess risk factors and outcomes associated with diseases or treatments, and monitor trends in population health.

Expressed Emotion (EE) is a term used in the field of psychiatry and psychology to describe the level of criticism, hostility, and emotional over-involvement expressed by family members or close relatives towards an individual with a mental illness. It is measured through a standardized interview called the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI). High levels of EE have been found to be associated with poorer outcomes in individuals with mental illness, particularly those with severe and persistent conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) is a slow negative shift in brain potentials that occurs between the presentation of a warning stimulus and an imperative stimulus, which requires a response from the subject. It is typically recorded over the frontal-central region of the scalp and reflects anticipatory attention and preparation for action. The amplitude of the CNV has been found to be related to various factors such as the difficulty or uncertainty of the upcoming task, motivation, and emotional arousal. It is often used in research on cognitive processes, motor control, and neuropsychiatric disorders.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

"Remedial teaching" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is a term commonly used in the field of education to refer to specialized instruction or tutoring designed to help students who are experiencing difficulties in mastering certain skills or concepts. This type of teaching is often provided in addition to regular classroom instruction and may be individualized or small group in nature. The goal of remedial teaching is to bring the student's skill level up to par with their peers, so that they can succeed in the regular education curriculum.

It is important to note that while remedial teaching is not a medical term, it can be used as an intervention for students who have learning difficulties or disabilities, which may be identified through a psychoeducational assessment conducted by a school psychologist or other qualified professional. In some cases, remedial teaching may be recommended as part of a student's Individualized Education Program (IEP) or 504 plan, which are documents that outline the accommodations and services that students with disabilities are entitled to receive in order to ensure their access to a free and appropriate education.

A nerve net, also known as a neural net or neuronal network, is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept in neuroscience and artificial intelligence (AI). It refers to a complex network of interconnected neurons that process and transmit information. In the context of the human body, the nervous system can be thought of as a type of nerve net, with the brain and spinal cord serving as the central processing unit and peripheral nerves carrying signals to and from various parts of the body.

In the field of AI, artificial neural networks are computational models inspired by the structure and function of biological nerve nets. These models consist of interconnected nodes or "neurons" that process information and learn patterns through a process of training and adaptation. They have been used in a variety of applications, including image recognition, natural language processing, and machine learning.

Acoustic stimulation refers to the use of sound waves or vibrations to elicit a response in an individual, typically for the purpose of assessing or treating hearing, balance, or neurological disorders. In a medical context, acoustic stimulation may involve presenting pure tones, speech sounds, or other types of auditory signals through headphones, speakers, or specialized devices such as bone conduction transducers.

The response to acoustic stimulation can be measured using various techniques, including electrophysiological tests like auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) or otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), behavioral observations, or functional imaging methods like fMRI. Acoustic stimulation is also used in therapeutic settings, such as auditory training programs for hearing impairment or vestibular rehabilitation for balance disorders.

It's important to note that acoustic stimulation should be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) are brain responses that are directly related to a specific sensory, cognitive, or motor event. P300 is a positive deflection in the ERP waveform that occurs approximately 300 milliseconds after the onset of a rare or unexpected stimulus. It is often used as an index of cognitive processes such as attention, memory, and decision-making. The amplitude of the P300 component is typically larger for targets than for non-targets, and it is thought to reflect the amount of attentional resources allocated to the processing of the stimulus. Additionally, the latency of the P300 component can be used as an indicator of the speed of cognitive processing.

It's important to note that ERPs are measured using electroencephalography (EEG) and it requires averaging multiple trials to extract the signal from the noise. Also, P300 is just one component of ERP, there are other components like N100, P100, N200 etc which also have their own significance in understanding the cognitive processes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "siblings" is not a medical term. It is a term used in genealogy and sociology to refer to the brothers and sisters that someone has. Sibling relationships can have medical implications, such as when inherited genetic disorders are present in a family, but the term "siblings" itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Verbal learning is a type of learning that involves the acquisition, processing, and retrieval of information presented in a verbal or written form. It is often assessed through tasks such as list learning, where an individual is asked to remember a list of words or sentences after a single presentation or multiple repetitions. Verbal learning is an important aspect of cognitive functioning and is commonly evaluated in neuropsychological assessments to help identify any memory or learning impairments.

Paranoid disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by the presence of paranoia, which is defined as a persistent and unfounded distrust or suspicion of others. This can include beliefs that others are trying to harm you, deceive you, or are plotting against you. These beliefs are not based in reality and are firmly held despite evidence to the contrary.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions, includes two paranoid disorders: Delusional Disorder and Paranoid Personality Disorder.

Delusional disorder is characterized by the presence of one or more delusions for a month or longer, with no significant hallucinations, disorganized speech, or grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. The individual's functioning is not markedly impaired and behavior is not obviously odd or bizarre.

Paranoid personality disorder is characterized by a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent, beginning in early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. The individual may appear cold and aloof or may be explosively angry if they feel threatened.

It's important to note that these disorders can cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of a paranoid disorder, it's important to seek help from a qualified mental health professional.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Drug-induced dyskinesia is a movement disorder that is characterized by involuntary muscle movements or abnormal posturing of the body. It is a side effect that can occur from the long-term use or high doses of certain medications, particularly those used to treat Parkinson's disease and psychosis.

The symptoms of drug-induced dyskinesia can vary in severity and may include rapid, involuntary movements of the limbs, face, or tongue; twisting or writhing movements; and abnormal posturing of the arms, legs, or trunk. These symptoms can be distressing and negatively impact a person's quality of life.

The exact mechanism by which certain medications cause dyskinesia is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve changes in the levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in regulating movement. In some cases, adjusting the dose or switching to a different medication may help alleviate the symptoms of drug-induced dyskinesia. However, in severe cases, additional treatments such as deep brain stimulation or botulinum toxin injections may be necessary.

Theory of Mind (ToM) is not a medical term per se, but rather a concept from psychology and cognitive science. It refers to the ability to attribute mental states to oneself and others, understanding that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own. This cognitive skill enables us to explain and predict people's behaviors based on their mental states, fostering social cognition and interaction.

While ToM is not a medical definition itself, impairments in Theory of Mind have been associated with various medical and neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, and other psychiatric disorders. In these cases, difficulties in understanding others' mental states may lead to challenges in social communication and interaction.

Neuregulin-1 (NRG-1) is a growth factor that belongs to the neuregulin family and is involved in the development and function of the nervous system. It is a protein that is encoded by the NRG1 gene and is expressed in various tissues, including the brain. NRG-1 plays important roles in the regulation of neuronal survival, migration, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. It acts as a ligand for the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which are involved in intracellular signaling pathways that control various cellular processes. Abnormalities in NRG-1 signaling have been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and Alzheimer's disease.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Psychomotor performance refers to the integration and coordination of mental processes (cognitive functions) with physical movements. It involves the ability to perform complex tasks that require both cognitive skills, such as thinking, remembering, and perceiving, and motor skills, such as gross and fine motor movements. Examples of psychomotor performances include driving a car, playing a musical instrument, or performing surgical procedures.

In a medical context, psychomotor performance is often used to assess an individual's ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), such as bathing, dressing, cooking, cleaning, and managing medications. Deficits in psychomotor performance can be a sign of neurological or psychiatric disorders, such as dementia, Parkinson's disease, or depression.

Assessment of psychomotor performance may involve tests that measure reaction time, coordination, speed, precision, and accuracy of movements, as well as cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and problem-solving skills. These assessments can help healthcare professionals develop appropriate treatment plans and monitor the progression of diseases or the effectiveness of interventions.

"Paternal age" is a term used to describe the age of a father at the time of conception. It is often considered in relation to the potential impact on genetic health and the risk of certain genetic conditions in offspring. As a father's age increases, there is a higher chance of mutations occurring during the formation of sperm cells, which can potentially lead to an increased risk of certain genetic disorders such as Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, and Schinzel-Giedion midface retraction syndrome. However, it is important to note that while the risk does increase with paternal age, the overall likelihood remains relatively low.

Anhedonia is a medical term that describes the inability to feel pleasure. It is a common symptom of depression and other mental health disorders, such as schizophrenia. Anhedonia can manifest as a lack of interest in activities that were once enjoyed, a reduced ability to experience pleasure from social interactions or sexual activity, or an inability to feel positive emotions like happiness or joy.

Anhedonia is different from simply feeling sad or down. It is a more profound and persistent loss of the ability to experience pleasure, which can significantly impact a person's quality of life and overall well-being. The exact cause of anhedonia is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to changes in brain chemistry and function, particularly in areas involved in reward processing and motivation. Treatment for anhedonia typically involves addressing the underlying mental health condition, such as depression or schizophrenia, through a combination of medication and therapy.

Vocational rehabilitation is a process that aims to help individuals with disabilities, injuries, or illnesses to obtain and maintain suitable employment. It is a coordinated program of services that may include assessment, counseling, training, job development, and placement. The goal is to assist the individual in acquiring the necessary skills and abilities to return to work or to begin a new career path. This process often involves collaboration between healthcare professionals, vocational counselors, and employers to ensure that the individual's needs are met and that they are able to perform their job duties safely and effectively.

Affective symptoms refer to emotional or mood-related disturbances that can occur in various medical and psychological conditions. These symptoms may include:

1. Depression: feelings of sadness, hopelessness, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide.
2. Anxiety: excessive worry, fear, or nervousness, often accompanied by physical symptoms such as a rapid heartbeat, sweating, and trembling.
3. Irritability: easily annoyed or agitated, often leading to outbursts of anger or frustration.
4. Mania or hypomania: abnormally elevated mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive or risky behavior.
5. Apathy: lack of interest, motivation, or emotion, often leading to social withdrawal and decreased activity levels.
6. Mood lability: rapid and unpredictable shifts in mood, ranging from extreme happiness to sadness, anger, or anxiety.

Affective symptoms can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to function in daily activities. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, stress, trauma, and medical conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing affective symptoms and improving overall well-being.

Functional neuroimaging is a branch of medical imaging that involves the use of various techniques to measure and visualize the metabolic activity or blood flow in different regions of the brain. These measurements can be used to infer the level of neural activation in specific brain areas, allowing researchers and clinicians to study the functioning of the brain in various states, such as during rest, cognitive tasks, or disease processes.

Some common functional neuroimaging techniques include:

1. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI): This technique uses magnetic fields and radio waves to measure changes in blood flow and oxygenation levels in the brain, which are associated with neural activity.
2. Positron Emission Tomography (PET): This technique involves the injection of a small amount of radioactive tracer into the body, which is taken up by active brain cells. The resulting gamma rays are then detected and used to create images of brain activity.
3. Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT): Similar to PET, SPECT uses a radioactive tracer to measure blood flow in the brain, but with lower resolution and sensitivity.
4. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS): This technique uses near-infrared light to measure changes in oxygenation levels in the brain, providing a non-invasive and relatively inexpensive method for studying brain function.

Functional neuroimaging has numerous applications in both research and clinical settings, including the study of cognitive processes, the diagnosis and monitoring of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and the development of new treatments and interventions.

Nerve tissue proteins are specialized proteins found in the nervous system that provide structural and functional support to nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins include:

1. Neurofilaments: These are type IV intermediate filaments that provide structural support to neurons and help maintain their shape and size. They are composed of three subunits - NFL (light), NFM (medium), and NFH (heavy).

2. Neuronal Cytoskeletal Proteins: These include tubulins, actins, and spectrins that provide structural support to the neuronal cytoskeleton and help maintain its integrity.

3. Neurotransmitter Receptors: These are specialized proteins located on the postsynaptic membrane of neurons that bind neurotransmitters released by presynaptic neurons, triggering a response in the target cell.

4. Ion Channels: These are transmembrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the neuronal membrane and play a crucial role in generating and transmitting electrical signals in neurons.

5. Signaling Proteins: These include enzymes, receptors, and adaptor proteins that mediate intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuronal development, differentiation, survival, and death.

6. Adhesion Proteins: These are cell surface proteins that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, playing a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of neural circuits.

7. Extracellular Matrix Proteins: These include proteoglycans, laminins, and collagens that provide structural support to nerve tissue and regulate neuronal migration, differentiation, and survival.

A "social environment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is often used in the context of public health and social sciences to refer to the physical and social conditions, relationships, and organized institutions that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

The social environment includes factors such as:

* Social support networks (family, friends, community)
* Cultural norms and values
* Socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation)
* Housing and neighborhood conditions
* Access to resources (food, healthcare, transportation)
* Exposure to discrimination, violence, and other stressors

These factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes, as they can influence behaviors related to health (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), as well as exposure to disease and access to healthcare. Understanding the social environment is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies that promote health equity and reduce health disparities.

'Diseases in Twins' is a field of study that focuses on the similarities and differences in the occurrence, development, and outcomes of diseases among twins. This research can provide valuable insights into the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to various medical conditions.

Twins can be classified into two types: monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal). Monozygotic twins share 100% of their genes, while dizygotic twins share about 50%, similar to non-twin siblings. By comparing the concordance rates (the likelihood of both twins having the same disease) between monozygotic and dizygotic twins, researchers can estimate the heritability of a particular disease.

Studying diseases in twins also helps understand the role of environmental factors. When both twins develop the same disease, but they are discordant for certain risk factors (e.g., one twin smokes and the other does not), it suggests that the disease may have a stronger genetic component. On the other hand, when both twins share similar risk factors and develop the disease, it implies that environmental factors play a significant role.

Diseases in Twins research has contributed to our understanding of various medical conditions, including infectious diseases, cancer, mental health disorders, and developmental disorders. This knowledge can lead to better prevention strategies, early detection methods, and more targeted treatments for these diseases.

I must clarify that I cannot provide a "medical definition" of intelligence, as intelligence is not a concept that is typically defined within the field of medicine. Intelligence is a term used to describe the ability to learn, understand, and make judgments or decisions based on reason, experience, and information. It is often measured through various cognitive abilities such as problem-solving, critical thinking, creativity, and knowledge acquisition.

The concept of intelligence is studied in many fields, including psychology, neuroscience, and education. In medicine, healthcare professionals may assess a person's cognitive abilities to better understand their health status or develop treatment plans. However, there is no specific "medical definition" for intelligence. Instead, it is a multifaceted concept that can be influenced by various genetic, environmental, and experiential factors.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Reference values, also known as reference ranges or reference intervals, are the set of values that are considered normal or typical for a particular population or group of people. These values are often used in laboratory tests to help interpret test results and determine whether a patient's value falls within the expected range.

The process of establishing reference values typically involves measuring a particular biomarker or parameter in a large, healthy population and then calculating the mean and standard deviation of the measurements. Based on these statistics, a range is established that includes a certain percentage of the population (often 95%) and excludes extreme outliers.

It's important to note that reference values can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, race, and other demographic characteristics. Therefore, it's essential to use reference values that are specific to the relevant population when interpreting laboratory test results. Additionally, reference values may change over time due to advances in measurement technology or changes in the population being studied.

"Prenatal exposure delayed effects" refer to the adverse health outcomes or symptoms that become apparent in an individual during their development or later in life, which are caused by exposure to certain environmental factors or substances while they were still in the womb. These effects may not be immediately observable at birth and can take weeks, months, years, or even decades to manifest. They can result from maternal exposure to various agents such as infectious diseases, medications, illicit drugs, tobacco smoke, alcohol, or environmental pollutants during pregnancy. The delayed effects can impact multiple organ systems and may include physical, cognitive, behavioral, and developmental abnormalities. It is important to note that the risk and severity of these effects can depend on several factors, including the timing, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the individual's genetic susceptibility.

A psychiatric hospital is a type of medical facility that specializes in the treatment and care of patients with mental illnesses or disorders. These hospitals provide inpatient and outpatient services, including evaluation, diagnosis, and therapy for various psychiatric conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, and substance use disorders.

Psychiatric hospitals typically have a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, nurses, and occupational therapists, who work together to provide comprehensive care for patients. The treatment modalities used in psychiatric hospitals may include medication management, individual and group therapy, psychoeducation, and milieu therapy.

Psychiatric hospitals may also offer specialized programs for specific populations, such as children and adolescents, older adults, or individuals with co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders. The goal of psychiatric hospitals is to stabilize patients' symptoms, improve their functioning, and help them develop the skills necessary to manage their mental health condition in the community.

Psychoanalytic therapy, also known as psychoanalysis, is a type of in-depth talk therapy that aims to bring unconscious motivations and internal conflicts into conscious awareness. It was developed by Sigmund Freud and is based on the theory that people's behavior and feelings are strongly affected by unconscious motives.

The therapy involves regular, often frequent, sessions with a psychoanalyst. The patient is encouraged to talk freely about whatever comes to mind, including dreams, fantasies, and free associations. The analyst listens carefully and interprets the underlying meanings and patterns in the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.

The goal of psychoanalytic therapy is to help the patient understand and resolve their internal conflicts, which are often rooted in early childhood experiences. This can lead to improved mental health, better relationships, and increased self-awareness. It's important to note that this type of therapy requires a significant time commitment and can be emotionally challenging.

Psychopathology is a branch of psychology and medicine that involves the study and classification of mental disorders, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. It is an interdisciplinary field that draws on various methods and perspectives from psychology, neuroscience, genetics, sociology, and other related disciplines to understand and explain abnormal behavior and mental processes.

The term "psychopathology" can also refer specifically to the presence of a mental disorder or to the symptoms and features of a particular mental disorder. For example, one might say that someone has a psychopathology or that they exhibit certain psychopathological symptoms.

Psychopathology is often contrasted with normal psychology, which focuses on understanding and explaining typical behavior and mental processes. However, it is important to note that the boundary between normal and abnormal behavior is not always clear-cut, and many psychological phenomena exist on a continuum rather than falling neatly into one category or the other.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "personality development" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a concept that is more commonly found in psychology and personal growth contexts. In those fields, personality development refers to the process by which a person's character, behaviors, thoughts, and patterns of emotion are formed, structured, and changed throughout their life. This process can be influenced by genetic factors, environmental influences, and individual experiences. If you have any questions related to mental health or psychology, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

Dopamine receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to and respond to the neurotransmitter dopamine. There are five subtypes of dopamine receptors (D1-D5), which are classified into two families based on their structure and function: D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3, and D4).

Dopamine receptors play a crucial role in various physiological processes, including movement, motivation, reward, cognition, emotion, and neuroendocrine regulation. They are widely distributed throughout the central nervous system, with high concentrations found in the basal ganglia, limbic system, and cortex.

Dysfunction of dopamine receptors has been implicated in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), drug addiction, and depression. Therefore, drugs targeting dopamine receptors have been developed for the treatment of these conditions.

Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. It is a form of talk therapy where the therapist and the patient work together to identify and change negative or distorted thinking patterns and beliefs, with the goal of improving emotional response and behavior.

Cognitive Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, and that negative or inaccurate thoughts can contribute to problems like anxiety and depression. By identifying and challenging these thoughts, patients can learn to think more realistically and positively, which can lead to improvements in their mood and behavior.

In cognitive therapy sessions, the therapist will help the patient identify negative thought patterns and replace them with healthier, more accurate ways of thinking. The therapist may also assign homework or exercises for the patient to practice between sessions, such as keeping a thought record or challenging negative thoughts.

Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is often used in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication, and can be delivered individually or in group settings.

A chronic disease is a long-term medical condition that often progresses slowly over a period of years and requires ongoing management and care. These diseases are typically not fully curable, but symptoms can be managed to improve quality of life. Common chronic diseases include heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). They are often associated with advanced age, although they can also affect children and younger adults. Chronic diseases can have significant impacts on individuals' physical, emotional, and social well-being, as well as on healthcare systems and society at large.

Basal ganglia diseases are a group of neurological disorders that affect the function of the basal ganglia, which are clusters of nerve cells located deep within the brain. The basal ganglia play a crucial role in controlling movement and coordination. When they are damaged or degenerate, it can result in various motor symptoms such as tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and difficulty with balance and walking.

Some examples of basal ganglia diseases include:

1. Parkinson's disease - a progressive disorder that affects movement due to the death of dopamine-producing cells in the basal ganglia.
2. Huntington's disease - an inherited neurodegenerative disorder that causes uncontrolled movements, emotional problems, and cognitive decline.
3. Dystonia - a movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions that cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures.
4. Wilson's disease - a rare genetic disorder that causes excessive copper accumulation in the liver and brain, leading to neurological and psychiatric symptoms.
5. Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) - a rare brain disorder that affects movement, gait, and balance, as well as speech and swallowing.
6. Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) - a rare neurological disorder characterized by progressive loss of nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia, leading to stiffness, rigidity, and difficulty with movement and coordination.

Treatment for basal ganglia diseases varies depending on the specific diagnosis and symptoms but may include medication, surgery, physical therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Genetic association studies are a type of epidemiological research that aims to identify statistical associations between genetic variations and particular traits or diseases. These studies typically compare the frequency of specific genetic markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), in individuals with a given trait or disease to those without it.

The goal of genetic association studies is to identify genetic factors that contribute to the risk of developing common complex diseases, such as diabetes, heart disease, or cancer. By identifying these genetic associations, researchers hope to gain insights into the underlying biological mechanisms of these diseases and develop new strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

It's important to note that while genetic association studies can identify statistical associations between genetic markers and traits or diseases, they cannot prove causality. Further research is needed to confirm and validate these findings and to understand the functional consequences of the identified genetic variants.

Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant drug that works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters (chemical messengers) in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine. It is used medically to treat conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity, due to its appetite-suppressing effects.

Amphetamines can be prescribed in various forms, including tablets, capsules, or liquids, and are available under several brand names, such as Adderall, Dexedrine, and Vyvanse. They are also known by their street names, such as speed, uppers, or wake-ups, and can be abused for their euphoric effects and ability to increase alertness, energy, and concentration.

Long-term use of amphetamines can lead to dependence, tolerance, and addiction, as well as serious health consequences, such as cardiovascular problems, mental health disorders, and malnutrition. It is essential to use amphetamines only under the supervision of a healthcare provider and follow their instructions carefully.

N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor, which are found in the membranes of excitatory neurons in the central nervous system. They play a crucial role in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory processes. NMDA receptors are ligand-gated channels that are permeable to calcium ions (Ca2+) and other cations.

NMDA receptors are composed of four subunits, which can be a combination of NR1, NR2A-D, and NR3A-B subunits. The binding of the neurotransmitter glutamate to the NR2 subunit and glycine to the NR1 subunit leads to the opening of the ion channel and the influx of Ca2+ ions.

NMDA receptors have a unique property in that they require both agonist binding and membrane depolarization for full activation, making them sensitive to changes in the electrical activity of the neuron. This property allows NMDA receptors to act as coincidence detectors, playing a critical role in synaptic plasticity and learning.

Abnormal functioning of NMDA receptors has been implicated in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, epilepsy, and chronic pain. Therefore, NMDA receptors are a common target for drug development in the treatment of these conditions.

In the context of medical and clinical psychology, particularly in the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA), "verbal behavior" is a term used to describe the various functions or purposes of spoken language. It was first introduced by the psychologist B.F. Skinner in his 1957 book "Verbal Behavior."

Skinner proposed that verbal behavior could be classified into several categories based on its function, including:

1. Mand: A verbal operant in which a person requests or demands something from another person. For example, saying "I would like a glass of water" is a mand.
2. Tact: A verbal operant in which a person describes or labels something in their environment. For example, saying "That's a red apple" is a tact.
3. Echoic: A verbal operant in which a person repeats or imitates what they have heard. For example, saying "Hello" after someone says hello to you is an echoic.
4. Intraverbal: A verbal operant in which a person responds to another person's verbal behavior with their own verbal behavior, without simply repeating or imitating what they have heard. For example, answering a question like "What's the capital of France?" is an intraverbal.
5. Textual: A verbal operant in which a person reads or writes text. For example, reading a book or writing a letter are textual.

Understanding the function of verbal behavior can be helpful in assessing and treating communication disorders, such as those seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). By identifying the specific functions of a child's verbal behavior, therapists can develop targeted interventions to help them communicate more effectively.

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"Perceptual grouping in disorganized schizophrenia". Psychiatry Research. 145 (2-3): 105-117. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2005.10.016 ... Mechanisms of schizophrenia Causes of schizophrenia Diagnosis of schizophrenia Visual perception Visual system Silverstein, SM ... Joshua, N.; Rossell, S. (1962). "Configural face processing in schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Research. 112 (1-3): 99-103. doi: ... Herzog, Michael H.; Brand, Andreas (June 2015). "Visual masking & schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Research: Cognition. 2 (2): 64- ...
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Subtypes of schizophrenia - classified as paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual - were difficult to ... Schizophrenia leads to an increased risk of dementia. Most people with schizophrenia are not aggressive, and are more likely to ... Worldwide, schizophrenia is the most common psychotic disorder. The frequency of schizophrenia varies across the world, within ... Schizophrenia at Curlie Schizophrenia at Wikipedia's sister projects: Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Commons News from ...
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... and disorganized speech. A study published in 2017 targeted various candidate genes (FOXD3, RET, SOX9, SOX10, GDNF) with ... As schizophrenia is foremost a disorder of the consciousness, it has been suggested that schizophrenia exists as an unwanted ... The evolution of schizophrenia refers to the theory of natural selection working in favor of selecting traits that are ... The risk of schizophrenia is higher among those who experienced prenatal maternal viral infections like influenza, rubella, ...
Disorganized speech can include rambling, incoherence, or abruptly switching between topics. People who have schizophrenia may ... Schizophrenia is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Research illustrates that schizophrenia is ... July 2012). "Gray matter volume in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with psychotic features". Schizophrenia Research. 138 (2- ... and other deficits seen in schizophrenia. MRI studies found that schizophrenia is associated with significantly smaller ...
Death from laughter Laughter List of paradoxes Disorganized schizophrenia Rutkowski, Anne-Françoise; Rijsman, John B.; Gergen, ... "Definition and description of schizophrenia in the DSM-5". Schizophrenia Research. DSM-5. 150 (1): 3-10. doi:10.1016/j.schres. ... "Static posed and evoked facial expressions of emotions in schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Research. 105 (1): 49-60. doi:10.1016/j ... "The relationship between affect expression and affect recognition in schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Research. 37 (3): 245-250. ...
Disorganized Children: A Guide for Parents and Professionals, p 135. Jessica Kingsley Publishers Ltd. Prabakaran, S; Swatton, J ... Childhood schizophrenia (very early onset schizophrenia) develops before the age of 13 years and is quite rare (frequency is 1 ... Schizophrenia is strongly heritable, but many people who appear to carry schizophrenia-associated genes may not develop the ... Risk factors of schizophrenia at Curlie "Schizophrenia". National Institute of Mental Health. (CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of ...
A second symptom could be negative symptoms, or severely disorganized or catatonic behavior. Only two symptoms are required for ... Howard R, Rabins PV, Seeman MV, Jeste DV (February 2000). "Late-onset schizophrenia and very-late-onset schizophrenia-like ... October 2013). "Definition and description of schizophrenia in the DSM-5". Schizophrenia Research. 150 (1): 3-10. doi:10.1016/j ... October 2013). "Definition and description of schizophrenia in the DSM-5". Schizophrenia Research. 150 (1): 3-10. doi:10.1016/j ...
Schizophrenia is characterized by positive symptoms that can include hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech; ... Childhood schizophrenia (also known as childhood-onset schizophrenia, and very early-onset schizophrenia) is similar in ... atypical forms of schizophrenia, infantile autism, schizophrenia, childhood type, NOS (Not Otherwise Specified), schizophrenia ... since the clinical pictures of adult schizophrenia and childhood schizophrenia are identical, childhood schizophrenia should ...
An improper dose causes him to demonstrate symptoms of catatonia or disorganized schizophrenia. Sadly, one of the other things ...
An improper dose causes him to demonstrate symptoms of catatonia or disorganized schizophrenia. Sadly, one of the other things ...
When evaluating a patient for schizophrenia, a physician may look for thought blocking. In schizophrenia, patients experience ... For instance, delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized behavior and thought are all positive symptoms. In ... People with schizophrenia commonly experience thought blocking and may interpret the experience in peculiar ways. For example, ... Thought blocking occurs most often in people with psychiatric illnesses, most commonly schizophrenia. A person's speech is ...
The dissociative symptoms and disorganized speech associated with schizophrenia are consistent with this idea. It is also ... It is also possible that problems with binding give way to the fractured mental state that is characteristic of schizophrenia. ... Bob, Petr (2012). "Consciousness, schizophrenia, and complexity". Cognitive Systems Research. 13: 87-94. doi:10.1016/j.cogsys. ...
Disorganized schizophrenia is more complex as the activity is indicative activity in a percolating cluster; however, some ... disorganized schizophrenia and divergent thinking. These conditions are often indicative of percolating clusters and their ... Attention as well as percolation also plays a key role in disorganized and divergent thinking; however, it is more likely that ...
Anxiety can increase risk of schizophrenia and symptoms include hallucinations, disorganized speech, and abnormal behavior. ... Schizophrenia is a chronic mental health condition caused by changes in brain chemistry and structure. Genetics and environment ... Gozes, Illana (2011-02-01). "Microtubules, schizophrenia and cognitive behavior: Preclinical development of davunetide (NAP) as ... ADNP is reported be downregulated with schizophrenia. A study observed decreased hyperactivity in mice when treated with NAP ...
Before 2013, the subtypes of schizophrenia were classified as paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, undifferentiated, and residual ... Subtypes of schizophrenia are no longer recognized as separate conditions from schizophrenia by DSM-5 or ICD-11. ... Psychiatry portal Physical health in schizophrenia The Protest Psychosis: How Schizophrenia Became a Black Disease Montreal ... "Psychiatric Genocide: Nazi Attempts to Eradicate Schizophrenia , Schizophrenia Bulletin , Oxford Academic." OUP Academic, ...
Hurlburt speculates that schizophrenia may be more a disorder of distorted perception than of disorganized association. Another ... People with schizophrenia can have distortions in their sensory awareness-vision can be scratched, warped, and shuffled. Inner ...
... which is considered a by-product of disorganized speech experienced with schizophrenia. Common symptoms of schizophrenia ... "Disorganized Symptoms of Schizophrenia - Arch Clinical Trials St. Louis". Retrieved 2022-02-15. "Cognitive processes in writing ... The issue with negative symptoms of schizophrenia, such as graphorrhoea, is that available schizophrenia treatments tend to ... Unlike schizophrenia, the individual's writing ability is most seriously impaired in aphasia. Individuals experience that there ...
Acocella notes that the diary displays three elements common to schizophrenia: "delusions, disorganized language, and ... It was around this time that signs of his schizophrenia had become apparent to members of the company, including Bourman. ... His fears were realized; he was diagnosed with schizophrenia and committed to Burghölzli. After a few days, he was transferred ... His mental condition deteriorated; he was diagnosed with schizophrenia in 1919 and committed to a mental asylum. For the next ...
Also known as disorganized thinking, FTD results in disorganized speech and is recognized as a major feature of schizophrenia ... is also known as disorganized speech. Evidence of disorganized thinking, it is a hallmark feature of schizophrenia. FTD, a ... Phenomenology of Schizophrenia (2017), THE SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA The text said that some clinicians use the term "formal ... F06.2 Organic delusional [schizophrenia-like] disorder, p.59: Features suggestive of schizophrenia, such as bizarre delusions, ...
In stressful situations, thought processes can become disorganized. The presence of chronic or severe problems in conceptual ... thinking is frequently associated with schizophrenia and manic episodes. Defensive functioning: A defense is an unconscious ...
Harris, M. J.; Jeste, D. V. (1988). "Late-onset schizophrenia: an overview". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 14 (1): 39-55. doi:10.1093 ... Flat or grossly inappropriate affect v. Grossly disorganized behavior at times other than during the acute episode. d. ... "Late-Onset Schizophrenia and Other Related Psychoses". www.acnp.org. Archived from the original on 2010-03-08. Retrieved 2009- ... The term was also used by Sigmund Freud for a short time starting in 1911 as an alternative to the terms schizophrenia and ...
Psychosis must meet criterion A for schizophrenia which may include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior ... "The clinical course of schizophrenia in women and men-a nation-wide cohort study". npj Schizophrenia. 6 (1): 12. doi:10.1038/ ... marked by symptoms of schizophrenia and depression), and mixed type (marked by symptoms of schizophrenia, depression, and mania ... "Psychosocial Treatments to Promote Functional Recovery in Schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 35 (2): 347-361. doi:10.1093/ ...
This refers to schizophrenia in people with mild learning disabilities. Piblokto, pibloktoq, or Arctic hysteria, is a condition ... Derailment, also known as loosening of associations, refers to disorganized thinking that jumps between ideas that seem ... Often associated with schizophrenia, dementia, and severe depression, poverty of ideas is a thought disturbance in which ... This occurs in catatonic schizophrenia, and a person with this condition can have his limbs placed in fixed positions as if the ...
It is possible that it is schizophrenia. However, others believe that there are no mentions of schizophrenia in ancient ... Arataeus writes about mentally ill people with hallucinations, disorganized speech, delusions, social withdrawal, poor ... Kauffmann, Paul; McLennan, Roger (2017). "Did Schizophrenia Exist in Ancient Greece and Rome? Schizophrenia and Epigenetics". ... People with possible schizophrenia were described by ancient Roman doctors and physicians, although they may have been ...
Schizophrenia is a mental condition characterized by a disconnect from reality, including grandiose delusions, disorganized ... A New Account of Cognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia". Schizophrenia Bulletin. 45 (5): 991-1000. doi:10.1093/schbul/sbz063. ... "Schizophrenia - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 12 March 2022. Luck, Steven J; Hahn, Britta; Leonard, Carly J; ... This hypothesis suggests that hyperfocus is the reason those afflicted with schizophrenia experience difficulty spreading their ...
A significant change in the fifth edition is the deletion of the subtypes of schizophrenia: paranoid, disorganized, catatonic, ... The level of reliability is no better than fair for psychosis and schizophrenia and is poor for the remaining categories". As ... such as schizophrenia and mood disorders, where 100% of the panel members had financial ties with the pharmaceutical industry. ... tolerability of 32 oral and long-acting injectable antipsychotics for the maintenance treatment of adults with schizophrenia: a ...
Schizophrenia Research, 105, 114-124. Shum, D., Leung, J., Ungvari, G., Tang, W. (2001). Schizophrenia and prospective memory: ... Failure to do so can result in the re-emergence of schizophrenic symptoms such as hallucinations, disorganized speech, and ... Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30(4), 693-701. Crawford, J.R., Della Sala, S., Logie, R.H., Maylor, E.A., Smith, G. (2003). The ... Leung, J.P., Shum, D., Tang, W., Ungvari, G.S. (2004). Performance of Schizophrenia Patients on Time-, Event-, and Activity- ...
Disorganized schizophrenia, or hebephrenia, was a subtype of schizophrenia prior to 2013. Subtypes of schizophrenia were no ... The most prominent features of disorganized schizophrenia are not delusions and hallucinations, as in paranoid schizophrenia, ... but they are most prominent in disorganized schizophrenia. This form of schizophrenia is typically associated with early onset ... A person with disorganized schizophrenia may also experience behavioral disorganization, which may impair his or her ability to ...
Disorganized schizophrenia isnt a formal diagnosis, but its recognized by clinicians. Here are the symptoms and how they can ... catatonic schizophrenia: schizophrenia symptoms with catatonia. *hebephrenic or disorganized schizophrenia: schizophrenia ... Disorganized schizophrenia cant be cured, but all types of schizophrenia can be treated. This means you can manage your ... Disorganized schizophrenia is sometimes referred to as hebephrenic schizophrenia because its onset is usually between ages 15 ...
Disorganized schizophrenia isnt a formal diagnosis, but its recognized by clinicians. Here are the symptoms and how they can ... catatonic schizophrenia: schizophrenia symptoms with catatonia. *hebephrenic or disorganized schizophrenia: schizophrenia ... Disorganized schizophrenia cant be cured, but all types of schizophrenia can be treated. This means you can manage your ... Disorganized schizophrenia is sometimes referred to as hebephrenic schizophrenia because its onset is usually between ages 15 ...
... is one of five subtypes of schizophrenia, characterized by erratic speech and behavior. ... As such, disorganized schizophrenia is no longer a specific diagnosis, but the symptoms of disorganized schizophrenia and other ... Symptoms of disorganized schizophrenia. Symptoms of disorganized schizophrenia may include hallucinations, meaning that you may ... What is disorganized schizophrenia?. Schizophrenia can present as a variety of symptoms, including:. *Positive symptoms: such ...
Where to find medical care for Disorganized schizophrenia?. Directions to Hospitals Treating Disorganized schizophrenia ... What causes Disorganized schizophrenia?. The cause is unknown. This type of schizophrenia usually begins before age 25. ... Some of these symptoms are also seen in other types of schizophrenia. The main difference is that in disorganized schizophrenia ... Disorganized schizophrenia is a type of schizophrenia in which behavior is disturbed and has no purpose. ...
Disorganized schizophrenia is a specific subtype of this mental disorder, and the classification refers to certain symptoms. ... What is Disorganized Schizophrenia?. Posted on: 03-25-2015 With: 0 Comments Posted by: Shelly Wager ... Disorganized schizophrenia is one of the mental disorders that can interfere with a normal life because of the limitations that ... Disorganized schizophrenia is a specific subtype of this mental disorder, and the classification refers to certain symptoms ...
... Cuad. neuropsicol. [online]. 2008, ... We report a case of schizophrenia disorganized in which there is a pronounced cognitive impairment and particularly ... Keywords : Schizophrenia; Cognitive Impairment; Intellectual deterioration; Neuropsychological evaluation; Clinic case. · ...
Disorganized Communication and Social Dysfunction in Schizophrenia: Emerging Concepts and Methods Article 23 September 2023 ...
... and disorganized speech and behavior. Read about schizophrenia definition, test, causes, and medication. ... Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that causes symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, ... What is the definition of schizophrenia? What is paranoid schizophrenia? Read about schizophrenia types and learn about ... "Late-onset schizophrenia and very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis: an international consensus." American Journal of ...
Alcohol cannot cause schizophrenia. However, some people might experience alcohol-induced psychosis disorder, which has similar ... At least one of these symptoms must be delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech. ... Schizophrenia affects roughly 1%. of adults worldwide.. Alcohol cannot cause schizophrenia. However, some forms of alcohol use ... Understanding avolition in schizophrenia. Avolition is a negative symptom of schizophrenia that involves a lack of motivation ...
The definition of childhood schizophrenia has evolved over time and is now believed to be a virulent childhood version of the ... Childhood-onset schizophrenia is a severe form of psychotic disorder that occurs at age 12 years or younger and is often ... Symptoms such as disorganized speech and behavior, which are typically present in schizophrenia, also occur in many disorders ... Schizophrenia and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorders in the first-degree relatives of children with schizophrenia: ...
Disorganized thinking (speech). Disorganized thinking is inferred from disorganized speech. Effective communication can be ... Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia may result in some ... Left untreated, schizophrenia can result in severe problems that affect every area of life. Complications that schizophrenia ... Helping someone who may have schizophrenia. If you think someone you know may have symptoms of schizophrenia, talk to him or ...
If youre dealing with a psychotic illness like schizophrenia, you may feel frightened or overwhelmed. And thats normal. ... Disorganized thoughts or speech. *Perceiving coded signals or messages in your environment ... What Is Schizophrenia?. Schizophrenia is a disease of the brain that interferes with normal thoughts, feelings and behaviors. ... Schizophrenia is the most common kind of "psychosis"-a term meaning to be out of touch with reality. But its not the only kind ...
... may increase the risk of psychosis symptoms and the development of schizophrenia. Read about the link here. ... unusual or illogical thinking patterns, such as disorganized thoughts and speech. *movement disorders, in which a person has ... Paranoia and schizophrenia: What you need to know. People with schizophrenia often experience paranoia, a type of delusion that ... What kind of trauma can cause schizophrenia?. The most common. type of childhood trauma in people living with schizophrenia is ...
DIF, IRT, Measurement, Schizophrenia, Schizotypy. Subjects. Schizotypal personality disorder $x Diagnosis. Schizophrenia $x ... The MSS is based on current conceptual models and taps positive, negative, and disorganized conceptual dimensions of schizotypy ... The positive schizotypy and negative schizotypy subscales contain 26 items each, and the disorganized schizotypy subscale ... and disorganized schizotypy. UNCG Author/Contributor (non-UNCG co-authors, if there are any, appear on document). Georgina M. ...
By understanding the different types of schizophrenia, you can help assess whether or not you might be suffering from the ... Disorganized-Type Schizophrenia Another of the different types of schizophrenia is the disorganized type, which is one that is ... Catatonic-Type Schizophrenia The next of the different types of schizophrenia to be discussed is catatonic-type schizophrenia. ... Different Types of Schizophrenia. There are many different types of schizophrenia that may affect you or a loved one. By ...
Its likely that youve common across many myths and exaggerations about schizophrenia in the news and media. Lets look at 5 ... Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and abnormal behaviors. It ... The epidemiology of schizophrenia can show who may be at risk for schizophrenia, but it cant decide whether an individual will ... Misconceptions about schizophrenia in the media. Sensationalized portrayals of people with schizophrenia in movies, news ...
Other important features are grossly disorganized behavior and disorganized speech. The experts also gave high second-line ... and a long-term history of psychotic symptoms the most important features in diagnosing schizophrenia in an older patient. ... ratings to symptoms that are useful in distinguishing schizophrenia from delirium, psychosis related to medications or medical ...
Schizophrenia is a type of mental illness that can change how you think and act, as well as how you feel. Learn more about the ... Concentration difficulties combined with struggles to put thoughts together can also lead to disorganized speech. Cognitive ... Schizophrenia may cause a type of speech difficulty called alogia. Its thought that trouble with speech in schizophrenia is ... What is schizophrenia? (2020).. https://www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/schizophrenia/what-is-schizophrenia. ...
Background Semantic processing anomalies, clinically reflected by disorganized speech are a core symptom of schizophrenia. In ... Brain ageing in schizophrenia: evidence from 26 international cohorts via the ENIGMA Schizophrenia consortium ... Brain ageing in schizophrenia: evidence from 26 international cohorts via the ENIGMA Schizophrenia consortium ... Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with an increased risk of life-long cognitive impairments, age-related chronic disease, and ...
Disorganized movement can manifest as childlike silliness or agitation, and in extreme cases can manifest as catatonia. People ... Schizophrenia can have a severe effect on a sufferers life, and often people with schizophrenia will turn to substances in an ... Genetic: Schizophrenia has a strong link to genetics. Approximately one percent of people are diagnosed with schizophrenia, but ... Effects of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia can be a profoundly debilitating disorder, especially if left untreated. The effects of ...
Schizophrenia: 2+symptoms & > 6 mos.7 last > 1 mo; Positive: hallucinations, delusions, disorganized speech/behavior, ... PHASES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA:. Definition. Prodromal Phase-decline in role functioning & precedes active phase.. Active Phase-full- ... Subtypes of Schizophrenia. Not in newest DSM V. Definition. Paranoid-most organized, prominent delusions; persecutory, ... Management/treatment of schizophrenia. Definition. Combination of: anti-psychotic,antidepressant, anti-anxiety meds. depending ...
1. hebephrenia, hebephrenic schizophrenia, disorganized schizophrenia, disorganized type schizophrenia, schizophrenia, ... usage: a form of schizophrenia characterized by severe disintegration of personality including erratic speech and childish ...
3 Disorganized Speech. 4 Grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. 5 Negative Symptoms (diminished emotional expression or ... criteria for schizophrenia. Criteria A: must exhibit 2+ active symptoms for at least one month (at least one being 1,2, or 3). ... Schizophrenia- Cross Cultural Differences. Seen in all cultures. More in Urban areas. IPSS and DOS studies. -> outcomes better ... Schizophrenia gender differences?. Men. -30-40% more likely. - onset 4-5 years earlier (18-25 v. 25-30W). -poor social ...
Schizophrenia is a chronic brain disorder that can be severe and disabling. The course of schizophrenia is varied for some ... The disease typically manifests as hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thoughts and behavior. Because there are ... About Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a complex brain disorder that affects three million American adults. ... "Lack of consistent treatment, when and where people with schizophrenia need it, can put patients at risk for relapse, possibly ...
... as seen in schizophrenia, and mood symptoms that may be either depressive or manic in presentation. There are two types of the ... People with schizophrenia and mood disorders have lower than normal levels of dopamine, a brain chemical that also helps manage ... Disorganized thinking or behavior. *Impaired or incoherent speech, which may include catatonia ... Schizophreniform disorder is identical to schizophrenia but has a shorter symptom duration at more than a month to less than ...
It found that schizophrenia, in particular, was connected with the disorganized, chaotic and unstable life in the slums ... Faris REL and Dunham HW (1939) Mental Disorder in Urban Areas: An Ecological Study of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses. ... Moore RA, Benedek EP and Wallace JG (1963) Social class, schizophrenia and the psychiatrist. American Journal of Psychiatry; ... An Ecological Study of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses. University of Chicago Press: Chicago, IL. ...
People with schizophrenia may have delusions or hallucinations, or they may have disorganized speech or behavior. All of these ... Schizophrenia WHO. Is Schizophrenia Spread Across The World?. by JimCrane : April 8, 2021. April 23, 2021. Schizophrenia, WHO ... What is Schizophrenia?. by JimCrane : April 7, 2021. April 23, 2021. SchizophreniaLeave a comment ... Other symptoms can include disorganized speech, emotional withdrawal, and catatonia.. Understanding Schizophrenia. ...
When schizophrenia is active, symptoms can include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, trouble with thinking and ...
Schizophrenia and Substance Use. Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by distorted perceptions of reality and disorganized ... Disorganized thinking: jumbled speech, making up words, jumping between topics. *Odd or disorganized behavior (sudden agitation ... Schizophrenia Treatment. The recommended treatment for schizophrenia, called Coordinated Specialty Care, involves a combination ... Schizophrenia & Interaction With Substance Use. Some experts estimate that 50 percent of the young people seeking help after a ...
  • The prominent characteristics of this form are disorganized behavior and speech (see formal thought disorder), including loosened associations and schizophasia ("word salad"), and flat or inappropriate affect. (wikipedia.org)
  • What is disorganized speech, thinking, and behavior? (psychcentral.com)
  • People with schizophrenia are prone to disorganized speech, thinking, and behavior. (psychcentral.com)
  • such as abnormal or disorganized speech and behavior, including incoherent sentences, difficulty following a train of thought, and odd or repeated movements. (mentalhealth.com)
  • According to the DSM-IV, for a diagnosis of disorganized schizophrenia, hallucinations and delusions may be present, but the primary symptoms would be disorganized speech and behavior [1] . (mentalhealth.com)
  • While delusions and hallucinations may be present in disorganized schizophrenia, the primary presenting symptoms will be related to a clear impairment in cognition and daily functioning, usually seen as disorganized thoughts and behavior. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Disorganized schizophrenia is a type of schizophrenia in which behavior is disturbed and has no purpose. (wikidoc.org)
  • The main difference is that in disorganized schizophrenia, there is a lot of strange, aimless behavior and often speech that does not make sense. (wikidoc.org)
  • Paranoid-type schizophrenia is distinguished by paranoid behavior, including delusions and auditory hallucinations. (medicinenet.com)
  • Schizophrenia is one of the psychotic mental disorders and is characterized by symptoms of thought, behavior, and social problems. (medicinenet.com)
  • People with schizophrenia may also experience thought, behavior, and speech disturbances. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Schizophrenia may result in some combination of hallucinations, delusions, and extremely disordered thinking and behavior that impairs daily functioning, and can be disabling. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking (cognition), behavior and emotions. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Extremely disorganized or abnormal motor behavior. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In the past, schizophrenia was often incorrectly associated with violent behavior, leading to widespread misconceptions about individuals with schizophrenia being dangerous or unpredictable. (healthline.com)
  • Factors such as substance misuse, a history of violence, and a lack of appropriate treatment and support are more significant predictors of violent behavior in individuals with schizophrenia, just as they are in the general population. (healthline.com)
  • Other important features are grossly disorganized behavior and disorganized speech. (psychiatrist.com)
  • Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder that manifests abnormal behavior socially and inability to comprehend reality. (world-schizophrenia.org)
  • In another group, they found that disorganized speech and behavior were specifically associated with a set of DNA variations that carried a 100 percent risk of schizophrenia. (scienceblog.com)
  • Symptoms and Signs Schizophrenia is characterized by psychosis (loss of contact with reality), hallucinations (false perceptions), delusions (false beliefs), disorganized speech and behavior, flattened affect. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Individuals with schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders experience a range of often debilitating symptoms that may include hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking, speech, and/or disorganized or unusual behavior. (hopeway.org)
  • The positive symptoms of schizophrenia include hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized speech and behavior. (schizlife.com)
  • Disorganized speech and behavior can include speaking incoherently or engaging in bizarre actions. (schizlife.com)
  • Some of these features are also present in other types of schizophrenia, but they are most prominent in disorganized schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, disorganized schizophrenia is no longer a specific diagnosis, but the symptoms of disorganized schizophrenia and other types of schizophrenia are still used by physicians to form a diagnosis, based on the severity of the presenting symptoms. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Antipsychotic medication is typically used in the treatment of all types of schizophrenia and can help alleviate most symptoms. (mentalhealth.com)
  • Some of these symptoms are also seen in other types of schizophrenia. (wikidoc.org)
  • Given that an individual can have various predominant symptoms of schizophrenia at different times as well as at the same time, the most recent Diagnostic Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) has done away with what used to be described as five types of schizophrenia. (medicinenet.com)
  • There are many different types of schizophrenia that may affect you or a loved one. (all4naturalhealth.com)
  • Another of the different types of schizophrenia is the disorganized type, which is one that is characterized most readily by a poor speech pattern and behaviour that appears as very disorganized or difficult to understand. (all4naturalhealth.com)
  • The next of the different types of schizophrenia to be discussed is catatonic-type schizophrenia. (all4naturalhealth.com)
  • Next on the list of different types of schizophrenia is the undifferentiated-type. (all4naturalhealth.com)
  • The undifferentiated-variety is classified as a situation where someone is experiencing a variety of all the signs and symptoms listed above and thus cannot be categorized into one of the different types of schizophrenia. (all4naturalhealth.com)
  • There are many different types of schizophrenia, which can make this a hard illness to understand. (all4naturalhealth.com)
  • Having read about the different types of schizophrenia, you can learn more about this mental health disease by reading the other related schizophrenia articles and pages. (all4naturalhealth.com)
  • What are the five types of schizophrenia based on the predominant symptoms? (hopeway.org)
  • The key symptoms of schizophrenia include hallucinations, which involve seeing or hearing things that aren't real (although they seem real to the person experiencing them). (talkspace.com)
  • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) no longer subdivides schizophrenia . (psychcentral.com)
  • Disorganized schizophrenia is one of the mental disorders that can interfere with a normal life because of the limitations that may be experienced at times. (valiantrecovery.ca)
  • As with most other mental disorders, schizophrenia is not directly passed from one generation to another genetically, and there is no single specific cause for this illness. (medicinenet.com)
  • Schizophrenia and AIPD are both psychotic disorders, and they have some symptoms in common. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) cautions that although the essential features of schizophrenia are the same in childhood, it is harder to diagnose. (medscape.com)
  • It is important to consider these more common disorders of childhood before attributing symptoms to schizophrenia. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to the five symptom domain areas identified in the diagnostic criteria, the assessment of cognition, depression, and mania symptom domains is vital for making critically important distinctions between schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. (medscape.com)
  • The experts also gave high second-line ratings to symptoms that are useful in distinguishing schizophrenia from delirium, psychosis related to medications or medical illness, and mood disorders. (psychiatrist.com)
  • And there are various disorders that fall under the schizophrenia spectrum such as schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder . (psychologytoday.com)
  • People with schizophrenia and mood disorders have lower than normal levels of dopamine , a brain chemical that also helps manage these tasks. (psychologytoday.com)
  • First, enduring negative symptoms can even be observed in a variety of psychiatric disorders and they are not specific to schizophrenia. (karger.com)
  • Schizophrenia is one of the world's most misunderstood and socially stigmatized mental health disorders. (medicalert.org)
  • Schizophrenia is typically diagnosed by ruling out other mental health disorders first and confirming that symptoms are not due to medications, drugs, or a medical condition. (medicalert.org)
  • People with certain psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, may also have problems in parts of the brain that control thinking, perception, and motivation. (webmd.com)
  • Our ability to apply a scientific approach to perplexing disorders such as schizophrenia is due to her groundbreaking research. (sciencedaily.com)
  • New research shows that schizophrenia isn't a single disease but a group of eight genetically distinct disorders, each with its own set of symptoms. (scienceblog.com)
  • Disorders like schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder are linked to an increased risk of meth psychosis. (adcare.com)
  • Introduction to Schizophrenia and Related Disorders Schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders- brief psychotic disorder, delusional disorder, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, and schizotypal personality disorder-are characterized. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Therefore, mental health professionals typically classify patients into three broader diagnoses called schizophrenia spectrum disorders. (hopeway.org)
  • Despite common and popular perception, the multiple personalities and dissociative characteristics associated with dissociative identity disorder are in no way related to schizophrenia, and the two are completely separate disorders. (citizendium.org)
  • Schizophrenia is a chronic and severe psychotic features can occur in other mental disorders disorder affecting more than 21 million people along with their main signs and symptoms. (who.int)
  • People with schizophrenia are two to three disorders for more information). (who.int)
  • This form of schizophrenia is typically associated with early onset (often between the ages of 15 and 25 years) and is thought to have a poor prognosis because of the rapid development of negative symptoms and decline in social functioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of this, this is one form of schizophrenia that really does tend to have a negative impact on the person's daily life. (all4naturalhealth.com)
  • Approximately 0.5% of the population is diagnosed with some form of schizophrenia, under the prevailing view that the pathology is best treated using pharmaceutical medications that act on monoamine receptors. (mdpi.com)
  • What is hebephrenic schizophrenia? (psychcentral.com)
  • Disorganized schizophrenia is sometimes referred to as hebephrenic schizophrenia because its onset is usually between ages 15 and 25. (psychcentral.com)
  • When you live with hebephrenic schizophrenia, you're more likely to experience these disorganized symptoms. (psychcentral.com)
  • Schizophrenia is a formal mental health diagnosis. (psychcentral.com)
  • Disorganized schizophrenia is a specific subtype of this mental disorder, and the classification refers to certain symptoms that are being experienced by the individual at the time of the diagnosis and classification. (valiantrecovery.ca)
  • In patients with a history of autism spectrum disorder or a communication disorder of childhood onset, the additional diagnosis of schizophrenia is made only if prominent delusions or hallucinations, in addition to the other required symptoms or schizophrenia are also present for at least 1 month (or less if successfully treated). (medscape.com)
  • However, those individuals meeting the criteria for catatonia would receive an additional diagnosis of catatonia associated with schizophrenia to indicate the presence of the comorbidity. (medscape.com)
  • The validity of a diagnosis of childhood-onset schizophrenia has been a point of concern for some, due to difficulty in differentiating pediatric patients' reports of visual hallucinations from imaginary figures (which may be developmentally normal). (medscape.com)
  • One study on the validity of a diagnosis of early-onset schizophrenia in Denmark found a correspondence of 88.8%, comparing the diagnosis listed in the Denmark registry to a clinical diagnosis based on symptoms reported in patient records. (medscape.com)
  • A diagnosis of schizophrenia must come from an experienced doctor who evaluates the symptoms and rules out other physical problems that could be causing them-for example, drug and/or alcohol abuse, or a brain tumor. (massgeneral.org)
  • Early diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia play an important role in recovery . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The time after a schizophrenia diagnosis can be scary for you and your partner. (talkspace.com)
  • However, a diagnosis of schizophrenia can make communication and meeting each other's needs even more difficult. (talkspace.com)
  • The investigators also replicated their findings in two additional DNA databases of people with schizophrenia, an indicator that identifying the gene variations that are working together is a valid avenue to explore for improving diagnosis and treatment. (scienceblog.com)
  • Diagnosis and assessment of schizophrenia typically involve a thorough evaluation of symptoms, medical history, and family history. (schizlife.com)
  • It is important to note that the diagnosis of schizophrenia is not made lightly, and doctors must carefully consider other potential causes of the patient's symptoms before arriving at a diagnosis. (schizlife.com)
  • Schizophrenia is a clinical diagnosis. (medscape.com)
  • If depression exists in patients with schizophrenia, a more careful evaluation of symptom duration may help to clarify whether it could be schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, or a psychotic depression. (healthline.com)
  • People with a parent or sibling who has schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia, or bipolar disorder may be at higher than average risk for developing this condition. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Young people may also struggle with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder. (childmind.org)
  • People have symptoms of both schizophrenia and a mood disorder, such as depression or bipolar disorder. (webmd.com)
  • Jan. 22, 2020 A study has shown few differences in the profiles of genes that influence cognition between people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and the general population. (sciencedaily.com)
  • In men, schizophrenia symptoms typically start in the early to mid-20s. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Typically, your symptoms will occur for 6 months or longer to be considered schizophrenia. (healthline.com)
  • Negative symptoms of schizophrenia are typically seen through decreased motivation and social withdrawal. (healthline.com)
  • The symptoms of schizophrenia are typically divided into positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. (wellnessresourcecenter.com)
  • The most prominent features of disorganized schizophrenia are not delusions and hallucinations, as in paranoid schizophrenia, although fragmentary delusions (unsystemized and often hypochondriacal) and hallucinations may be present. (wikipedia.org)
  • Someone with disorganized schizophrenia might also experience delusions and hallucinations, and other symptoms of schizophrenia. (psychcentral.com)
  • At least one of these symptoms must be delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Signs and symptoms may vary, but usually involve delusions, hallucinations or disorganized speech, and reflect an impaired ability to function. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Disorganized thinking is inferred from disorganized speech. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that can cause a wide range of distressing symptoms, including hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking and speech, and impaired social functioning. (healthline.com)
  • Schizophrenia may cause a type of speech difficulty called alogia. (healthline.com)
  • It's thought that trouble with speech in schizophrenia is attributed to difficulties with putting thoughts together. (healthline.com)
  • People with schizophrenia have trouble organizing their thoughts, and their difficulties with thought organization often manifest in their speech. (wellnessresourcecenter.com)
  • One of the most common symptoms that is often ignored or misunderstood is disorganized speech. (talkspace.com)
  • Regarding negative symptoms of schizophrenia, this reduction manifests itself in phenomena that include avolition, anhedonia, affective flattening and poverty of speech. (karger.com)
  • A'cording to u, deer Inurnet, a poet rhyming ain't evidents of mentoll illness, butt 'disorganized speech that impedes the patient's ability to communicate is a disorder in itself, often seen in schizophrenia. (5cense.com)
  • they started hallucinating, their speech was largely disorganized, and they started having bizarre visions," she added. (who.int)
  • At least 1 of the symptoms must be the presence of delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech. (medscape.com)
  • Individuals have one o more of the following symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech. (bvsalud.org)
  • Schizoaffective disorder is a thought disorder that includes both psychotic features, as seen in schizophrenia, and mood symptoms that may be either depressive or manic in presentation. (psychologytoday.com)
  • While at least two primary criteria for schizophrenia must be present, an important distinction is that people with schizoaffective disorder are more functional in terms of self-care and in their ability to interact with others. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Because the symptoms of schizoaffective disorder overlap with those of bipolar or depressive disorder and schizophrenia, the condition can be difficult to diagnose. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Schizoaffective disorder is diagnosed when there is a period of time with a major depressive or manic mood and, at the same time, at least two psychotic symptoms appear, or when there is no sign of a major mood disorder but clear symptoms of schizophrenia-psychosis persist for at least two weeks. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Is schizoaffective disorder a schizophrenia spectrum disorder? (psychologytoday.com)
  • for schizoaffective disorder, take the delusions of schizophrenia and add the mood swings of bipolar. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Because schizoaffective disorder can masquerade as a mood disorder or schizophrenia, it is difficult for health professionals to diagnose. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Yet, there's more than one type of schizophrenia, and this categorization depends on the symptoms you may be living with. (psychcentral.com)
  • These people may be at a risk of hurting themselves or others due to these irregular movements, so careful watch over someone suffering from this type of schizophrenia is important. (all4naturalhealth.com)
  • Subtypes of schizophrenia were no longer recognized as separate conditions in the DSM 5, published in 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other words, the schizophrenia subtypes aren't considered separate diagnoses. (psychcentral.com)
  • The American Psychiatric Association removed schizophrenia subtypes from the DSM-5 because they didn't appear to help with providing better targeted treatment, or predicting treatment response. (medscape.com)
  • Disorganized schizophrenia, or hebephrenia, was a subtype of schizophrenia prior to 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • Disorganized Schizophrenia (Hebephrenia): What is it? (mentalhealth.com)
  • Often associated with clinical depression, a lack of pleasure in things you once enjoyed can also be a symptom of schizophrenia. (healthline.com)
  • The hallmark symptom of schizophrenia is psychosis, such as experiencing auditory hallucinations (voices) and delusions (fixed false beliefs). (medscape.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a characteristic symptom of schizophrenia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Yet for the person with schizophrenia, they have the full force and impact of a normal experience. (mayoclinic.org)
  • A person with schizophrenia can have varying symptoms that might change over time. (massgeneral.org)
  • One common hallucination a person with schizophrenia may experience is hearing voices, and these voices can range from simply presenting a running commentary on a person's life to telling the person to do something to harm himself or someone else. (wellnessresourcecenter.com)
  • Research suggests that schizophrenia may be caused by changes in neurotransmitter levels, particularly dopamine and glutamate [7] . (mentalhealth.com)
  • Research suggests that schizophrenia occurs due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors, which can cause atypical development in the brain. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • As a result of these symptoms, individuals with schizophrenia can also have problems in their social functioning. (massgeneral.org)
  • For example, some people may believe that individuals with schizophrenia are violent or dangerous, when in reality, most individuals with schizophrenia are not violent at all. (schizlife.com)
  • Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions , disorganized thinking, and abnormal behaviors. (healthline.com)
  • Abnormal behaviour: disorganized person loses contact with reality and is not behaviour such as wandering aimlessly, aware that their thoughts and perceptions are mumbling or laughing to oneself, having unreal, which may make them feel frightened or a strange appearance or not caring about distressed. (who.int)
  • Sometimes colloquially but inaccurately referred to as split personality disorder , schizophrenia is a chronic, severe, debilitating mental illness . (medicinenet.com)
  • Prior to the development of the full-blown disorder, people who go on to develop schizophrenia often exhibit subtler and/or less specific symptoms, also called prodromal symptoms. (medicinenet.com)
  • Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder, which means that it involves hallucinations or delusions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Research also suggests that people with schizophrenia may be three times more likely than those without this condition to develop alcohol use disorder (AUD) . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Childhood-onset schizophrenia is a severe form of psychotic disorder that occurs at age 12 years or younger and is often chronic and persistently debilitating, with worse outcomes than patients who have later onset of symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] The definition of childhood schizophrenia has evolved over time and is now believed to be a virulent childhood version of the same disorder exhibited in adolescents and adults. (medscape.com)
  • Schizophrenia is a serious mental disorder in which people interpret reality abnormally. (mayoclinic.org)
  • People with schizophrenia often lack awareness that their difficulties stem from a mental disorder that requires medical attention. (mayoclinic.org)
  • One reason for this misconception may be that the distinction between schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder (previously, multiple personality disorder) was weaker in the past. (healthline.com)
  • Schizophrenia can be a challenging condition to manage, but with appropriate treatment and support, many individuals with the disorder are able to hold jobs and live independently. (healthline.com)
  • Approximately one percent of people are diagnosed with schizophrenia, but that number increases to ten percent among those with a close relative who has the disorder. (wellnessresourcecenter.com)
  • As discovered via twin studies, if one identical twin has schizophrenia, the other twin has between a 40 and 65% chance of developing the disorder as well. (wellnessresourcecenter.com)
  • Schizophrenia is a chronic brain disorder that can be severe and disabling. (jnj.com)
  • Schizophreniform disorder is identical to schizophrenia but has a shorter symptom duration at more than a month to less than six months. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Schizotypal personality disorder is also similar to schizophrenia, but the bouts are not as intense, lengthy, or frequent, and patients are generally more aware of their distorted thinking. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Schizophrenia, a severe mental disorder, causes you to lose touch with reality. (world-schizophrenia.org)
  • Schizophrenia is a severe brain disorder that affects about one percent of Americans. (world-schizophrenia.org)
  • While dating someone with this disorder can sometimes be difficult, learning as much as you can about schizophrenia can help shape your relationship in a meaningful way. (talkspace.com)
  • Kraepelin [ 1 ] considered a characteristic disorder of volition to be specific to schizophrenia and did not observe this phenomenon in patients with manic-depressive disorder. (karger.com)
  • Schizophrenia is a chronic brain disorder that affects approximately 24 million people (0.32% or 1 in 300 people) worldwide. (medicalert.org)
  • Researchers believe that psychological triggers such as extremely stressful life events could cause schizophrenia to develop in people who are already at risk of developing the disorder. (medicalert.org)
  • This condition has symptoms similar to schizophrenia or a delusional disorder and is not formally recognized in the DSM V. . It starts late in life, when people are elderly and may be related to neurologic problems. (webmd.com)
  • Emerging research suggests that Cannabis can be used as a treatment for schizophrenia within a broader etiological perspective that focuses on environmental, autoimmune, and neuroinflammatory causes of the disorder, offering a fresh start and newfound hope for those suffering from this debilitating and poorly understood disease. (mdpi.com)
  • Schizophrenia 1 is a mental disorder characterized by patterns of disordered thought, language, motor, and social function. (citizendium.org)
  • The specific cause of schizophrenia is largely unknown, although several neurotransmitters and brain structures are hypothesized to play a role in the disorder. (citizendium.org)
  • Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that affects how people think, feel, and perceive the world. (medscape.com)
  • Schizophrenia is a brain disorder that probably comprises several separate illnesses. (medscape.com)
  • The symptoms of methamphetamine psychosis may closely resemble those of acute paranoid schizophrenia. (adcare.com)
  • Some chronic conditions, such as schizophrenia, may need lifelong treatment with antipsychotic drugs to control symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Antipsychotic medications diminish the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and prevent relapses. (medscape.com)
  • There is no clear antipsychotic drug of choice for schizophrenia. (medscape.com)
  • Antipsychotic medications, also known as neuroleptic medications or major tranquilizers, diminish the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and prevent relapses. (medscape.com)
  • The symptoms of chronic schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Learn more about different treatments for chronic schizophrenia here. (healthline.com)
  • Schizophrenia (SZ) is associated with an increased risk of life-long cognitive impairments, age-related chronic disease, and premature mortality. (researchgate.net)
  • He also required each of us to take one patient from the so-called "backwards," people with chronic schizophrenia who sat for years doing very little, and treat them with "talk therapy. (nybooks.com)
  • Dr. Schreier notes that with the help of talk therapy, he and his fellow residents were successful in enabling patients with chronic schizophrenia to return to the community, but that their sojourns there were short-lived. (nybooks.com)
  • It is a chronic illness that can be debilitating since people with schizophrenia often cannot distinguish between reality and their hallucinations and delusions. (hopeway.org)
  • Trauma, particularly in childhood, may increase the risk of psychosis symptoms and schizophrenia in those who are genetically susceptible. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The MSS is based on current conceptual models and taps positive, negative, and disorganized conceptual dimensions of schizotypy. (uncg.edu)
  • The positive schizotypy and negative schizotypy subscales contain 26 items each, and the disorganized schizotypy subscale contains 25 items. (uncg.edu)
  • It's important to note, however, that the negative symptoms of schizophrenia (i.e., reduced emotional expression and low motivation) are difficult to treat with medication. (healthline.com)
  • Below, you'll find some of the most common negative symptoms of schizophrenia. (healthline.com)
  • The Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Category or Continuum? (karger.com)
  • Negative symptoms have been considered to be specific to schizophrenia or a subtype of schizophrenia: the deficit syndrome. (karger.com)
  • In the original descriptions of schizophrenia, negative symptoms were considered to be defining characteristics of the illness [ 1 ]. (karger.com)
  • Unfortunately, people with schizophrenia often face discrimination and negative stereotypes due to misconceptions about the condition. (schizlife.com)
  • This shows up differently in different people, and not everybody with schizophrenia will behave the same. (psychcentral.com)
  • There is also evidence to suggest that people with schizophrenia have differences in their brain structure, including a decreased amount of gray matter, suggesting that the condition could be caused by impaired development of the brain [8] . (mentalhealth.com)
  • Studies indicate that schizophrenia is around six times more likely to occur in people who have a direct relative with the condition, than in those with no family history of schizophrenia [7] . (mentalhealth.com)
  • People who experience the first episode of this mental illness after the age of 40 years are considered to have late-onset schizophrenia. (medicinenet.com)
  • However, some people might experience symptoms of schizophrenia due to alcohol-induced psychosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some people with schizophrenia might use alcohol to try to get relief from their symptoms or the side effects of prescribed medications. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some problems with the brain, such as injury or dysfunction of the brain's reward system, could predispose some people toward developing schizophrenia and AUD. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People with the latter condition tend to have more severe anxiety or depression symptoms than people with schizophrenia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Conversely, people with schizophrenia tend to have more disorganization symptoms than people with AIPD. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People with schizophrenia require lifelong treatment. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Delusions occur in most people with schizophrenia. (mayoclinic.org)
  • These are called "positive symptoms": People with schizophrenia experience them, others don't. (massgeneral.org)
  • People with schizophrenia are sometimes also unengaged in certain things. (massgeneral.org)
  • In people who are susceptible to schizophrenia, traumatic life events may trigger the condition. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The most common type of childhood trauma in people living with schizophrenia is emotional neglect, though physical abuse or neglect and sexual abuse are also risk factors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The review authors concluded that PTSD appears to be more prevalent among people with schizophrenia than in the general population, despite similar levels of exposure to trauma. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is possible that people with schizophrenia have an increased vulnerability to trauma. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, the research does not rule out the possibility that people with PTSD are more susceptible to schizophrenia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People who have a parent or sibling with schizophrenia have a more than six times greater chance of developing it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some people with schizophrenia do have a difficult time maintaining a job due to their symptoms, and many live with family or in supported housing. (healthline.com)
  • Some people with schizophrenia may also find that they benefit from the structured routine and added socialization that working provides. (healthline.com)
  • Learn more about the best jobs for people with schizophrenia here. (healthline.com)
  • In fact, people with schizophrenia who are living in the community (not in a psychiatric institution) are about 14 times more likely to be the victim of a violent crime than the perpetrator. (healthline.com)
  • These symptoms tend to be the most persistent and difficult aspect of the condition, and they account for a large part of the long-term disability seen in people with schizophrenia. (healthline.com)
  • It's estimated that one-third of people treated for schizophrenia still struggle with their symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • According to a 2017 review, it's estimated that about 40 percent of people with schizophrenia may experience depression. (healthline.com)
  • Schizophrenia can have a severe effect on a sufferer's life, and often people with schizophrenia will turn to substances in an attempt to cope. (wellnessresourcecenter.com)
  • People who have schizophrenia are more likely than others to have substance abuse problems, of which can often make schizophrenia symptoms worse. (wellnessresourcecenter.com)
  • Lack of consistent treatment, when and where people with schizophrenia need it, can put patients at risk for relapse, possibly leading to disability, homelessness, incarceration and other serious consequences," said Michelle Kramer, Vice President, U.S. Neuroscience Medical Affairs, Janssen. (jnj.com)
  • People with schizophrenia may have trouble working, maintaining relationships, and getting along with others. (world-schizophrenia.org)
  • The number of people with schizophrenia is projected to double by the year 2020, says the World Health Organization. (world-schizophrenia.org)
  • According to the WHO , some 70 million people currently have schizophrenia. (world-schizophrenia.org)
  • While there is no cure for schizophrenia, many treatments exist to manage the symptoms and help people with schizophrenia lead productive, fulfilling lives. (world-schizophrenia.org)
  • However, for people in relationships with one of the nearly 1% of the population who struggles with schizophrenia, dating can be exceptionally challenging. (talkspace.com)
  • The challenging part is that people with schizophrenia often don't realize that they need help. (talkspace.com)
  • This is why it is so important for people living with the condition to wear a MedicAlert medical IDs for schizophrenia. (medicalert.org)
  • MedicAlert's protection plans offer benefits that extend beyond the ID, providing safety and peace of mind for people living with schizophrenia, their families and caregivers. (medicalert.org)
  • People living with schizophrenia have an altered or distorted perception of reality. (medicalert.org)
  • Now, in a novel approach analyzing genetic influences on more than 4,000 people with schizophrenia, the research team has identified distinct gene clusters that contribute to eight different classes of schizophrenia. (scienceblog.com)
  • Cloninger, the Wallace Renard Professor of Psychiatry and Genetics, and his colleagues matched precise DNA variations in people with and without schizophrenia to symptoms in individual patients. (scienceblog.com)
  • They looked at SNPs in 4,200 people with schizophrenia and 3,800 healthy controls, learning how individual genetic variations interacted with each other to produce the illness. (scienceblog.com)
  • Schizophrenia is a serious and often misunderstood mental health condition that affects millions of people worldwide. (schizlife.com)
  • People with schizophrenia have lower rates of employment, marriage, and independent living compared with other people. (medscape.com)
  • People with schizophrenia often face stigma, tumors. (who.int)
  • However, people with it may not be healthy for you to remain in a psychosis/schizophrenia may require long- term treatment, and some decline in general high-stress working or home environment. (who.int)
  • Schizophrenia is a disease of the brain that interferes with normal thoughts, feelings and behaviors. (massgeneral.org)
  • In addition, psychiatrists must rule out any possible sign of catatonic schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Psychosis, in the form of hallucinations and delusions, is one of the hallmark symptoms of schizophrenia. (wellnessresourcecenter.com)
  • Schizophrenia is a mental health condition hallmarked by unpredictable emotions, hallucinations, and delusions. (talkspace.com)
  • Positive symptoms of schizophrenia are ones that are atypically present, as they can disrupt a person's grasp of reality. (healthline.com)
  • In fact, research published in 2017 shows that early descriptions of schizophrenia were actually very similar to how DID is described now. (healthline.com)
  • The effectiveness of schizophrenia medications varies from person to person, and while some individuals may not respond well to medication, others experience significant improvement in their symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • Some medications used to treat schizophrenia inhibit the replication of T. gondii in cell culture. (cdc.gov)
  • Establishing the role of T. gondii in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia might lead to new medications for its prevention and treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • Schizotypy offers a useful and unifying construct for understanding schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. (uncg.edu)
  • However, a client's subtype of schizophrenia can change throughout the course of his/her illness. (hopeway.org)
  • Trauma may sometimes cause physical changes in the body, which may increase a person's risk of developing mental health conditions, including schizophrenia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This article looks at the link between trauma and schizophrenia, other mental health conditions that trauma may cause, and when to seek professional help. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This can put a person at risk for mental health conditions and may promote the development of schizophrenia . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Those who are suffering from paranoid-type schizophrenia are usually characterized by having some form of delusions or hallucinations present, but maintain a relatively normal mental functioning apart from that. (all4naturalhealth.com)
  • Schizophrenia is a complex and often misunderstood mental illness, and misinformation and stigma surrounding the condition are still prevalent in many societies. (healthline.com)
  • Schizophrenia is a type of mental health condition that can change how you think and act, as well as how you feel. (healthline.com)
  • To diagnose schizophrenia, a mental health professional, like a psychiatrist , will conduct an exam along with tests to rule out other possible neurological or mental health conditions. (healthline.com)
  • Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that can impact the manner in which a person thinks and acts. (wellnessresourcecenter.com)
  • While there is no cure for schizophrenia, effective treatment is available and can help sufferers of this mental health condition achieve happier and healthier lives. (wellnessresourcecenter.com)
  • If your partner begins to exhibit signs of schizophrenia or any other mental health condition, it's important to support them. (talkspace.com)
  • Unfortunately, mental health conditions - especially serious ones like schizophrenia - carry a stigma in our society. (talkspace.com)
  • The ability to maintain mental representations of ourselves and the world -- the fundamental building block of human cognition -- arises from the firing of highly evolved neuronal circuits, a process that is weakened in schizophrenia. (sciencedaily.com)
  • In a new study, researchers pinpoint key molecular actions of proteins that allow the creation of mental representations necessary for higher cognition that are genetically altered in schizophrenia. (sciencedaily.com)
  • In a new study, researchers at Yale University School of Medicine pinpoint key molecular actions of proteins that allow the creation of mental representations necessary for higher cognition that are genetically altered in schizophrenia. (sciencedaily.com)
  • According to the National Institute of Mental Health, less than 1% of Americans have schizophrenia. (hopeway.org)
  • Although schizophrenia can be a misunderstood and stigmatized condition, with professional support, it's possible to manage symptoms and live a fulfilling life. (psychcentral.com)
  • Schizophrenia is serious, but also misunderstood. (massgeneral.org)
  • Schizophrenia is a complicated illness that is often misunderstood. (hopeway.org)
  • Anyone who notices any symptoms of psychosis or schizophrenia should contact a doctor as soon as possible. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Know the early warning signs of schizophrenia . (webmd.com)
  • Learn more about the stigma of schizophrenia and violence here. (healthline.com)
  • Promoting empathy and understanding is crucial for reducing the stigma of schizophrenia and helping individuals with the condition lead fulfilling lives. (schizlife.com)
  • Similar to schizophrenia, but episodes are not as frequent, prolonged or intense. (hopeway.org)
  • Similar to schizophrenia, but starts later in life (elderly). (hopeway.org)
  • PRIDE was a 15-month U.S. multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded, active-controlled study of 444 adults with schizophrenia and a recent history of incarceration. (jnj.com)
  • We're pleased to present the foundational data that supported the FDA's approval of UZEDY, an important new treatment option for adults with schizophrenia," said Eric Hughes, MD, PhD, Executive Vice President of Global R&D and Chief Medical Officer at Teva. (tevausa.com)
  • DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia requires at least two of the following five symptoms to be present for a month. (medscape.com)
  • 6,7 The RISE data demonstrated that UZEDY significantly prolonged time to impending relapse by 5.0 (once-monthly dosing) and 2.7 (once-every-two-months dosing) times versus placebo in patients with schizophrenia. (tevausa.com)
  • Descriptions of schizophrenia reach back into ancient times, although the word schizophrenia has only been recently used. (citizendium.org)
  • The thought problems associated with schizophrenia are described as psychosis, in that the person's thinking is completely out of touch with reality at times. (medicinenet.com)
  • Inadequate nutrition and exposure to viruses before birth can increase a person's chance of developing schizophrenia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The use of mind-altering drugs such as cannabis during adolescence or early adulthood may increase a person's chance of developing schizophrenia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers suggest environmental factors also contribute to a person's chance of developing schizophrenia. (wellnessresourcecenter.com)
  • Schizophrenia can result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as dangerous surroundings or living in poverty, can give rise to schizophrenia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If a person has a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia, trauma may trigger it. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Schizophrenia is likely caused by an interaction of both genetic and environmental factors. (wellnessresourcecenter.com)
  • In some patients with hallucinations or delusions, for example, the researchers matched distinct genetic features to patients' symptoms, demonstrating that specific genetic variations interacted to create a 95 percent certainty of schizophrenia. (scienceblog.com)
  • In all, the researchers identified 42 clusters of genetic variations that dramatically increased the risk of schizophrenia. (scienceblog.com)
  • Researchers have identified "candidate genes" that seem to be associated with a vulnerability to meth psychosis, with evidence suggesting a potential genetic overlap between schizophrenia and meth psychosis. (adcare.com)
  • An increased occurrence of schizophrenia in family members of affected persons suggests that genetic factors play a role in its etiology, and some candidate predisposing genes have been identified. (cdc.gov)
  • Schizophrenia has a strong genetic component and may run in families, but can be effectively treated with medication and therapy. (hopeway.org)
  • While the first episode of schizophrenia tends to occur from 18-25 years of age for men, the age of onset for women peaks initially from 25-30 years of age and again at about 40 years of age. (medicinenet.com)
  • The treatment plan for disorganized schizophrenia will vary from person to person depending on your specific circumstances and needs. (psychcentral.com)
  • Overall, medication alone may not be sufficient for managing schizophrenia, and other forms of treatment, such as therapy or social skills training may also be important in achieving optimal outcomes. (healthline.com)
  • In a given year, approximately one percent of American adults are diagnosed with schizophrenia and about sixty percent of those diagnosed are receiving treatment. (wellnessresourcecenter.com)
  • We can't say often enough that early treatment of schizophrenia is essential for the best outcome. (talkspace.com)
  • Abstracts include data for UZEDY (risperidone) extended-release injectable suspension for subcutaneous use, which was recently approved by the FDA for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults. (tevausa.com)
  • Of the data being presented, Teva will share findings from two trials that supported the FDA approval of UZEDY, the RISE Study (The Risperidone Subcutaneous Extended-Release Study) and the SHINE Study (A Study to Test TV-46000 for Maintenance Treatment of Schizophrenia). (tevausa.com)
  • A review of the literature shows that phytocannabinoid consumption may be a safe and effective treatment option for schizophrenia as a primary or adjunctive therapy. (mdpi.com)
  • Treatment of schizophrenia requires an integration of medical, psychological, and psychosocial inputs. (medscape.com)