Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Schizotypal Personality Disorder
Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale
Affective Disorders, Psychotic
Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Genetic Predisposition to Disease
Analysis of Variance
National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.)
Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
Evoked Potentials, Auditory
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Receptors, Dopamine D2
Age of Onset
Personal Construct Theory
Auditory Perceptual Disorders
Statistics as Topic
Contingent Negative Variation
Event-Related Potentials, P300
Severity of Illness Index
Theory of Mind
Nerve Tissue Proteins
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Basal Ganglia Diseases
Genetic Association Studies
Improving social interaction in chronic psychotic using discriminated avoidance ("nagging"): experimental analysis and generalization. (1/7917)Three social-interaction behaviors of a withdrawn chronic schizophrenic were increased using a discriminated avoidance ("nagging") procedure. The three behaviors were: (a) voice volume loud enough so that two-thirds of his speech was intellibible at a distance of 3m; (b) duration of speech of at least 15 sec; (c) placement of hands and elbows on the armrests of the chair in which he was sitting. "Nagging" consisted of verbal prompts to improve performance when the behaviors did not meet their criteria. A combined withdrawal and multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the procedure, and the contingency was sequentially applied to each of the three behaviors in each of four different interactions to determine the degree of stimulus and response generalization. Results indicated that the contingency was the effective element in increasing the patient's appropriate performance, and that there was a high degree of stimulus generalization and a moderate degree of response generalization. After the patient's discharge from the hospital, the durability of improvement across time and setting was determined in followup sessions conducted at a day treatment center and at a residential care home. Volume and duration generalized well to the new settings, while arm placement extinguished immediately. (+info)
Effects of family history and place and season of birth on the risk of schizophrenia. (2/7917)BACKGROUND: Although a family history of schizophrenia is the best-established risk factor for schizophrenia, environmental factors such as the place and season of birth may also be important. METHODS: Using data from the Civil Registration System in Denmark, we established a population-based cohort of 1.75 million persons whose mothers were Danish women born between 1935 and 1978. We linked this cohort to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and identified 2669 cases of schizophrenia among cohort members and additional cases among their parents. RESULTS: The respective relative risks of schizophrenia for persons with a mother, father, or sibling who had schizophrenia were 9.31 (95 percent confidence interval, 7.24 to 11.96), 7.20 (95 percent confidence interval, 5.10 to 10.16), and 6.99 (95 percent confidence interval, 5.38 to 9.09), as compared with persons with no affected parents or siblings. The risk of schizophrenia was associated with the degree of urbanization of the place of birth (relative risk for the capital vs. rural areas, 2.40; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.13 to 2.70). The risk was also significantly associated with the season of birth; it was highest for births in February and March and lowest for births in August and September. The population attributable risk was 5.5 percent for a history of schizophrenia in a parent or sibling, 34.6 percent for urban place of birth, and 10.5 percent for the season of birth. CONCLUSIONS: Although a history of schizophrenia in a parent or sibling is associated with the highest relative risk of having the disease, the place and season of birth account for many more cases on a population basis. (+info)
Search for retroviral related DNA polymorphisms using RAPD PCR in schizophrenia. (3/7917)Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is widely used to detect polymorphisms in many organisms. Individual (or strain) specific amplified bands are generated with single or pairs of primers in PCR reactions and can serve as genetic markers. We have used this method to generate a large number of reproducible bands with single primers, random and retroviral related, on 92 human DNA samples. Theoretically, RAPD PCR presents a logical approach for assessing variability among individuals. We used ten retroviral related primers (12, 20 and 22 bp) and eight random primers (10 bp) to assess individual differences in the context of testing the retroviral hypothesis for schizophrenia. Three pairs of discordant monozygotic twins, four pairs of discordant full sibs and 53 schizophrenic individuals with 25 of their unrelated matched controls were analyzed. Ten of these primers resulted in a total of approx. 850 amplified bands (65-110 bands per primer). Almost all of these bands were identical among each individual analyzed. However, the results are inconclusive with respect to the retroviral hypothesis for schizophrenia. The general lack of RAPD polymorphism in this study may argue for mechanisms other than rearrangements such as inversions, associated with the evolution of the human genome. (+info)
The size and fibre composition of the corpus callosum with respect to gender and schizophrenia: a post-mortem study. (4/7917)In this study the cross-sectional area (in n = 14 female controls, 15 male controls, 11 female patients with schizophrenia, 15 male patients with schizophrenia) and fibre composition (in n = 11 female controls, 10 male controls, 10 female patients with schizophrenia, 10 male patients with schizophrenia) of the corpus callosum in post-mortem control and schizophrenic brains was examined. A gender x diagnosis interaction (P = 0.005) was seen in the density of axons in all regions of the corpus callosum except the posterior midbody and splenium. Amongst controls, females had greater density than males; in patients with schizophrenia this difference was reversed. A reduction in the total number of fibres in all regions of the corpus callosum except the rostrum was observed in female schizophrenic patients (P = 0.006; when controlling for brain weight, P = 0.053). A trend towards a reduced cross-sectional area of the corpus callosum was seen in schizophrenia (P = 0.098); however, this is likely to be no more than a reflection of an overall reduction in brain size. With age, all subregions of the corpus callosum except the rostrum showed a significant reduction in cross-sectional area (P = 0.018) and total fibre number (P = 0.002). These findings suggest that in schizophrenia there is a subtle and gender-dependent alteration in the forebrain commissures that may relate to the deviations in asymmetry seen in other studies, but the precise anatomical explanation remains obscure. (+info)
The neuropsychopharmacology of phencyclidine: from NMDA receptor hypofunction to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. (5/7917)Administration of noncompetitive NMDA/glutamate receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine, to humans induces a broad range of schizophrenic-like symptomatology, findings that have contributed to a hypoglutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. Moreover, a history of experimental investigations of the effects of these drugs in animals suggests that NMDA receptor antagonists may model some behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia in nonhuman subjects. In this review, the usefulness of PCP administration as a potential animal model of schizophrenia is considered. To support the contention that NMDA receptor antagonist administration represents a viable model of schizophrenia, the behavioral and neurobiological effects of these drugs are discussed, especially with regard to differing profiles following single-dose and long-term exposure. The neurochemical effects of NMDA receptor antagonist administration are argued to support a neurobiological hypothesis of schizophrenia, which includes pathophysiology within several neurotransmitter systems, manifested in behavioral pathology. Future directions for the application of NMDA receptor antagonist models of schizophrenia to preclinical and pathophysiological research are offered. (+info)
The use of atypical antipsychotics in the management of schizophrenia. (6/7917)Long-term drug treatment of schizophrenia with conventional antipsychotics has limitations: an estimated quarter to one third of patients are treatment-resistant; conventional antipsychotics have only a modest impact upon negative symptoms (poverty of thought, social withdrawal and loss of affect); and adverse effects, particularly extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Newer, so-called atypical, antipsychotics such as olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole and clozapine (an old drug which was re-introduced in 1990) are claimed to address these limitations. Atypical agents are, at a minimum, at least as effective as conventional drugs such as haloperidol. They also cause substantially fewer extrapyramidal symptoms. However, some other adverse effects are more common than with conventional drugs. For example, clozapine carries a significant risk of serious blood disorders, for which special monitoring is mandatory; it also causes troublesome drowsiness and increased salivation more often than conventional agents. Some atypical agents cause more weight gain or QT prolongation than older agents. The choice of therapy is, therefore, not straightforward. At present, atypical agents represent an advance for patients with severe or intolerable EPS. Most published evidence exists to support the use of clozapine, which has also been shown to be effective in schizophrenia refractory to conventional agents. However, the need for compliance with blood count monitoring and its sedative properties make careful patient selection important. The extent of any additional direct benefit offered by atypical agents on negative symptoms is not yet clear. The lack of a depot formulation for atypical drugs may pose a significant practical problem. To date, only two double-blind studies in which atypical agents were compared directly have been published. Neither provides compelling evidence for the choice of one agent over another. Atypical agents are many times more expensive than conventional drugs. Although drug treatment constitutes only a small proportion of the costs of managing schizophrenia, the additional annual cost of the use of atypical agents in, say, a quarter of the likely U.K. schizophrenic population would be about 56 M pound sterling. There is only limited evidence of cost-effectiveness. Atypical antipsychotics are not currently licensed for other conditions where conventional antipsychotics are commonly used, such as behaviour disturbance or dementia in the elderly. Their dose, and place in treatment in such cases have yet to be determined. (+info)
No correlation between A(-1438)G polymorphism in 5-HT2A receptor gene promoter and the density of frontal cortical 5-HT2A receptors in schizophrenia. (7/7917)The A(-1438)G promoter polymorphism of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2a receptor (5-HT2AR) gene and its influence on the cortical density of 5-HT2AR was studied using brain tissue donated at autopsy from 58 schizophrenic and 64 non-schizophrenic subjects. A linkage between genotypes for the A(-1438)G and a T102C polymorphic site identified in a previous study was observed. Our data suggest no association of the A(-1438)G polymorphism with schizophrenia and no effect of the promoter genotype upon 5-HT2AR densities in either the schizophrenic or non-schizophrenic groups. (+info)
Differential effects of mental stress on plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenia and normal controls. (8/7917)We previously reported that mental stress by Kraepelin's arithmetic test decreases plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels in psychiatrically normal healthy human subjects. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this pattern of changes in pHVA concentrations resulting from mental stress is altered in patients with schizophrenia. Fourteen male patients with schizophrenia including those under ongoing neuroleptic treatment and 14 normal male volunteers participated in the study. Following overnight fast and restricted physical activity, the subjects performed Kraepelin's arithmetic test for 30 minutes. Plasma samples were collected immediately before and after the test for measurement of pHVA levels. A significant diagnosis by Kraepelin's test effect was observed due to a decrease in pHVA levels by the Kraepelin test in control subjects but not in patients with schizophrenia. Changes in pHVA levels during the Kraepelin test positively correlated with pre-test pHVA levels in control subjects, while this correlation was not observed in patients with schizophrenia. These results may be further support for the presence of a dopamine-dependent restitutive system in the brain. The absence of response of pHVA levels to mental stress in patients with schizophrenia may indicate that the dopamine restitutive system in these patients is disrupted or already down-regulated, as previously predicted. (+info)
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by a range of symptoms that affect a person's thoughts, emotions, and behavior. These symptoms can include hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that are not there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based in reality), disorganized thinking and speech, and problems with emotional expression and social interaction. Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that can last for a lifetime, although the severity of symptoms can vary over time. It is not caused by a single factor, but rather by a complex interplay of genetic, environmental, and neurobiological factors. Treatment for schizophrenia typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and support from family and friends. While there is no cure for schizophrenia, with proper treatment, many people are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.
Schizophrenia, paranoid is a mental disorder characterized by a combination of symptoms, including delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, and abnormal behavior. The paranoid subtype of schizophrenia is characterized by the presence of delusions of persecution, which are fixed beliefs that one is being plotted against, followed, or threatened by others. These delusions may be accompanied by other symptoms such as suspiciousness, mistrust, and a sense of being watched or monitored. People with paranoid schizophrenia may also experience hallucinations, which are false sensory experiences that are not based in reality, and disorganized thinking, which can manifest as disordered speech, disorganized behavior, or difficulty with social interactions. Treatment for paranoid schizophrenia typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.
Antipsychotic agents, also known as neuroleptics, are a class of medications used to treat various mental health conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe depression. These medications work by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in the regulation of mood, behavior, and cognition. Antipsychotic agents are typically classified into two main categories: typical antipsychotics and atypical antipsychotics. Typical antipsychotics, such as haloperidol and chlorpromazine, were the first antipsychotic medications developed and are known for their ability to produce significant side effects, including movement disorders and cognitive impairment. Atypical antipsychotics, such as risperidone and olanzapine, were developed later and are generally considered to have fewer side effects, although they can still cause weight gain, metabolic changes, and other adverse effects. Antipsychotic agents are typically prescribed to help reduce symptoms of psychosis, such as hallucinations and delusions, and to improve overall functioning in individuals with mental health conditions. However, they can also be used to treat other conditions, such as Tourette's syndrome and restless leg syndrome. It is important to note that antipsychotic agents should only be used under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as they can have significant side effects and may interact with other medications.
Schizophrenia, disorganized is a type of schizophrenia characterized by disorganized speech, behavior, and thought processes. People with this type of schizophrenia may have difficulty organizing their thoughts and may speak in a disjointed or incoherent manner. They may also have difficulty following a conversation or expressing themselves clearly. In addition, they may exhibit disorganized behavior, such as dressing in an unusual or inappropriate manner, or engaging in repetitive or stereotyped movements. Other symptoms of schizophrenia, disorganized may include hallucinations, delusions, and social withdrawal. This type of schizophrenia is typically treated with a combination of medication and psychotherapy.
Childhood schizophrenia is a rare and severe mental disorder that typically begins in early childhood or adolescence. It is characterized by a combination of symptoms that include hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking and behavior, and social withdrawal. These symptoms can be distressing and can interfere with a child's ability to function in daily life. Childhood schizophrenia is different from adult schizophrenia in that it tends to have a later onset, a more gradual course, and a better response to treatment. It is also more likely to be associated with a family history of mental illness. Diagnosis of childhood schizophrenia can be challenging because the symptoms can be similar to those of other mental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder or bipolar disorder. A thorough evaluation by a mental health professional is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis. Treatment for childhood schizophrenia typically involves a combination of medication and therapy. Antipsychotic medications are often used to help reduce symptoms, and cognitive-behavioral therapy can help children and their families learn coping skills and improve social functioning. Early intervention and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the long-term impact of the disorder.
Psychotic disorders are a group of mental illnesses characterized by a loss of contact with reality. People with psychotic disorders may experience hallucinations (seeing or hearing things that are not there), delusions (firmly held beliefs that are not based in reality), disorganized thinking or speech, and other symptoms that significantly impair their ability to function in daily life. Psychotic disorders can be further classified into several subtypes, including schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder, and brief psychotic disorder. These disorders can affect people of all ages and genders, and their symptoms can range from mild to severe. Psychotic disorders are typically treated with a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or family therapy. Early diagnosis and treatment are important for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of relapse.
Schizophrenia, Catatonic is a subtype of schizophrenia characterized by the presence of catatonic symptoms. Catatonic symptoms refer to a range of behaviors that are often observed in individuals with schizophrenia, including: * Stupor: a state of reduced responsiveness to the environment * catalepsy: a state in which the muscles are rigid and the individual is unable to move voluntarily * echolalia: the repetition of words or phrases that have been spoken to the individual * echopraxia: the imitation of the movements of others * negativism: a refusal to engage in activities or respond to requests * mutism: a lack of speech or an inability to speak Individuals with schizophrenia, Catatonic may also experience other symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking, and abnormal motor behavior. Treatment for schizophrenia, Catatonic typically involves a combination of antipsychotic medication and psychotherapy.
Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD) is a mental health condition characterized by a cluster of traits that are similar to those seen in people with schizophrenia. People with SPD may have difficulty forming and maintaining relationships, have unusual beliefs or magical thinking, and may have a sense of being detached from reality. They may also have eccentric or odd behavior, and may have difficulty with social norms and rules. SPD is typically diagnosed in adulthood, and is considered a chronic condition that can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Treatment for SPD may include therapy, medication, and support groups.
Cognition disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to think, reason, remember, and learn. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, neurological disorders, genetic factors, and aging. Cognition disorders can manifest in different ways, depending on the specific area of the brain that is affected. For example, a person with a memory disorder may have difficulty remembering important information, while someone with a language disorder may have trouble expressing themselves or understanding what others are saying. Some common types of cognition disorders include: 1. Alzheimer's disease: A progressive neurological disorder that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. 2. Dementia: A general term used to describe a decline in cognitive function that is severe enough to interfere with daily life. 3. Delirium: A sudden onset of confusion and disorientation that can be caused by a variety of factors, including illness, medication side effects, or dehydration. 4. Aphasia: A language disorder that affects a person's ability to speak, understand, or use language. 5. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A neurodevelopmental disorder that affects a person's ability to focus, pay attention, and control impulses. 6. Learning disorders: A group of conditions that affect a person's ability to acquire and use knowledge and skills. Cognition disorders can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, and treatment options may include medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes. Early diagnosis and intervention are important for managing these conditions and improving outcomes.
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a mental health condition characterized by extreme mood swings that include episodes of mania or hypomania (abnormally elevated or irritable mood) and depression. These mood swings can be severe and can significantly impact a person's daily life, relationships, and ability to function. Bipolar disorder is typically diagnosed based on a person's symptoms, medical history, and a physical examination. There are several different types of bipolar disorder, including bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, cyclothymic disorder, and other specified bipolar and related disorders. Treatment for bipolar disorder typically involves a combination of medication and therapy. Medications used to treat bipolar disorder may include mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antidepressants. Therapy may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, and family-focused therapy. It is important to note that bipolar disorder is a serious medical condition that requires ongoing treatment and management. With proper treatment, many people with bipolar disorder are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.
Risperidone is an antipsychotic medication that is used to treat various mental health conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and irritability associated with autism spectrum disorder. It works by blocking the action of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, which can help to reduce symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and agitation. Risperidone is available in both oral and injectable forms, and it can be used alone or in combination with other medications. Common side effects of risperidone include drowsiness, weight gain, constipation, dry mouth, blurred vision, and dizziness. It is important to note that risperidone can increase the risk of developing movement disorders, such as tardive dyskinesia, especially with long-term use or high doses. Therefore, it is important to carefully monitor patients taking risperidone and adjust the dosage as needed to minimize side effects.
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to treat severe forms of schizophrenia that have not responded to other treatments. It works by blocking the action of dopamine and serotonin in the brain, which are neurotransmitters that are involved in the regulation of mood, thought, and behavior. Clozapine is typically prescribed for patients who have not responded to other antipsychotic medications, or who have experienced severe side effects from those medications. It can also be used to treat other conditions, such as Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clozapine can cause a range of side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, constipation, weight gain, and a low white blood cell count. It can also cause more serious side effects, such as a potentially life-threatening condition called agranulocytosis, which is a low white blood cell count that can lead to infections. Because of the potential for serious side effects, clozapine is typically only prescribed by psychiatrists or other mental health professionals who have experience with its use. It is also closely monitored by healthcare providers, who may adjust the dosage or switch to a different medication if side effects become severe or if the patient does not respond to treatment.
The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is a widely used tool in the medical field to assess the severity of symptoms of various psychiatric disorders. It is a 18-item scale that assesses symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, excitement, anxiety, depression, motor retardation, agitation, and disorientation. Each item is rated on a scale from 1 to 7, with higher scores indicating more severe symptoms. The BPRS is often used in clinical trials to measure the effectiveness of treatments for psychiatric disorders, and it is also used in routine clinical practice to monitor the progress of patients with these conditions.
In the medical field, delusions are defined as fixed, false beliefs that are not based on reality and are not influenced by external evidence or reasoning. Delusions are typically associated with mental disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe depression. They can also occur as a symptom of other medical conditions, such as brain injury or infection. Delusions can be persecutory, where the person believes that they are being harmed, threatened, or plotted against by others; grandiose, where the person believes that they have special powers or abilities; or referential, where the person believes that objects or events in the environment have special meaning or significance. Delusions are often accompanied by other symptoms of mental illness, such as hallucinations, disorganized thinking, and changes in behavior or mood. Treatment for delusions typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, and may also include hospitalization in severe cases.
In the medical field, hallucinations refer to the experience of seeing, hearing, feeling, tasting, or smelling something that is not actually present in the environment. Hallucinations can occur in various forms, including visual hallucinations (seeing things that are not there), auditory hallucinations (hearing voices that are not coming from a real source), olfactory hallucinations (smelling things that are not present), gustatory hallucinations (tasting things that are not there), and tactile hallucinations (feeling things that are not physically touching the skin). Hallucinations can be a symptom of various medical conditions, including mental health disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression, as well as substance abuse disorders, brain injuries, and certain medications. In some cases, hallucinations may also be a side effect of certain medications or a symptom of a physical illness, such as a brain tumor or a vitamin deficiency. It is important to note that hallucinations can be distressing and may require medical attention. If you or someone you know is experiencing hallucinations, it is important to seek help from a qualified healthcare professional.
In the medical field, the brain is the most complex and vital organ in the human body. It is responsible for controlling and coordinating all bodily functions, including movement, sensation, thought, emotion, and memory. The brain is located in the skull and is protected by the skull bones and cerebrospinal fluid. The brain is composed of billions of nerve cells, or neurons, which communicate with each other through electrical and chemical signals. These neurons are organized into different regions of the brain, each with its own specific functions. The brain is also divided into two hemispheres, the left and right, which are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Damage to the brain can result in a wide range of neurological disorders, including stroke, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. Treatment for brain disorders often involves medications, surgery, and rehabilitation therapies to help restore function and improve quality of life.
Affective disorders, also known as mood disorders, are a group of mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in a person's mood, emotions, and behavior. Psychotic disorders, on the other hand, are a group of mental health conditions characterized by a loss of contact with reality, including delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking. Affective disorders that are also psychotic are a subset of mood disorders that are characterized by the presence of psychotic symptoms, such as delusions or hallucinations, in addition to the mood symptoms. Examples of affective disorders that can be psychotic include bipolar disorder with psychotic features, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, and schizoaffective disorder. It is important to note that not all individuals with affective disorders will experience psychotic symptoms, and not all individuals with psychotic symptoms will have an affective disorder. Additionally, the presence of psychotic symptoms can complicate the diagnosis and treatment of affective disorders, as well as increase the risk of suicide and other negative outcomes.
Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders (DDA) is a group of conditions that affect cognitive function, including memory, attention, and language. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including aging, brain injury, stroke, infections, and certain medications. Delirium is a sudden onset of confusion and disorientation that can occur in people of any age, but is most common in older adults. It is often caused by an underlying medical condition, such as an infection or medication side effect. Dementia is a chronic condition that affects memory, thinking, and behavior. It is often associated with aging and is characterized by a gradual decline in cognitive function over time. There are many different types of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia. Amnestic disorders are a type of dementia that specifically affects memory. People with amnestic disorders may have difficulty remembering recent events or may have trouble forming new memories. Cognitive disorders are a broad category of conditions that affect cognitive function, including memory, attention, language, and problem-solving skills. They can be caused by a variety of factors, including aging, brain injury, stroke, infections, and certain medications.
Haloperidol is a medication that is used to treat various mental health conditions, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and severe anxiety. It is a type of antipsychotic medication that works by blocking the action of dopamine in the brain, which can help to reduce symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking. Haloperidol is typically administered orally, although it can also be given intramuscularly or intravenously in certain situations. It is available in both immediate-release and extended-release formulations, and the dosage and frequency of administration will depend on the specific condition being treated and the individual patient's response to the medication. While haloperidol can be effective in managing symptoms of mental illness, it can also have side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, constipation, dry mouth, and tremors. In some cases, haloperidol can also cause more serious side effects, such as tardive dyskinesia, a movement disorder that can cause involuntary movements of the face, tongue, and limbs. As with any medication, it is important to carefully weigh the potential benefits and risks of haloperidol before starting treatment.
Case-control studies are a type of observational study used in the medical field to investigate the relationship between an exposure and an outcome. In a case-control study, researchers identify individuals who have experienced a particular outcome (cases) and compare their exposure history to a group of individuals who have not experienced the outcome (controls). The main goal of a case-control study is to determine whether the exposure was a risk factor for the outcome. To do this, researchers collect information about the exposure history of both the cases and the controls and compare the two groups to see if there is a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the exposure between the two groups. Case-control studies are often used when the outcome of interest is rare, and it is difficult or unethical to conduct a prospective cohort study. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to recall bias, where participants may not accurately remember their exposure history. Additionally, because case-control studies only provide information about the association between an exposure and an outcome, they cannot establish causality.
Genetic predisposition to disease refers to the tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to their genetic makeup. It means that certain genes or combinations of genes increase the risk of developing a particular disease or condition. Genetic predisposition to disease is not the same as having the disease itself. It simply means that an individual has a higher likelihood of developing the disease compared to someone without the same genetic predisposition. Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited from parents or can occur due to spontaneous mutations in genes. Some examples of genetic predisposition to disease include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, Huntington's disease, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell anemia. Understanding genetic predisposition to disease is important in medical practice because it can help identify individuals who are at high risk of developing a particular disease and allow for early intervention and prevention strategies to be implemented.
Brain mapping is a technique used in the medical field to create detailed images of the structure and function of the brain. It involves the use of various imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to create three-dimensional maps of the brain's anatomy and activity. The goal of brain mapping is to identify the specific areas of the brain that are responsible for different functions, such as movement, sensation, language, and emotion. By understanding how different parts of the brain work together, researchers and clinicians can better diagnose and treat a wide range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including stroke, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, and depression. Brain mapping can also be used to study the effects of drugs, surgery, and other interventions on brain function, and to develop new treatments for neurological and psychiatric conditions. Overall, brain mapping is an important tool in the field of neuroscience, helping researchers and clinicians to better understand the complex workings of the human brain.
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical method used to compare the means of three or more groups. In the medical field, ANOVA can be used to compare the effectiveness of different treatments, interventions, or medications on a particular outcome or variable of interest. For example, a researcher may want to compare the effectiveness of three different medications for treating a particular disease. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean response (e.g., improvement in symptoms) between the three groups of patients who received each medication. If the results show a significant difference between the groups, it would suggest that one medication is more effective than the others. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different groups of patients based on a categorical variable, such as age, gender, or race. For example, a researcher may want to compare the mean blood pressure of patients in different age groups. They could use ANOVA to compare the mean blood pressure between the different age groups and determine if there are significant differences. Overall, ANOVA is a powerful statistical tool that can be used to compare the means of different groups in the medical field, helping researchers to identify which treatments or interventions are most effective and to better understand the factors that influence health outcomes.
Benzodiazepines are a class of psychoactive drugs that are commonly used as sedatives, hypnotics, and anxiolytics in the medical field. They work by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps to calm the brain and reduce anxiety, fear, and tension. Benzodiazepines are often prescribed to treat a variety of conditions, including anxiety disorders, insomnia, muscle spasms, seizures, and alcohol withdrawal. They are generally considered safe and effective when used as directed, but they can also be habit-forming and may cause side effects such as drowsiness, dizziness, confusion, memory problems, and impaired coordination. Long-term use of benzodiazepines can also lead to physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms when the medication is stopped abruptly. Therefore, it is important to use these drugs only as directed by a healthcare professional and to follow a gradual tapering schedule when discontinuing their use.
In the medical field, "attention" generally refers to the ability to focus on and process information from the environment. It is a cognitive function that involves selectively attending to certain stimuli while ignoring others, and it plays a critical role in many aspects of daily life, including learning, memory, and decision-making. Attention can be divided into two main types: selective attention and sustained attention. Selective attention refers to the ability to focus on a specific task or object while ignoring distractions, while sustained attention refers to the ability to maintain focus on a task over an extended period of time. Attention can also be affected by a variety of medical conditions, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), traumatic brain injury, stroke, and certain neurological disorders. In these cases, attention deficits can lead to difficulties with concentration, memory, and other cognitive functions.
Dibenzothiazepines are a class of organic compounds that contain two benzene rings and one thiazepine ring. They are a subclass of the larger class of benzothiazines, which also includes benzothiazoles and benzoxazoles. In the medical field, dibenzothiazepines have been studied for their potential therapeutic effects in a variety of conditions. For example, some dibenzothiazepines have been found to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, making them potential candidates for the treatment of pain and inflammation. Other dibenzothiazepines have been studied for their potential antipsychotic and antidepressant effects, and some have been found to have activity against certain types of cancer cells. One specific dibenzothiazepine that has received significant attention in the medical field is methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), also known as ecstasy. MDA is a synthetic drug that is commonly used as a recreational drug, but it has also been studied for its potential therapeutic effects in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the use of MDA as a therapeutic agent is controversial, and its use as a recreational drug is illegal in many countries.
Psychoses, Substance-Induced are a group of mental disorders that are caused by the use of certain substances, such as drugs or alcohol. These disorders can include hallucinations, delusions, and other symptoms that are similar to those seen in schizophrenia. They are often reversible when the substance use is stopped, but can also be long-lasting or even permanent if the substance use continues.
The cerebral cortex is the outermost layer of the brain, responsible for many of the higher functions of the nervous system, including perception, thought, memory, and consciousness. It is composed of two hemispheres, each of which is divided into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. The cerebral cortex is responsible for processing sensory information from the body and the environment, as well as generating motor commands to control movement. It is also involved in complex cognitive processes such as language, decision-making, and problem-solving. Damage to the cerebral cortex can result in a range of neurological and cognitive disorders, including dementia, aphasia, and apraxia.
Perceptual disorders refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to perceive and interpret sensory information from the environment. These disorders can affect any of the five senses: sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch. Perceptual disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including brain injury, neurological disorders, genetic factors, and exposure to toxins or drugs. They can also be caused by psychological factors, such as anxiety or depression. Symptoms of perceptual disorders can vary depending on the type of disorder and the sense that is affected. For example, individuals with visual perceptual disorders may experience difficulty distinguishing colors, shapes, or movement, while those with auditory perceptual disorders may have trouble distinguishing speech sounds or understanding conversations in noisy environments. Treatment for perceptual disorders depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medications or other medical interventions may be used to address the underlying condition. In other cases, therapy or counseling may be recommended to help individuals learn coping strategies or adapt to their perceptual limitations.
Catechol O-Methyltransferase (COMT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of catecholamines, which are a group of neurotransmitters that include dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine. COMT is primarily found in the liver, kidneys, and brain, where it converts catecholamines into their inactive metabolites. In the brain, COMT is involved in regulating the levels of dopamine, which is a neurotransmitter that plays a critical role in the reward and motivation systems of the brain. COMT helps to break down dopamine, which can help to prevent excessive dopamine activity and reduce the risk of conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. COMT is also involved in the metabolism of other neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and histamine, and has been implicated in the development of a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and Parkinson's disease.
Memory disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect an individual's ability to remember, learn, and recall information. These disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain injury, brain disease, or aging. Some common types of memory disorders include: 1. Amnesia: A condition characterized by the loss of memory, either temporary or permanent. 2. Dementia: A group of symptoms that include memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with daily activities, caused by a variety of factors such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and Lewy body dementia. 3. Anterograde amnesia: A type of amnesia that affects the ability to form new memories after the onset of the condition. 4. Retrograde amnesia: A type of amnesia that affects the ability to recall memories from before the onset of the condition. 5. Semantic dementia: A type of dementia that affects an individual's ability to understand and use language. 6. Temporal lobe epilepsy: A type of epilepsy that can cause memory loss and other cognitive problems. 7. Mild cognitive impairment: A condition characterized by mild memory loss and other cognitive problems that may progress to dementia. Memory disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and treatment options may include medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes.
In the medical field, cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and using information. It encompasses a wide range of mental functions, including perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive abilities are essential for daily functioning and can be affected by various medical conditions, such as brain injuries, neurological disorders, and mental illnesses. In medical settings, cognitive assessments are often used to evaluate a patient's cognitive abilities and diagnose any underlying conditions that may be affecting them. Cognitive therapy is also a type of psychotherapy that focuses on improving cognitive processes to alleviate symptoms of mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
In the medical field, "Control Groups" refer to a group of individuals who are used as a baseline for comparison in a clinical trial or study. The control group typically receives a placebo or standard treatment, while the experimental group receives the new treatment being tested. The control group allows researchers to determine whether the new treatment is effective by comparing the outcomes of the experimental group to those of the control group. The control group is essential in determining the efficacy and safety of a new treatment, and it helps to ensure that any observed differences between the experimental and control groups are due to the new treatment and not to other factors.
Phencyclidine (PCP) is a synthetic drug that was originally developed as an anesthetic in the 1950s. However, it was later found to have potent hallucinogenic and dissociative effects, leading to its use as a recreational drug. In the medical field, PCP is not currently used as an anesthetic or for any other medical purpose. Instead, it is primarily used in research settings to study the effects of hallucinogens on the brain and behavior. It is also sometimes used in veterinary medicine to anesthetize animals. However, due to its potential for abuse and serious side effects, PCP is a controlled substance and its use is tightly regulated by law.
Fluphenazine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called antipsychotics. It is primarily used to treat schizophrenia, a mental disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking. Fluphenazine can also be used to treat other conditions such as bipolar disorder, Tourette's syndrome, and chronic pain. Fluphenazine works by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in the brain's reward and pleasure centers. By blocking dopamine, fluphenazine can help reduce the symptoms of psychosis and other conditions associated with an overactive dopamine system. Fluphenazine is available in both oral and injectable forms, and it can be taken as a long-acting injection to provide continuous treatment over several weeks. Common side effects of fluphenazine include drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and constipation. In rare cases, fluphenazine can cause more serious side effects such as tardive dyskinesia, a movement disorder that causes involuntary muscle movements, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition that can cause fever, muscle rigidity, and changes in blood pressure and heart rate.
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 refers to the 22nd pair of chromosomes in the human genome. Each chromosome is a long, coiled-up strand of DNA that contains genetic information. Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, with one pair being sex chromosomes (XX for females and XY for males). The remaining 22 pairs are autosomes, and each pair contains 2 copies of the same chromosome. Chromosome 22 is one of the largest human chromosomes, containing over 50 million base pairs of DNA. It is also one of the most studied chromosomes due to its association with several genetic disorders and diseases, including Down syndrome, cri du chat syndrome, and Prader-Willi syndrome. The genes located on chromosome 22 are involved in a wide range of biological processes, including development, metabolism, and immune function. Some of the genes on this chromosome have been linked to diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders.
Methylazoxymethanol Acetate (MAM) is a chemical compound that has been used as a rodenticide and in research studies. It is a toxic substance that can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and nervous system. In the medical field, MAM is not used as a treatment for any condition and exposure to it can be dangerous. It is important to handle MAM with caution and follow proper safety protocols to prevent accidental exposure.
Receptors, Dopamine D2 are a type of protein found on the surface of cells in the brain and other parts of the body. These receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter dopamine, which is a chemical that helps to regulate a variety of functions in the brain, including movement, motivation, and reward. When dopamine binds to D2 receptors, it can cause a variety of effects, including reducing the activity of certain neurons and increasing the activity of others. This can lead to changes in behavior, mood, and other physiological processes. D2 receptors are also involved in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia, and are the target of many medications used to treat these conditions.
In the medical field, the term "age of onset" refers to the age at which a particular disease or condition first appears or manifests in an individual. It is a useful concept in the study of various medical conditions, as it can provide important information about the underlying causes of the disease, as well as its progression and potential treatment options. For example, the age of onset of Alzheimer's disease is typically in the late 60s or early 70s, although it can occur earlier in some cases. Similarly, the age of onset of type 1 diabetes is typically in childhood or adolescence, while the age of onset of type 2 diabetes is typically in adulthood. Understanding the age of onset of a particular disease can also be important in terms of genetic counseling and family planning. For example, if a family has a history of early-onset Alzheimer's disease, individuals in the family may want to consider genetic testing and counseling to understand their risk of developing the disease at an early age.
Postmortem changes refer to the physical and chemical changes that occur in the body after death. These changes can be observed during a postmortem examination, also known as an autopsy, and can provide important clues about the cause and time of death. Some common postmortem changes include: 1. Rigor mortis: This is the stiffening of the muscles that occurs after death due to the buildup of lactic acid. 2. Algor mortis: This is the cooling of the body after death due to the lack of blood flow and metabolic activity. 3. Livor mortis: This is the discoloration of the skin and tissues due to pooling of blood in the lowest parts of the body. 4. Decomposition: This is the breakdown of the body's tissues and organs due to the action of bacteria and other microorganisms. 5. Autolysis: This is the breakdown of the body's tissues by the body's own enzymes. 6. Putrefaction: This is the advanced stage of decomposition, characterized by the production of gases and the release of foul-smelling fluids. Understanding postmortem changes is important for forensic pathologists and other medical professionals who are investigating deaths and determining the cause and manner of death.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays a crucial role in the brain's reward and pleasure centers. It is also involved in regulating movement, motivation, and emotional responses. In the medical field, dopamine is often used to treat conditions such as Parkinson's disease, which is characterized by a lack of dopamine in the brain. It can also be used to treat high blood pressure, as well as to manage symptoms of depression and schizophrenia. Dopamine is typically administered through injections or intravenous infusions, although it can also be taken orally in some cases.
Mood disorders are a group of mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in mood, emotions, and behavior. These disorders are typically classified into two main categories: depressive disorders and bipolar disorders. Depressive disorders include major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and dysthymia. These disorders are characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities that were once enjoyable. Symptoms may also include changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, and difficulty concentrating. Bipolar disorders, on the other hand, are characterized by extreme mood swings that alternate between periods of mania or hypomania (elevated or irritable mood, increased energy, and decreased need for sleep) and periods of depression. The most common bipolar disorder is bipolar I disorder, which is characterized by at least one manic episode, while bipolar II disorder is characterized by at least one hypomanic episode and one major depressive episode. Other mood disorders include seasonal affective disorder (SAD), which is a type of depression that occurs during the winter months, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), which is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) that affects mood and behavior. Mood disorders can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, relationships, and ability to function in daily activities. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes.
Auditory perceptual disorders refer to a range of conditions that affect an individual's ability to perceive and interpret sounds. These disorders can result from damage to the auditory system, such as hearing loss or damage to the brain, or from other medical conditions that affect the nervous system. Some common examples of auditory perceptual disorders include: 1. Central auditory processing disorder (CAPD): This is a condition in which the brain has difficulty processing and interpreting auditory information, even when an individual's hearing is normal. 2. Auditory agnosia: This is a condition in which an individual has difficulty recognizing and identifying sounds, even when their hearing is normal. 3. Synesthesia: This is a condition in which an individual experiences a cross-modal perception, such as seeing colors when they hear certain sounds. 4. Hyperacusis: This is a condition in which an individual has an increased sensitivity to sounds, which can result in discomfort or pain. 5. Tinnitus: This is a condition in which an individual experiences a ringing, buzzing, or other type of noise in their ears, even when there is no external sound source. Auditory perceptual disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's ability to communicate and interact with others, and may require treatment or therapy to manage.
Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) is a brain response that occurs when a person is preparing to respond to a stimulus, but the response is not required or executed. CNV is an event-related potential (ERP) that is measured using electroencephalography (EEG) and is typically seen as a negative deflection in the voltage recorded from the scalp. CNV is thought to reflect the process of inhibition, which is the ability to suppress or a response when it is not appropriate or necessary. CNV is often studied in the context of attention and cognitive control, as it is thought to play a role in the ability to filter out irrelevant information and focus on relevant stimuli. CNV is also studied in the context of motor preparation and response, as it is thought to reflect the buildup of neural activity in the motor cortex as a person prepares to make a movement. CNV is typically measured in response to a go/no-go task, in which participants are instructed to respond to a certain type of stimulus (the "go" stimulus) and to withhold their response to a different type of stimulus (the "no-go" stimulus). CNV is a complex and multifaceted phenomenon that is still not fully understood. Further research is needed to clarify the specific neural mechanisms underlying CNV and to better understand its role in cognitive function and behavior.
Acoustic Stimulation refers to the use of sound waves to stimulate or activate certain areas of the brain or body. This technique is commonly used in the medical field for various purposes, including: 1. Treating hearing loss: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to stimulate the auditory nerve and improve hearing in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. 2. Treating tinnitus: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to reduce the perception of ringing or buzzing in the ears, which is commonly known as tinnitus. 3. Treating sleep disorders: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to promote relaxation and improve sleep in individuals with insomnia or other sleep disorders. 4. Treating neurological disorders: Acoustic Stimulation can be used to stimulate specific areas of the brain to improve symptoms of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Acoustic Stimulation is typically delivered through a device that emits low-level sound waves, which are then directed to the targeted area of the body or brain. The frequency and intensity of the sound waves can be adjusted to optimize the therapeutic effect.
Paranoid disorders are a group of mental illnesses characterized by a persistent and irrational belief that others are out to harm or deceive the individual. These beliefs are often accompanied by a sense of persecution, and the individual may become suspicious of their friends, family, or even strangers. Paranoid disorders can include paranoid schizophrenia, paranoid personality disorder, and delusional disorder with a paranoid theme. These disorders can cause significant distress and impairment in an individual's daily functioning, relationships, and overall quality of life. Treatment for paranoid disorders typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, to help the individual manage their symptoms and improve their ability to function in their daily life.
Dyskinesia, drug-induced is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary, repetitive, and often awkward movements of the muscles. It is typically caused by long-term use of certain medications, such as antipsychotics, dopamine agonists, and some medications used to treat Parkinson's disease. The movements can range from subtle tremors to more severe, jerky movements of the face, tongue, and limbs. Dyskinesia can be a serious side effect of these medications and can significantly impact a person's quality of life. Treatment options may include reducing the dose of the medication, switching to a different medication, or using medications to manage the symptoms of dyskinesia.
Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the development and function of the nervous system. It is a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of growth factors and is primarily expressed in the brain and peripheral nervous system. NRG1 has been implicated in a variety of neurological disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. It is thought to play a role in the formation and maintenance of synapses, the connections between neurons that allow them to communicate with each other. NRG1 is also involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation, and has been shown to play a role in the development of certain types of cancer, including breast and prostate cancer. In the medical field, NRG1 is being studied as a potential target for the development of new treatments for neurological and cancer-related disorders.
In the medical field, mental disorders are conditions that affect a person's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, causing significant distress or impairment in daily functioning. Mental disorders are diagnosed based on a set of criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is published by the American Psychiatric Association. The DSM-5 categorizes mental disorders into several broad categories, including: 1. Anxiety disorders: conditions characterized by excessive fear or worry, such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder. 2. Mood disorders: conditions characterized by significant changes in mood, such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and dysthymia. 3. Schizophrenia spectrum and other psychotic disorders: conditions characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking, and abnormal behavior, such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and delusional disorder. 4. Neurodevelopmental disorders: conditions that begin in childhood and affect cognitive and social development, such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 5. Personality disorders: conditions characterized by enduring patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that deviate from societal norms and cause significant distress or impairment, such as borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder. 6. Substance-related and addictive disorders: conditions characterized by the use of substances or behaviors that cause significant impairment in daily functioning, such as alcohol use disorder, opioid use disorder, and gambling disorder. 7. Eating disorders: conditions characterized by abnormal eating behaviors that cause significant distress or impairment, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Mental disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Treatment for mental disorders typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes.
Anhedonia is a symptom of several mental health conditions, including depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. It refers to the inability to experience pleasure or enjoyment from activities that are typically pleasurable, such as eating, socializing, or engaging in hobbies. People with anhedonia may also have difficulty feeling emotions or expressing themselves. It is a key symptom of depression and is often accompanied by feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness. Treatment for anhedonia typically involves addressing the underlying mental health condition and may include medication, therapy, or a combination of both.
Affective symptoms refer to a group of emotional and mood-related symptoms that are commonly associated with mental health disorders. These symptoms can include changes in mood, such as feelings of sadness, anxiety, irritability, or anger, as well as changes in energy levels, appetite, and sleep patterns. In the medical field, affective symptoms are often used to diagnose and treat mental health conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder, and anxiety disorders. These symptoms can also be associated with other medical conditions, such as chronic pain, hormonal imbalances, and neurological disorders. Affective symptoms can be severe and can significantly impact a person's daily functioning and quality of life. Treatment for affective symptoms typically involves a combination of medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the symptoms.
Nerve tissue proteins are proteins that are found in nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins play important roles in the structure and function of neurons, including the transmission of electrical signals along the length of the neuron and the communication between neurons. There are many different types of nerve tissue proteins, each with its own specific function. Some examples of nerve tissue proteins include neurofilaments, which provide structural support for the neuron; microtubules, which help to maintain the shape of the neuron and transport materials within the neuron; and neurofilament light chain, which is involved in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, which are a hallmark of certain neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Nerve tissue proteins are important for the proper functioning of the nervous system and any disruption in their production or function can lead to neurological disorders.
In the medical field, "Diseases in Twins" refers to the occurrence of health conditions or illnesses in individuals who are identical or fraternal twins. Twins have a higher risk of developing certain diseases or health conditions compared to individuals who are not twins. This increased risk can be due to genetic factors, shared environmental factors, or a combination of both. For example, identical twins have a higher risk of developing certain genetic disorders, such as cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia, compared to non-twins. Fraternal twins, who are not genetically identical, also have a higher risk of developing certain health conditions, such as type 1 diabetes or schizophrenia, compared to non-twins. The study of diseases in twins is an important area of research in the medical field, as it can help identify genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development of certain diseases. This information can then be used to develop more effective prevention and treatment strategies for these diseases.
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects (PEDs) refer to the long-term health effects that can occur in an individual as a result of exposure to environmental or genetic factors during pregnancy. PEDs can manifest in a variety of ways, including physical, behavioral, and cognitive impairments, and can occur even if the exposure occurred many years before the individual's birth. PEDs can result from exposure to a wide range of substances, including drugs, alcohol, tobacco, pollutants, and infections. These exposures can affect the developing fetus in various ways, including disrupting normal growth and development, altering gene expression, and causing damage to organs and systems. PEDs can also result from genetic factors, such as inherited disorders or mutations. These genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain health conditions, such as autism, ADHD, and learning disabilities, even if the individual was not exposed to any environmental factors during pregnancy. Overall, PEDs highlight the importance of taking steps to protect pregnant women and their developing fetuses from exposure to harmful substances and environmental factors, as well as the need for ongoing monitoring and support for individuals who may be at risk for PEDs.
Receptors, Dopamine are proteins found on the surface of cells in the brain and other parts of the body that bind to the neurotransmitter dopamine. These receptors play a crucial role in regulating a wide range of physiological processes, including movement, motivation, reward, and emotion. There are several different types of dopamine receptors, each with its own specific functions and characteristics. Dysregulation of dopamine receptors has been implicated in a number of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and addiction.
Cognitive therapy is a type of psychotherapy that focuses on the relationship between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. It is based on the idea that negative or distorted thinking patterns can contribute to emotional distress and mental health problems. The goal of cognitive therapy is to help individuals identify and change these negative thought patterns, in order to improve their mood and overall well-being. In cognitive therapy, the therapist works with the individual to identify and challenge their negative thoughts and beliefs, and to develop more balanced and realistic ways of thinking. This can involve a variety of techniques, such as cognitive restructuring, behavioral experiments, and mindfulness exercises. The therapist may also teach the individual skills for managing stress and anxiety, and for improving their relationships with others. Cognitive therapy is often used to treat a variety of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It can be used on its own, or in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication or other forms of psychotherapy.
In the medical field, a chronic disease is a long-term health condition that persists for an extended period, typically for more than three months. Chronic diseases are often progressive, meaning that they tend to worsen over time, and they can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life. Chronic diseases can affect any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Some examples of chronic diseases include heart disease, diabetes, cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and arthritis. Chronic diseases often require ongoing medical management, including medication, lifestyle changes, and regular monitoring to prevent complications and manage symptoms. Treatment for chronic diseases may also involve rehabilitation, physical therapy, and other supportive care.
Basal Ganglia Diseases refer to a group of neurological disorders that affect the basal ganglia, a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain that play a crucial role in motor control, learning, and behavior. These diseases are characterized by a range of symptoms, including movement disorders, cognitive impairment, and emotional disturbances. Some of the most common basal ganglia diseases include: 1. Huntington's disease: A genetic disorder that causes the progressive breakdown of nerve cells in the basal ganglia, leading to movement disorders, cognitive decline, and emotional disturbances. 2. Parkinson's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder that affects the dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra, a region of the basal ganglia. Symptoms include tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement. 3. Multiple system atrophy: A rare neurodegenerative disorder that affects the dopamine-producing neurons in the substantia nigra and other regions of the brain. Symptoms include tremors, stiffness, and difficulty with movement. 4. Wilson's disease: A genetic disorder that causes the accumulation of copper in the brain and liver, leading to damage to the basal ganglia and other organs. 5. Progressive supranuclear palsy: A neurodegenerative disorder that affects the neurons in the basal ganglia and other regions of the brain, leading to symptoms such as difficulty with movement, speech, and swallowing. Treatment for basal ganglia diseases typically involves medications to manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat specific symptoms or complications.
Amphetamine is a central nervous system stimulant that is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. It is also sometimes used to treat obesity and to treat or prevent depression. Amphetamine works by increasing the levels of certain neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine and norepinephrine, which can help to improve focus, attention, and energy levels. It is available in both prescription and over-the-counter forms, and it is usually taken orally. Side effects of amphetamine can include increased heart rate, difficulty sleeping, and nervousness or agitation. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking amphetamine and to avoid using it in excess or for longer than recommended.
Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) are a type of ionotropic glutamate receptor found in the central nervous system. They are named after the agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), which binds to and activates these receptors. NMDA receptors are important for a variety of physiological processes, including learning and memory, synaptic plasticity, and neuroprotection. They are also involved in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, and addiction. NMDA receptors are heteromeric complexes composed of two subunits, NR1 and NR2, which can be differentially expressed in various brain regions and cell types. The NR2 subunit determines the pharmacological properties and functional profile of the receptor, while the NR1 subunit is essential for receptor function. Activation of NMDA receptors requires the binding of both glutamate and a co-agonist, such as glycine or d-serine, as well as the depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane. This leads to the opening of a cation-permeable channel that allows the influx of calcium ions, which can trigger various intracellular signaling pathways and modulate gene expression. In summary, NMDA receptors are a type of glutamate receptor that play a crucial role in various physiological and pathological processes in the central nervous system.
Interpretation of Schizophrenia
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APA - Schizophrenia Into Later Life
- Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by continuous or relapsing episodes of psychosis. (wikipedia.org)
- The positive symptoms of schizophrenia are the same for any psychosis and are sometimes referred to as psychotic symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
- Psychosis noted for the first time in a person who is later diagnosed with schizophrenia is referred to as a first-episode psychosis (FEP). (wikipedia.org)
- I don't have schizophrenia/psychosis but I have overstimulation so bad that even going to the store for 10mins I have to come home and lay in a dark quiet room for several mins to hours. (healthyplace.com)
- According to one model, schizophrenia would occur due to an abnormally aggressive synaptic pruning process, leading to a reduction in synaptic connectivity beyond a psychosis threshold, resulting in a fragmented or disconnected brain. (health.am)
- Hydrocephalus ( 7 ), increased ventricular size ( 8 ), and cognitive impairment ( 9 ) have also been noted in some persons with schizophrenia and other forms of psychosis. (cdc.gov)
- Khat contains the amphetamine-like cathinone, and can trigger onset of schizophrenia and exacerbate pre-existing psychosis. (who.int)
- Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness in which a person loses contact with reality (psychosis). (msdmanuals.com)
Causes of schizophre1
- The causes of schizophrenia may include genetic and environmental factors. (wikipedia.org)
- Hallucinations occur at some point in the lifetimes of 80% of those with schizophrenia and most commonly involve the sense of hearing (most often hearing voices), but can sometimes involve any of the other senses of taste, sight, smell and touch. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the most disturbing symptoms for people with schizophrenia and those around them are hallucinations. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The voices, or auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), heard by people with schizophrenia vary substantially. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- She said, "[F]irstly, it seems that we now can say with some certainty that we have found a specific anatomical area of the brain associated with auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions , disorganized thinking, and abnormal behaviors. (healthline.com)
- Schizophrenia is a chronic condition that can cause a wide range of distressing symptoms, including hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thinking and speech, and impaired social functioning. (healthline.com)
- In patients with a history of autism spectrum disorder or a communication disorder of childhood onset, the additional diagnosis of schizophrenia is made only if prominent delusions or hallucinations, in addition to the other required symptoms or schizophrenia are also present for at least 1 month (or less if successfully treated). (medscape.com)
- The validity of a diagnosis of childhood-onset schizophrenia has been a point of concern for some, due to difficulty in differentiating pediatric patients' reports of visual hallucinations from imaginary figures (which may be developmentally normal). (medscape.com)
- Both visual and aural hallucinations are common symptoms of schizophrenia, as is delusional thinking. (newsweek.com)
- A person with schizophrenia may have hallucinations (see or hear things that aren't real) or believe unusual things that aren't true. (msdmanuals.com)
Toxoplasma gondii and Schizophrenia1
- Title : Toxoplasma gondii and Schizophrenia Personal Author(s) : Torrey, E. Fuller;Yolken, Robert H. (cdc.gov)
- Schizophrenia is a highly disruptive psychiatric condition affecting an estimated 1.1 percent of adults in the United States each year. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In fact, people with schizophrenia who are living in the community (not in a psychiatric institution) are about 14 times more likely to be the victim of a violent crime than the perpetrator. (healthline.com)
- The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) cautions that although the essential features of schizophrenia are the same in childhood, it is harder to diagnose. (medscape.com)
- The American Psychiatric Association removed schizophrenia subtypes from the DSM-5 because they didn't appear to help with providing better targeted treatment, or predicting treatment response. (medscape.com)
- Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disease with strong evidence of genetic risk factors. (nih.gov)
- After centuries of horrendous treatment, including even the jailing of patients, and after it has been characterized as everything from a disease of the spirit or moral values, or caused by bad parental influence (a concept that appeared in psychiatric textbooks as recently as 1975), we finally now have evidence that schizophrenia is a disorder that results from a fundamental alteration in the formation and structure of the brain," Stachowiak says. (scienceblog.com)
- Schizophrenia is a disabling psychiatric disorder related with an aberrant functional coupling between hippocampus and prefrontal cortex that might be crucial for cognitive dysfunction . (bvsalud.org)
- In addition to the five symptom domain areas identified in the diagnostic criteria, the assessment of cognition, depression, and mania symptom domains is vital for making critically important distinctions between schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. (medscape.com)
- Research shows that people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder have a better quality of life when their family members tend to be more supportive and less critical of them. (medicinenet.com)
- With schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder , feeling overstimulated strikes often-- in large crowds or even small family dinner parties. (healthyplace.com)
- Like many people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, I've worn ear plugs to art gallery openings. (healthyplace.com)
- All relevant randomised studies that compared brief family-oriented psychosocial interventions with standard care, focusing on families of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were selected. (cochrane.org)
- In clinical trials involving patients with acute relapse of chronic schizophrenia, significant reductions from baseline in the mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score, which were comparable to those seen with haloperidol or risperidone, were observed with aripiprazole, [ 29 , 30 ] and efficacy was maintained long term. (medscape.com)
- Results were limited, so it is not clear if brief family intervention reduces admission to hospital, decreases people using health services and reduces relapse for people with schizophrenia. (cochrane.org)
- Patients with early-stage schizophrenia who receive a combination of medication and a psychosocial intervention appear less likely to discontinue treatment or relapse -- and may have improved insight, quality of life and social functioning -- than those taking medication alone, according to a new article. (sciencedaily.com)
- Patients with early-stage schizophrenia who receive a combination of medication and a psychosocial intervention appear less likely to discontinue treatment or relapse -- and may have improved insight, quality of life and social functioning -- than those taking medication alone, according to a report in the September issue of Archives of General Psychiatry , one of the JAMA/Archives journals. (sciencedaily.com)
- GAD1 (2q31.1), which encodes glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-67), is associated with childhood onset schizophrenia and cortical gray matter volume loss. (medicinenet.com)
- Childhood-onset schizophrenia is a severe form of psychotic disorder that occurs at age 12 years or younger and is often chronic and persistently debilitating, with worse outcomes than patients who have later onset of symptoms. (medscape.com)
- One study on the validity of a diagnosis of early-onset schizophrenia in Denmark found a correspondence of 88.8%, comparing the diagnosis listed in the Denmark registry to a clinical diagnosis based on symptoms reported in patient records. (medscape.com)
- According to the neurodevelopmental model, patients with schizophrenia may have too many, too few, or unnecessary synaptic connections that are eliminated during adolescence, which results in the onset of psychotic symptomatology. (health.am)
- A history of hypoxia-associated OCs differentiates between patients with schzophrenia and their nonschizophrenic siblings, and leads to a form of schizophrenia characterized by earlier age of onset and greater neuroanatomical abnormalities. (health.am)
- In fact, research published in 2017 shows that early descriptions of schizophrenia were actually very similar to how DID is described now. (healthline.com)
Cases of schizophrenia3
- It is these mutations, the researchers hypothesise, that underlie many cases of schizophrenia. (newscientist.com)
- Recent epidemiologic studies indicate that infectious agents may contribute to some cases of schizophrenia. (cdc.gov)
- This review focuses on evidence specifically linking infection with Toxoplasma gondii to the etiology of some cases of schizophrenia. (cdc.gov)
Common in Schizophrenia1
- Hearing voices is so common in schizophrenia that it is often used as a " principal indicator " of a schizophrenia diagnosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
Person with schizophrenia1
- Brief family intervention is a form of family intervention where a mental health professional educates the person with schizophrenia and their family members about the illness over a limited number of sessions. (cochrane.org)
Symptoms in Schizophrenia1
- Berman, I. "Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia. (medicinenet.com)
Persons with schizophrenia2
- Cohen, with his team of practitioners and scientists, provides a fascinating look at the increasing number of older persons with schizophrenia and the need to mobilize both science and services to meet not only their needs but those of their families, who inevitably age-out of the caregiver role. (appi.org)
- In humans, acute infection with T. gondii can produce psychotic symptoms similar to those displayed by persons with schizophrenia. (cdc.gov)
- An increased occurrence of schizophrenia in family members of affected persons suggests that genetic factors play a role in its etiology, and some candidate predisposing genes have been identified. (cdc.gov)
- People with schizophrenia may have the disease because they are unlucky enough to end up with an extremely rare combination of genes, according to a genetic study of the devastating illness. (newscientist.com)
- Like most mental illnesses, no single genetic mutation sparks schizophrenia, but studies of families hint that genes play a large part. (newscientist.com)
- Among the 150 with schizophrenia and 268 healthy people McClellan's team studied, those with the condition were three times likelier than healthy people to have such genetic glitches. (newscientist.com)
- These schizophrenia susceptibility CNV loci demonstrate that schizophrenia is, at least in part, genetic in origin and provide the basis for further investigation of mutations associated with the disease. (nih.gov)
- Furthermore, neuronal-related genes and genetic pathways are starting to emerge from the CNV loci associated with schizophrenia. (nih.gov)
- Genetic polymorphisms that amplify the inflammatory response to infection have been found among patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that genetic factors may confer heightened sensitivity to infection and other prenatal insults. (health.am)
- The research builds on previous work by Stachowiak and his colleagues showing that although hundreds of different genetic mutations may be responsible for schizophrenia in different patients, they all converge in a single faulty genomic pathway called the Integrative Nuclear FGFR 1 Signaling (INFS) pathway, which the UB researchers reported on earlier this year. (scienceblog.com)
- There is a huge paucity in genetic and pharmacogenetic data focused on SUD in schizophrenia. (medscape.com)
- This lack of neural connectivity throughout the brain reflects the challenges faced by patients with schizophrenia , with deficits in most areas, including cognitive, social, emotional, and perceptual difficulties. (health.am)
- How much do you know about cognitive impairment in schizophrenia? (medscape.com)
- Many people with schizophrenia have other mental disorders, especially substance use disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder. (wikipedia.org)
- Davies, E.J. "Developmental aspects of schizophrenia and related disorders: possible implications for treatment strategies. (medicinenet.com)
- The results were presented at the ECNP conference - held in Paris, France - and will be published at a later date in Schizophrenia Bulletin: The Journal of Psychoses and Related Disorders . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- It is important to consider these more common disorders of childhood before attributing symptoms to schizophrenia. (medscape.com)
- More recent studies using serological confirmation of infection have found an association between HSV-2, influenza, genital and reproductive infection, and T. gondii exposure during pregnancy and schizophrenia spectrum disorders in offspring. (health.am)
- Treatment with antipsychotics can cause metabolic side effects leading to medical disorders among the patients suffering from schizophrenia. (who.int)
- Learn more about different treatments for chronic schizophrenia here. (healthline.com)
- In particular, integrating a comprehensive therapy with medication treatment in patients with early-stage schizophrenia before the disease becomes chronic and disabling could improve long-term outcomes. (sciencedaily.com)
- Schizophrenia in Children and Adolescents Schizophrenia is a chronic disorder involving abnormal thoughts, perceptions, and social behavior and causing considerable problems with relationships and functioning. (msdmanuals.com)
- [ 32 ] Consistent with published trial results, a recent Cochrane review of clinical data noted that aripiprazole has comparable antipsychotic efficacy to conventional and other atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia. (medscape.com)
- Aims: To study the effects on glucose and lipid metabolism with the use of atypical and typical antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia Methods: The present study is a 12 weeks open label prospective study of antipsychotic drugs olanzapine, risperidone and haloperidol in patients with schizophrenia. (who.int)
- Many of the schizophrenia-linked mutations occurred in genes linked to brain development. (newscientist.com)
- The emergence of candidate disease genes, as well as the advances in mapping out molecular pathways involved in schizophrenia , will likely pave the road to understanding and treating an incredibly serious and debilitating disorder. (health.am)
- Of the prevailing explanatory models, the majority of evidence supports the gene - environment interaction model, which asserts that OCs interact with genes associated with schizophrenia to increase risk for the disorder. (health.am)
- [ 1 ] The definition of childhood schizophrenia has evolved over time and is now believed to be a virulent childhood version of the same disorder exhibited in adolescents and adults. (medscape.com)
- Two other studies found that exposure to cats in childhood was a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. (cdc.gov)
- Schizophrenia isn't caused by poor parenting or a difficult childhood. (msdmanuals.com)
- Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by significant alterations in perception, thoughts, mood and behavior. (wikipedia.org)
- Individuals with schizophrenia have more than twice the rate of death than those without the disorder. (medicinenet.com)
- Almost half of people with schizophrenia will suffer from a drug-use disorder (for example, alcohol, marijuana , or other drug) during their lifetime. (medicinenet.com)
- One reason for this misconception may be that the distinction between schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder (previously, multiple personality disorder) was weaker in the past. (healthline.com)
- Schizophrenia can be a challenging condition to manage, but with appropriate treatment and support, many individuals with the disorder are able to hold jobs and live independently. (healthline.com)
- Viewing schizophrenia as a developmental disorder encourages exploration into possible early intervention and prevention strategies in individuals who are genetically susceptible. (health.am)
- Both infection and proinflammatory cytokines have been linked to increased fetal hypoxia, which has been associated with schizophrenia and many of the brain abnormalities linked to the disorder. (health.am)
- While schizophrenia is more common among males than females, males are more likely to show signs of the disorder early. (newsweek.com)
- Is There a Link Between Cannabis Use Disorder and Schizophrenia in Young Males? (medscape.com)
- Schizophrenia is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with high heritability (12). (who.int)
- Schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder (manic-depressive illness) may be difficult to distinguish from each other. (medscape.com)
- In delusional disorder , the person has a variety of paranoid beliefs, but these beliefs are not bizarre and are not accompanied by any other symptoms of schizophrenia. (medscape.com)
- For example, a person who is functioning well at work but becomes unreasonably convinced that his or her spouse is having an affair has a delusional disorder rather than schizophrenia. (medscape.com)
- The oddness in this disorder is not as extreme as that observed in schizophrenia. (medscape.com)
- Schizophrenia is a mental disorder that usually appears in late adolescence or early adulthood. (bvsalud.org)
- In the past, schizophrenia was often incorrectly associated with violent behavior, leading to widespread misconceptions about individuals with schizophrenia being dangerous or unpredictable. (healthline.com)
- Factors such as substance misuse, a history of violence, and a lack of appropriate treatment and support are more significant predictors of violent behavior in individuals with schizophrenia, just as they are in the general population. (healthline.com)
- Schizophrenia isn't just unusual thinking and behavior. (msdmanuals.com)
- Long-term hospitalization is used on a small number of people with severe schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
- DeVylder, J.E. "Prevention of schizophrenia and severe mental illness. (medicinenet.com)
- Schizophrenia causes symptoms severe enough to cause problems at home, at work, and with other people. (msdmanuals.com)
- About 0.3% to 0.7% of people are diagnosed with schizophrenia during their lifetime. (wikipedia.org)
- Compared to the general population, people with schizophrenia have a higher suicide rate (about 5% overall) and more physical health problems, leading to an average decrease in life expectancy by 20 to 28 years. (wikipedia.org)
- Positive symptoms are those symptoms that are not normally experienced, but are present in people during a psychotic episode in schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
- People usually do not get schizophrenia after age 45. (medlineplus.gov)
- Effective treatment can help people with schizophrenia engage in school or work, maintain meaningful personal relationships, and enjoy independent, fulfilling lives. (nih.gov)
- For example, people with schizophrenia who continue to suffer from residual symptoms have more trouble thinking than those whose negative symptoms are adequately managed with treatment. (medicinenet.com)
- Ms. Kennedy West, along with her husband Rob, started the very popular YouTube channel Living Well With Schizophrenia, intended as both an educational resource and as a tool to help reduce stigma and connect people living through similar challenges. (psychcentral.com)
- Some people with schizophrenia do have a difficult time maintaining a job due to their symptoms, and many live with family or in supported housing. (healthline.com)
- Some people with schizophrenia may also find that they benefit from the structured routine and added socialization that working provides. (healthline.com)
- Learn more about the best jobs for people with schizophrenia here. (healthline.com)
- These symptoms tend to be the most persistent and difficult aspect of the condition, and they account for a large part of the long-term disability seen in people with schizophrenia. (healthline.com)
- The comparison of people with schizophrenia and healthy people reveals that the former are far likelier to possess extremely rare gene mutations. (newscientist.com)
- Five percent of healthy people had very rare deletions or duplications in their DNA, while 15% of schizophrenia patients had such mutations. (newscientist.com)
- Like many people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-related illnesses, everyday life-- and not just parties or major affairs like weddings-- can sometimes be too much. (healthyplace.com)
- For the last 20 years, Dr. Dilip Jeste has studied the effects of aging in 1,500 middle-aged and older people living with schizophrenia and has found some very encouraging results. (nami.org)
- While it is true that people living with schizophrenia have a higher risk of developing physical illnesses than the general population, they actually do not age any faster cognitively than those living without schizophrenia. (nami.org)
- Even more promising, his research has shown that psychosocial functioning actually improves with age for people living with schizophrenia. (nami.org)
- The British Columbia Schizophrenia Society (BCSS) is a non-profit, province-wide family support system dedicated to supporting individuals who have or are impacted by schizophrenia, educating the public, raising funds for research, and advocating for better services for people with schizophrenia and other serious and persistent mental illness. (healthlinkbc.ca)
- Secuado gives a once-a-day sustained dose of the anti-psychotic drug many people suffering from schizophrenia rely on. (newsweek.com)
- Schizophrenia affects more than 21 million people worldwide, according to the World Health Organization. (newsweek.com)
- Family interventions have been shown to improve outcomes for people with schizophrenia and are now widely used. (cochrane.org)
- This review investigates the effects of brief family intervention for people with schizophrenia, compared to standard or usual care. (cochrane.org)
- The authors also suggest that brief family intervention could be improved to be more effective but this would depend on larger and better studies of brief family intervention being carried out, which would help guide good practice and lead to better outcomes for people with schizophrenia. (cochrane.org)
- To assess the effects of brief family interventions for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like conditions. (cochrane.org)
- What Are the Service Needs of Aging People With Schizophrenia? (appi.org)
- But in schizophrenia, people believe things even if there's strong evidence they're wrong or clearly unrealistic. (msdmanuals.com)
- About 1 in 5 people with schizophrenia try to kill themselves, and many more have thought about it. (msdmanuals.com)
- Although people with schizophrenia may have emotional outbursts and sometimes seem scary, they're only slightly more likely to be violent than other people. (msdmanuals.com)
- Neurons that connect different regions of the cortex, the so-called interneurons, become misdirected in the schizophrenia cortex, causing cortical regions to be misconnected, like an improperly wired computer. (scienceblog.com)
- Short-term studies in patients with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia have shown that, compared with placebo, aripiprazole 10-30 mg/day is effective for the treatment of both positive and negative symptoms. (medscape.com)
- Guideline Watch: Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Schizophrenia. (medicinenet.com)
- Gabrovsek, V.P. "Inpatient group therapy of patients with schizophrenia. (medicinenet.com)
- In total, 59 schizophrenia patients were involved in the trial. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The difference was even more striking among a second group of patients, who developed schizophrenia as children - a full 20% possessed rare gene deletions or duplications. (newscientist.com)
- Homing in on such mutations in schizophrenia patients should offer quick insights into more general causes of the disease, McClellan says. (newscientist.com)
- OCs have been found to be repeatedly associated with schizophrenia outcome, occurring in the histories of 20 - 30% of patients with schizophrenia and 5 - 10% of the overall population. (health.am)
- Asenapine treats schizophrenia by rebalancing chemicals, such as dopamine and serotonin, in the brain, and transdermal delivery may offer patients an easy way to take their medication. (newsweek.com)
- Supportive, positive family environments have been shown to improve outcomes for patients with schizophrenia in contrast with family environments that express high levels of criticism, hostility, or over-involvement, which have poorer outcomes and have more frequent relapses. (cochrane.org)
- Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay of therapy for patients with schizophrenia, but long-term therapy is associated with adverse effects and poor adherence, according to background information in the article. (sciencedaily.com)
- Thus, the findings support the results from previous studies that patients with schizophrenia receiving combined treatment had better outcomes. (sciencedaily.com)
- The mini-brain structures were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) using skin cells removed from three controls and four patients with schizophrenia as described in earlier publications by the UB researchers and Kristen J. Brennand of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai. (scienceblog.com)
- At this stage, we discovered critical malformations in the cortex of the mini-brains formed from the iPSCs of the patients with schizophrenia," Stachowiak says. (scienceblog.com)
- 80% of patients with schizophrenia. (medscape.com)
- In addition, the nuances and subtleties of interpersonal cues and relationships may be difficult for patients with schizophrenia to understand. (medscape.com)
- We tested the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia who are using khat will fail to respond to standard antipsychotic treatment. (who.int)
- To examine the recent literature regarding sudden death in patients with schizophrenia and synthesize salient conclusions based on this evidence. (medscape.com)
- The life expectancy of patients with schizophrenia has been estimated to be 10-25 years less than the general population. (medscape.com)
- 80 patients having diagnosis of schizophrenia according to ICD-10 are assigned to treatment with olanzapine (N=20), risperidone (N=20) and haloperidol (N=40). (who.int)
- A new study confirms the brain region involved in generating the"voices" that occur in schizophrenia. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- For a diagnosis of schizophrenia, the described symptoms need to have been present for at least six months (according to the DSM-5) or one month (according to the ICD-11). (wikipedia.org)
- These may be present in any of the different psychoses and are often transient, making early diagnosis of schizophrenia problematic. (wikipedia.org)
- However, those individuals meeting the criteria for catatonia would receive an additional diagnosis of catatonia associated with schizophrenia to indicate the presence of the comorbidity. (medscape.com)
- He adds: 'In time, with a suitable screening method for schizophrenia using brain imaging, preventative psychiatry becomes a realistic possibility. (schizophrenia.com)
- It's important to note, however, that the negative symptoms of schizophrenia (i.e., reduced emotional expression and low motivation) are difficult to treat with medication. (healthline.com)
- I thought I fully understood my mental health after treating my symptoms of schizophrenia in 2019. (nami.org)
- Compared with placebo, improvements in symptoms of schizophrenia were evident as early as 1 week of treatment with aripiprazole. (medscape.com)
- Combined ECT and neuroleptic therapy in treatment-refractory schizophrenia: prediction of outcome. (medicinenet.com)
- Overall, medication alone may not be sufficient for managing schizophrenia, and other forms of treatment, such as therapy or social skills training may also be important in achieving optimal outcomes. (healthline.com)
- CBT is never a first line of treatment for schizophrenia. (mentalhelp.net)
- Schizophrenia Into Later Life: Treatment, Research, and Policy is the first major multidisciplinary reference on this important topic-a landmark work for researchers, service providers, and policy makers. (appi.org)
- Schizophrenia in Later Life: Treatment, Research, and Policy will guide researchers, service providers, and policy makers in creating innovative new programs to help this underserved and growing population. (appi.org)
- Establishing the role of T. gondii in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia might lead to new medications for its prevention and treatment. (cdc.gov)
- However, it remains unknown whether the use of khat complicates the outcome of schizophrenia treatment. (who.int)
- Khat use hinders an individual's response to initial antipsychotic drug treatment for schizophrenia. (who.int)
- Recent studies provided evidence for the bioactive role of curcumin in the prevention and treatment of various central nervous system (CNS)-related diseases including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Schizophrenia disease and glioma neoplasia . (bvsalud.org)
- The role of dopamine in schizophrenia from a neurobiological and evolutionary perspective: old fashioned, but still in vogue. (medicinenet.com)
- The hypothesis that thing sketch is corrupted in schizophrenia by language is analyzed. (bvsalud.org)
- The neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia provides a framework for understanding how OCs interact with the developing brain to increase the likelihood of schizophrenia in late adolescence and early adulthood. (health.am)
- Symptoms of schizophrenia usually appear in adolescence or young adulthood, but new research reveals the brain disease likely begins very early in development, toward the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. (scienceblog.com)
- Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. (nih.gov)
- Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that affects a persons thoughts, perceptions and emotions. (cochrane.org)
- Schizophrenia is a pervasive neuropsychiatric disease of uncertain cause that affects approximately 1% of the adult population in the United States and Europe. (cdc.gov)
- Possible complications for schizophrenia range from more medical conditions (morbidity) or shortened life span (mortality) to negative impacts on their family members as well. (medicinenet.com)
- Women with schizophrenia are thought to be more likely to suffer from complications during their pregnancies , at delivery and during their children's newborn period. (medicinenet.com)
- Many OCs have been associated with schizophrenia, including complications during pregnancy, fetal and infant underdevelopment, and birth complications. (health.am)
- So here we are at ShmooCon , a security conference in the nation's capital, and the first speaker of the afternoon, Marsh Ray, uses the fragile mental condition as the basis of a talk called "A paranoid schizophrenia-based model of data security. (csoonline.com)
- Keith had paranoid schizophrenia. (csoonline.com)
- What kinds of tools can a paranoid schizophrenia-based data security model bring us? (csoonline.com)
- Lack of oxygen to the fetus, termed fetal hypoxia, likely is involved in many OCs associated with schizophrenia. (health.am)
- The findings provide powerful evidence that schizophrenia begins early in fetal development, says Michal K. Stachowiak, lead author and professor in the Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences. (scienceblog.com)
- In recognition of National Mental Health Awareness Month, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) hosted a Facebook Live event on schizophrenia . (nih.gov)
- Schizophrenia is a complex and often misunderstood mental illness, and misinformation and stigma surrounding the condition are still prevalent in many societies. (healthline.com)
- Individual mutations might contribute to schizophrenia and other mental illness, but proving a cause-effect relationship in a single patient is nearly impossible, says Daniel Weinberger , a schizophrenia expert at the National Institute of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland. (newscientist.com)
- Research shows that most individuals (85-90%) with schizophrenia are not violent and are more likely to be victims of violence rather than perpetrators. (healthline.com)
- The effectiveness of schizophrenia medications varies from person to person, and while some individuals may not respond well to medication, others experience significant improvement in their symptoms. (healthline.com)
- It's important to know how to recognize the symptoms of schizophrenia and seek help as early as possible. (nih.gov)
- Most researchers think that schizophrenia is caused by lots of gene mutations that are relatively common among humans. (newscientist.com)
- Schizophrenia is a serious brain illness. (medlineplus.gov)
- Misconceptions around schizophrenia persist due to misinformation, stigma, regional differences, and the complex nature of the illness. (healthline.com)
- It's important to challenge and correct any misconceptions about schizophrenia and foster empathy and understanding toward those living with the illness. (healthline.com)
- CNTNAP2 gene dosage variation is associated with schizophrenia and epilepsy. (medicinenet.com)
- Fitzgerald, M. "Schizophrenia and autism/Asperser's syndrome: overlap and difference. (medicinenet.com)
- However, bad and stressful things sometimes trigger schizophrenia in someone who's already at risk of it. (msdmanuals.com)