Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.
A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.
Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum. It is endemic in the Far East and affects the bowel, liver, and spleen.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.
An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.
A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.
Agents that act systemically to kill adult schistosomes.
Liver diseases caused by infections with PARASITES, such as tapeworms (CESTODA) and flukes (TREMATODA).
A species of trematode blood flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae whose distribution is confined to areas of the Far East. The intermediate host is a snail. It occurs in man and other mammals.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
A genus of planorbid freshwater snails, species of which are intermediate hosts of Schistosoma mansoni.
An anthelmintic with schistosomicidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, but not against other Schistosoma spp. Oxamniquine causes worms to shift from the mesenteric veins to the liver where the male worms are retained; the female worms return to the mesentery, but can no longer release eggs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p121)
'Splenic diseases' refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or integrity of the spleen, leading to various symptoms and potential complications such as anemia, infection, or abdominal pain.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Agents destructive to snails and other mollusks.
A genus of small freshwater snails of the order Pulmonata, found throughout Africa and the Middle East, where it is a vector of SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
SCHISTOSOMIASIS of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges caused by infections with trematodes of the genus SCHISTOSOMA (primarily SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM; SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI; and SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM in humans). S. japonicum infections of the nervous system may cause an acute meningoencephalitis or a chronic encephalopathy. S. mansoni and S. haematobium nervous system infections are associated with acute transverse myelitis involving the lower portions of the spinal cord. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp61-2)
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
Enlargement of the liver.
A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
An antihelmintic that is active against most tapeworms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p48)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
An antischistosomal agent that has become obsolete.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A country in northeastern Africa. The capital is Khartoum.
The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.
Infections of the lungs with parasites, most commonly by parasitic worms (HELMINTHS).
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Enlargement of the spleen.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
Skin diseases caused by ARTHROPODS; HELMINTHS; or other parasites.
The free-swimming larval forms of parasites found in an intermediate host.
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Yemen" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Yemen is a country located in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula, in Western Asia. If you have any questions related to medical conditions, symptoms, or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.
An organochlorophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide for the control of flies and roaches. It is also used in anthelmintic compositions for animals. (From Merck, 11th ed)
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Venezuela" is a country in South America and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Presence of blood in the urine.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.
Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.
The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Philippines" is not a medical term; it is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia. It seems there might be some misunderstanding in your question. If you have a medical query related to the Philippines or its people, I'd be happy to help clarify that for you.
A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and west of LIBERIA. Its capital is Freetown.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Potentially toxic, but effective antischistosomal agent, it is a metabolite of LUCANTHONE.
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
*I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding in your request as "Museums" are not a medical term and do not have a medical definition.*
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties.
Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.
A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.
Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding - "Africa" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, consisting of 54 countries with diverse cultures, peoples, languages, and landscapes. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help answer those for you!
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.
Tartrates are salts or esters of tartaric acid, primarily used in pharmaceutical industry as buffering agents, and in medical laboratories for the precipitation of proteins.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A system of vessels in which blood, after passing through one capillary bed, is conveyed through a second set of capillaries before it returns to the systemic circulation. It pertains especially to the hepatic portal system.
The status of health in rural populations.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Somalia is located on the east coast of Africa on and north of the Equator and, with Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and Kenya, is often referred to as the Horn of Africa. It comprises Italy's former Trust Territory of Somalia and the former British Protectorate of Somaliland. The capital is Mogadishu.
The smallest species of TAPEWORMS. It is the only cestode that parasitizes humans without requiring an intermediate host.
Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Inbred CBA mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical and uniform, which makes them useful for scientific research, particularly in the areas of immunology and cancer.
Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.
A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.
The means of interchanging or transmitting and receiving information. Historically the media were written: books, journals, newspapers, and other publications; in the modern age the media include, in addition, radio, television, computers, and information networks.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.
The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Natural history of papillary lesions of the urinary bladder in schistosomiasis. (1/895)

Variable epithelial hyperplasia was observed in urinary bladder of nine capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) when examined at cystotomy 94 to 164 weeks after infection with Schistosoma haematobium. These hosts were followed for 24 to 136 weeks postcystotomy to determine the status of bladder lesions in relation to duration of infection and to ascertain whether lesion samples removed at cystotomy reestablished themselves in autologous and heterologous transfers. There was involution of urothelial hyperplasia in eight of nine animals and no evidence for establishment of transplanted bladder lesions.  (+info)

Candidate parasitic diseases. (2/895)

This paper discusses five parasitic diseases: American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease), dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis. The available technology and health infrastructures in developing countries permit the eradication of dracunculiasis and the elimination of lymphatic filariasis due to Wuchereria bancrofti. Blindness due to onchocerciasis and transmission of this disease will be prevented in eleven West African countries; transmission of Chagas disease will be interrupted. A well-coordinated international effort is required to ensure that scarce resources are not wasted, efforts are not duplicated, and planned national programmes are well supported.  (+info)

Double-blind placebo-controlled study of concurrent administration of albendazole and praziquantel in schoolchildren with schistosomiasis and geohelminths. (3/895)

A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the concurrent administration of albendazole and praziquantel was conducted in>1500 children with high prevalences of geohelminths and schistosomiasis. The study sites were in China and the Philippines, including 2 strains of Schistosoma japonicum, and 2 different regions of Kenya, 1 each with endemic Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium. Neither medication affected the cure rate of the other. There was no difference between the side effect rate from albendazole or the double placebo. Praziquantel-treated children had more nausea, abdominal pain, and headache but these side effects were statistically more common in children with schistosomiasis, suggesting a strong influence of dying parasites. The subjects were followed for 6 months for changes in infection status, growth parameters, hemoglobin, and schistosomiasis morbidity. In all 4 sites, a significant 6-month increase in serum hemoglobin was observed in children who received praziquantel, strongly supporting population-based mass treatment.  (+info)

Age-specific decrease in seroprevalence of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico. (4/895)

In our previous work, we reported the first systematic, island-wide, serologic survey for schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico in 40 years. In that study, approximately 3,000 serum samples from the 76 municipalities comprising the island of Puerto Rico were tested for the detection of antibodies to S. mansoni microsomal antigens by the Falcon assay screening test-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (FAST-ELISA) and those positive were confirmed by an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB). The highest EITB positivity was found in 17 municipalities, which comprised 48% of all seropositive samples. An additional finding was that 10% of the 215 EITB-positive samples were from individuals 25 years or younger and were for the most part of residents from the high seroprevalence areas. Thus, for this study we focused on 766 individuals 25 years of age or younger (45.5% males and 54.4% females), two-thirds of which were from 10 municipalities with the highest EITB seropositivity, and one-third from the 10 municipalities with the lowest EITB seropositivity found in our previous study. Of all samples, the results showed an overall FAST-ELISA positivity of 11.6%, with males similar to females (12.6 versus 10.7%, respectively). Confirmation by EITB was only 1.8%, with a males three-fold higher than females (3% versus 0.7%). When seropositivity was measured by age in five-year increments, a clear age-specific decrease in seropositivity was observed. Thus, by FAST-ELISA, 16.7% of the 21-25-year-old age group was positive, decreasing to 14.6%, 9.9%, 7.9%, and 9.3% in the 16-20-, 11-15-, 6-10-, and 1-5-year-old age groups, respectively. Confirmatory EITB showed even more impressive results: 4.7%, 2.6%, 1.2%, 0.7%, and 0% in the same age brackets. With regard to the high prevalence municipalities, only four of 10 (11 of 228 = 4.8%) had confirmatory EITB-positive samples and most were from municipalities of the Rio Grande de Loiza River basin and tributaries. The male to female positivity ratio was 4:1. Of the low prevalence municipalities, only single positive cases (by EITB) were found in three disperse municipalities. These results support the concept that there has been little transmission of S. mansoni in Puerto Rico during the first half of the 1990s and confirms anecdotal comments of local physicians who have seen virtually no new infections during the past three years. This makes the documentation of eradication of schistosomiasis from Puerto Rico feasible, a goal that should be set as being before the 100th anniversary of its discovery on the island by Isaac Gonzalez-Martinez in 1904.  (+info)

Full results of the genome-wide scan which localises a locus controlling the intensity of infection by Schistosoma mansoni on chromosome 5q31-q33. (5/895)

Three hundred million individuals are at risk of infection by schistosomes, and thousands die each year of severe hepatic disease. Previous studies have shown that the intensity of infection by Schistosoma mansoni in a Brazilian population is controlled by a major gene, denoted as SM1. We report here the full results of a genome-wide search that was performed on this population to localise SM1. Two hundred and forty-six microsatellites were used for the primary map, and only one region in 5q31-q33 provided significant evidence of linkage. SM1 was subsequently mapped to this region, which contains several genes encoding cytokines or cytokine receptors which are involved in protection against schistosomes. Three additional regions, 1p22.2, 7q36 and 21q22-22-qter, yielded promising, although not significant, lod-score values. These regions contain candidate genes encoding cytokines or molecules relevant to anti-schistosome immunity.  (+info)

Cytotoxicity of human and baboon mononuclear phagocytes against schistosomula in vitro: induction by immune complexes containing IgE and Schistosoma mansoni antigens. (6/895)

Normal human blood monocytes, pre-incubated at 37 degrees C with sera from patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni, strongly adhered to S. mansoni schistosomula in vitro, whereas no significant adherence was induced by sera from uninfected individuals. Comparable adherence occurred with normal baboon blood monocytes or peritoneal macrophages when these cells were incubated with sera from S. mansoni-infected baboons. Adherence of macrophages to schistosomula was associated with damage to the larvae, as estimated by a 51Cr release technique. Neither adherence nor cytotoxicity was induced by pre-incubation of the schistosomula, instead of the monocytes, with immune serum. The relevant factor in immune serum was heat-labile, but was not a complement component. Absorption and ultracentrifugation experiments showed that immune complexes, containing S. mansoni-specific IgE antibody and soluble parasite antigens, produced monocyte or macrophage adherence and cytotoxicity. Similar observations have been reported previously in the rat model. Since the production of large amounts of IgE is a predominant feature of schistosome infections in man and experimental animals, it is possible that this new mode of mononuclear phagocyte activation could act as an immune effector mechanism against S. mansoni.  (+info)

Controlling schistosomiasis: the cost-effectiveness of alternative delivery strategies. (7/895)

Sustainable schistosomiasis control cannot be based on large-scale vertical treatment strategies in most endemic countries, yet little is known about the costs and effectiveness of more affordable options. This paper presents calculations of the cost-effectiveness of two forms of chemotherapy targeted at school-children and compares them with chemotherapy integrated into the routine activities of the primary health care system. The focus is on Schistosoma haematobium. Economic and epidemiological data are taken from the Kilombero District of Tanzania. The paper also develops a framework for possible use by programme managers to evaluate similar options in different epidemiological settings. The results suggest that all three options are more affordable and sustainable than the vertical strategies for which cost data are available in the literature. Passive testing and treatment through primary health facilities proved the most effective and cost-effective option given the screening and compliance rates observed in the Kilombero District.  (+info)

Eradication of schistosomiasis in Guangxi, China. Part 3. Community diagnosis of the worst-affected areas and maintenance strategies for the future. (8/895)

Reported are the results of a community-based assessment of maintenance of schistosomiasis eradication in Guangxi, a large autonomous region of China with a population of 44 million. Eradication of the disease was achieved in 1989 in Guangxi but maintenance costs are rising. We focused on three counties that had the most intense transmission in the past: Binyang, Jingxi, and Yishan. Four instruments were used: in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey, and subsequent community feedback. In the past, schistosomiasis had serious consequences in Guangxi, decreasing work capacity and restricting marriage and occupational mobility. Since its eradication there have been clear benefits in terms of increased agricultural output and improved farming conditions. Personal habits and traditional manual farming activities in Guangxi would continue to expose a large proportion of the population to environmental risk if the disease were to return. Ignorance about control programme achievements is increasing and is related to youth and inexperience. There was a universal desire in the study counties for more local education about the history of the programme and about the risk of schistosomiasis returning. Snail surveillance is considered important, but people are not willing to volunteer for such work. Our study methods were novel for Guangxi and community feedback was helpful. Snail checking procedures have been modified to make them more efficient and no snails have been found since 1992. The animal and human stool examinations have ceased and vigilance now concentrates on snails and children (skin tests). The long-term strategy is to make the population invulnerable to future schistosomiasis transmission if the snail vectors return. This means continuing education and making the former endemic counties a high priority for water and sanitation improvements.  (+info)

Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia or snail fever, is a parasitic infection caused by several species of the trematode flatworm Schistosoma. The infection occurs when people come into contact with freshwater contaminated with the parasite's larvae, which are released by infected freshwater snails.

The larvae penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and mature into adult worms in the blood vessels of the urinary tract or intestines. The female worms lay eggs, which can cause inflammation and scarring in various organs, including the liver, lungs, and brain.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis may include fever, chills, cough, muscle aches, and diarrhea. In chronic cases, the infection can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, bladder cancer, and seizures. Schistosomiasis is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions with poor sanitation and lack of access to safe drinking water. It is preventable through improved water supply, sanitation, and snail control measures. Treatment typically involves the use of a medication called praziquantel, which kills the adult worms.

Schistosomiasis mansoni is a parasitic infection caused by the trematode flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. The disease cycle begins when human hosts come into contact with fresh water contaminated with the parasite's larvae, called cercariae, which are released from infected snail intermediate hosts.

Once the cercariae penetrate the skin of a human host, they transform into schistosomula and migrate through various tissues before reaching the hepatic portal system. Here, the parasites mature into adult worms, mate, and produce eggs that can cause inflammation and damage to the intestinal wall, liver, spleen, and other organs.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis mansoni may include fever, chills, cough, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and blood in stool or urine. Chronic infection can lead to severe complications such as fibrosis of the liver, kidney damage, bladder cancer, and neurological disorders.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with contaminated water sources, proper sanitation, and access to safe drinking water. Treatment typically involves administering a single dose of the drug praziquantel, which is effective in eliminating the adult worms and reducing egg production. However, it does not prevent reinfection.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Schistosomiasis haematobia" is not a recognized medical term. Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of blood flukes (schistosomes). The two main forms that affect humans are Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium, but the term "haematobia" itself refers to the presence of blood in urine.

So, when we talk about Schistosoma haematobium, it's a specific species of schistosome that causes an infection known as urogenital schistosomiasis, which is characterized by the presence of blood in the urine (haematuria) and other symptoms.

If you have any questions about tropical diseases or parasitic infections, feel free to ask!

Schistosomiasis japonica is a specific form of schistosomiasis, which is also known as snail fever. It is caused by the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma japonicum. This disease is prevalent in East Asian countries like China, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

The life cycle of Schistosoma japonicum involves freshwater-dwelling snails as an intermediate host. Humans get infected through direct contact with contaminated water, where the parasite's larvae are released from the snails. The larvae penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and migrate to the liver. Here, they mature into adult worms and start producing eggs, which are excreted through feces or urine.

The symptoms of Schistosomiasis japonica can vary depending on the stage and severity of the infection. In the early stages, individuals might experience skin rashes, fever, chills, and muscle aches. As the parasite eggs travel through the body, they can cause inflammation and damage to various organs, including the liver, intestines, and lungs. Chronic infections can lead to severe complications such as fibrosis, scarring, and increased risk of bladder cancer.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with contaminated water sources, proper sanitation, and snail control. Treatment typically involves administering the drug praziquantel, which is effective against Schistosoma japonicum and other schistosome species.

"Schistosoma mansoni" is a specific species of parasitic flatworm, also known as a blood fluke, that causes the disease schistosomiasis (also known as snail fever). This trematode has a complex life cycle involving both freshwater snails and humans. The adult worms live in the blood vessels of the human host, particularly in the venous plexus of the intestines, where they lay eggs that are excreted through feces. These eggs can hatch in fresh water and infect specific snail species, which then release a free-swimming form called cercariae. These cercariae can penetrate the skin of humans who come into contact with infested water, leading to infection and subsequent health complications if left untreated.

The medical definition of "Schistosoma mansoni" is: A species of trematode parasitic flatworm that causes schistosomiasis in humans through its complex life cycle involving freshwater snails as an intermediate host. Adult worms reside in the blood vessels of the human host, particularly those surrounding the intestines, and release eggs that are excreted through feces. Infection occurs when cercariae, released by infected snails, penetrate human skin during contact with infested water.

Praziquantel is an anthelmintic medication, which is used to treat and prevent trematode (fluke) infections, including schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia or snail fever), clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and fasciolopsiasis. It works by causing severe spasms in the muscle cells of the parasites, ultimately leading to their death. Praziquantel is available in tablet form and is typically taken orally in a single dose, although the dosage may vary depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that praziquantel is not effective against tapeworm infections, and other medications such as niclosamide or albendazole are used instead for those infections. Also, Praziquantel should be taken under medical supervision, as it may have some side effects, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache.

It's important to consult a healthcare professional before taking any medication.

"Schistosoma haematobium" is a species of parasitic flatworm, also known as a blood fluke, that causes the disease schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia). This specific species is the most common cause of urogenital schistosomiasis.

The life cycle of Schistosoma haematobium involves freshwater snails as intermediate hosts. The parasite's eggs are released in the urine of an infected person and hatch in fresh water, releasing miracidia that infect the snail. After several developmental stages, the parasites emerge from the snail as free-swimming cercariae, which then infect the human host by penetrating the skin during contact with infested water.

Once inside the human body, the cercariae transform into schistosomula and migrate to the venous plexus around the bladder, where they mature into adult worms. The female worms lay eggs that can cause inflammation and damage to the urinary tract and, in some cases, other organs. Symptoms of infection can include blood in the urine, frequent urination, and pain during urination. Chronic infection can lead to more serious complications, such as bladder cancer and kidney damage.

Schistosoma is a genus of flatworms that cause the disease schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever. These parasitic worms infect freshwater snails and then release a form of the parasite that can penetrate the skin of humans when they come into contact with contaminated water. The larvae mature into adult worms in the human body, living in the blood vessels of the bladder, intestines or other organs, where they lay eggs. These eggs can cause serious damage to internal organs and lead to a range of symptoms including fever, chills, diarrhea, and anemia. Schistosomiasis is a significant public health problem in many tropical and subtropical regions around the world.

Schistosomicides are medications specifically used to treat Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever or bilharzia. This is a parasitic disease caused by several species of flatworms belonging to the genus Schistosoma. The drugs that act against these parasites are called schistosomicides.

The most common schistosomicides include:

1. Praziquantel: This is the first-line treatment for all forms of Schistosomiasis. It works by causing paralysis of the worms, which then detach from the host's tissues and are swept out of the body.

2. Oxamniquine (Mansil): Primarily used to treat infections caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It works by causing the worms to lose their grip on the blood vessels, leading to their death and elimination from the body.

3. Triclabendazole: Used for the treatment of liver fluke infections, but it has also shown efficacy against some Schistosoma species, particularly Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma japonicum.

It is important to note that while these medications are effective at killing the adult worms, they do not prevent reinfection. Therefore, measures should be taken to avoid contact with contaminated water where the parasites are present.

Parasitic liver diseases refer to conditions caused by protozoa or helminths (parasitic worms) that infect and damage the liver. These parasites can enter the body through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with an infected host. Some examples of parasitic liver diseases include:

1. Ascariasis: Caused by the roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides, which can infect the liver and bile ducts, leading to inflammation, obstruction, and abscess formation.
2. Echinococcosis (Hydatid disease): A rare but serious condition caused by the larval stage of tapeworms from the genus Echinococcus. The liver is the most commonly affected organ, with cysts forming in the liver parenchyma that can grow slowly over several years and cause complications such as rupture or secondary bacterial infection.
3. Fascioliasis: A foodborne trematode (fluke) infection caused by Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica, which affects the liver and bile ducts. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
4. Leishmaniasis: A protozoan infection caused by Leishmania spp., which can affect various organs, including the liver. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) is the most severe form of the disease, characterized by hepatosplenomegaly, fever, and anemia.
5. Toxoplasmosis: A protozoan infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can affect the liver and other organs. While most immunocompetent individuals remain asymptomatic or experience mild flu-like symptoms, immunocompromised patients are at risk of severe liver damage and disseminated disease.
6. Schistosomiasis: A trematode (fluke) infection caused by Schistosoma spp., which affects the liver and portal venous system. The parasites lay eggs in the liver, causing granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis, and portal hypertension.
7. Fasciolopsiasis: A trematode (fluke) infection caused by Fasciolopsis buski, which affects the small intestine and liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
8. Paragonimiasis: A trematode (lung fluke) infection caused by Paragonimus spp., which can affect the lungs, brain, and other organs, including the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
9. Clonorchiasis: A trematode (liver fluke) infection caused by Clonorchis sinensis, which affects the bile ducts and liver. The parasites lay eggs in the bile ducts, causing inflammation, cholangitis, and cholangiocarcinoma.
10. Opisthorchiasis: A trematode (liver fluke) infection caused by Opisthorchis spp., which affects the bile ducts and liver. The parasites lay eggs in the bile ducts, causing inflammation, cholangitis, and cholangiocarcinoma.
11. Heterophyiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Heterophyes spp., which affects the small intestine and liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
12. Metagonimiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Metagonimus spp., which affects the small intestine and liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
13. Echinostomiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Echinostoma spp., which affects the small intestine and liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
14. Gastrodiscoidiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Gastrodiscoides spp., which affects the large intestine and liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
15. Fascioliasis: A trematode (liver fluke) infection caused by Fasciola spp., which affects the liver and bile ducts. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
16. Paragonimiasis: A trematode (lung fluke) infection caused by Paragonimus spp., which affects the lungs and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
17. Schistosomiasis: A trematode (blood fluke) infection caused by Schistosoma spp., which affects the blood vessels and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
18. Clonorchiasis: A trematode (liver fluke) infection caused by Clonorchis sinensis, which affects the liver and bile ducts. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
19. Opisthorchiasis: A trematode (liver fluke) infection caused by Opisthorchis spp., which affects the liver and bile ducts. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
20. Metagonimiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Metagonimus spp., which affects the small intestine and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
21. Heterophyesiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Heterophyes spp., which affects the small intestine and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
22. Echinostomiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Echinostoma spp., which affects the small intestine and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
23. Fasciolopsiasis: A trematode (intestinal fluke) infection caused by Fasciolopsis buski, which affects the small intestine and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
24. Paragonimiasis: A trematode (lung fluke) infection caused by Paragonimus spp., which affects the lungs and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
25. Spirometra mansoni: A trematode (tapeworm) infection caused by Spirometra mansoni, which affects the brain and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
26. Taenia solium: A trematode (tapeworm) infection caused by Taenia solium, which affects the brain and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
27. Hymenolepis nana: A trematode (tapeworm) infection caused by Hymenolepis nana, which affects the small intestine and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
28. Diphyllobothrium latum: A trematode (tapeworm) infection caused by Diphyllobothrium latum, which affects the small intestine and sometimes the liver. The larvae migrate through the liver tissue, causing inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis.
29. Echinococcus granulosus:

"Schistosoma japonicum" is a species of parasitic flatworms (trematodes) that causes schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever, in humans. This disease is prevalent in East Asian countries such as China, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

The life cycle of Schistosoma japonicum involves freshwater snails as intermediate hosts. The parasites lay eggs in the blood vessels of the human host, which then pass through the body and are excreted into water. When the eggs hatch, they release miracidia that infect specific species of freshwater snails. After several developmental stages within the snail, the parasite releases cercariae, which can infect humans by penetrating the skin during contact with infested water.

Once inside the human host, the cercariae transform into schistosomula and migrate to the lungs, then to the liver, where they mature into adult worms. The adult worms pair up, mate, and produce eggs that can cause inflammation, granulomas, and fibrosis in various organs, depending on their location.

Schistosoma japonicum is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, with symptoms ranging from fever, rash, and diarrhea to more severe complications such as liver damage, bladder cancer, and kidney failure. Preventive measures include avoiding contact with infested water, treating infected individuals, and improving sanitation and hygiene practices.

A "Parasite Egg Count" is a laboratory measurement used to estimate the number of parasitic eggs present in a fecal sample. It is commonly used in veterinary and human medicine to diagnose and monitor parasitic infections, such as those caused by roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms, and other intestinal helminths (parasitic worms).

The most common method for measuring parasite egg counts is the McMaster technique. This involves mixing a known volume of feces with a flotation solution, which causes the eggs to float to the top of the mixture. A small sample of this mixture is then placed on a special counting chamber and examined under a microscope. The number of eggs present in the sample is then multiplied by a dilution factor to estimate the total number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces.

Parasite egg counts can provide valuable information about the severity of an infection, as well as the effectiveness of treatment. However, it is important to note that not all parasitic infections produce visible eggs in the feces, and some parasites may only shed eggs intermittently. Therefore, a negative egg count does not always rule out the presence of a parasitic infection.

Anthelmintics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by parasitic worms, also known as helminths. These medications work by either stunting the growth of the worms, paralyzing them, or killing them outright, allowing the body to expel the worms through normal bodily functions. Anthelmintics are commonly used to treat infections caused by roundworms, tapeworms, flukeworms, and hookworms. Examples of anthelmintic drugs include albendazole, mebendazole, praziquantel, and ivermectin.

'Biomphalaria' is a genus of freshwater snails that are intermediate hosts for the parasitic flatworms that cause schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever. This is a type of trematode infection that affects humans and other animals. The snails of the 'Biomphalaria' genus are native to Africa and parts of South America and play an essential role in the life cycle of the parasitic worms that cause this disease.

Schistosomiasis is a significant public health issue, particularly in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that more than 200 million people worldwide are infected with schistosomes, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths each year. Effective control of the disease requires a multi-faceted approach, including the prevention of transmission through snail control and the treatment of infected individuals with praziquantel, the drug of choice for schistosomiasis.

Oxamniquine is an antiparasitic medication used to treat infections caused by certain types of intestinal worms, specifically the parasite called *Strongyloides stercoralis*. It works by inhibiting the motility and reproduction of the parasites, leading to their eventual elimination from the body.

It is important to note that oxamniquine is not commonly used in clinical practice due to the availability of other effective antiparasitic agents and its potential for causing adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache. Additionally, it should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional and according to approved guidelines, as improper use can lead to treatment failure or the development of drug-resistant parasites.

Splenic diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or health of the spleen. The spleen is an organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, which plays a vital role in filtering the blood and fighting infections. Some common splenic diseases include:

1. Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen due to various causes such as infections, liver disease, blood disorders, or cancer.
2. Hypersplenism: Overactivity of the spleen leading to excessive removal of blood cells from circulation, causing anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia.
3. Splenic infarction: Partial or complete blockage of the splenic artery or its branches, resulting in tissue death and potential organ dysfunction.
4. Splenic rupture: Traumatic or spontaneous tearing of the spleen capsule, causing internal bleeding and potentially life-threatening conditions.
5. Infections: Bacterial (e.g., sepsis, tuberculosis), viral (e.g., mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus), fungal (e.g., histoplasmosis), or parasitic (e.g., malaria) infections can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
6. Hematologic disorders: Conditions such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia, hemolytic anemias, lymphomas, leukemias, or myeloproliferative neoplasms can involve the spleen and lead to its enlargement or dysfunction.
7. Autoimmune diseases: Conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or vasculitis can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
8. Cancers: Primary (e.g., splenic tumors) or secondary (e.g., metastatic cancer from other organs) malignancies can involve the spleen and lead to its enlargement, dysfunction, or rupture.
9. Vascular abnormalities: Conditions such as portal hypertension, Budd-Chiari syndrome, or splenic vein thrombosis can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
10. Trauma: Accidental or intentional injuries to the spleen can lead to bleeding, infection, or organ dysfunction.

Helminth antigens refer to the proteins or other molecules found on the surface or within helminth parasites that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. Helminths are large, multicellular parasitic worms that can infect various tissues and organs in humans and animals, causing diseases such as schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiases.

Helminth antigens can be recognized by the host's immune system as foreign invaders, leading to the activation of various immune cells and the production of antibodies. However, many helminths have evolved mechanisms to evade or suppress the host's immune response, allowing them to establish long-term infections.

Studying helminth antigens is important for understanding the immunology of helminth infections and developing new strategies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Some researchers have also explored the potential therapeutic use of helminth antigens or whole helminths as a way to modulate the immune system and treat autoimmune diseases or allergies. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "snails" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to a large group of land and sea-dwelling mollusks that have coiled shells and move slowly by means of a muscular foot. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help! Just let me know what you're looking for.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, known as an antigen. They are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens, neutralizing or marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

Helminths are parasitic worms that can infect humans and animals. They include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes, among others. Helminth infections can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of worm and the location of the infection.

Antibodies to helminths are produced by the immune system in response to an infection with one of these parasitic worms. These antibodies can be detected in the blood and serve as evidence of a current or past infection. They may also play a role in protecting against future infections with the same type of worm.

There are several different classes of antibodies, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Antibodies to helminths are typically of the IgE class, which are associated with allergic reactions and the defense against parasites. IgE antibodies can bind to mast cells and basophils, triggering the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators that help to protect against the worm.

In addition to IgE, other classes of antibodies may also be produced in response to a helminth infection. For example, IgG antibodies may be produced later in the course of the infection and can provide long-term immunity to reinfection. IgA antibodies may also be produced and can help to prevent the attachment and entry of the worm into the body.

Overall, the production of antibodies to helminths is an important part of the immune response to these parasitic worms. However, in some cases, the presence of these antibodies may also be associated with allergic reactions or other immunological disorders.

Molluscicides are a type of pesticide specifically designed to kill mollusks, which include snails and slugs. These substances work by interfering with the mollusk's nervous system, leading to paralysis and death. Molluscicides are often used in agricultural settings to protect crops from damage caused by these pests, but they can also be found in residential products designed to control nuisance snails and slugs in gardens or landscaping.

It is important to note that molluscicides can be harmful to other organisms as well, including pets and wildlife, so they should be used with caution and according to the manufacturer's instructions. Additionally, some molluscicides may pose risks to human health if not handled properly, so it is essential to follow safety guidelines when using these products.

'Bulinus' is a genus of freshwater snails that have a spiral, coiled shell. These snails are aquatic pulmonate gastropod mollusks, which means they breathe air but live in water. They are often found in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and the Middle East.

Bulinus snails are known to be intermediate hosts for several species of parasitic flatworms that cause schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia), a chronic and debilitating disease that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in developing countries with poor sanitation and access to safe water.

The most common species of Bulinus snails involved in the transmission of schistosomiasis are Bulinus truncatus and Bulinus globosus. These snails ingest the larval stage of the parasitic flatworms, which then develop into a different larval stage inside the snail's tissues. When an infected snail releases its faeces into the water, the larval flatworms are released and can infect humans who come into contact with the contaminated water.

Therefore, Bulinus snails play a crucial role in the life cycle of these parasites and are an important public health concern in areas where schistosomiasis is endemic.

A disease vector is a living organism that transmits infectious pathogens from one host to another. These vectors can include mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, and other arthropods that carry viruses, bacteria, parasites, or other disease-causing agents. The vector becomes infected with the pathogen after biting an infected host, and then transmits the infection to another host through its saliva or feces during a subsequent blood meal.

Disease vectors are of particular concern in public health because they can spread diseases rapidly and efficiently, often over large geographic areas. Controlling vector-borne diseases requires a multifaceted approach that includes reducing vector populations, preventing bites, and developing vaccines or treatments for the associated diseases.

Neuroschistosomiasis is a form of schistosomiasis, which is a parasitic infection caused by Schistosoma species. It is characterized by the invasion and inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) by the parasite's eggs or larvae. This can lead to various neurological symptoms such as seizures, headaches, visual disturbances, and motor or sensory deficits. Neuroschistosomiasis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment.

The two Schistosoma species most commonly associated with neuroschistosomiasis are S. japonicum and S. mansoni. The parasites typically enter the human body through skin contact with contaminated water, where they mature into adult worms in the bloodstream. Female worms then lay eggs, some of which may be carried to the CNS by the circulatory system.

Neuroschistosomiasis can occur in both acute and chronic forms. Acute neuroschistosomiasis is characterized by an inflammatory response to the parasite's eggs or larvae, which can cause eosinophilic meningitis or encephalitis. Chronic neuroschistosomiasis may result in the formation of granulomas around the eggs, leading to various neurological symptoms depending on the location and extent of the damage.

Diagnosis of neuroschistosomiasis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and laboratory tests (such as serology or CSF analysis). Treatment usually consists of anti-parasitic drugs such as praziquantel, combined with corticosteroids to manage the inflammatory response. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to alleviate symptoms or prevent further damage.

An endemic disease is a type of disease that is regularly found among particular people or in a certain population, and is spread easily from person to person. The rate of infection is consistently high in these populations, but it is relatively stable and does not change dramatically over time. Endemic diseases are contrasted with epidemic diseases, which suddenly increase in incidence and spread rapidly through a large population.

Endemic diseases are often associated with poverty, poor sanitation, and limited access to healthcare. They can also be influenced by environmental factors such as climate, water quality, and exposure to vectors like mosquitoes or ticks. Examples of endemic diseases include malaria in some tropical countries, tuberculosis (TB) in many parts of the world, and HIV/AIDS in certain populations.

Effective prevention and control measures for endemic diseases typically involve improving access to healthcare, promoting good hygiene and sanitation practices, providing vaccinations when available, and implementing vector control strategies. By addressing the underlying social and environmental factors that contribute to the spread of these diseases, it is possible to reduce their impact on affected populations and improve overall health outcomes.

I am not aware of any medical definition for the term "Egypt." Egypt is a country located in the northeastern corner of Africa, known for its rich history and cultural heritage. It is home to various ancient artifacts and monuments, including the Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx.

If you have any specific medical or health-related questions related to Egypt, such as information about diseases prevalent in the country or healthcare practices there, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you.

Hepatomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlargement of the liver beyond its normal size. The liver is usually located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen and can be felt during a physical examination. A healthcare provider may detect hepatomegaly by palpating (examining through touch) the abdomen, noticing that the edge of the liver extends past the lower ribcage.

There are several possible causes for hepatomegaly, including:
- Fatty liver disease (both alcoholic and nonalcoholic)
- Hepatitis (viral or autoimmune)
- Liver cirrhosis
- Cancer (such as primary liver cancer, metastatic cancer, or lymphoma)
- Infections (e.g., bacterial, fungal, or parasitic)
- Heart failure and other cardiovascular conditions
- Genetic disorders (e.g., Gaucher's disease, Niemann-Pick disease, or Hunter syndrome)
- Metabolic disorders (e.g., glycogen storage diseases, hemochromatosis, or Wilson's disease)

Diagnosing the underlying cause of hepatomegaly typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies like ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the specific cause identified and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or, in some cases, surgical intervention.

A granuloma is a small, nodular inflammatory lesion that occurs in various tissues in response to chronic infection, foreign body reaction, or autoimmune conditions. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of epithelioid macrophages, which are specialized immune cells with enlarged nuclei and abundant cytoplasm, often arranged in a palisading pattern around a central area containing necrotic debris, microorganisms, or foreign material.

Granulomas can be found in various medical conditions such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, fungal infections, and certain autoimmune disorders like Crohn's disease. The formation of granulomas is a complex process involving both innate and adaptive immune responses, which aim to contain and eliminate the offending agent while minimizing tissue damage.

Helminthiasis is a medical condition characterized by the infection and infestation of body tissues and organs by helminths, which are parasitic worms. These worms can be classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminthiasis infections can occur through various modes of transmission, such as ingestion of contaminated food or water, skin contact with contaminated soil, or direct contact with an infected person or animal. The severity of the infection depends on several factors, including the type and number of worms involved, the duration of the infestation, and the overall health status of the host.

Common symptoms of helminthiasis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, anemia, and nutritional deficiencies. In severe cases, the infection can lead to organ damage or failure, impaired growth and development in children, and even death.

Diagnosis of helminthiasis typically involves microscopic examination of stool samples to identify the presence and type of worms. Treatment usually consists of administering anthelmintic drugs that are effective against specific types of worms. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water, and practicing safe food handling and preparation.

Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a group of infectious diseases that primarily affect people living in poverty, in tropical and subtropical areas. These diseases are called "neglected" because they have been largely ignored by medical research and drug development, as well as by global health agencies and pharmaceutical companies.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified 20 diseases as NTDs, including:

1. Buruli ulcer
2. Chagas disease
3. Dengue and chikungunya
4. Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease)
5. Echinococcosis
6. Endemic treponematoses
7. Foodborne trematodiases
8. Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
9. Leishmaniasis
10. Leprosy (Hansen's disease)
11. Lymphatic filariasis
12. Onchocerciasis (river blindness)
13. Rabies
14. Schistosomiasis
15. Soil-transmitted helminthiases
16. Snakebite envenoming
17. Taeniasis/Cysticercosis
18. Trachoma
19. Mycetoma, chromoblastomycosis and other deep mycoses
20. Yaws (Endemic treponematoses)

These diseases can lead to severe disfigurement, disability, and even death if left untreated. They affect more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in low-income countries in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. NTDs also have significant social and economic impacts, contributing to poverty, stigma, discrimination, and exclusion.

Efforts are underway to raise awareness and increase funding for research, prevention, and treatment of NTDs. The WHO has set targets for controlling or eliminating several NTDs by 2030, including dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma, and human African trypanosomiasis.

Niclosamide is an antihelminthic medication, which means it is used to treat infections caused by parasitic worms. It works by disrupting the metabolism of the worms, leading to their elimination from the body. Niclosamide is specifically indicated for the treatment of tapeworm infections (such as Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, and Hymenolepis nana).

It's important to note that niclosamide is not typically absorbed into the human body when taken as directed, so it primarily affects the worms in the digestive tract. However, if you have any specific questions about niclosamide or its use, please consult a healthcare professional for medical advice tailored to your particular circumstances.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Niridazole is an anti-parasitic medication that was previously used to treat infections caused by parasites such as schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia or snail fever) and loiasis (also known as African eye worm). It works by inhibiting the metabolism of the parasites, leading to their death. However, due to its side effects, including neurotoxicity and potential for causing optic neuritis, it is no longer commonly used in clinical practice.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Helminth proteins refer to the proteins that are produced and expressed by helminths, which are parasitic worms that cause diseases in humans and animals. These proteins can be found on the surface or inside the helminths and play various roles in their biology, such as in development, reproduction, and immune evasion. Some helminth proteins have been identified as potential targets for vaccines or drug development, as blocking their function may help to control or eliminate helminth infections. Examples of helminth proteins that have been studied include the antigen Bm86 from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, and the tetraspanin protein Sm22.6 from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

Antiplatyhelmintic agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by parasitic flatworms, also known as platyhelminths. These include tapeworms, flukes, and other types of flatworms that can infect various organs of the body, such as the intestines, liver, lungs, and blood vessels.

Antiplatyhelmintic agents work by disrupting the metabolism or reproductive processes of the parasitic worms, leading to their elimination from the body. Some commonly used antiplatyhelmintic agents include praziquantel, niclosamide, and albendazole.

It is important to note that while these medications can be effective in treating platyhelminth infections, they should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as improper use or dosage can lead to serious side effects or treatment failures.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sudan" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Northeast Africa, known as the Sudan or Sudan proper, and the southern region that seceded to become South Sudan in 2011. If you have any medical terms you would like me to define, please let me know!

Medical topography refers to the detailed description and mapping of the locations and relative positions of various anatomical structures, abnormalities, or lesions in the body. It is often used in the context of imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans, where it helps to visualize and communicate the spatial relationships between different bodily features. Medical topography may also involve the use of physical examination, surgical exploration, or other diagnostic methods to gather information about the location and extent of medical conditions.

In summary, medical topography is a detailed mapping and description of the location and position of anatomical structures or pathological changes in the body.

Parasitic lung diseases refer to conditions caused by infection of the lungs by parasites. These are small organisms that live on or in a host organism and derive their sustenance at the expense of the host. Parasitic lung diseases can be caused by various types of parasites, including helminths (worms) and protozoa.

Examples of parasitic lung diseases include:

1. Pulmonary echinococcosis (hydatid disease): This is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The larvae form cysts in various organs, including the lungs.
2. Paragonimiasis: This is a food-borne lung fluke infection caused by Paragonimus westermani and other species. Humans become infected by eating raw or undercooked crustaceans (such as crabs or crayfish) that contain the larval stage of the parasite.
3. Toxocariasis: This is a soil-transmitted helminth infection caused by the roundworm Toxocara canis or T. cati, which are found in the intestines of dogs and cats. Humans become infected through accidental ingestion of contaminated soil, undercooked meat, or through contact with an infected animal's feces. Although the primary site of infection is the small intestine, larval migration can lead to lung involvement in some cases.
4. Amebic lung disease: This is a rare complication of amebiasis, which is caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. The parasite usually infects the large intestine, but it can spread to other organs, including the lungs, through the bloodstream.
5. Cryptosporidiosis: This is a waterborne protozoan infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or C. hominis. Although the primary site of infection is the small intestine, immunocompromised individuals can develop disseminated disease, including pulmonary involvement.

Symptoms of parasitic lung diseases vary depending on the specific organism and the severity of infection but may include cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, fever, and sputum production. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests, such as stool or blood examinations for parasites or their antigens. Treatment depends on the specific organism but may include antiparasitic medications, supportive care, and management of complications.

Urine is a physiological excretory product that is primarily composed of water, urea, and various ions (such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and others) that are the byproducts of protein metabolism. It also contains small amounts of other substances like uric acid, creatinine, ammonia, and various organic compounds. Urine is produced by the kidneys through a process called urination or micturition, where it is filtered from the blood and then stored in the bladder until it is excreted from the body through the urethra. The color, volume, and composition of urine can provide important diagnostic information about various medical conditions.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for the term "China." Generally, it is used to refer to:

1. The People's Republic of China (PRC), which is a country in East Asia. It is the most populous country in the world and the fourth largest by geographical area. Its capital city is Beijing.
2. In a historical context, "China" was used to refer to various dynasties and empires that existed in East Asia over thousands of years. The term "Middle Kingdom" or "Zhongguo" (中国) has been used by the Chinese people to refer to their country for centuries.
3. In a more general sense, "China" can also be used to describe products or goods that originate from or are associated with the People's Republic of China.

If you have a specific context in which you encountered the term "China" related to medicine, please provide it so I can give a more accurate response.

Splenomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlargement or expansion of the spleen beyond its normal size. The spleen is a vital organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, behind the stomach and below the diaphragm. It plays a crucial role in filtering the blood, fighting infections, and storing red and white blood cells and platelets.

Splenomegaly can occur due to various underlying medical conditions, including infections, liver diseases, blood disorders, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. The enlarged spleen may put pressure on surrounding organs, causing discomfort or pain in the abdomen, and it may also lead to a decrease in red and white blood cells and platelets, increasing the risk of anemia, infections, and bleeding.

The diagnosis of splenomegaly typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to manage the underlying condition.

Helminths are a type of parasitic worm that can infect humans and animals. They are multi-cellular organisms that belong to the phyla Platyhelminthes (flatworms) or Nematoda (roundworms). Helminths can be further classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminth infections are typically acquired through contact with contaminated soil, food, or water. The symptoms of helminth infections can vary widely depending on the type of worm and the location and extent of the infection. Some common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and malnutrition.

Helminths have complex life cycles that often involve multiple hosts. They can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and in some cases, may require long-term treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. Preventive measures such as good hygiene practices, proper sanitation, and access to clean water can help reduce the risk of helminth infections.

Parasitology is a branch of biology that deals with the study of parasites, their life cycles, the relationship between parasites and their hosts, the transmission of parasitic diseases, and the development of methods for their control and elimination. It involves understanding various types of parasites including protozoa, helminths, and arthropods that can infect humans, animals, and plants. Parasitologists also study the evolution, genetics, biochemistry, and ecology of parasites to develop effective strategies for their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Helminth DNA refers to the genetic material found in parasitic worms that belong to the phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) and Nematoda (roundworms). These parasites can infect various organs and tissues of humans and animals, causing a range of diseases.

Helminths have complex life cycles involving multiple developmental stages and hosts. The study of their DNA has provided valuable insights into their evolutionary history, genetic diversity, and mechanisms of pathogenesis. It has also facilitated the development of molecular diagnostic tools for identifying and monitoring helminth infections.

Understanding the genetic makeup of these parasites is crucial for developing effective control strategies, including drug discovery, vaccine development, and disease management.

Parasitic skin diseases are conditions caused by parasites living on or in the skin. These parasites can be insects, mites, or fungi that feed off of the host for their own survival. They can cause a variety of symptoms including itching, rashes, blisters, and lesions on the skin. Examples of parasitic skin diseases include scabies, lice infestations, and ringworm. Treatment typically involves the use of topical or oral medications to kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

A cercaria is a larval stage in the life cycle of certain flatworms, including trematodes (flukes) and schistosomes. These parasitic worms have complex life cycles that involve multiple hosts. Cercariae are released from the intermediate host, usually a snail, into the water where they swim around searching for their next host. They are typically characterized by the presence of a tail, which they use to move through the water. Once they find a suitable host, such as a vertebrate, they penetrate the skin and transform into another larval stage called a schistosomulum or metacercaria. This stage then migrates through the body of the host and eventually develops into an adult worm that lives in the tissues of the final host. Cercariae can cause infection and disease in both humans and animals, depending on the specific species of trematode or schistosome involved.

I am not aware of a medical definition for the term "buffaloes." The term generally refers to large, hoofed mammals that are native to Africa and Asia. In English language slang, the term "buffalo" is sometimes used to describe a lie or exaggeration, but this usage is not related to the medical field. If you have more context about where you encountered this term, I may be able to provide a more specific answer.

Hookworm infections are parasitic diseases caused by the ingestion or penetration of hookworm larvae (immature worms) into the human body. The two main species that infect humans are Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale.

The infection typically occurs through skin contact with contaminated soil, often when walking barefoot on dirty ground. The larvae then penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and travel to the lungs where they mature further. They are coughed up and swallowed, eventually reaching the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on blood.

Hookworm infections can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, weight loss, and fatigue. In severe cases, chronic hookworm infections can lead to serious complications such as protein malnutrition and heart failure. Treatment typically involves the use of anti-parasitic medications, such as albendazole or mebendazole, which kill the adult worms and allow the body to expel them. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene practices, wearing shoes in areas with contaminated soil, and regular deworming of at-risk populations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mali" is not a medical term or condition in English. Mali is the name of a country located in West Africa, and its capital city is Bamako. If you have any questions about Mali or anything else, please let me know!

An ovum is the female reproductive cell, or gamete, produced in the ovaries. It is also known as an egg cell and is released from the ovary during ovulation. When fertilized by a sperm, it becomes a zygote, which can develop into a fetus. The ovum contains half the genetic material necessary to create a new individual.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pest control" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Pest control refers to the regulation or management of species considered to be pests, which can include insects, rodents, and other organisms that can cause damage to crops, transmit diseases, or otherwise negatively impact human activities.

In a medical context, you might be looking for information on "pesticide exposure" or "insect-borne diseases." Pesticide exposure refers to the contact with pesticides, which are substances used to control pests. These exposures can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact and may lead to a variety of health effects depending on the type and amount of pesticide involved. Insect-borne diseases are illnesses transmitted to humans through the bite of infected insects, such as mosquitoes, ticks, or fleas. Examples include malaria, Lyme disease, and Zika virus infection.

Parasitic diseases are infections or illnesses caused by parasites, which are organisms that live and feed on host organisms, often causing harm. Parasites can be protozoans (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), or ectoparasites (ticks, mites, fleas). These diseases can affect various body systems and cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of parasite and the location of infection. They are typically spread through contaminated food or water, insect vectors, or direct contact with an infected host or contaminated environment. Examples of parasitic diseases include malaria, giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, and leishmaniasis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tanzania" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Geographic Information Systems" (GIS) is not a medical term. GIS is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present all types of geographical data. It can be used in various fields, including public health and epidemiology, to map and analyze the spread of diseases, identify environmental risk factors, plan health services delivery, and inform evidence-based decision making.

Liver cirrhosis is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by the replacement of normal liver tissue with scarred (fibrotic) tissue, leading to loss of function. The scarring is caused by long-term damage from various sources such as hepatitis, alcohol abuse, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and other causes. As the disease advances, it can lead to complications like portal hypertension, fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites), impaired brain function (hepatic encephalopathy), and increased risk of liver cancer. It is generally irreversible, but early detection and treatment of underlying causes may help slow down its progression.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Yemen" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia. If you have any questions about medical conditions, treatments, or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

Trichlorfon is an organophosphate insecticide and acaricide. It is used to control a wide variety of pests, including flies, ticks, and mites in agriculture, livestock production, and public health. Trichlorfon works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and results in paralysis and death of the pest. It is important to note that trichlorfon can also have harmful effects on non-target organisms, including humans, and its use is regulated by various governmental agencies to minimize potential risks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Zimbabwe" is not a medical term. It's a country located in the southern part of Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Venezuela" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in South America, known officially as the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. If you have any questions about medical terms or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Communicable disease control is a branch of public health that focuses on preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases within a population. The goal is to reduce the incidence and prevalence of communicable diseases through various strategies, such as:

1. Surveillance: Monitoring and tracking the occurrence of communicable diseases in a population to identify trends, outbreaks, and high-risk areas.
2. Prevention: Implementing measures to prevent the transmission of infectious agents, such as vaccination programs, education campaigns, and environmental interventions (e.g., water treatment, food safety).
3. Case management: Identifying, diagnosing, and treating cases of communicable diseases to reduce their duration and severity, as well as to prevent further spread.
4. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with infected persons to detect and prevent secondary cases.
5. Outbreak response: Coordinating a rapid and effective response to disease outbreaks, including the implementation of control measures, communication with affected communities, and evaluation of interventions.
6. Collaboration: Working closely with healthcare providers, laboratories, policymakers, and other stakeholders to ensure a coordinated and comprehensive approach to communicable disease control.
7. Research: Conducting research to better understand the epidemiology, transmission dynamics, and prevention strategies for communicable diseases.

Effective communicable disease control requires a multidisciplinary approach that combines expertise in medicine, epidemiology, microbiology, public health, social sciences, and healthcare management.

Hematuria is a medical term that refers to the presence of blood in urine. It can be visible to the naked eye, which is called gross hematuria, or detected only under a microscope, known as microscopic hematuria. The blood in urine may come from any site along the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra. Hematuria can be a symptom of various medical conditions, such as urinary tract infections, kidney stones, kidney disease, or cancer of the urinary tract. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional if you notice blood in your urine to determine the underlying cause and receive appropriate treatment.

Host-parasite interactions refer to the relationship between a parasitic organism (the parasite) and its host, which can be an animal, plant, or human body. The parasite lives on or inside the host and derives nutrients from it, often causing harm in the process. This interaction can range from relatively benign to severe, depending on various factors such as the species of the parasite, the immune response of the host, and the duration of infection.

The host-parasite relationship is often categorized based on the degree of harm caused to the host. Parasites that cause little to no harm are called commensals, while those that cause significant damage or disease are called parasitic pathogens. Some parasites can even manipulate their hosts' behavior and physiology to enhance their own survival and reproduction, leading to complex interactions between the two organisms.

Understanding host-parasite interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat parasitic infections, as well as for understanding the ecological relationships between different species in natural ecosystems.

Tropical medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with health problems that are prevalent in or unique to tropical and subtropical regions. These regions are typically characterized by hot and humid climates, and often have distinct ecological systems that can contribute to the spread of infectious diseases.

The field of tropical medicine encompasses a wide range of health issues, including:

1. Infectious diseases: Many tropical diseases are caused by infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Some of the most common infectious diseases in the tropics include malaria, dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya, Zika virus, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis, and Chagas disease.
2. Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs): A group of chronic infectious diseases that primarily affect poor and marginalized populations in the tropics. NTDs include diseases such as human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), leprosy, Buruli ulcer, and dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease).
3. Zoonotic diseases: Diseases that are transmitted between animals and humans, often through insect vectors or contaminated food and water. Examples of zoonotic diseases in the tropics include rabies, leptospirosis, and Rift Valley fever.
4. Environmental health issues: The tropical environment can pose unique health challenges, such as exposure to toxic chemicals, heat stress, and poor air quality. Tropical medicine also addresses these environmental health issues.
5. Travel medicine: As global travel increases, there is a growing need for medical professionals who are knowledgeable about the health risks associated with traveling to tropical destinations. Tropical medicine physicians often provide pre-travel consultations and post-travel evaluations for international travelers.

Overall, tropical medicine is an essential field that addresses the unique health challenges faced by populations living in or traveling to tropical and subtropical regions.

Portal hypertension is a medical condition characterized by an increased pressure in the portal vein, which is the large blood vessel that carries blood from the intestines, spleen, and pancreas to the liver. Normal portal venous pressure is approximately 5-10 mmHg. Portal hypertension is defined as a portal venous pressure greater than 10 mmHg.

The most common cause of portal hypertension is cirrhosis of the liver, which leads to scarring and narrowing of the small blood vessels in the liver, resulting in increased resistance to blood flow. Other causes include blood clots in the portal vein, inflammation of the liver or bile ducts, and invasive tumors that block the flow of blood through the liver.

Portal hypertension can lead to a number of complications, including the development of abnormal blood vessels (varices) in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines, which are prone to bleeding. Ascites, or the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, is another common complication of portal hypertension. Other potential complications include encephalopathy, which is a condition characterized by confusion, disorientation, and other neurological symptoms, and an increased risk of bacterial infections.

Treatment of portal hypertension depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Medications to reduce pressure in the portal vein, such as beta blockers or nitrates, may be used. Endoscopic procedures to band or inject varices can help prevent bleeding. In severe cases, surgery or liver transplantation may be necessary.

Sanitation is the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human feces and urine, and the cleaning of homes, workplaces, streets, and other spaces where people live and work. This includes the collection, transport, treatment, and disposal or reuse of human waste, as well as the maintenance of hygienic conditions in these areas to prevent the spread of diseases.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines sanitation as "the use of toilets or latrines that safely dispose of human waste, as well as the safe management of human waste at the household, community, and national levels." Sanitation is an essential component of public health and is critical for preventing the spread of infectious diseases such as cholera, typhoid, hepatitis A, and polio.

Poor sanitation can have serious consequences for individuals and communities, including increased risk of disease and death, decreased productivity, reduced economic growth, and negative impacts on social and mental well-being. Providing access to safe sanitation is a key target of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with a goal to ensure that everyone has access to adequate and equitable sanitation by 2030.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "travel" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. In general, travel refers to the act of moving or journeying from one place to another, often over long distances. However, in a medical context, it might refer to the recommendation that individuals with certain medical conditions or those who are immunocompromised avoid traveling to areas where they may be at increased risk of exposure to infectious diseases. It's always best to check with a healthcare professional for advice related to specific medical situations and travel.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Satellite Communications" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Satellite communications refers to the use of artificial satellites in space to provide communication links between various points on Earth. This technology is widely used in many fields including telecommunications, broadcasting, military, and transportation, but it is not a medical concept. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those instead!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

Morbidity, in medical terms, refers to the state or condition of being diseased or unhealthy. It is used to describe the incidence or prevalence of a particular disease or health condition within a population, or the presence of multiple diseases or health conditions in an individual. Morbidity can also refer to the complications or symptoms associated with a disease or injury. In clinical settings, morbidity may be used to assess a patient's overall health status and their response to treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Philippines" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, comprised of over 7,000 islands. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sierra Leone" is not a medical term or concept. It is an African country located on the western coast of the continent, known for its rich natural resources and diverse culture. If you have any questions about medical topics or health-related issues, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Ghana" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in West Africa, known officially as the Republic of Ghana. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uganda" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known officially as the Republic of Uganda. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Hycanthone is not generally considered a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that has been used in medical research and treatment. Hycanthone is a synthetic anti-schistosomal drug, which means it was developed to treat Schistosoma parasitic worm infections, such as schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia or snail fever).

The substance works by inhibiting the DNA synthesis of the parasite, ultimately leading to its death. However, due to its toxicity and limited therapeutic window, hycanthone is no longer used in clinical settings. It is primarily mentioned in scientific literature related to parasitology and drug development.

To the best of my knowledge, "Côte d'Ivoire" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country, which is officially known as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. The country is located in West Africa and is bordered by countries such as Ghana, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Liberia.

Côte d'Ivoire was once a French colony and gained its independence in 1960. The country has a diverse population and a developing economy, with agriculture being a major contributor to its GDP. The capital city of Côte d'Ivoire is Yamoussoukro, while the largest city is Abidjan.

It's important to note that medical terminology and concepts are typically related to anatomy, physiology, diseases, treatments, and other health-related topics. Therefore, it's unlikely that a country name like Côte d'Ivoire would have a direct medical definition or application.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nigeria" is not a medical term. It is a country located in West Africa, and it is the most populous country in Africa. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Parasitic intestinal diseases are disorders caused by microscopic parasites that invade the gastrointestinal tract, specifically the small intestine. These parasites include protozoa (single-celled organisms) and helminths (parasitic worms). The most common protozoan parasites that cause intestinal disease are Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Entamoeba histolytica. Common helminthic parasites include roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), tapeworms (Taenia saginata and Taenia solium), hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis).

Parasitic intestinal diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weight loss. The severity and duration of the symptoms depend on the type of parasite, the number of organisms present, and the immune status of the host.

Transmission of these parasites can occur through various routes, including contaminated food and water, person-to-person contact, and contact with contaminated soil or feces. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet and before handling food, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or seafood.

Treatment of parasitic intestinal diseases typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications that target the specific parasite causing the infection. In some cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement and symptom management may also be necessary.

Travel medicine, also known as tropical medicine or geographic medicine, is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and management of health issues and diseases that can occur during international travel or in certain geographical areas. This may include vaccinations, malaria prophylaxis, advice on food and water safety, and education about insect-borne diseases. Travel medicine specialists also provide care for travelers who become ill while abroad and offer post-travel evaluation and treatment for those who return home with a travel-related illness.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rivers" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical term referring to large, flowing bodies of water that usually empty into a sea or an ocean. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "United Nations" is a political and international organization, not a medical concept or term. The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was established on October 24, 1945, to promote international cooperation and prevent conflicts. It is headquartered in New York City, and its member states work together to address various global issues, such as peace and security, climate change, human rights, and sustainable development.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kenya" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known for its diverse wildlife and geography, including savannas, lakelands, the dramatic Great Rift Valley, and mountain highlands. It is also where you can find the Maasai Mara Reserve, known for its annual wildebeest migrations, and vast Nairobi National Park. The capital city of Kenya is Nairobi. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Museums" are not a medical term and do not have a medical definition. The term "museum" generally refers to a building or institution that cares for and displays a collection of objects for the public to view, learn from, and enjoy. These collections can include art, historical items, scientific specimens, and more. If you have any questions about a specific medical topic, I'd be happy to help answer those for you!

Albendazole is an antiparasitic medication used to treat a variety of parasitic infections, including neurocysticercosis (a tapeworm infection that affects the brain), hydatid disease (a parasitic infection that can affect various organs), and other types of worm infestations such as pinworm, roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections.

Albendazole works by inhibiting the polymerization of beta-tubulin, a protein found in the microtubules of parasitic cells, which disrupts the parasite's ability to maintain its shape and move. This leads to the death of the parasite and elimination of the infection.

Albendazole is available in oral form and is typically taken two to three times a day with meals for several days or weeks, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Common side effects of albendazole include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. Rare but serious side effects may include liver damage, bone marrow suppression, and neurological problems.

It is important to note that albendazole should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects and interactions with other medications. Additionally, it is not effective against all types of parasitic infections, so proper diagnosis is essential before starting treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Burundi" does not have a medical definition. Burundi is a country located in East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west. It's known for its warm, friendly people, beautiful landscapes, and rich cultural heritage. If you have any questions about Burundi's geography, history, or culture, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!

Gastropoda is not a medical term, but a taxonomic category in biology. It refers to a large and diverse class of mollusks, commonly known as snails and slugs. These animals are characterized by a single, spiral-shaped shell that they carry on their backs (in the case of snails) or an internal shell (in the case of some slugs).

While Gastropoda is not a medical term per se, it's worth noting that certain species of gastropods can have medical relevance. For instance, some types of marine snails produce toxins that can be harmful or even fatal to humans if ingested. Additionally, some species of slugs and snails can serve as intermediate hosts for parasites that can infect humans, such as rat lungworms (Angiostrongylus cantonensis), which can cause a form of meningitis known as eosinophilic meningoencephalitis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Spatial Analysis" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Spatial analysis is a broader geographical term that refers to the examination of data related to locations and the relationships between those locations. It is often used in fields such as epidemiology and public health to analyze patterns of disease distribution and spread, but it is not a medical concept itself.

In the context of healthcare and public health, spatial analysis can involve mapping the geographic distribution of diseases or health outcomes, identifying clusters of cases, examining spatial patterns and trends, and exploring potential environmental or sociodemographic factors that may be contributing to those patterns. These techniques can help inform disease prevention and control efforts, resource allocation, and policy decisions.

Reagent strips, also known as diagnostic or test strips, are narrow pieces of plastic material that have been impregnated with chemical reagents. They are used in the qualitative or semi-quantitative detection of various substances, such as glucose, proteins, ketones, blood, and white blood cells, in body fluids like urine or blood.

Reagent strips typically contain multiple pad areas, each with a different reagent that reacts to a specific substance. To perform the test, a small amount of the fluid is applied to the strip, and the reaction between the reagents and the target substance produces a visible color change. The resulting color can then be compared to a standardized color chart to determine the concentration or presence of the substance.

Reagent strips are widely used in point-of-care testing, providing quick and convenient results for healthcare professionals and patients alike. They are commonly used for monitoring conditions such as diabetes (urine or blood glucose levels), urinary tract infections (leukocytes and nitrites), and kidney function (protein and blood).

Sanitary engineering is not typically considered a medical definition, but rather it falls under the field of public health and environmental engineering. However, it is closely related to medicine and public health due to its focus on preventing disease transmission through the design and construction of safe water supplies, sanitary sewage disposal systems, and solid waste management facilities.

Here's a definition of sanitary engineering from the American Public Health Association (APHA):

"Sanitary engineering is the application of engineering principles to public health problems involving the control of environmental factors that affect human health. It includes the design, construction, and maintenance of systems for the collection, treatment, and disposal of wastewater and solid waste; the protection of water supplies from contamination; and the control of vectors of disease through the management of public facilities and environments."

In summary, sanitary engineering involves the application of engineering principles to prevent the spread of diseases by ensuring safe and adequate water supplies, proper sewage disposal, and effective solid waste management.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "water supply" is not a medical term per se. It is a general term used to describe the system or arrangement providing water for consumption or use, such as a public water supply system or a private well. However, in a medical context, it could refer to the source of water used in a healthcare facility for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and patient care, which must meet certain quality standards to prevent infection and ensure safety.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

'Ascaris lumbricoides' is the medical term for a type of intestinal roundworm that can infect humans. This parasitic worm is one of the largest that can infest humans, and it is particularly prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene.

The life cycle of Ascaris lumbricoides begins when an infected person passes eggs in their feces. These eggs can then be ingested through contaminated food or water, or by accidentally ingesting soil that contains the eggs. Once inside the body, the larvae hatch from the eggs and migrate through the tissues to the lungs, where they mature further. They are then coughed up and swallowed, entering the digestive system again, where they mature into adult worms.

Adult female Ascaris lumbricoides worms can grow up to 20-35 cm in length, while males are smaller, typically around 15-30 cm. They live in the small intestine and feed on partially digested food. Females can lay tens of thousands of eggs per day, which are passed in the feces and can infect other people if they come into contact with them.

Symptoms of ascariasis (the infection caused by Ascaris lumbricoides) can vary depending on the number of worms present and the severity of the infestation. Mild infections may cause no symptoms at all, while more severe infections can lead to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. In rare cases, the worms can cause intestinal obstruction or migrate to other parts of the body, leading to serious complications.

Treatment for ascariasis typically involves medication to kill the worms, such as albendazole or mebendazole. Preventing infection requires good hygiene practices, including washing hands thoroughly with soap and water after using the toilet and before eating, and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water.

Ancylostomatoidea is a superfamily of nematode (roundworm) parasites that includes the genera Ancylostoma and Necator, which are commonly known as hookworms. These parasites are primarily found in the small intestine of their hosts, which can include humans and other animals.

Ancylostomatoidea parasites have a complex life cycle that involves both free-living and parasitic stages. The life cycle begins when the parasite's eggs are passed in the feces of an infected host and hatch into larvae in the soil. The larvae then infect a new host by penetrating the skin, usually through contact with contaminated soil.

Once inside the host, the larvae migrate through the body to the lungs, where they mature and are coughed up and swallowed, allowing them to reach the small intestine. Here, they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on the host's blood, causing anemia and other symptoms of hookworm infection.

Hookworm infections can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue. In severe cases, they can lead to anemia, intestinal obstruction, and even death. Prevention measures include wearing shoes in areas with contaminated soil, practicing good hygiene, and treating infected individuals to prevent the spread of the parasite.

Esophageal varices and gastric varices are abnormal, enlarged veins in the lower part of the esophagus (the tube that connects the throat to the stomach) and in the stomach lining, respectively. They occur as a result of increased pressure in the portal vein, which is the large blood vessel that carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver. This condition is known as portal hypertension.

Esophageal varices are more common than gastric varices and tend to be more symptomatic. They can cause bleeding, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Gastric varices may also bleed, but they are often asymptomatic until they rupture.

The most common causes of esophageal and gastric varices are cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) and portal hypertension due to other liver diseases such as schistosomiasis or Budd-Chiari syndrome. Treatment options for esophageal and gastric varices include medications to reduce bleeding, endoscopic therapies to treat active bleeding or prevent recurrent bleeding, and surgical procedures to relieve portal hypertension.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spacecraft" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. It may be used to transport humans or cargo to and from space stations, conduct scientific research, or explore other celestial bodies such as the moon, planets, and asteroids. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Africa" actually refers to a continent, not a medical condition or concept. Africa is the second-largest continent in the world, consisting of 54 countries and a wide range of diverse ethnic groups, cultures, languages, and landscapes. It is home to a vast array of wildlife, including many species that are not found anywhere else in the world. If you have any questions about Africa's geography, history, or culture, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Health education is the process of providing information and strategies to individuals and communities about how to improve their health and prevent disease. It involves teaching and learning activities that aim to empower people to make informed decisions and take responsible actions regarding their health. Health education covers a wide range of topics, including nutrition, physical activity, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, substance abuse prevention, and environmental health. The ultimate goal of health education is to promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles that can lead to improved health outcomes and quality of life.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nitroquinolines" is not a recognized term in medical or pharmacological sciences. It seems to be a chemical category that consists of compounds containing a quinoline nucleus (a heterocyclic aromatic compound) with one or more nitro groups attached to it.

Quinoline derivatives have been explored for their potential medicinal properties, including antimalarial and antibacterial activities. However, the term "Nitroquinolines" does not specifically refer to a medical definition or a particular therapeutic application. If you're looking for information on specific quinoline-based compounds with nitro groups, I would be happy to help if you could provide more context or details.

Tartrates are salts or esters of tartaric acid, a naturally occurring organic acid found in many fruits, particularly grapes. In a medical context, potassium bitartrate (also known as cream of tartar) is sometimes used as a mild laxative or to treat acidosis by helping to restore the body's normal pH balance. Additionally, sodium tartrate has been historically used as an antidote for lead poisoning. However, these uses are not common in modern medicine.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

A portal system in medicine refers to a venous system in which veins from various tissues or organs (known as tributaries) drain into a common large vessel (known as the portal vein), which then carries the blood to a specific organ for filtration and processing before it is returned to the systemic circulation. The most well-known example of a portal system is the hepatic portal system, where veins from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and stomach merge into the portal vein and then transport blood to the liver for detoxification and nutrient processing. Other examples include the hypophyseal portal system, which connects the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary gland, and the renal portal system found in some animals.

Rural health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health challenges and needs of people living in rural areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines rural health as "the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in the rural population."

Rural populations often face disparities in healthcare access and quality compared to their urban counterparts. Factors such as geographic isolation, poverty, lack of transportation, and a shortage of healthcare providers can contribute to these disparities. Rural health encompasses a broad range of services, including primary care, prevention, chronic disease management, mental health, oral health, and emergency medical services.

The goal of rural health is to improve the health outcomes of rural populations by addressing these unique challenges and providing high-quality, accessible healthcare services that meet their needs. This may involve innovative approaches such as telemedicine, mobile health clinics, and community-based programs to reach people in remote areas.

National health programs are systematic, large-scale initiatives that are put in place by national governments to address specific health issues or improve the overall health of a population. These programs often involve coordinated efforts across various sectors, including healthcare, education, and social services. They may aim to increase access to care, improve the quality of care, prevent the spread of diseases, promote healthy behaviors, or reduce health disparities. Examples of national health programs include immunization campaigns, tobacco control initiatives, and efforts to address chronic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease. These programs are typically developed based on scientific research, evidence-based practices, and public health data, and they may be funded through a variety of sources, including government budgets, grants, and private donations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Somalia" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the Horn of Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you.

Hymenolepis nana, also known as the dwarf tapeworm, is a small intestine-infecting cestode parasite that primarily affects humans and rodents. The adult worms are typically 15-40 mm in length and have a scolex (head) with four suckers but no hooks. The proglottids (segments) of the worm contain both male and female reproductive organs, allowing for self-fertilization.

The life cycle of Hymenolepis nana can be direct or indirect. In the direct life cycle, eggs are passed in the feces of an infected individual and ingested by another person through contaminated food, water, or fomites (inanimate objects). Once inside the human host, the eggs hatch in the small intestine, releasing oncospheres that invade the intestinal wall and develop into cysticercoids. The cysticercoids then mature into adult tapeworms within 10-15 days.

In the indirect life cycle, eggs are ingested by an intermediate host, usually a beetle or flea, where they hatch and develop into cysticercoids. When the infected insect is consumed by a rodent or human, the cysticercoids excyst in the small intestine and mature into adult tapeworms.

Symptoms of Hymenolepis nana infection can range from mild to severe and may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, loss of appetite, weight loss, and anemia. In some cases, particularly in children or individuals with weakened immune systems, the infection can lead to more serious complications such as intestinal obstruction or inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis).

Genital diseases in females refer to various medical conditions that affect the female reproductive system, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, and ovaries. These conditions can be caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, hormonal imbalances, or structural abnormalities. Some common examples of genital diseases in females include bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus (HPV), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), endometriosis, uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, and vulvar or vaginal cancer. Symptoms of genital diseases in females can vary widely depending on the specific condition but may include abnormal vaginal discharge, pain or discomfort during sex, irregular menstrual bleeding, painful urination, and pelvic pain. It is important for women to receive regular gynecological care and screenings to detect and treat genital diseases early and prevent complications.

Parasite load, in medical terms, refers to the total number or quantity of parasites (such as worms, protozoa, or other infectious agents) present in a host organism's body. It is often used to describe the severity of a parasitic infection and can be an important factor in determining the prognosis and treatment plan for the infected individual.

Parasite load can vary widely depending on the type of parasite, the route of infection, the immune status of the host, and other factors. In some cases, even a small number of parasites may cause significant harm if they are highly virulent or located in critical areas of the body. In other cases, large numbers of parasites may be necessary to produce noticeable symptoms.

Measuring parasite load can be challenging, as it often requires specialized laboratory techniques and equipment. However, accurate assessment of parasite load is important for both research and clinical purposes, as it can help researchers develop more effective treatments and allow healthcare providers to monitor the progression of an infection and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment.

Antimony is a toxic metallic element with the symbol Sb and atomic number 51. It exists in several allotropic forms and can be found naturally as the mineral stibnite. Antimony has been used for centuries in various applications, including medicinal ones, although its use in medicine has largely fallen out of favor due to its toxicity.

In a medical context, antimony may still be encountered in certain medications used to treat parasitic infections, such as pentavalent antimony compounds (e.g., sodium stibogluconate and meglumine antimoniate) for the treatment of leishmaniasis. However, these drugs can have significant side effects and their use is typically reserved for severe cases that cannot be treated with other medications.

It's important to note that exposure to antimony in high concentrations or over prolonged periods can lead to serious health issues, including respiratory problems, skin irritation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and even neurological damage. Therefore, handling antimony-containing substances should be done with caution and appropriate safety measures.

Aspartic acid proteases are a type of enzyme that cleaves peptide bonds in proteins. They are called "aspartic" proteases because they contain two aspartic acid residues in their active site, which are essential for their catalytic function. These enzymes work by bringing the two carboxyl groups of the adjacent aspartic acids into close proximity, allowing them to act as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of peptide bonds.

Aspartic acid proteases play important roles in various biological processes, including protein degradation, cell signaling, and viral infection. Some examples of aspartic acid proteases include pepsin, cathepsin D, and HIV-1 protease. These enzymes are often targeted by drugs for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and AIDS.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "tropical climate" is not a medical term. It is a geographical term that refers to the climate of tropical regions, which are located around the equator. These regions are characterized by high temperatures and consistent rainfall throughout the year.

However, it's worth noting that certain environmental factors, such as climate, can have an impact on human health. For instance, tropical climates can contribute to the spread of certain diseases, like malaria and dengue fever, due to the presence of mosquitoes that thrive in warm, wet environments. But a "tropical climate" itself is not a medical condition or diagnosis.

"CBA" is an abbreviation for a specific strain of inbred mice that were developed at the Cancer Research Institute in London. The "Inbred CBA" mice are genetically identical individuals within the same strain, due to many generations of brother-sister matings. This results in a homozygous population, making them valuable tools for research because they reduce variability and increase reproducibility in experimental outcomes.

The CBA strain is known for its susceptibility to certain diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer, which makes it a popular choice for researchers studying those conditions. Additionally, the CBA strain has been widely used in studies related to transplantation immunology, infectious diseases, and genetic research.

It's important to note that while "Inbred CBA" mice are a well-established and useful tool in biomedical research, they represent only one of many inbred strains available for scientific investigation. Each strain has its own unique characteristics and advantages, depending on the specific research question being asked.

Immunologic tests are a type of diagnostic assay that detect and measure the presence or absence of specific immune responses in a sample, such as blood or tissue. These tests can be used to identify antibodies, antigens, immune complexes, or complement components in a sample, which can provide information about the health status of an individual, including the presence of infection, autoimmune disease, or immunodeficiency.

Immunologic tests use various methods to detect these immune components, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), Western blots, immunofluorescence assays, and radioimmunoassays. The results of these tests can help healthcare providers diagnose and manage medical conditions, monitor treatment effectiveness, and assess immune function.

It's important to note that the interpretation of immunologic test results should be done by a qualified healthcare professional, as false positives or negatives can occur, and the results must be considered in conjunction with other clinical findings and patient history.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "population density" is actually a term used in population geography and epidemiology, rather than medical terminology. It refers to the number of people living in a specific area or region, usually measured as the number of people per square mile or square kilometer.

However, understanding population density can be important in public health and medicine because it can influence various factors related to health outcomes and healthcare delivery, such as:

1. Disease transmission rates: Higher population densities can facilitate the spread of infectious diseases, particularly those that are transmitted through close contact between individuals.
2. Access to healthcare services: Areas with lower population density might have fewer healthcare resources and providers available, making it more challenging for residents to access necessary medical care.
3. Health disparities: Population density can contribute to health inequities, as urban areas often have better access to healthcare, education, and economic opportunities than rural areas, leading to differences in health outcomes between these populations.
4. Environmental factors: Higher population densities might lead to increased pollution, noise, and other environmental hazards that can negatively impact health.

Therefore, while "population density" is not a medical definition per se, it remains an essential concept for understanding various public health and healthcare issues.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a key role in the immune response to parasitic infections and allergies. It is produced by B cells in response to stimulation by antigens, such as pollen, pet dander, or certain foods. Once produced, IgE binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, which are immune cells found in tissues and blood respectively. When an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, the cross-linking of IgE molecules bound to the FcεRI receptor triggers the release of mediators such as histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and various cytokines from these cells. These mediators cause the symptoms of an allergic reaction, such as itching, swelling, and redness. IgE also plays a role in protecting against certain parasitic infections by activating eosinophils, which can kill the parasites.

In summary, Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune response to allergens and parasitic infections, it binds to receptors on the surface of mast cells and basophils, when an individual with IgE antibodies encounters the allergen again, it triggers the release of mediators from these cells causing the symptoms of an allergic reaction.

Onchocerciasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by the parasitic worm Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is primarily transmitted through the bites of infected blackflies (Simulium spp.) that breed in fast-flowing rivers and streams. The larvae of the worms mature into adults in nodules under the skin, where females release microfilariae that migrate throughout the body, including the eyes.

Symptoms include severe itching, dermatitis, depigmentation, thickening and scarring of the skin, visual impairment, and blindness. The disease is also known as river blindness due to its association with riverside communities where blackflies breed. Onchocerciasis can lead to significant social and economic consequences for affected individuals and communities. Preventive chemotherapy using mass drug administration of ivermectin is the primary strategy for controlling onchocerciasis in endemic areas.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Senegal" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in West Africa, known officially as the Republic of Senegal. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help with those.

"Communications media" is a broad term that refers to the various means by which information or messages are transmitted from one person or group to another. In the context of healthcare and medicine, communications media can include both traditional and electronic methods used to share patient information, medical research, and other health-related data.

Traditional communications media in healthcare may include written documents such as medical records, charts, and reports, as well as verbal communication between healthcare providers and patients or among healthcare professionals.

Electronic communications media, on the other hand, refer to digital technologies used to transmit and store information. Examples of electronic communications media in healthcare include:

1. Electronic Health Records (EHRs): Digital versions of a patient's medical history and records, which can be shared among authorized healthcare providers.
2. Telemedicine: The use of telecommunication and information technologies to provide healthcare services remotely, allowing patients and healthcare professionals to communicate via video conferencing, phone calls, or messaging platforms.
3. Health Information Exchanges (HIEs): Secure, electronic networks that enable the sharing of health-related data among authorized healthcare organizations, providers, and patients.
4. Medical Imaging Systems: Digital systems used for storing, accessing, and sharing medical images such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRIs.
5. Personal Health Applications (mHealth): Mobile applications and wearable devices that allow individuals to monitor their health, track fitness goals, and manage chronic conditions.

Effective communication media are crucial in healthcare for ensuring accurate diagnoses, coordinating care, improving patient outcomes, and conducting medical research. It is essential to maintain confidentiality, privacy, and security when using electronic communications media to protect sensitive health information.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Elephantiasis, filarial is a medical condition characterized by the severe swelling of limbs or other parts of the body due to the blockage of lymphatic vessels by parasitic worms. It is caused by infection with threadlike nematode filarial worms, such as Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia timori. These worms are transmitted to humans through mosquito bites.

The blockage of lymphatic vessels leads to the accumulation of lymph fluid in the affected area, causing progressive swelling, thickening, and hardening of the skin and underlying tissues. In advanced cases, the skin may become rough, nodular, and fissured, resembling the hide of an elephant, hence the name "elephantiasis."

The condition is usually chronic and can cause significant disability and social stigma. While there is no cure for filarial elephantiasis, various treatments are available to alleviate symptoms, prevent transmission, and halt the progression of the disease. These include antibiotics to kill the worms, surgery to remove the lymphatic obstruction, and various supportive measures to manage the swelling and prevent secondary infections.

The urinary tract is a system in the body responsible for producing, storing, and eliminating urine. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The kidneys filter waste and excess fluids from the blood to produce urine, which then travels down the ureters into the bladder. When the bladder is full, urine is released through the urethra during urination. Any part of this system can become infected or inflamed, leading to conditions such as urinary tract infections (UTIs) or kidney stones.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

... is also a concern of cattle husbandry and mice. O-methyl-threonine is weakly effective in mouse schistosomiasis ... Schistosomiasis at Curlie River of Hope - documentary about the rise of schistosomiasis along the Senegal river (video, 47 mins ... "Schistosomiasis". www.who.int. 2021-05-18. Retrieved 2021-06-05. "Schistosomiasis A major public health problem". World Health ... "schistosomiasis - definition of schistosomiasis in English from the Oxford dictionary". OxfordDictionaries.com. Archived from ...
A Schistosomiasis vaccine is a vaccine against Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia, bilharziosis or snail fever), a ... Schistosomiasis affects over 200 million people worldwide, mainly in rural agricultural and peri-urban areas of the third world ... Schistosomiasis has been considered a "neglected disease" that disproportionately affects poorer localities and has received ... Schistosomiasis Overview, Sabin Vaccine Institute Clinical trial number NCT00870649 for "Efficacy of Vaccine Sh28GST in ...
A schistosomicide is a drug used to combat schistosomiasis. Examples listed in MeSH include: amoscanate arteether artemether ... Abdul-Ghani, R; Loutfy, N; Sahn, A; Hassan, A (Apr 2009). "Current chemotherapy arsenal for schistosomiasis mansoni: ... chloroxylenol hycanthone lucanthone metrifonate niridazole oltipraz oxamniquine praziquantel stibophen Schistosomiasis vaccine ...
Formerly named as Schistosomiasis Control and Research Hospital, it is now authorized to service up to one hundred beds. ... It was originally created as a research arm of the Schistosomiasis Control and Research Service and to provide clinical ... The Governor Benjamin T. Romualdez General Hospital and Schistosomiasis Center is a public hospital in the Palo, Philippines. ... services to patients of Schistosomiasis in the country. ...
Women who have schistosomiasis lesions are three times more likely to be infected with HIV. Women also have a higher risk of ... Along with malaria, schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic co-factors aiding in HIV transmission. ... Genital schistosomiasis, also prevalent in the topical areas of Sub-Saharan Africa and many countries worldwide, produces ... Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a parasitic disease caused by the parasitic flatworm trematodes. Moreover, more than 80 percent ...
The diagnosis of schistosomiasis can be made by microscopically examining the feces for the egg. The S. bovis egg is terminally ... The main cause of schistosomiasis is the dumping of human and animal waste into water supplies. Hygienic disposal of waste ... Schistosoma bovis is a two-host blood fluke, that causes intestinal schistosomiasis in ruminants in North Africa, Mediterranean ... Adel A. F. Mahmoud (2001). Schistosomiasis. Imperial College Press. p. 524. ISBN 978-186094-146-7. Retrieved 31 July 2016. ...
"Schistosomiasis". Lexico UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2020-04-12. " ... "Schistosomiasis". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-01-21. "Onchocerciasis". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved ...
It is the major agent of schistosomiasis, the most prevalent parasitic infection in humans. It is the only blood fluke that ... Anon (2017). "Schistosomiasis". WHO Fact Sheet. WHO Media Centre. Retrieved 12 December 2017. Antoni, S.; Ferlay, J.; ... ISBN 978-1-84826-733-6. Dew, H.R. (1923). "Observations on the pathology of schistosomiasis (S. haematobium and S. mansoni) in ... The distinct symptom for urogenital schistosomiasis is blood in the urine (haematuria), which is often associated with frequent ...
Schistosomiasis. ISBN 978-953-307-852-6. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, IUCN Red ... Stauffer, J.R.; and H. Madsen (2012). Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi and the Potential Use of Indigenous Fish for Biological ... schistosomiasis). It has been suggested that an increase in bilharzia in Lake Malawi has been caused by overfishing of this and ...
It is the major agent of schistosomiasis, the most prevalent parasitic infection in humans. It is the only blood fluke that ... Anon (2017). "Schistosomiasis". WHO Fact Sheet. WHO Media Centre. Retrieved 12 December 2017. Antoni, S.; Ferlay, J.; ... ISBN 978-0-85198-689-0. Barakat, Rashida M.R. (2013). "Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in Egypt: Travel through Time: Review". ... Berry, A.; Iriart, X.; Fillaux, J.; Magnaval, J.-F. (2017). "Schistosomose urogénitale et cancer [Urinary schistosomiasis and ...
Praziquantel "Schistosomiasis Fact Sheet". World Health Organization. Retrieved 10 August 2011. "Schistosomiasis". Centers for ... April 2001). "Schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China: prospects and challenges for the 21st century". Clinical ... "Parasites - Schistosomiasis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. 28 ... The same hybrid was identified during the 2015 investigation of a schistosomiasis outbreak on Corsica, traced to the Cavu river ...
The symptoms of schistosomiasis may vary depending on the extent of the infection, the species of the parasite and the host's ... "Schistosomiasis". www.who.int. Retrieved 2023-04-17. Grewal, P. S.; Grewal, S. K.; Tan, L.; Adams, B. J. (June 2003). " ... The transmission of schistosomiasis occurs through the penetration of the skin by cercariae, the free-swimming infective form ... Schistosomiasis is a significant public health problem in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where it is ...
Jordan, Peter (1985). Schistosomiasis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-521-30312-5. "Schistosomiasis. ...
"Schistosomiasis". www.who.int. Retrieved 2023-06-16. Siddiqui, A. A.; Siddiqui, B. A.; Ganley-Leal, L. (2011). "Schistosomiasis ...
"Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia)". www.who.int. Retrieved 2022-01-26. "CDC - Schistosomiasis". www.cdc.gov. 2021-01-13. Retrieved ... Following the valid scientific name, schistosomiasis became widely used, and the name urinary schistosomiasis is also commonly ... The infection is known by an eponymous term bilharzia or bilharziasis, as well as by schistosomiasis. Bilharz was born and ... Brightman, Christopher (2011). "Schistosomiasis". Trends in Urology & Men's Health. 2 (5): 38-42. doi:10.1002/tre.224. ISSN ...
Schistosomiasis. ISBN 978-953-307-852-6. Lowe-McConnell, R.H. (2003). Recent research in the African Great Lakes: Fisheries, ... doi:10.1073/pnas.0703873104 Stauffer, J.R.; and H. Madsen (2012). Schistosomiasis in Lake Malawi and the Potential Use of ...
Siddiqui, A. A.; Siddiqui, B. A.; Ganley-Leal, L. (2011). "Schistosomiasis vaccines". Human Vaccines. 7 (11): 1192-1197. doi: ... Hookworm vaccine Leishmaniasis vaccine Malaria vaccine Onchocerciasis river blindness vaccine for humans Schistosomiasis ...
Schistosomes and schistosomiasis in South Asia. Springer (India) Pvt, Ltd, New Delhi). Schistosoma spindale was found causing ... Unusual outbreak of schistosomiasis in bovines due to Schistosoma spindale associated with heavy mortality in Bombay state. ... It causes intestinal schistosomiasis in the ruminants. The distribution of Schistosoma spindale include Sri Lanka, India, ... Islam K. (1975). "Schistosomiasis in domestic ruminants in Bangladesh". Trop Anim Health Prod 7: 244. Ravindran, R.; Lakshmanan ...
Schistosomiasis is the second most prevalent parasitic disease of humans after malaria. In 2014-15, the WHO estimated that ... Kheir MM, Eltoum IA, Saad AM, Ali MM, Baraka OZ, Homeida MM (February 1999). "Mortality due to schistosomiasis mansoni: a field ... WHO (2013). Schistosomiasis: progress report 2001 - 2011, strategic plan 2012 - 2020. WHO Press, World Health Organization, ... Praziquantel is the drug of choice for schistosomiasis, taeniasis, and most types of food-borne trematodiases. Oxamniquine is ...
Symptoms for schistosomiasis are not caused by the worms but by the body's reaction to the eggs. The eggs that do not pass out ... Each case of schistosomiasis causes a loss of 45.4 days of work per year. Most of the diseases cost the economies of developing ... "Schistosomiasis-Disease". CDC, Division of Parasitic Diseases. Archived from the original on 2 December 2016. Retrieved 17 ... Feces and urine that contain worm eggs can contaminate surface water and lead to transmission of schistosomiasis. This can be ...
Schistosomiasis Control and Surveillance Program) Chapter: Aquaculture and schistosomiasis. In: Larsson B. (December 1994) ... The human disease schistosomiasis (aka snail fever) caused by all Schistosoma species (transmitted also by other snails) ... The Carter Center "Schistosomiasis Control Program". Accessed 20 November 2009. Colley, Daniel G; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Secor, W ... "A Fresh Insight into Transmission of Schistosomiasis: A Misleading Tale of Biomphalaria in Lake Victoria". PLoS ONE. 6 (10): ...
Ross AG, Bartley PB, Sleigh AC, Olds GR, Li Y, Williams GM, McManus DP (April 2002). "Schistosomiasis" (PDF). The New England ... It can be used to treat schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium, but is no longer commercially available. It has been ... dead link 31 January 2019) "Helminths: Schistosomiasis: Metrifonate". WHO Model Prescribing Information: Drugs Used in ...
"Schistosomiasis Control Program". Archived from the original on 2008-07-20. Retrieved 2008-07-17. Shen C, Kim J, Lee JK, Bae YM ... Schistosomiasis caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma: As of 2005, praziquantel is the primary treatment for human ... Praziquantel is FDA approved in the US for the treatment of schistosomiasis and liver flukes, although it is effective in other ... February 2016). "Efficacy and safety of praziquantel for the treatment of human schistosomiasis during pregnancy: a phase 2, ...
"WHA54.19 Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections" (PDF). World Health Organization. "About". Schistosomiasis ... "The History of Schistosomiasis Research and Policy for Its Control". Med Hist. 20 (3): 259-75. doi:10.1017/s0025727300022663. ...
flukes cause Schistosomiasis. Pork tapeworm and beef tapeworm cause seizures when the parasite creates cysts at the brain. ...
Davis A (1996). "Schistosomiasis treatment - praziquantel". In Cook GC (ed.). Manson's Tropical Diseases (twentieth ed.). ...
"Helminth Taxonomy - Phylum Nematoda". Schistosomiasis Research Group. Archived from the original on April 13, 2009. Retrieved ...
Stephenson, Lani S (1986). Schistosomiasis and malnutrition. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University, Program in International ... Schistosomiasis and Malnutrition (1986) "Helminth Parasites, a Major Factor in Malnutrition" (1994) "Possible New Developments ... and on interventions to prevent or treat schistosomiasis, filariasis, and malaria. She retired from Cornell in 2000. ...
Media related to Schistosoma japonicum at Wikimedia Commons Schistosomiasis link from the CDC. Schistosomiasis in China at UC- ... "CDC - Schistosomiasis - Epidemiology & Risk Factors". www.cdc.gov. April 22, 2019. "第6回 岡山医専教授 桂田富士郎 日本住血吸虫発見 世界注目の奇病解明". 岡山の医療 ... "CDC - Schistosomiasis - Prevention & Control". www.cdc.gov. 27 October 2020. Ingram RJ, Bartlett A, Brown MB, Marriott C, ... Biopsies are mostly performed to test for chronic schistosomiasis with no eggs. An
The Schistosomiasis Control Initiative had developed an approach which would cost 50 US cents per person per year, and was ... However, for schistosomiasis, mass deworming might have been effective for weight but probably was ineffective for height, ... "Schistosomiasis fact sheet". WHO. January 2017. Retrieved 14 May 2017. "WHO intestinal worms strategy". who.int. Archived from ... October 2011). "Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminth control in Niger: cost effectiveness of school based and ...
Safe and effective medication is available for treatment of both urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis. Praziquantel, a ...
Schistosomiasis is also a concern of cattle husbandry and mice. O-methyl-threonine is weakly effective in mouse schistosomiasis ... Schistosomiasis at Curlie River of Hope - documentary about the rise of schistosomiasis along the Senegal river (video, 47 mins ... "Schistosomiasis". www.who.int. 2021-05-18. Retrieved 2021-06-05. "Schistosomiasis A major public health problem". World Health ... "schistosomiasis - definition of schistosomiasis in English from the Oxford dictionary". OxfordDictionaries.com. Archived from ...
After malaria and intestinal helminthiasis, schistosomiasis is the third most devastating tropical disease in the world, being ... Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma. ... Chronic schistosomiasis. The pathology of chronic schistosomiasis, which is far more common than the acute form of the ... Schistosomiasis and HIV in rural Zimbabwe: efficacy of treatment of schistosomiasis in individuals with HIV coinfection. Clin ...
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What is schistosomiasis?. Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease characterized as either intestinal or urogenital, depending on ... Symptoms of schistosomiasis directly reflect the bodys reaction to the worms eggs. Intestinal schistosomiasis can present ... Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in several parts of the world, particularly in Africa where 92% of all the ... Urogenital schistosomiasis presents with blood in urine and fibrosis of the bladder, ureter and kidney damage in advanced cases ...
The Immunodiagnosis and Control for Schistosomiasis Japonica in Taiwan. Department. National Yang-Ming University. Project Year ...
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During acute schistosomiasis worm ova released from adult S. japonicum elicit potent pro-inflammatory responses along with ... Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease that affects more than 210 million people worldwide. Its major pathology is the ... Acute schistosomiasis is characterized by pro-inflammatory responses against tissue- or organ-trapped parasite eggs along with ... This, in turn, led to a characteristic switch of host immune defense in the setting of acute schistosomiasis from a ...
Schistosomiasis - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... What causes schistosomiasis? Schistosomiasis is caused by a parasite called a fluke, which is a type of roundworm. Adult flukes ... What is schistosomiasis? Schistosomiasis is an infection caused by a tiny parasite called a fluke. ... How can doctors tell if I have schistosomiasis? Doctors suspect schistosomiasis from your symptoms, especially if youve ...
What is the impact of schistosomiasis on agricultural production?. * What is the place of schistosomiasis in the optimal ... Schistosomiasis, bilharzia, or snail fever is a chronic disease caused by flatworms native to sub-Saharan Africa. Transmitted ... In 2016, 206 million people worldwide were suffering from Schistosomiasis.. As infected people are often too weak to work, the ... We study the economic impact of schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso using new data and new methods, and estimate that the ...
Schistosomiasis, malaria, and co-infection: Contributions to anemia in Kenyan schoolchildren File Details. Depositor. Valice, ...
Schistosomiasis Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes. ... Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by parasitic worms, transmitted through contact with contaminated freshwater. It can cause ... Epidemiology: Schistosomiasis is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas, especially in poor communities without ... Treatment: The primary treatment for schistosomiasis is praziquantel, a medication that is effective against all forms of the ...
1972). Use of the bentonite flocculation test for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis.. 87(6). Allain, D S and Chisholm, E S and ... Title : Use of the bentonite flocculation test for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. Personal Author(s) : Allain, D S;Chisholm ... "Use of the bentonite flocculation test for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis." vol. 87, no. 6, 1972. Export RIS Citation ... Kagan, I G "Use of the bentonite flocculation test for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis." 87, no. 6 (1972). Allain, D S et al ...
A group of Norwegian doctors have now studied how many became infected with Schistosomiasis after being exposed to fresh water. ... Schistosomiasis. According to WHO, Schistosomiasis is an acute and chronic disease caused by parasitic worms. Infection by the ... A group of Norwegian doctors have now studied how many became infected with Schistosomiasis after being exposed to fresh water ... There is a belief that the risk of contracting Schistosomiasis is greater in stagnant water, but the Norwegian exchange student ...
Schistosomiasis. The Carter Center undertakes one of the longest-running initiatives in providing health education and ... a telltale sign of schistosomiasis infection - by approximately 50% in Plateau and Nasarawa states. ... treatment for schistosomiasis in Nigeria, where we have assisted in reducing blood in schoolchildrens urine - ...
Schistosomiasis programme. Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic infection caused by worms. It is most common in rural and ... The parasite species is Schistosoma mansoni, which is associated with intestinal schistosomiasis. The main risk factor for ... Schistosomiasis claims the lives of children and adults in Africa each year. ...
Schistosomiasis / edited by W. Evan Secor and Daniel G. Colley. Contributor(s): Secor, W. Evan , Colley, Daniel GMaterial type ... 25 cmISBN: 038723277XSubject(s): SchistosomiasisDDC classification: LOC classification: NLM classification: , WC 810 2005SC ...
Schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, is a common intravascular infection caused by the Schistosoma trematode worm. Bilharzia is ...
Development of a rapid dipstick with latex immunochromatographic assay (DLIA) for diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica. ... Development of a rapid dipstick with latex immunochromatographic assay (DLIA) for diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica. ...
Topical application of DEET for schistosomiasis.. Kalyanasundaram Ramaswamy, Yi Xun He, Buz Salafsky, Takeshi Shibuya. Trends ... potentially makes compounds such as LipoDEET an excellent prophylactic agent against human and animal schistosomiasis in ...
OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis. SEARCH METHODS:We searched the ... AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS:Praziquantel 40 mg/kg is the most studied drug for treating urinary schistosomiasis, and has the strongest ... evidence base.Potential strategies to improve future treatments for schistosomiasis include the combination of praziquantel ... Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by an intravascular infection with parasitic Schistosoma haematobium worms. The adult worms ...
Chapter 1 Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis in Low Endemic Areas By Amal Farahat Allam ...
Topic: Schistosomiasis. (Please note that the documents listed below are sorted by date.). Health Information for International ...
Researchers uncover novel targets for treatment of schistosomiasis The worms that cause schistosomiasis (Schistosoma mansoni) ...
SANTHE is an Africa Health Research Institute (AHRI) flagship programme funded by the Science for Africa Foundation through the DELTAS Africa programme; the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Gilead Sciences Inc.; and the Ragon Institute of Mass General, MIT, and Harvard.. Copyright 2016 by SANTHE. All Rights Reserved.. ...
Schistosomiasis is a poorly understood tropical disease that is estimated to affect over 250 million people with approximately ... Schistosomiasis is a poorly understood tropical disease that is estimated to affect over 250 million people with approximately ... Schistosomiasis is a poorly understood tropical disease that is estimated to affect over 250 million people with approximately ...
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Dew, H.R. (1923). "Observations on the pathology of schistosomiasis (S. haematobium and S. mansoni) in the human subject". The ... It is the major agent of schistosomiasis, the most prevalent parasitic infection in humans.[1] It is the only blood fluke that ... Pearce, Edward J.; MacDonald, Andrew S. (2002). "The immunobiology of schistosomiasis". Nature Reviews Immunology. 2 (7): 499- ... Contis, G.; David, A.R. (1996). "The epidemiology of Bilharzia in Ancient Egypt: 5000 years of schistosomiasis". Parasitology ...
Schistosomiasis vaccination campaign targets 1.8 million children and adolescents. June 11, 2022 ... The campaign comes with the support of the World Bank and aims to protect local communities from schistosomiasis. ... The World Health Organization announced a new vaccination campaign against schistosomiasis, targeting more than one million and ... the World Health Organization and health authorities with the support of the World Bank MENA launched a schistosomiasis ...
  • Manifestation of acute infection from schistosoma include cercarial dermatitis (hours to days) and acute schistosomiasis (2-8 weeks). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes referred to as bilharzias, bilharziasis, or snail fever, schistosomiasis was discovered by Theodore Bilharz, a German surgeon working in Cairo, who first identified the etiological agent Schistosoma hematobium in 1851. (medscape.com)
  • Schistosomiasis is due to immunologic reactions to Schistosoma eggs trapped in tissues. (medscape.com)
  • The main species causing schistosomiasis are Schistosoma mansoni , Schistosoma haematobium , and Schistosoma japonicum . (who.int)
  • The parasite species is Schistosoma mansoni, which is associated with intestinal schistosomiasis. (aho.org)
  • Schistosomiasis, or bilharzia, is a common intravascular infection caused by the Schistosoma trematode worm. (ampath.co.za)
  • Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is a parasitic disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. (urgentcarearlingtonva.com)
  • BACKGROUND:Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by an intravascular infection with parasitic Schistosoma haematobium worms. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The worms that cause schistosomiasis (Schistosoma mansoni) are unusual in several ways, especially the fact that male and female adults must stay paired together throughout their lives for reproduction to be successful. (news-medical.net)
  • Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever, bilharzia, and Katayama fever, is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is an infection caused by a parasitic worm that lives in fresh water in subtropical and tropical regions. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Schistosomiasis, bilharzia, or 'snail fever' is a chronic disease caused by flatworms native to sub-Saharan Africa. (snis.ch)
  • Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes. (who.int)
  • Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia, bilharziosis or snail fever) is a parasitic disease caused by flatworms. (givingwhatwecan.org)
  • For human schistosomiasis, a similar type of dermatitis called "swimmer's itch" can also be caused by cercariae from animal trematodes that often infect birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most human schistosomiasis is caused by S haematobium, S mansoni , and S japonicum . (medscape.com)
  • Safe and effective medication is available for treatment of both urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis. (cdc.gov)
  • After malaria and intestinal helminthiasis, schistosomiasis is the third most devastating tropical disease in the world, being a major source of morbidity and mortality for developing countries in Africa, South America, the Caribbean, the Middle East, and Asia. (medscape.com)
  • Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease characterized as either intestinal or urogenital, depending on where the adult flukes are located. (who.int)
  • Intestinal schistosomiasis can present with abdominal pain, bloody stool, diarrhoea and in advanced cases enlargement of the liver and spleen. (who.int)
  • The Carter Center undertakes one of the longest-running initiatives in providing health education and treatment for schistosomiasis in Nigeria, where we have assisted in reducing blood in schoolchildren's urine - a telltale sign of schistosomiasis infection - by approximately 50% in Plateau and Nasarawa states. (cartercenter.org)
  • A skin rash, known as "swimmer's itch," is a telltale sign of schistosomiasis. (urgentcarearlingtonva.com)
  • Schistosomiasis, or "snail fever", is a parasitic disease affecting over 200 million people worldwide. (nsf.gov)
  • Schistosomiasis can usually be treated successfully with a short course of a medication called praziquantel, which kills the worms. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The primary treatment for schistosomiasis is praziquantel, a medication that is effective against all forms of the disease. (who.int)
  • Their website further states: "The WHO strategy for schistosomiasis control focuses on reducing disease through periodic, targeted treatment with praziquantel through the large-scale treatment (preventive chemotherapy) of affected populations. (uib.no)
  • Treatment for schistosomiasis typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications, such as praziquantel. (urgentcarearlingtonva.com)
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Praziquantel 40 mg/kg is the most studied drug for treating urinary schistosomiasis, and has the strongest evidence base.Potential strategies to improve future treatments for schistosomiasis include the combination of praziquantel with metrifonate, or with antimalarial drugs with antischistosomal properties such as artesunate and mefloquine. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Interesting work by Chan and colleagues describes an unknown mechanism of action of the tetracyclic tetrahydroisoquinoline praziquantel (PZQ), the drug widely used to combat schistosomiasis, a debilitating and common tropical disease which affects more than 260 million people worldwide. (immunopaedia.org.za)
  • Therefore the main objective of this project is to identify the impact of schistosomiasis on economic development in sub-Saharan Africa. (snis.ch)
  • What is the impact of schistosomiasis on agricultural production? (snis.ch)
  • We study the economic impact of schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso using new data and new methods, and estimate that the elimination of the disease would increase average crop yields by 7%, rising to 32% for high infection clusters. (snis.ch)
  • I study the economic impact of schistosomiasis in Burkina Faso via the estimation of its burden on agricultural production with new data and new methods and identify it as a productivity shock. (snis.ch)
  • The debilitating impact of schistosomiasis is initiated by the host's immune response to schistosome eggs in the liver, intestine and/or bladder and genital tract where they induce granuloma inflammation, periportal fibrosis, hypertension causing clinical disease morbidity and mortality. (immunopaedia.org.za)
  • Over time transmission dynamics of schistosomiasis have changed. (medscape.com)
  • I reconcile these results with a theoretical framework, which shows how the joint dynamics of schistosomiasis and the production decisions of farmers create Pareto-inferior endemic Nash equilibria, and how the wealth-dependent disease reproduction rate (the R0) can generate poverty traps. (snis.ch)
  • S. intercalatum , S. japonicum , S. mansoni and S. mekongi while S. haematobium causes urogenital schistosomiasis. (who.int)
  • Researchers have discovered a group of genes in this snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, that conveys resistance to the parasite that causes schistosomiasis. (who.int)
  • What causes schistosomiasis? (msdmanuals.com)
  • Urogenital schistosomiasis presents with blood in urine and fibrosis of the bladder, ureter and kidney damage in advanced cases. (who.int)
  • These symptoms, known as acute schistosomiasis, often get better by themselves within a few weeks. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Steroid medication can also be used to help relieve the symptoms of acute schistosomiasis, or symptoms caused by damage to the brain or nervous system. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Use of the bentonite flocculation test for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. (cdc.gov)
  • Although various mechanisms associated with schistosomiasis have already been evidenced, there is still a need to fulfill the comprehension of this disease , especially to prospect for novel biomarkers to improve its diagnosis . (bvsalud.org)
  • We hope this review can guide future developments in the field of schistosomiasis , contributing to improving its diagnosis and eradication. (bvsalud.org)
  • You often don't have any symptoms when you first become infected with schistosomiasis, but the parasite can remain in the body for many years and cause damage to organs such as the bladder, kidneys and liver. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Schistosomiasis is an infection caused by a tiny parasite called a fluke. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Schistosomiasis is caused by a parasite called a fluke, which is a type of roundworm. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Schistosomiasis is transmitted through contact with freshwater contaminated with the larvae of the parasite, released by freshwater snails. (who.int)
  • Around 30% of the study participants were shown to have antibodies to Schistosomiasis, indicating to the parasite. (uib.no)
  • These symptoms can also be related to avian schistosomiasis, which does not cause any further symptoms in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many people with schistosomiasis don't have any symptoms, or don't experience any for several months or even years. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Some people with schistosomiasis, regardless of whether they had any initial symptoms or not, eventually develop more serious problems in parts of the body the eggs have travelled to. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Chronic schistosomiasis can include a range of symptoms and problems, depending on the exact area that's infected. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Visit your GP if you develop the symptoms above and you've travelled in parts of the world where schistosomiasis is found, or if you're concerned that you may have been exposed to the parasites while travelling. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Symptoms of schistosomiasis directly reflect the body's reaction to the worm's eggs. (who.int)
  • What are the symptoms of schistosomiasis? (msdmanuals.com)
  • Doctors suspect schistosomiasis from your symptoms, especially if you've recently been swimming or bathing in possibly infected water. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Fever is one of the primary symptoms of schistosomiasis. (urgentcarearlingtonva.com)
  • A persistent cough and abdominal pain are common symptoms of schistosomiasis. (urgentcarearlingtonva.com)
  • Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) such as Schistosomiasis and Onchocerciasis are normally caused by worms or bacteria and occur in tropical climates. (givingwhatwecan.org)
  • Schistosomiasis is endemic in of Escherichia coli in chicken meat and new S. japonicum -complex schisto- many developing countries and in- humans, the Netherlands. (cdc.gov)
  • Concomitantly, they facilitate the propagation of schistosomiasis, a water-based debilitating disease that is endemic in many developing countries. (snis.ch)
  • Minimal systemic absorption, low manufacturing cost, and a wide range of activity against insects and schistosomes potentially makes compounds such as LipoDEET an excellent prophylactic agent against human and animal schistosomiasis in endemic areas, especially for travelers, until an effective vaccine is available. (qxmd.com)
  • the causative agents of schistosomiasis , exhibit a quite complex life cycle that involves two hosts ( humans and snails , respectively, the definitive and the intermediate), and five evolutive forms cercariae ( human infective form), schistosomula, adult worms, eggs , and miracidia. (bvsalud.org)
  • In tropical countries, schistosomiasis is second only to malaria among parasitic diseases with the greatest economic impact. (wikipedia.org)
  • With almost 240 million people infected in more than 70 countries, schistosomiasis is second only to malaria in common parasitic diseases. (scicoll.org)
  • More than 140 million people, 90% of who live in Africa, are infected with schistosomiasis. (medscape.com)
  • Schistosomiasis remains a public health problem in several parts of the world, particularly in Africa where 92% of all the people requiring preventive chemotherapy for schistosomiasis live. (who.int)
  • Schistosomiasis claims the lives of children and adults in Africa each year. (aho.org)
  • Drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • [1] It is the only blood fluke that infects the urinary tract, causing urinary schistosomiasis, and is the leading cause of bladder cancer (only next to tobacco smoking). (wikipedia.org)
  • Schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic infection caused by worms. (aho.org)
  • Buruli ulcer (BU), leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH). (who.int)
  • It is the major agent of schistosomiasis , the most prevalent parasitic infection in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by parasitic worms, transmitted through contact with contaminated freshwater. (who.int)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 220.8 million people required preventive treatment for schistosomiasis in 2017. (medscape.com)
  • By following these preventive measures, individuals can significantly reduce their risk of schistosomiasis and protect their health. (urgentcarearlingtonva.com)
  • Schistosomiasis is recognized as a significant public health problem and is targeted by various global health initiatives. (who.int)
  • Initiatives such as the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative (SCI) and the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) depend upon the repository's specimens for ongoing research and drug administration. (scicoll.org)
  • Schistosomiasis is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas, especially in poor communities without access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation. (who.int)
  • In 2018, about 20 million people required preventative chemotherapy against schistosomiasis. (who.int)
  • Schistosomiasis is listed as a neglected tropical disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission risk associated with artificial reservoirs has been extensively documented for schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease of poverty that infects more than 240 million people worldwide. (nsf.gov)
  • Poorer households engaged in subsistence agriculture bear a far heavier disease burden than do richer ones: we show that schistosomiasis is both a driver and a consequence of poverty. (snis.ch)
  • The WHO website states: "The economic and health effects of schistosomiasis are considerable and the disease disables more than it kills. (uib.no)
  • Schistosomiasis is a poorly understood tropical disease that is estimated to affect over 250 million people with approximately 779 million people at risk globally. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease that strikes many people from tropical and subtropical countries where there are not satisfactory sanitation and wide access to clean water . (bvsalud.org)
  • You get schistosomiasis from swimming, wading, or bathing in fresh water that has these flukes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • As the World Health Organization reprioritizes snail control to reduce the global burden of schistosomiasis, there is renewed importance in knowing when and where to target those efforts, which could vary by schistosome species. (nsf.gov)
  • A study by researchers from the Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Tropical Infectious Diseases at Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen and the Regional Competency Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases at Oslo University Hospital, and others, has shown that "off-the-beaten-track" tourist experiences, such as river rafting, may result in Schistosomiasis infections, and hence potentially long-term, serious illness. (uib.no)
  • The techniques to diagnose schistosomiasis still have various limitations, mainly regarding low-intensity infections . (bvsalud.org)
  • Adhesions in the uterine cavity can also form after infection with tuberculosis or schistosomiasis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diagnosing schistosomiasis involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. (urgentcarearlingtonva.com)
  • There's no vaccine for schistosomiasis, so it's important to be aware of the risks and take precautions to avoid exposure to contaminated water. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Diarrhea and blood in urine are alarming signs of schistosomiasis. (urgentcarearlingtonva.com)
  • Schistosomiasis is caused by the blood-vessel dwelling trematodes belonging to the family schistosomatidae (blood fluke). (immunopaedia.org.za)
  • As schistosomiasis progresses, it can cause hepatosplenomegaly, which is the enlargement of the liver and spleen. (urgentcarearlingtonva.com)
  • The Schistosomiasis Collection at the Natural History Museum in London (SCAN) is an essential resource for studying the disease's parasitic flatworm, known as a schistosome, and its snail hosts. (scicoll.org)
  • [ 9 ] Livestock and endemicity play a major role in schistosomiasis transmission. (medscape.com)
  • According to our research, two of the most cost-effective charities in this area are the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative and Deworm the World. (givingwhatwecan.org)
  • Developing methods with more sensitivity and portability to detect the infection is valuable to reach schistosomiasis control. (bvsalud.org)
  • What are the complex relationships between Schistosomiasis, agricultural production, and migration in an African context? (snis.ch)
  • In this context, this review has gathered information not only on schistosomiasis biomarkers but also on emerging optical and electrochemical tools proposed in selected studies from about the last ten years. (bvsalud.org)
  • Emerging biomedical tools for biomarkers detection and diagnostics in schistosomiasis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Schistosomiasis affects millions of people worldwide and can lead to severe health complications if left untreated. (urgentcarearlingtonva.com)
  • They are researchers at the Natural History Museum, London who work with the Schistosomiasis Collection at the Natural History Museum (SCAN). (scicoll.org)
  • Schistosomiasis affected about 236.6 million people worldwide in 2019. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016, 206 million people worldwide were suffering from Schistosomiasis. (snis.ch)
  • Schistosomiasis: A major public health problem. (scicoll.org)