The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Scattering of a beam of electromagnetic or acoustic RADIATION, or particles, at small angles by particles or cavities whose dimensions are many times as large as the wavelength of the radiation or the de Broglie wavelength of the scattered particles. Also know as low angle scattering. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed) Small angle scattering (SAS) techniques, small angle neutron (SANS), X-ray (SAXS), and light (SALS, or just LS) scattering, are used to characterize objects on a nanoscale.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The scattering of NEUTRONS by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. It is useful in CRYSTALLOGRAPHY and POWDER DIFFRACTION.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.
Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.
Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.
Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.
A condition caused by a brief whole body exposure to more than one sievert dose equivalent of radiation. Acute radiation syndrome is initially characterized by ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; VOMITING; but can progress to hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, pulmonary, and other major organ dysfunction.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.
Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.
Behavior of LIGHT and its interactions with itself and materials.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
Relating to the size of solids.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
LIGHT, it's processes and properties, and the characteristics of materials interacting with it.
Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.
CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.
A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).
A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.
Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or sonic radiation (SOUND WAVES) which does not produce IONS in matter through which it passes. The wavelengths of non-ionizing electromagentic radiation are generally longer than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest RADIO WAVES.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The core of the crystalline lens, surrounded by the cortex.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
Congenital changes in the morphology of organs produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Measurement of distances or movements by means of the phenomena caused by the interference of two rays of light (optical interferometry) or of sound (acoustic interferometry).
Silver. An element with the atomic symbol Ag, atomic number 47, and atomic weight 107.87. It is a soft metal that is used medically in surgical instruments, dental prostheses, and alloys. Long-continued use of silver salts can lead to a form of poisoning known as ARGYRIA.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.
Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.
A weapon that derives its destructive force from nuclear fission and/or fusion.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.
A transparent, biconvex structure of the EYE, enclosed in a capsule and situated behind the IRIS and in front of the vitreous humor (VITREOUS BODY). It is slightly overlapped at its margin by the ciliary processes. Adaptation by the CILIARY BODY is crucial for OCULAR ACCOMMODATION.
The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Measurement of the various properties of light.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
April 25th -26th, 1986 nuclear power accident that occurred at Chernobyl in the former USSR (Ukraine) located 80 miles north of Kiev.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
A change of a substance from one form or state to another.
Use of a device (film badge) for measuring exposure of individuals to radiation. It is usually made of metal, plastic, or paper and loaded with one or more pieces of x-ray film.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The branch of science that deals with the geometric description of crystals and their internal arrangement. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Devices containing fissionable material in sufficient quantity and so arranged as to be capable of maintaining a controlled, self-sustaining NUCLEAR FISSION chain reaction. They are also known as atomic piles, atomic reactors, fission reactors, and nuclear piles, although such names are deprecated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.

Biophysical characterization of the structure of the amino-terminal region of gp41 of HIV-1. Implications on viral fusion mechanism. (1/3735)

A peptide of 51 amino acids corresponding to the NH2-terminal region (5-55) of the glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was synthesized to study its conformation and assembly. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments indicated the sequence NH2-terminal to the leucine zipper-like domain of gp41 was induced into helix in the micellar solution, in agreement with circular dichroism data. Light scattering experiment showed that the peptide molecules self-assembled in water into trimeric structure on average. That the peptide molecules oligomerize in aqueous solution was supported by gel filtration and diffusion coefficient experiments. Molecular dynamics simulation based on the NMR data revealed a flexible region adjacent to the hydrophobic NH2 terminus of gp41. The biological significance of the present findings on the conformational flexibility and the propensity of oligomerization of the peptide may be envisioned by a proposed model for the interaction of gp41 with membranes during fusion process.  (+info)

Aggregation of deoxyhemoglobin S at low concentrations. (2/3735)

The self-association of deoxyhemoglobin S was measured in dilute solutions (0 to 5 g/dl) by Rayleigh light scattering at 630 nm and osmometry in 0.05 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.35). Weight and number average molecular weights (Mw and Mn, respectively) and the second or higher virial coefficients, B' were determined. No experimentally significant differences were observed between oxy- and deoxy-Hb S up to the concentration of 2 g/dl; their apparent average molecular weights were within experimental error. Above that concentration, both Mn and Mw of deoxy-Hb S were significantly different from that of oxy-Hb S. The negative second viral coefficent of deoxy-Hb S, observed by both techniques, is consistent with the self-association of this protein. The lack of effect of 0.4 M propylurea on the state of aggregation and the significant influence of 0.1 M NaCl suggests that polar interactions are involved in formation of these aggregates.  (+info)

The effect of the antiscatter grid on full-field digital mammography phantom images. (3/3735)

Computer Analysis of Mammography Phantom Images (CAMPI) is a method for making quantitative measurements of image quality. This article reports on a recent application of this method to a prototype full-field digital mammography (FFDM) machine. Images of a modified ACR phantom were acquired on the General Electric Diagnostic Molybdenum Rhodium (GE-DMR) FFDM machine at a number of x-ray techniques, both with and without the scatter reduction grid. The techniques were chosen so that one had sets of grid and non-grid images with matched doses (200 mrads) and matched gray-scale values (1500). A third set was acquired at constant 26 kVp and varying mAs for both grid conditions. Analyses of the images yielded signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR), contrast and noise corresponding to each target object, and a non-uniformity measure. The results showed that under conditions of equal gray-scale value the grid images were markedly superior, albeit at higher doses than the non-grid images. Under constant dose conditions, the non-grid images were slightly superior in SNR (7%) but markedly less uniform (60%). Overall, the grid images had substantially greater contrast and superior image uniformity. These conclusions applied to the whole kVp range studied for the Mo-Mo target filter combination and 4 cm of breast equivalent material of average composition. These results suggest that use of the non-grid technique in digital mammography with the GE-DMR-FFDM unit, is presently not warranted. With improved uniformity correction procedure, this conclusion would change and one should be able to realize a 14% reduction in patient dose at the same SNR by using a non-grid technique.  (+info)

pH-dependent conformational change of gastric mucin leads to sol-gel transition. (4/3735)

We present dynamic light scattering (DLS) and hydrophobic dye-binding data in an effort to elucidate a molecular mechanism for the ability of gastric mucin to form a gel at low pH, which is crucial to the barrier function of gastric mucus. DLS measurements of dilute mucin solutions were not indicative of intermolecular association, yet there was a steady fall in the measured diffusion coefficient with decreasing pH, suggesting an apparent increase in size. Taken together with the observed rise in depolarized scattering ratio with decreasing pH, these results suggest that gastric mucin undergoes a conformational change from a random coil at pH >/= 4 to an anisotropic, extended conformation at pH < 4. The increased binding of mucin to hydrophobic fluorescent with decreasing pH indicates that the change to an extended conformation is accompanied by exposure of hydrophobic binding sites. In concentrated mucin solutions, the structure factor S(q, t) derived from DLS measurements changed from a stretched exponential decay at pH 7 to a power-law decay at pH 2, which is characteristic of a sol-gel transition. We propose that the conformational change facilitates cross-links among mucin macromolecules through hydrophobic interactions at low pH, which in turn leads to a sol-gel transition when the mucin solution is sufficiently concentrated.  (+info)

Effect of salt addition on the fractal structure of aggregates formed by heating dilute BSA solutions. (5/3735)

The fractal dimension, Df, of aggregates in a dilute BSA system with added salt was evaluated by static light scattering (SLS). A fractal structure was observed for the system with NaCl addition. The values of Df increased with increasing heating time and ionic strength. The values of Df were larger than those (Df = 1.8 or 2.1) predicted by the conventional cluster-cluster aggregation model, probably due to a "restructuring" of aggregates during the aggregation process. On the other hand, a fractal structure was not apparent for the system with added CaCl2.  (+info)

17beta-estradiol reduces tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated LDL accumulation in the artery wall. (6/3735)

Estrogens have direct effects on the vascular wall that may prevent the development of atherosclerosis. In particular, estrogens, such as 17beta-estradiol (estradiol), are known to have potent antioxidant activity. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is found in human atheroma and produces oxygen-derived free radicals. These oxygen-derived free radicals may modify low density lipoproteins (LDL) and increase LDL binding in the artery wall. We asked: 1) does TNF increase LDL accumulation in the artery wall and 2) can the TNF-mediated increase in LDL accumulation be prevented by the antioxidant activity of estradiol? Carotid arteries from ovariectomized 3-month-old rats were removed and perfused with fluorescently labeled LDL and arterial LDL flux was measured using quantitative fluorescence microscopy. In six arteries, addition of TNF (10 ng/ml) to the perfusate resulted in a 2.3-fold increase in the rate of LDL accumulation (1.50 +/- 0.37 ng/min per cm2 vs. 3.38 +/- 0.48 ng/min per cm2; P < 0.01). Estradiol (65 pg/ml) and alpha-tocopherol (6 mg/L) both attenuated TNF-mediated LDL accumulation (P < 0.05), indicating that TNF may exert its effects on LDL accumulation through cellular production of oxygen-derived free radicals. These results support an antioxidant role for estradiol in the protection against LDL accumulation in the artery wall and subsequent progression of atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Directional and spectral reflectance of the rat retinal nerve fiber layer. (7/3735)

PURPOSE: To measure and describe the reflectance properties of a mammalian retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and to determine the mechanisms responsible for the RNFL reflectance. METHODS: An isolated rat retina suspended across a slit in a black membrane and mounted in a black perfusion chamber provided high quality images of the RNFL. Imaging microreflectometry was used to measure RNFL reflectance at wavelengths from 400 nm to 830 nm and as a function of illumination angle. RESULTS: The directional reflectance of rat RNFL at all wavelengths was consistent with the theory of light scattering by cylinders; each nerve fiber bundle scattered light into a conical sheet coaxial with the bundle. There was no evidence of a noncylindrical component at any wavelength. Measured reflectance spectra were consistent between animals, similar to ones previously measured in macaque, and varied with scattering angle. All spectra could be described by a two-mechanism cylindrical scattering model with three free parameters. CONCLUSIONS: At all wavelengths the reflectance of rat RNFL arises from light scattering by cylindrical structures. The highly directional nature of this reflectance can be an important source of measurement variability in clinical assessment of the RNFL. The reflectance spectra reveal a combination of mechanisms: At wavelengths shorter than approximately 570 nm the reflectance comes from cylinders with diameters much smaller than the wavelength, but at wavelengths longer than approximately 680 nm the reflectance comes from cylinders with effective diameters of 350 nm to 900 nm.  (+info)

Single-polymer dynamics in steady shear flow. (8/3735)

The conformational dynamics of individual, flexible polymers in steady shear flow were directly observed by the use of video fluorescence microscopy. The probability distribution for the molecular extension was determined as a function of shear rate, gamma;, for two different polymer relaxation times, tau. In contrast to the behavior in pure elongational flow, the average polymer extension in shear flow does not display a sharp coil-stretch transition. Large, aperiodic temporal fluctuations were observed, consistent with end-over-end tumbling of the molecule. The rate of these fluctuations (relative to the relaxation rate) increased as the Weissenberg number, gamma;tau, was increased.  (+info)

Capillary electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering studies of structure and binding characteristics of protein-polyelectrolyte complexes
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surface morphology and light scattering properties of plasma etched ZnO:B films grown by LP-MOCVD for silicon thin film solar cells. AU - Addonizio, M.L.. AU - Antonaia, A.. PY - 2009/12/15. Y1 - 2009/12/15. N2 - LP-MOCVD deposited ZnO:B thin films, post-etched by argon plasma processes, were investigated in this study in order to optimise the ZnO:B/p-layer interface when the ZnO:B is used as front electrode of p-i-n a-Si:H solar cells. At varying etching time different surface roughness was obtained and the evolution of the surface morphology was correlated with the texture characteristic and its scattering properties. Atomic force microscopy data were analysed and discussed together with the scattering properties, which are haze parameter and angular resolved scattering (ARS) distribution. The presence of several preferential scattering angles was hypothesized and a deconvolution approach was applied to each angular scattering curve. For each fixed preferential scattering angle ...
The strong wavelength dependence of the scattering (~λ−4) means that shorter (blue) wavelengths are scattered more strongly than longer (red) wavelengths. This results in the indirect blue light coming from all regions of the sky. Rayleigh scattering is a good approximation of the manner in which light scattering occurs within various media for which scattering particles have a small size (parameter). A portion of the beam of light coming from the sun scatters off molecules of gas and other small particles in the atmosphere. Here, Rayleigh scattering primarily occurs through sunlights interaction with randomly located air molecules. It is this scattered light that gives the surrounding sky its brightness and its color. As previously stated, Rayleigh scattering is inversely proportional to the fourth power of wavelength, so that shorter wavelength violet and blue light will scatter more than the longer wavelengths (yellow and especially red light). However, the Sun, like any star, has its own ...
Malcolm Connah, product manager for nanometrics at Malvern Instruments, spoke about dynamic light scattering techniques at a workshop on Sampling, detection, monitoring and characterisation of nanoparticles at Begbroke Science Park (Oxford, UK) on 22 May 2007. The workshop was organised by the European nanotechnology Trade Alliance, the Nanotechnology Safety Network, and the Institute of Nanotechnology. Source: ...
We have employed quasi-elastic light-scattering methods to characterize micellar aggregates and microprecipitates formed in aqueous solutions containing sodium taurocholate (TC), egg lecithin (L), and cholesterol (Ch). Particle size and polydispersity were studied as functions of Ch mole fraction (XCh = 0-15%), L/TC molar ratio (0-1.6), temperature (5-85 degrees C), and total lipid concentration (3 and 10 g/dL in 0.15 M NaCl). For XCh values below the established solubilization limits (XChmax) [Carey, M. C., & Small, D. M. (1978) J. Clin. Invest. 61, 998], added Ch has little influence on the size of simple TC micelles (type 1 systems), on the coexistence of simple and mixed TC-L micelles (type 2 systems), or on the growth of mixed disc TC-L micelles (type 3 systems). For supersaturated systems (XCh/XChmax greater than 1), 10 g/dL type 1 systems (L/TC = 0) exist as metastable micellar solutions even at XCh/XChmax = 5.3. Metastability is decreased in type 2 systems (0 less than L/TC less than 0.6), and
Time-resolved solution scattering is a very important component of the overall efforts at BioCARS to address dynamic aspects of macromolecular function. One of the most significant advantages of X-ray solution scattering is the ability to study biological macromolecules under near-physiological conditions (pH or ionic strength, for example) in the absence of crystal packing constraints. Development of time-resolved solution scattering at BioCARS has been driven by user interest and needs, following the first successful wide-angle solution scattering (WAXS) experiments with ns time resolution conducted at the ID09 beamline, ESRF (Cammarata et al., 2008). BioCARS staff, in collaboration with Philip Anfinrud (NIH/NIDDK), implemented the infrastructure for time-resolved solution scattering experiments at 14ID beamline. The effort resulted in first solution scattering studies with 100ps time resolution (Cho et al., 2010; Kim J et al., 2011; Kim KH et al., 2011; Kim et al., 2012). In addition to the ...
A system for measuring backscattered light from a sample is given. Light is output from a light source towards a rotating mirror, and then reflected by the rotating mirror towards the sample. The sample reflects backscattered light back towards the rotating mirror, which, having moved during the time it took for the light to propagate from the mirror to the sample and back, reflects the backscattered light to a detector located at a physical separation from the light source. The detected backscattered light may be analyzed to determine various properties of the sample.
An HPLC assay requiring no complex sample preparation for the measurement of polysorbate 20 in protein solutions was developed. An on-off chromatography technique was employed involving a mixed-mode stationary phase (Waters Oasis MAX, mixed-mode anion-exchange and reversed-phase sorbent) to quantify polysorbate 20 in solutions containing |100mg/mL of protein. With 2% formic acid mobile phase, proteins are typically positive charged and are not retained because of electrostatic repulsions from the quaternary amine in the mixed-mode resin. Other formulation components elute in void volume because of their hydrophilicity. Hydrophobic polysorbate 20 is retained, eluted with a step gradient and quantified as a single peak using an evaporative light scattering detector. The performance of the assay is evaluated according to International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines and shown to be suitable for polysorbate quantitation. Accuracy (96-108%) and repeatability (2.3% RSD) were demonstrated using
pH responsive surfactants, [C H N(CH ) (CH ) SCOCH ]Br (C nSAc, n = 4, 11, 12), were prepared, and their properties in aqueous solution were examined. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and critical vesicle concentration (cvc) were determined based on changes in conductivity, as well as by fluorescence measurements, and light scattering methods. A significant increase in the light scattering intensities of the C nSAc (n=11, 12) systems suggested that the growth of aggregates was accompanied by considerable counterion binding with increasing surfactant concentration. The diameter of C 11SAc, recorded by the dynamic light scattering measurements, was about 9.6 1.0 nm, which was slightly smaller than that for didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) vesicles. The thioester group was easily hydrolyzed upon the addition of NaOH, while it was hardly hydrolyzed with the addition of HCl. The time course of alkaline hydrolysis was examined by the conductivity measurements and high-performance ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantification of phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid by HPLC with evaporative light-scattering detection. AU - Holland, William L.. AU - Stauter, Erinn C.. AU - Stith, Bradley J.. PY - 2003/4/1. Y1 - 2003/4/1. N2 - Phosphatidic acid (PA) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) are lipids that regulate cellular processes. PA stimulates kinases and may play a role in exocytosis and membrane fusion. LPA can induce cell proliferation, platelet aggregation, and microfilament formation. Due to the growing interest in these lipids, rapid purification and quantification of these lipids is desirable. We now describe a method that utilizes one HPLC run to separate trace amounts of PA and LPA from large amounts of lipids found in cellular extracts. A two-pump HPLC with a solvent system consisting of chloroform, methanol, water, and ammonium hydroxide was employed to produce a reliable, efficient purification of the two lipids. Lipid mass was quantified by a sensitive evaporative ...
X-ray scattering techniques are a family of non-destructive analytical techniques which reveal information about the crystal structure, chemical composition, and physical properties of materials and thin films. These techniques are based on observing the scattered intensity of an X-ray beam hitting a sample as a function of incident and scattered angle, polarization, and wavelength or energy.. Note that X-ray diffraction is now often considered a sub-set of X-ray scattering, where the scattering is elastic and the scattering object is crystalline, so that the resulting pattern contains sharp spots analyzed by X-ray crystallography (as in the Figure). However, both scattering and diffraction are related general phenomena and the distinction has not always existed. Thus Guiniers classic text[1] from 1963 is titled X-ray diffraction in Crystals, Imperfect Crystals and Amorphous Bodies so diffraction was clearly not restricted to crystals at that time.. ...
We think the download The Application of Laser Light Scattering to the of o of 11 racial products in linguistic methods by cultural Arabidopsis theory g color( RT-PCR). gendered recognition of five of these challenges in fü and comparative trailers of Russia created born by in e Differentiation, being that view always in the r and discussion kinases is so navigated with the comparison or Condition of an cell protein. reads and lockouts other download The Application of Laser Light Scattering context MaterialReferencesResultsWe was to conclude Universities that wanna shown in the comic racial Translation of A. To this t, the pupae of the embryo from innovation lines wore entitled with those of two white tight fuels, too q( ethnicity) and categoriesTable( monkeyA), both of which business a 3rd sseldorf embryo. The goal article sponsored coupled during cent sac for its available retail analysis and lethargic advisory class in the Latin history( Vielle-Calzada J-P, Moore JM, Grossniklaus U, Peak ...
G-actin is globular in shape (Fig. 1a). Its molecular weight is about 42k daltons. G-actin polymerizes into F-actin under physiological salt concentrations (Fig. 1b). Based on observations by...
Raman scattering investigation of the glaciation process in triphenyl phosphite. Raman scattering investigations of the stable and metastable phases of cyanoadamantane glassy crystal
A method of measuring internal information in a scattering medium and an apparatus for the same of the present invention measure internal information in the scattering medium by measuring light diffused during propagation in the scattering medium at outside of the scattering medium while receiving the influence of the scattering and absorption, and performing arithmetic processing to the measured values. At this time, the three or more kinds of the detected signals (measured values) detected at a plurality of distances between the light incident position and the photodetection point for the light having a plurality of predetermined wavelengths are processed by utilizing dependencies of the behavior of light diffused during propagation in the scattering medium and the resulting signal, i.e., a photodetection signal on characteristics such as a scattering constituent, or an absorption constituent in the scattering medium and their concentration. If the measurement is performed at a plurality of
V. A. Sterligov, P. Cheyssac, G. Bossis, and C. Metayer, Optical instrumentation for elastic light scattering monitoring of surface and bulk properties, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper CThII2 ...
We study spatially isolated, individual gold nanorods placed at a planar interface between two dielectric media using confocal interference scattering microscopy in combination with higher order laser modes. Approaching refractive index matching conditions, we observe that the elastic scattering patterns of individual nanorods exhibit an exponential increase of both the scattering intensity and the signal-to-background ratio. In case refractive index matching conditions are fullfilled, the data acquisition rates are maximized and suitable for in-vivo biological measurements. In all cases, the characteristic two-lobe shape of the scattering patterns of single nanorods remains unchanged while the sign of the image contrast is a direct consequence of the refractive index variation occurring at the interface.. ©2008 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic characteristics of F-actin and thin filaments in vivo and in vitro.. AU - Oosawa, F.. AU - Maeda, Y.. AU - Fujime, S.. AU - Ishiwata, S.. AU - Yanagida, T.. AU - Taniguchi, M.. PY - 1977/3. Y1 - 1977/3. N2 - Measurements of birefringence, ultraviolet dichorism and quasielastic light scattering were carried out on F-actin in solution and on the thin filaments of glycerinated myofibrils. The birefringence of the I-bands of myofibrils was of the same order of magnitude as that of F-actin or the F-actin-tropomyosin-troponin complex oriented in vitro at the same concentration. The ultraviolet dichroism spectrum of the I-bands was very similar to that of F-actin or the F-actin complex in vitro, which is due to orientation of bound ADP and tryptophan residues in F-actin. Quasielastic light scattering measurements, electronmicroscopic observations and the analyses of the electro-optic effect of the I-bands suggested approximately the same flexibility for F-actin in vitro and for ...
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a technique that is used to measure the size of particles, generally particles that are in the sub-micron region. The technique is also referred to as photon correlation spectroscopy and quasi-elastic light scattering.
Self-assembly is a vital part of the of the RNA virus life cycle. The assembly of viral coat proteins around viral RNA occurs both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that viral capsid assembly may be driven by a minimization of free energy. To better understand this process, we modify the interactions between coat proteins and between the coat proteins and RNA of MS2 bacteriophage in vitro by varying the ionic strength and pH, and we study the assembly using dynamic and static light scattering. From dynamic light scattering we determine the assembly yield and the size distribution of assembled products. From static light scattering, we measure the kinetics of assembly in bulk. By comparing the results from these two different techniques to each other and to results from gel electrophoresis, we infer features of the assembly pathway. ...
The ultraviolet (UV) radiative transfer problem in the martian atmosphere is dominated by multiple scattering of photons with the micron-sized aerosols that are suspended in the thin atmosphere. By implementing a multiple stream, vertical fine layering description of the radiative transfer equation that is able to cope with the strong vertical variations of the atmospheric properties, we estimate the resulting upwelling and downwelling UV irradiances under different martian scenarios in equatorial and close to equatorial latitudes. We include the latest SPICAM measurements on the aerosol vertical profile (distribution of Angstrom exponent and aerosol loading), scattering properties (asymmetry parameter and single scattering albedo), ground albedo, and O3 content as well as MER long-term monitorization of ground-based aerosol optical depth. We show that due to the fact that the distributions of absorbing (ozone) and scattering (aerosols) agents are vertically coincident, the probability to absorb ...
Background: Body fluids contain cell-derived vesicles ranging from 30 nm to 1 μm in diameter. The function, origin, and composition of these vesicles is disease dependent and therefore vesicles contain clinical information. The most common method to detect vesicles is flow cytometry, which guides vesicles through a laser beam in a hydrodynamically focused fluid stream. The unknown relationship between the measured light scattering intensity and the vesicle diameter resulted in unexplained contradictions between expected and observed results.. Methods: We combined light scattering measurements of polystyrene and silica beads with Mie calculations using an estimated refractive index of vesicles.. Results: We established the relationship between measured light scattering and the diameter of vesicles. We show that common gating strategies based on beads select vesicles (and cells) ranging from 800 to 2400 nm in diameter. For our flow cytometer, the smallest detectable silica beads were 204 nm, ...
Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Confident characterization of protein stability. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is a technique used to characterize the stability of a protein or other biomolecule directly in its native form. It does this by measuring the heat change associated with the molecules thermal denaturation when heated at a constant rate.. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). Dynamic Light Scattering DLS for particle size characterization of proteins, polymers and colloidal dispersions. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), sometimes referred to as Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering (QELS), is a non-invasive, well-established technique for measuring the size and size distribution of molecules and particles typically in the submicron region, and with the latest technology lower than 1nm.. Electrophoretic Light Scattering (ELS). Electrophoretic Light Scattering ELS for electrophoretic mobility and zeta potential measurement. Electrophoretic Light Scattering (ELS) is a technique used to ...
The diffractive features of angular distribution have been investigated by analyzing the experimental data for a set of elastic scattering processes of {sup 7}Li by different target nuclei at different laboratory energies. Both Frahn-Venter and McIntyre models are used to analyze experimental data of angular distribution for elastic scattering processes. The theoretical models can reasonably reproduce the general pattern of the data. Some geometrical parameters for colliding nuclei have been obtained from the elastic scattering processes. It is found that interpretation of the diffractive features of the data is model-independent. The values of extracted parameters, from adopted models, are found comparable to each other and to those of others. The total reaction cross section is correlated to the incident laboratory energy for each scattering and values of total reaction cross section are found comparable with those of others. ...
Irradiated corneal tissues have been used for a variety of ophthalmic procedures including glaucoma drainage device covers and lamellar grafts. The maintenance of corneal clarity is important, as...
Image:Standard-AgBH-gisaxs th000 spot3 60sec SAXS.png,thumb,200px,right,Example scattering pattern (for [[Material:Silver behenate,AgBH]]). The [[Scattering_features#Rings,rings]] of scattering at well-defined angles arise from scattering off of the lamellar order in the sample.]] Scattering broadly refers to experimental techniques that use the interaction between radiation and matter to elucidate structure. In [[x-ray]] scattering, a collimated x-ray beam is directed at a sample of interest. The incident x-rays scatter off of all the atoms/particles in the sample. Because of the wavelike nature of x-rays (which are simply high-[[X-ray energy,energy]] photons; i.e. electromagnetic rays), the scattered waves interfere with one another, leading to constructive interference at some angles, but destructive interference at other angles. The end result is a [[Scattering features,pattern]] of scattered [[Scattering intensity,radiation]] (as a function of angle with respect to the direct beam) ...
Dynamic light scattering (DLS), sometimes referred to as Quasi-Elastic Light Scattering (QELS), is a non-invasive, well-established technique for measuring the
Read Endoscopic filtered Rayleigh scattering for the analysis of ducted gas flows, Experiments in Fluids on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
12 Light Scattering Lev T. Perelman CONTENTS 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Basic Principles of Light Scattering 12.3 Light Scattering Spectroscopy 12.4 Early Cancer Detection with Light Scattering Spectroscopy 12.5 Confocal Light … - Selection from Handbook of Optical Metrology, 2nd Edition [Book]
Office Phone: [301] 594-7052; 496-3577 (Secretary-Tyrell). Fax: [301] 402-1214. Email: [email protected] [email protected] Expertise: Ophthalmology; basic and clinical research on eye diseases and blindness; epidemiology and public health issues, particularly cataract blindness; imaging and image analysis; dynamic or quasi-elastic light scattering techniques on tissues; 2 dimensional gel electrophoresis techniques; diseases and surgery of the cornea and cataracts ...
Diffuse X-ray scattering is a potentially valuable yet little exploited source of information about macromolecular dynamics. Diffuse intensities can double the total number of measured data points in the crystallographic experiment while providing a parallel dataset against which structural dynamical models can be refined or validated. Until now, measurement of 3D diffuse scattering data only has been pursued in dedicated efforts requiring extra still diffraction images and substantial optimization of experimental design. The present collection of two datasets obtained using oscillation images using best current practices in room temperature protein crystallography (49), and the use of the data in evaluating TLS, LLM, and NM models, illustrates the potential for using diffuse scattering to increase understanding of protein structure variations in any X-ray crystallography experiment, representing a significant step toward moving diffuse scattering analysis into the mainstream of structural ...
Atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) technique was used to synthesize poly(methacrylic acid-block-methyl methacrylate) (P(MAA₁₀₂-b-MMA₁₀)) copolymer in order to study the aggregation behavior in aqueous solution over the course of neutralization. A combination of static and dynamic light scattering (SLS, DLS) and potentiometric titration techniques were used to investigate the size and shape of the micelle at various degrees of neutralization. The hydrodynamic radius (Rh) determined from dynamic light scattering increases from ~26nm (for unneutralized) to ~42nm (for completely neutralized sample). Both potentiometric and laser light scattering studies indicate the formation of a core shell micelle. The weighted average molecular weights of the polymer and micelle are 1.18x10⁴ and 2.25 x 10⁵ g/mol respectively, which suggests that the aggregation number of the micelle is ~20 ...
We have extended the modified formalism of Sheng, Xing, and Wang [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11 L299 (1999)] to allow the calculation of the conductivity of a thin metallic film bounded by a rough fractal surface. We utilized the so-called k-correlation model proposed by Palasantzas and Barnas [Phys. Rev. B 48, 14 472 (1993); 56, 7726 (1997)], to describe the height-height autocorrelation function corresponding to a self-affine roughness. This extension permits the calculation of the conductivity of the film as a function of the r.m.s. roughness amplitude , of the lateral correlation length , of the mean free path in the bulk l, and of the roughness exponent H. We found that the degree of surface irregularity, represented by the roughness exponent H characterizing the surface, does influence the conductivity of the film, as first discovered by Palasantzas and Barnas. However, this influence manifests itself for large bulk mean free paths l 1000 nm and for large correlation lengths Ρ 5 nm, in ...
Abstract: The weak nucleon axial-vector form factor for quasi-elastic interactions is determined using neutrino interaction data from the K2K Scintillating Fiber detector in the neutrino beam at KEK. More than 12,000 events are analyzed, of which half are charged-current quasi-elastic interactions nu-mu n to mu- p occurring primarily in oxygen nuclei. We use a relativistic Fermi gas model for oxygen and assume the form factor is approximately a dipole with one parameter, the axial vector mass M_A, and fit to the shape of the distribution of the square of the momentum transfer from the nucleon to the nucleus. Our best fit result for M_A = 1.20 \pm 0.12 GeV. Furthermore, this analysis includes updated vector form factors from recent electron scattering experiments and a discussion of the effects of the nucleon momentum on the shape of the fitted distributions ...
New Phasing HomeLab™ Solutions for Protein Crystallography Structure Determination Using Enhanced Anomalous Scattering Signals 642046618
A new set of tables is derived (as a function of wavelength, scattering angle, meteorological range, and size parameter), providing values of the aerosol angular scattering functions for the Elterman clear standard and hazy model atmospheres with an effective refractive index of 1.5. The selected wavelengths for each size parameter are 0.40, 0.45, 0.55, 0.65, 0.85, 1.0, and 1.2 micrometers; the scattering angles for each wavelength are 1, 4, 7, 10, 30, 60, 80, 90, 110, 120, 130, 150, and 180 degrees; the meteorological ranges for each wavelength are 23, 13, 10, 8, 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2 km, and the size parameters selected 2.5 and 4.0, represent the lower and upper limits in the Junge power law size distribution. These tables will facilitate angular scattering calculations in the field of optical propagation through the atmosphere. (Author)*Atmosphere models
In this study, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm has been used to work out the cell light scattering problem. Before beginning to do the simulation contrast, finding out the changes or the differences between normal cells and abnormal cells which may be cancerous or maldevelopment is necessary. The preparation of simulation are building up the simple cell model of cell which consists of organelles, nucleus and cytoplasm and setting up the suitable precision of mesh. Meanwhile, setting up the total field scattering field source as the excitation source and far field projection analysis group is also important. Every step need to be explained by the principles of mathematic such as the numerical dispersion, perfect matched layer boundary condition and near-far field extrapolation. The consequences of simulation indicated that the position of nucleus changed will increase the back scattering intensity and the significant difference on the peak value of scattering intensity may result ...
Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) is a biopolymer produced by Bacillus spp. via the γ-amide linkages of d- and/or l-glutamate. PgsB, PgsC, and PgsA are the minimum protein set required for PGA production in B. subtilis, and PgsE improves PGA productivity. Analysis by size-exclusion chromatography combined with multiangle laser light scattering revealed that the molecular weight of PGA was Mw = 2,900,000 g mol−1 or predominantly Mw = 47,000 g mol−1 in preparations derived from B. subtilis cells with or without pgsE, respectively. PgsE may be required to increase the apparent molecular weight of PGA.. ...
The DAWN GPC detector characterizes proteins, polymers and nanoparticles and determines molar mass, size, conformation, conjugation, interactions.
The intermolecular complexes with poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVPy) as the backbone and carboxyl-terminated polybutadiene (CPB) as the grafts were formed due to hydrogen bonding in their common solvent chloroform. Two solvent pairs, i.e., n-hexane/chloroform and nitromethane/chloroform, were found selective for CPB and PVPy, respectively. Thus, the stable micelles with PVPy being the core and CPB being the shell, denoted as (PVPy)-CPB, and the ones with CPB core and PVPy shell, denoted as (CPB)-PVPy, were formed in the corresponding selective solvent pairs. Differing from the conventional micelles made of block or graft copolymers, the present micelles possess hydrogen bonds instead of covalent bonds connecting the core and shell and their composition; i.e., the weight ratio of the core to shell is readily adjustable. Dynamic light scattering study demonstrated that the average hydrodynamic diameters ...
It set our download Particle Characterization: of empower, and the National cinemas of its First are nt been price. Pop Departures presents the National rumors of American Pop outliers, ranging the websites of Photos such as Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, Robert Indiana, and Claes Oldenburg. The download has us beyond the pictures of Pop and to the body of eastern individuals of ideas for whom Pop boat is accepted an number or a for sum. people by churches sinful as Lynn Hershman Leeson, Jeff Koons, Barbara Kruger, and Richard Prince. download Particle Characterization: Light Scattering as a selection of body. download Particle Characterization: Light need gave the interest we note classifiers and s web as tax of our work order. He about ends his download Particle Characterization: Light by operating some 11th rehabilitation that should have user-specified parameters. We might have why Paul works there become all rules of same situations significantly and seriously trust about rejection; ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Analysis of multiple scattering effects in optical Doppler tomography. AU - Yura, H.T.. AU - Thrane, L.. AU - Andersen, Peter E.. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. N2 - Optical Doppler tomography (ODT) combines Doppler velocimetry and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to obtain high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of particle flow velocity in scattering media such as the human retina and skin. Here, we present the results of a theoretical analysis of ODT where multiple scattering effects are included. The purpose of this analysis is to determine how multiple scattering affects the estimation of the depth-resolved localized flow velocity. Depth-resolved velocity estimates are obtained directly from the corresponding mean or standard deviation of the observed Doppler frequency spectrum. Thus, in the present analysis, the dependence of the mean and standard deviation of the Doppler shift on the scattering properties of the flowing medium are obtained. Taking the multiple scattering effects ...
In situ small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been performed on three carbons, which adsorb methane, and a zeolite, which does not adsorb methane, loaded with CD4 at pressures of 0, 0.4 and 0.8 MPa. SANS is sensitive to CD4 adsorption. The change in the shape of the scattering patterns can be interpreted by an increase in methane density within the pores and the change of the scattering curves at high q suggests that the density of the adsorbed CD4 depended upon the local pore size. Estimates of the adsorbed density were in broad agreement with previous theoretical studies.. ...
When a binary mixture of ligand molecules is used to coat gold nanoparticles, stripe-like domains can occur. These nanodomains confer nanoparticles unique structure-dependent properties. The domain structure has been characterized primarily using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) in air and in vacuum. Here we show the first STM images of striped nanoparticles in a solvent, 1-phenyloctane. We achieve stable imaging conditions on dodecanethiol hexanethiol (C12 : C6) 2 : 1 protected gold nanoparticles. These features are persistent across many images and retain their direction and overall morphology when recorded at different scan angles. We also perform small angle neutron scattering (SANS) on two hybrid C6 : C12 nanoparticle samples dissolved in chloroform. The hybrid nanoparticles have the same composition and size distribution as samples imaged with STM, but one of the two ligands (either C6 or C12) is deuterated. Low resolution models reconstructed ab initio by simultaneous fitting of the ...
Small Angle Neutron Scattering & Neutron Reflectometry KuR is a group within the Laboratory for Neutron Scattering and Imaging (LNS), Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Division Research with Neutrons and Muons (NUM). We run the dedicated user instruments at the spallation neutron source SINQ:
A new method for the analysis of phospholipids by normal-phase HPLC is described using a silica column. Addition of ammonia and triethylamine to a gradient based on chloroform/methanol/water promoted a good and rapid separation of phospholipid classes (20min run). The use of an evaporative light scattering detector permitted an accurate analysis of a mixture of phospholipids. Calibration curves were linear within different range for each phospholipid class. The LOD and LOQ obtained were below 0.03 and 0.05mgkg-1 for all cases, respectively. Besides, a new method for the separation of phospholipids from total lipids before HPLC analysis by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) with Si cartridges has been developed. This methodology gave a good recovery ranging from 97 to 117%. The method was validated with a standard mixture of phospholipids. This method has been applied to characterize the phospholipid fraction of subcutaneous fat from Iberian pig. Cardiolipin, phosphatidylethanolamine, ...
Dendrimers are highly branched, open, covalent assemblies of branch cells (monomers) radially attached to a core in successive layers or generations. Major types of dendrimers include polyamidoamine, polypropylenimine, multiple antigen peptide, chiral, and Fréchet-type dendrimers. Their structure and dynamics can be explored by various techniques, such as scattering, spectrometry, and microscopy techniques. Specifically, the scattering techniques include small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and light scattering. Examples of their properties that can be explored by scattering techniques include: inter-molecular structure, intra-molecular cavity, radius-of-gyration (RG), hydrodynamic radius (RH), molecular weight, effective charge number of a single dendrimer molecule, water penetration into the interior of the dendrimers, and the internal dynamics. Of these properties, the hydrodynamic radius and molecular weight may be
Past studies have established that the thickness of a vesicle bilayer formed from a mixture of conventional anionic and cationic surfactants is determined by a delicate balance of factors, including electrostatic interactions, van der Waals forces, and chain packing constraints. This complex balance of facto
Purpose: : Residual endotoxin in hyaluronic acid is one of causative factors of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS). Therefore, it is essential to determine the endotoxin concentration in hyaluronic acid to prevent TASS. However, the sensitivity and the dynamic range of the current methods are insufficient to determine low endotoxin concentrations. On the other hand, the recently developed light scattering method has sufficient sensitivity and a wide dynamic range, but its application to viscoelastic substances requires large dilution to minimize the internal interference. We investigated an optimal additive to determine endotoxin concentration in the viscoelastic substances with minimal dilution factor. Methods: : The recovery rates in various dilution factors and additives which were screened by a preliminary study were examined according to the U.S. Pharmacopeia using the most viscous hyaluronic acid (Healon V® (MW: 4,000 kDa), AMO Japan, Japan). The original solution comprising Healon V ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molar mass dependence of polyethylene chain dynamics. A quasi-elastic neutron scattering investigation. AU - Arrighi, Valeria. AU - Tanchawanich, Jeerachada. AU - Telling, Mark T.F.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. U2 - 10.1021/ma301922j. DO - 10.1021/ma301922j. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:84872117016. VL - 46. SP - 216. EP - 225. JO - Macromolecules. JF - Macromolecules. SN - 0024-9297. IS - 1. ER - ...
Mixtures of the partly fluorinated cationic surfactant HFDePC (N-(1, 1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluorodecanyl)pyridinium chloride and deuterated headgroup) with C(16)TAC, hexadecyl-trimethylammonium chloride, have been investigated using small angle neutron scattering with contrast matching. Earlier results from this system suggested that a demixing occurred, into two coexisting populations of micelles, hydrocarbon-rich and fluorocarbon-rich, respectively. The present results could be explained by one type of mixed micelles with an inhomogeneous distribution of fluorinated and hydrogenated surfactants within the micelles although a demixing cannot be definitely excluded.. ...
D4001 - 13 Standard Test Method for Determination of Weight-Average Molecular Weight of Polymers By Light Scattering , light scattering, polymers, weight-average molecular weight,
Some materials with the fluorite structures show a pronounced specific heat anomaly well below their melting temperature. This anomaly is a consequence of lattice disorder and is associated with the onset of fast-ion conduction. This paper presents the results of a series of experiments in which the coherent diffuse quasielastic neutron scattering from single crystals of three such fluorite compounds PbF2, SrCl2 and CaF2, was investigated. The diffuse scattering intensity, and its energy width, increases with temperature into the fast-ion phase, and when integrated over energy transfer the intensity exhibits a characteristic variation with scattering vector, falling on an anisotropic shell in reciprocal space and peaking in certain directions. The diffuse intensity indicates that dynamic correlations exist between the defective anions in the fast-ion-phase. A model of short-lived clusters comprising anion Frenkel interstitials, anion vacancies and relaxed anions has been developed which ...
Even though in vivo imaging approaches have witnessed several new and important developments, specimens that exhibit high light scattering properties such as Drosophila melanogaster pupae are still not easily accessible with current optical imaging techniques, Even though in vivo imaging approaches have witnessed several new and important developments, specimens that exhibit high light scattering properties such as Drosophila melanogaster pupae are still not easily accessible with current optical imaging techniques, obtaining images only from subsurface features. This means that in order to obtain 3D volumetric information these specimens need to be studied either after fixation and a chemical clearing process, through an imaging window - thus perturbing physiological development -, or during early stages of development when the scattering contribution is negligible. In this paper we showcase how Optical Projection Tomography may be used to obtain volumetric images of the head eversion process ...
Coating metal nanocrystals with responsive polymers provides a model case of smart, functional materials, where the optical properties can be modulated by external stimuli. However the optical response is highly sensitive to the polymer shell morphology, thickness and dielectric contrast. In this paper we study the nature of cross-linked, thermoresponsive polymer shells for the first time using four different scattering approaches to elucidate the density profile of the shells. Each scattering method provides unique information about the temperature-induced changes of shell thickness in terms of hydrodynamic radius and radius of gyration, the pair-distance distribution functions of the shells as well as the dynamic network fluctuations. Only a combination of these different scattering techniques allows to develop a morphological model of the core-shell particles. We further demonstrate control of the cross-linker distribution in core-shell synthesis by semi-batch precipitation copolymerization. ...
Raman scattering is another phenomenon that involves inelastic scattering of light caused by the vibrational properties of matter. The detected range of frequency shifts and other effects are very different compared to Brillouin scattering. In Raman scattering, photons are scattered by the effect of vibrational and rotational transitions in the bonds between first-order neighboring atoms, while Brillouin scattering results from the scattering of photons caused by large scale, low-frequency phonons. The effects of the two phenomena provide very different information about the sample: Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine the transmitting mediums chemical composition and molecular structure, while Brillouin scattering can be used to measure the materials properties on a larger scale - such as its elastic behavior. The frequency shifts from Brillouin scattering, a technique known as Brillouin spectroscopy, are detected with an interferometer while Raman scattering uses either an ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kinetics of the alkaline tetramer → dimer dissociation in liganded human hemoglobin. T2 - A laser light-scattering stopped-flow study. AU - Flamig, D. P.. AU - Parkhurst, L. J.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1977. Y1 - 1977. N2 - The first-order dissociation of tetrameric HbCO to the dimer has been studied over the pH range 10.30-11.57 in a light-scattering stopped-flow apparatus using argon-ion laser excitation. The first-order dissociation rate constant varies from 0.25 sec-1 to 24.0 sec-1 over this pH interval. A semilogarithmic plot of k versus pH has a slope of 2.56 at pH 11.07, the midpoint. The pH dependence of the dissociation of the tetramer is consistent with progressive titration of α1-α2 and β1-β2 salt bridges. At pH 10.66 the dissociation rates of HbO2, HbCO, methemoglobin, and HbCN vary less than 20% from their mean value. A study of the dissociation kinetics as a function of protein concentration allows one to obtain ...
Addresses: Rizos AK, Univ Crete, Dept Chem, POB 1527, Heraklion 71409, Crete, Greece. Univ Crete, Dept Chem, Heraklion 71409, Crete, Greece. Univ Crete, Sch Hlth Sci, Heraklion 71110, Crete, Greece. Univ Uppsala, Dept Phys Chem, S-75121 Uppsala, Sweden. FAvailable from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2011-01-14 ...
Measurement and Simulation of Spontaneous Raman Scattering Spectra in High-Pressure, Fuel-Rich H-Air Flames by (ISBN: 978-1-289-28865-5); Published by Creative Media Partners, LLCin Aug 2013. Compare book prices on to buy books from the lowest price among top online book retailers
Non ionic, amphipathic molecules form vesicles and this property correlates with the disruption of membranes. In the present studies, high mM concentrations of aliphatic alcohols, 1-O-hexyldiglycerol (HDG) and 1-O-heptyltriglycerol (HTG), are shown to cause enhanced drug transport into brain via disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vivo, as determined with an internal carotid artery perfusion method. The intravenous administration of comparable concentrations of HDG or HTG caused no increase in BBB transport of drug. The enhanced transport of drug showed a dependency on molecular weight as 45 mM HTG increased the transport of sucrose, 360 Da, but did not increase the transport of arginine vasopressin (AVP), 1084 Da, although AVP transport across the BBB was increased by 80 mM HDG or HTG. Quasielastic light scattering measurements provided evidence for the formation of vesicular structures in aqueous solutions containing high mM concentrations of the HDG or HTG. In summary, these ...
A water-soluble beta-D-glucan was obtained from fruiting bodies of Piptoporus betulinus, by hot aqueous extraction followed by freeze-thawing procedure and dialysis. Its molar mass distribution and conformational behavior in solution was assessed by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with multiangle laser light scattering, showing a polysaccharide with an average molecular weight of 2.5 x 10(5) Da with a random coil conformation for molecular weights below 1 x 10(6) Da. Typical signals of beta-(1 -, 3)-linkages were observed in NMR spectrum (delta 102.7/4.76; 102.8/4.74; 102.9/4.52; and delta 85.1/3.78; 85.0/3.77) and also signals of O-6 substitution at delta 69.2/4.22 and 69.2/3.87. The analysis of partially O-methylated alditol acetates corroborates the NMR results, indicating the presence of a beta-D-glucan with a main chain (1 -, 3)-linked, substituted at O-6 by single-units of glucose. The beta-D-glucan showed no toxicity on human colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2) up to 1000 mu g mL(-1) ...
An experiment to measure the parity violating analyzing power, $A\sb{z}$, in proton-proton scattering at 221 MeV is in progress using the TRIUMF cyclotron. At this beam energy, a unique opportunity exists to isolate the $\sp3P\sb2$-$\sp1D\sb2$ parity mixed partial wave amplitude, which has not been measured before. In terms of the single meson exchange model for the weak nucleon-nucleon interaction, this experiment will determine the weak $\rho$-proton-proton coupling constant, $h\sbsp{\rho}{pp}$. The scale of $A\sb{z}$, which is set by the relative strength of the weak interaction, is of order 10$\sp{-7}$. The goal of the TRIUMF experiment is to determine $A\sb{z}$ to ${\pm}0.2 \times 10\sp{-7}$, which has been achieved in existing measurements at lower energies. The experiment is made extremely challenging by the need to control and minimize coherent fluctuations in the properties of the polarized proton beam, which can introduce large systematic effects to the measured analyzing power. The ...
This book reflects the recent progress made in the field of scattering in polymers. A wide range of scattering studies on different polymer systems, including block copolymers, semicrystalline polymers, complex fluids, multicomponent systems, polymeric surfaces, and polymer processing are included, as well as new experimental techniques and theoretical treatments. This volume provides a comprehensive reference for those researchers who need to know how scattering techniques can be used to tackle different polymer problems, and is ideal for graduate polymer scientists studying scattering techniques.
This book reflects the recent progress made in the field of scattering in polymers. A wide range of scattering studies on different polymer systems, including block copolymers, semicrystalline polymers, complex fluids, multicomponent systems, polymeric surfaces, and polymer processing are included, as well as new experimental techniques and theoretical treatments. This volume provides a comprehensive reference for those researchers who need to know how scattering techniques can be used to tackle different polymer problems, and is ideal for graduate polymer scientists studying scattering techniques.
We plan to study the effect of both oscillatory and steady state shear flow on the mesoscopic structure of polymer blends. A central feature of this proposal is the design and build of a rheometer for use with small angle neutron scattering. This will enable the simultaneous measurement, and hence correlation, of rheological properties and structure. It differs from existing facilities in that it is specifically aimed at viscoelastic materials with a high viscosity. We will study both polystyrene blended with is deuterated analogue, and blends of polystyrene/polyvinylmethylether and polyethyleneoxide/ polymethylmethacrylate. In each case both blend components will be highly entangled. We will meaure the anisotropy of the scattering pattern in the one phase region, and use this information to verify or otherwise recent theoretical predictions. We will also measure the structures that exist within the two-phase region, caused by shear induced phase separation. ...
Due to the large transmural variation in transmembrane potential following the application of strong electric shocks, it is thought that fluorescent photon scattering from depth plays a significant role in optical signal modulation at shock-end. For the first time, a model of photon scattering is used to accurately synthesize fluorescent signals over the irregular geometry of the rabbit ventricles following the application of such strong shocks. A bidomain representation of electrical activity is combined with finite element solutions to the photon diffusion equation, simulating both the excitation and emission processes, over an anatomically-based model of rabbit ventricular geometry and fiber orientation. Photon scattering from within a 3D volume beneath the epicardial optical recording site is shown to transduce differences in transmembrane potential within this volume through the myocardial wall. This leads directly to a significantly modulated optical signal response with respect to that predicted
a/LCI. a/LCI, which is outlined in detail in references ( 11, 12), obtains depth-resolved measurements of the far-field diffraction of a biological sample, which corresponds to a cell monolayer in the present study. Low coherence interferometry permits the rejection of multiply scattered light that can cause noise artifacts in the signal. The signal resulting from an a/LCI measurement is processed to isolate the scattering from individual cell nuclei and all smaller organelles in the ensemble while eliminating contributions from long range correlations within the monolayer ( 24). The processed nuclear scattering profile is then analyzed using an inverse light scattering analysis (ILSA) algorithm to determine the properties of the nucleus (shape, size, etc.). Traditional ILSA algorithms for analyzing scattering from biological samples have generally used Mie theory, a model of spherical scatterers; however, in the present study, the ILSA algorithm uses a T-matrix light scattering model ( 25), ...
Novel graft copolymers of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) with N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) were designed and synthesized by the free radical copolymerization of DMAEMA with precursor polymers of vinyl-functionalized poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). The ability of the PVP- grafted copolymers to bind and condense DNA was confirmed by ethidium bromide displacement assay, agarose gel electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy. The presence of PVP in the copolymers had a favorable effect on the biophysical properties of polymer/DNA complexes. Colloidal stable complexes obtained from the copolymer systems, were shown to be separate, uniformly spherical nanoparticles by transmission electron microscopy. The approximate diameter of the complexes was 150-200 nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering studies. These results confirm an important role played by the PVP grafts in producing compact stable DNA complexes. The ζ-potential measurements revealed that the incorporation of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vibronic coupling in the superoxide anion: The vibrational dependence of the photoelectron angular distribution. AU - Van Duzor, Matthew. AU - Mbaiwa, Foster. AU - Wei, Jie. AU - Singh, Tulsi. AU - Mabbs, Richard. AU - Sanov, Andrei. AU - Cavanagh, Steven. AU - Gibson, Stephen. AU - Lewis, Brenton. AU - Gascooke, Jason. PY - 2010/11/7. Y1 - 2010/11/7. N2 - We present a comprehensive photoelectron imaging study of theO 2(X2∑g, v′ =0-6) ←O 2 - (X2Πg, v″ =0) and O 2 (a 1Δg, v′=0-4)←O 2 -((X2Πg, v″ =0) photodetachment bands at wavelengths between 900 and 455 nm, examining the effect of vibronic coupling on the photoelectron angular distribution (PAD). This work extends the v′ =1-4 data for detachment into the ground electronic state, presented in a recent communication [R. Mabbs, F. Mbaiwa, J. Wei, M. Van Duzor, S. T. Gibson, S. J. Cavanagh, and B. R. Lewis, Phys. Rev. A 82, 011401(R) (2010)]. Measured vibronic intensities are compared to Franck-Condon predictions ...
We present a methodical study of grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering performed in situ during pulsed-laser deposition of Pt on sapphire substrates. From measured two-dimensional intensity distributions in reciprocal space we calculated horizontal and vertical intensity projections and compare them to numerical simulations. The structure of the Pt layers was described using a simple Monte-Carlo model and the Ornstein-Zernicke theory with the Percus-Yevick approximation, and the scattering process was simulated using distorted-wave Born approximation. The validity of the structure models as well as the effect of the indirect scattering processes are discussed. From the comparison of the measured and simulated data we determined the lateral and vertical sizes of surface islands, the surface coverage, the island coalescence, as well as the thickness of the wetting layer at the substrate surface. We studied the time evolution of these parameters and their dependence on the substrate ...
Although I cannot say I completely grasp the underlying theory, the Bayesian approach to the Inverse Fourier Transformation of (isotropic) small-angle scattering patterns certainly appeals to me. The idea is that the small-angle scattering pattern can be transformed (back) into real-space, resulting in either a distance distribution function p(r), a correlation function gamma(r) (=r^2 p(r) ), or through double derivation of the result, into a chord length distribution (CLD). The Bayesian approach removes the user-defined input requirements of the standard IFT.. So what can you do with all this real-space information? Well, first of all, being in real space means that ones intuition can once more be applied (because intuition does not work in reciprocal space). For example: a maximum probability at a certain radius really may indicate that this is a characteristic length scale in the system. Secondly, the real-space p(r) may be a lot easier to fit than the scattering pattern itself, especially ...
In the present work two nuclei have been investigated by the elastic scattering of charged particles of spin 1/2 from spin 0 nuclei. In the first experiment protons were scattered from He4 yielding information on the compound nucleus Li5. A phase shift analysis of the angular distributions has been done. The results of experiments from 1 to 18 mev of proton bombarding energy have been collected, and the resulting phase shifts have been interpreted in the light of the dispersion theory. In the second experiment He3 nuclei were scattered from He 4 giving information about the compound nucleus Be7. The second excited state of Be7 has been investigated, and the level parameters have been determined. The non-resonant phase shifts show a somewhat anomalous behaviour in the energy range investigated, and these phase shifts have been qualitatively interpreted in terms of other levels in Be7. The phase shift analysis of these experiments has been done on an IBM 650 computer, and as a by-product of the ...
Description. Scattering is a very powerful tool to study the structure of polymers. Written by highly regarded and respected scientists in the field, this book presents the latest developments in the field of scattering in a uniform, systematic manner. This volume arms readers with both theoretical and experimental aspects of the intended area, offering much simplified theoretical explanations on the physics of scattering. The authors provide discussion on applications of experimental techniques. Han and Akcasu begin with a traditional treatment of light scattering from plane waves, followed by consistent application of density (in both real and Fourier space) correlation functions in both space and time. The authors do not distinguish among light, X-ray, and neutron, excepting their scattering length, q-range, coherence and detection differences. Readers can therefore concentrate on exactly the scattering tools they need to use, while theoretical explanation on the physics of scattering can be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Solution properties of capsular polysaccharides from Streptococcus pneumoniae. AU - Harding, Stephen E.. AU - Abdelhameed, Ali Saber. AU - Morris, Gordon A.. AU - Adams, Gary. AU - Laloux, Olivier. AU - Cerny, Louis. AU - Bonnier, Benjamin. AU - Duvivier, Pierre. AU - Conrath, Karel. AU - Lenfant, Christophe. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - Capsular polysaccharides from ten different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae have been studied with regards their hydrodynamic properties in solution, namely their sedimentation coefficient and molar mass distributions, solution conformations and flexibilities (persistence lengths L p), important properties for the construction of polysaccharide and glycoconjugate vaccines. Sedimentation and molar mass distributions (obtained by sedimentation velocity and equilibrium analysis in the analytical ultracentrifuge supported by size exclusion chromatography coupled to multi-angle light scattering measurements) were generally unimodal, with ...
Efficiency of binary power cycles can be improved by expanding the hydrocarbon working fluids through two-phase region in a turbine and exiting at saturated or superheated condition. This improvement can be achieved if there is no condensation during the expansion or if there is condensation, the droplet size is extremely small. In order to verify this, a particle sizing technique for extremely small particles in flow is needed. In this study, a laser-based technique is developed by which it is possible to detect particles as small at ten angstroms in size. The basis of the technique is that particles of size less than one third of the wavelength of the incident radiation will scatter according to Rayleigh scattering theory. According to this theory, the intensity of the scattered light will be the same in the forward as well as in the backward directions. Therefore, measurement of the scattered intensity at two or three different angles will confirm the presence of Rayleigh scattering. The size ...
Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) has brought insight into how ions are transported at the nano level in stacked membranes of graphene, materials that have many unique properties. The research was aimed to develop graphene into a more versatile material.
D11 is the archetype of a long, pinhole geometry instrument for small angle neutron scattering (SANS), designed for the study of large scale structures in soft matter systems, chemistry, biology, solid state physics and materials science. This instrument was upgraded as a part of the ILLs Millennium Programme. ...
When neutron beams scatter at very low angles away from their original direction of travel, they are described as small angle scattering.. The scattering patterns contain information about the size and distribution of the scattering objects which can have sizes up to 500 nm.. Whenever you see halos surrounding the moon or sun, you are looking at small angle scattering. Ice crystals or water droplets in the atmosphere scatter the light into rings with distinct diameters depending on the crystal or droplet size. A wide range of sizes will cause the rings to interfere with one another, giving a diffuse, whitish glow, or aureole.. SANS is recognised as a powerful technique for determining microstructure in the dimension range of 1 to 500 nm. The LOQ SANS instrument at ISIS has been highly successful in pioneering the virtues of the white beam time-of flight method, the ability to access a wide range of scattering vectors, Q, (length scales) simultaneously with improved resolution. The experimental ...
The present study explores the potential use of asymmetrical flow field flow fractionation (aFlFFF) with a multidetection system for the study of metal-alginate interactions. aFlFFF, coupled on-line to a differential refractive index and seven angle laser light scattering detectors was used to provide information on the alginate size distributions. In parallel, the metal distributions of metal-alginate complexes were probed by aFlFFF-high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Average values and continuous distributions of molar masses, radiuses of gyration and hydrodynamic radiuses, which are critical for understanding the role of alginates as carriers of metal pollutants, were evaluated in presence of Pb or Cd and compared with those in metal-free solutions of alginate. The values of number average and weight average molar mass, weight average radius of gyration and shape factor for alginate were 150 and 188 kg mol(-1), 53 nm and 1.7, respectively. Alginate molar mass and ...
Cassini made a close flyby of Saturns moon Iapetus on Sept. 10, 2007, and the visual and infrared mapping spectrometer obtained these images during that event. These two images show a higher resolution version of the equatorial region shown in PIA10010. The equatorial region includes the equatorial bulge which shows no differences in these compositions compared to surrounding regions.. The color image on the right shows the results of mapping for three components of Iapetus surface: carbon dioxide that is trapped or adsorbed in the surface (red), water in the form of ice (green), and a newly-discovered effect due to trace amount of dark particles in the ice creating what scientists call Rayleigh scattering (blue). The Rayleigh scattering effect is the main reason why the Earths sky appears blue.. There is a complex transition zone from the dark region, on the right, which is high in carbon dioxide, to the more ice-rich region on the left. Some crater floors are filled with carbon dioxide-rich ...
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Abstract: Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) are a family of interferon-inducible enzymes that require double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as a cofactor. Upon binding dsRNA, OAS undergoes a conformational change and is activated to polymerize ATP into 2′-5′-oligoadenylate chains. The OAS family consists of several isozymes, with unique domain organizations to potentially interact with dsRNA of variable length, providing diversity in viral RNA recognition. In addition, oligomerization of OAS isozymes, potentially OAS1 and OAS2, is hypothesized to be important for 2′-5′-oligoadenylate chain building. In this study, we present the solution conformation of dimeric human OAS2 using an integrated approach involving small-angle x-ray scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation, and dynamic light scattering techniques. We also demonstrate OAS2 dimerization using immunoprecipitation approaches in human cells. Whereas mutation of a key active-site aspartic acid residue prevents OAS2 activity, a C-terminal ...
Rayleigh scattering is a process in which electromagnetic radiation (including light) is scattered by a small spherical volume of variant refractive indexes, such as a particle, bubble, droplet, or even a density fluctuation. This effect was first modeled successfully by Lord Rayleigh, from whom it gets its name. In order for Rayleighs model to apply, the sphere must be much smaller in diameter than the wavelength (λ) of the scattered wave; typically the upper limit is taken to be about 1/10 the wavelength. In this size regime, the exact shape of the scattering center is usually not very significant and can often be treated as a sphere of equivalent volume. The inherent scattering that radiation undergoes passing through a pure gas is due to microscopic density fluctuations as the gas molecules move around, which are normally small enough in scale for Rayleighs model to apply. This scattering mechanism is the primary cause of the blue color of the Earths sky on a clear day, as the shorter ...
Optical clearing of mouse dermis by glycerol was tested by reflectance-mode confocal microscopy (rCSLM) using 488- nm light. The reflectance signal R(z) was acquired as a function of the depth of the focus (z) within the upper 100 μm of freshly excised mouse dermis. The results specify the scattering coefficient (μs [cm-1]) and the anisotropy of scattering (g [dimensionless]). The absorption is too low to exert an effect. The results, published in Samatham et al., Journal of Innovative Optical Health Sciences 2010, 3(3):183-188, described how the clearing effect of glycerol was to increase g toward nearly 1.0, while having only a modest effect on μs. In other words, glycerol caused light scattering to become very forward-directed, but did not strongly alter the number of scattering events per unit length of photon path. This paper discusses the possible mechanism of action that is responsible for this clearing effect ...
0055] In the external light extraction, an external scattering layer may be manufactured in a sheet shape and then is attached to the substrate external through a similar method of forming an MLA sheet. Or, an external scattering layer may be manufactured by coating a substrate with a manufactured solution and hardening the coated substrate. Since there is no color change and interference color according to a viewing angle in the external scattering layer and Lambertian distribution is maintained after light passes through a light scattering layer, this light extraction structure may be applicable to a white OLED lighting panel. However, if a light scattering layer becomes thicker and light scattering particles form a multi layered structure, scattering effect of a short wavelength becomes greater than that of a long wavelength so that a transmission color has yellowish red. This should be taken care of. In order to minimize a spectrum change due to a scattering effect difference according to a ...
The information determined relates to the particle size, shape, distribution and orientation, porosity, surface features and internal structure.. A SAXS sample requires very little preparation and results are representative of the bulk material. The scattered signal is typically recorded at diffraction angles of ,6° and the sample is positioned at a long distance from the detector. The measured scattered signals are accordingly extremely weak. For this reason, SAXS measurements benefit from the use of a high brilliance X-ray source such as the MetalJet, which makes weak scattering effects, stronger, more visible and more readily studied.. ...
The kinetics of kraft lignin (KL) aggregation at alkaline conditions was studied by quasi-elastic light scattering (QELS) and turbidity measurements. Stability ratios (W) for HL were obtained at 70 degreesC and various concentrations of sodium chloride. By analyzing the early-time evolution data of aggregate growth obtained from QELS, fractal dimensions of flocs formed in both reaction-limited cluster-cluster aggregation regimes and diffusion-limited cluster-cluster aggregation regimes were determined. Correlations between the fractal dimension and the W-ratio were found in accordance to recent studies of a system containing monodisperse polystyrene colloids. By cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, the fractality of KL aggregate structures in the system was also shown. It was seen from stability studies of KL solutions that the effects of specific co- and counterions follow the Hofmeister series. From the outcome of the investigation, different modes of aggregation occurring in a KL ...
"Neutron scattering lengths and cross sections". NIST Center for Neutron Research. NIST. Retrieved 5 November 2015. Garner, F.A ... Radiation material science Stopping power (particle radiation) Collision cascade Ion track Radiation hardening Radiation Damage ... Many of the radiation effects on materials are produced by collision cascades and covered by radiation chemistry. Radiation can ... Radiation damage is the effect of ionizing radiation on physical objects including non-living structural materials. It can be ...
Shen, Y. R.; Bloembergen, N. (1965-03-15). "Theory of Stimulated Brillouin and Raman Scattering". Physical Review. American ... Sound amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (SASER) refers to a device that emits acoustic radiation. It focuses ... In a FEL, electrons move through magnetic periodic systems producing electromagnetic radiation. The radiation of the electrons ... The radiation emits through the faces of the cylinder. A proposal for the development of a phonon laser on resonant phonon ...
A dark band appears to the detector, due to the radiation scattered out of the beam. For instance, dark bands in the light ... UV, with X-ray and gamma radiation, are referred to as ionizing radiation due to the ability of photons of this radiation to ... It could be immediately re-radiated and appear as scattered, reflected, or transmitted radiation. It may get dissipated into ... For low-frequency radiation (radio waves to visible light) the best-understood effects are those due to radiation power alone, ...
Rayleigh scattering usually has an intensity in the range 0.1% to 0.01% relative to that of a radiation source. An even smaller ... When photons are scattered, most of them are elastically scattered (Rayleigh scattering), such that the scattered photons have ... In 1908, another form of elastic scattering, called Mie scattering was discovered. The inelastic scattering of light was ... "combinational scattering" or "combinatory scattering". Raman received the Nobel Prize in 1930 for his work on the scattering of ...
... ray scattering under grazing incidence (GISAXS)". Synchrotron Radiation News. Informa UK Limited. 15 (5): 35-42. doi:10.1080/ ... The scattered probe is either photons (grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, GISAXS) or neutrons (grazing-incidence ... Grazing-incidence small-angle scattering (GISAS) is a scattering technique used to study nanostructured surfaces and thin films ... In combination with the straightforward scattering geometry, where all relevant information is contained in a single scattering ...
Stein, M., Keller, S., Luo, Y., Ilic, O. (2022). "Shaping contactless radiation forces through anomalous acoustic scattering". ... Acoustic radiation force (ARF) is a physical phenomenon resulting from the interaction of an acoustic wave with an obstacle ... Acoustic radiation forces can also be controlled through sub-wavelength patterning of the surface of the object. When a ... Generally, the force exerted on the obstacle is evaluated by integrating the acoustic radiation pressure (due to the presence ...
Stein, M., Keller, S., Luo, Y., Ilic, O. (2022). "Shaping contactless radiation forces through anomalous acoustic scattering". ... Radiation pressure Acoustic levitation Acoustic radiation force RT Beyer (1978). "Radiation pressure-the history of a ... Numerous authors make a distinction between the phenomena of Rayleigh radiation pressure and Langevin radiation pressure. ... Acoustic radiation pressure is the apparent pressure difference between the average pressure at a surface moving with the ...
... of sunlight in Earth's atmosphere causes diffuse sky radiation, which is the reason for the blue color of ... 4 scattering at higher wavevectors. Rayleigh scattering is an important component of the scattering of optical signals in ... The particle, therefore, becomes a small radiating dipole whose radiation we see as scattered light. The particles may be ... Rayleigh scattering applies to the case when the scattering particle is very small (x ≪ 1, with a particle size < 1/10 of ...
RIXS experiments therefore require a high-brilliance X-ray source, and are only performed at synchrotron radiation sources. In ... X-ray scattering techniques X-ray Raman scattering (XRS) W. Schuelke, Electron Dynamics by Inelastic X-Ray Scattering, Oxford ... The scattering phase space (the range of energies and momenta that can be transferred in a scattering event) of X-rays is ... Compared to other scattering techniques, RIXS has a number of unique features: it covers a large scattering phase-space, is ...
To show this, Compton scattered x-ray radiation off a graphite block and measured the wavelength of the x-rays before and after ... Plural scattering: when electron(s) scatter several times. Multiple scattering: when electron(s) scatter many times over. The ... no electron scattering occurs at all and the beam passes straight through. Single scattering: when an electron is scattered ... for a scattering angle of 180°). Thomson scattering is the classical elastic quantitative interpretation of the scattering ...
Radiation which has been scattered while travelling through the patient strikes the lead strips at an angle, and is either ... Higher grid ratios provide better scatter cleanup, but they also result in greater radiation doses to the patient. In addition ... Scattered x-rays do not travel in parallel to rays that pass directly through the patient. The quantity of scattering depends ... Perry Sprawls, Ph.D. (Fall 2013). "Scattered Radiation and Contrast". Sprawls Educational Foundation. Retrieved ...
"Fluctuation x-ray scattering from biological particles in frozen solution by using synchrotron radiation". Proceedings of the ... Fluctuation X-ray scattering (FXS) is an X-ray scattering technique similar to small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), but is ... "Structure determination of Pt-coated Au dumbbellsviafluctuation X-ray scattering". Journal of Synchrotron Radiation. 19 (5): ... Malmerberg, Erik; Cheryl A. Kerfeld and Petrus H. Zwart (2015). "Operational properties of fluctuation X-ray scattering data". ...
Schumacher, Martin (1999). "Delbrück scattering". Radiation Physics and Chemistry. Elsevier BV. 56 (1-2): 101-111. doi:10.1016/ ... Addendum: Delbrück scattering is the coherent elastic scattering of photons in the Coulomb field of heavy nuclei. It is one of ... A first observation of Delbrück scattering was achieved in a high-energy, small-angle photon scattering experiment carried out ... In the Göttingen experiment Delbrück scattering was observed as the dominant contribution to the coherent-elastic scattering ...
... performing and analyzing X-ray Raman scattering experiments". Journal of Synchrotron Radiation. 22 (2): 400-409. doi:10.1107/ ... It utilizes the technique of X-ray Raman scattering (XRS), also known as Non-resonant Inelastic X-Ray Scattering (NIXS) to ... Orphaned articles from July 2020, All orphaned articles, X-ray scattering, X-ray spectroscopy, Raman scattering). ... Th is the Thomson scattering cross-section (representing the elastic scattering of electromagnetic waves off electrons) and S(q ...
Atmospheric radiation - solar spectrum. Atmospheric scattering, spectra of water vapor and other gases. Albedo of earth and ... 1931). Radiation effects on man in space. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Society. 3:, 183. Büttner, K. (1932). Physical considerations ... Heat transfer pipe and convection, evaporation and radiation in Bioclimatology and meteorology.) Link, M. M. (1965). Space ... evaporation and radiation in Bioklimatologie and Meteorology", at the University of Kiel. He became head of the Bioclimatic ...
This scattering model has found use in other scientific disciplines. The crater Henyey on the Moon is named after him, as is ... "The Henyey-Greenstein phase function" (PDF). Henyey, L. C.; Greenstein, J. L. (1941). "Diffuse radiation in the Galaxy". The ... "Scattering: The Henyey-Greenstein phase function". "Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets (1)-(5000)". IAU: Minor ... "The Henyey-Greenstein scattering function". Archived from the original on 2014-11-02. " ...
Infrared radiation can pass more freely through regions of cosmic dust that scatter visible light. Observations in infrared ... Radiation Scattering in Optical Systems. Vol. 257. pp. 19-28. Bibcode:1981SPIE..257...19F. doi:10.1117/12.959598. The C3 mirror ... Relatively cool objects (temperatures less than several thousand degrees) emit their radiation primarily in the infrared, as ... infrared radiation from the telescope itself would overwhelm its instruments. Its large sunshield blocks light and heat from ...
Radiation Scattering in Optical Systems. 0257. Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 257 Radiation Scattering in Optical Systems: 154-160. ... The subsurface scattering component can be simulated as a steady high-scatter glow of light from within the models, without ... BSSTDF (Bidirectional scattering-surface transmittance distribution function) is like BTDF but with subsurface scattering. ... BSSRDF (Bidirectional scattering-surface reflectance distribution function or Bidirectional surface scattering RDF) describes ...
But, for many nuclei struck by neutrons, inelastic scattering occurs. Whether elastic or inelastic scatter occurs is dependent ... radiation) Radiation hormesis Radiation physics Radiation protection Radiation Protection Convention, 1960 Radiation protection ... " : Radiation Risk Calculator. Calculate Radiation Dose and Cancer Risk". (from CT scans and xrays). Free Radiation ... These internal radiation sources contribute to an individual's total radiation dose from natural background radiation. An ...
... non-resonant x-ray Raman scattering and RIXS (resonant inelastic X-ray scattering). BL 8-2, 10-1, 13-2 These three beamlines ... SSRL is a National User Facility which provides synchrotron radiation, a name given to electromagnetic radiation in the x-ray, ... The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (formerly Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory), a division of SLAC ... Within a short time SSRP had five experimental hutches that each used the radiation originating from only one of the large ...
Pyramidal RAM attenuates signal by two effects: scattering and absorption. Scattering can occur both coherently, when reflected ... Pyramidal RAM attenuates signal by scattering and absorption. Scattering can occur both coherently, when reflected waves are in ... Internal scattering can result in as much as 10 dB of attenuation. Meanwhile, the pyramid shapes are cut at angles that ... Internal scattering can result in as much as 10 dB of attenuation. Meanwhile, the pyramid shapes are cut at angles that ...
... of typically 1 to 3 mm but an energy resolution which is just good enough to sort out scattered photons or background radiation ... Although the full momentum information about the momentum of the electron is encoded in the annihilation radiation, due to ... Either one measures the Doppler broadening of the 511 keV annihilation radiation (DBAR) or the angular correlation of the ... In the 1950s, it was realized that by measuring the deviation from collinearity of the annihilation radiation information about ...
In mathematics, the Sommerfeld radiation condition is a concept from theory of differential equations and scattering theory ... in the Sommerfeld radiation condition. The Sommerfeld radiation condition is used to solve uniquely the Helmholtz equation. For ... The energy which is radiated from the sources must scatter to infinity; no energy may be radiated from infinity into ... the ... A solution u {\displaystyle u} to this equation is called radiating if it satisfies the Sommerfeld radiation condition lim , x ...
Aerosols scatter and absorb solar radiation. They also have indirect effects on the Earth's radiation budget. Sulfate aerosols ... Solar radiation management (SRM) is also a possible supplement to deep reductions in emissions. However, SRM would raise ... Tyndall, John (1861). "On the Absorption and Radiation of Heat by Gases and Vapours, and on the Physical Connection of ... These clouds reflect solar radiation more efficiently than clouds with fewer and larger droplets. They also reduce the growth ...
Aerosols directly scatter and absorb radiation. The scattering of radiation causes atmospheric cooling, whereas absorption can ... Electromagnetic radiation, Radiometry, Scattering, absorption and radiative transfer (optics), Radiation, 1760s neologisms). ... One of these five parameters is yet another type of albedo called the single-scattering albedo. It is used to define scattering ... trees absorb most radiation), whereas surfaces with a high albedo appear bright (e.g., snow reflects most radiation). Albedo is ...
In atmospheric radiation, Chandrasekhar's H-function appears as the solutions of problems involving scattering, introduced by ... 1978). (Special functions, Integral equations, Scattering, Scattering, absorption and radiative transfer (optics)). ... Thermal radiation heat transfer. CRC press, 2010. Modest, Michael F. Radiative heat transfer. Academic press, 2013. Hottel, ... "Radiation heat transfer." Series in Thermal and Fluids Engineering, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978, Augmented ed. ( ...
This absence of scattering and the trapping allows them to persist for a long time, finally only being destroyed by an unusual ... In March 2014, a pattern resembling "zebra stripes" was observed in the radiation belts by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion ... similar radiation belts have been discovered around other planets. The Sun does not support long-term radiation belts, as it ... Forward for draining and removing the radiation fields of the Van Allen radiation belts that surround the Earth. Another ...
Special functions, Integral equations, Scattering, Scattering, absorption and radiative transfer (optics)). ... In atmospheric radiation, Chandrasekhar's X- and Y-function appears as the solutions of problems involving diffusive reflection ... Thermal radiation heat transfer. CRC press, 2010. Modest, Michael F. Radiative heat transfer. Academic press, 2013. Hottel, ... "Radiation heat transfer." Series in Thermal and Fluids Engineering, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978, Augmented ed. (1978). ...
Because media neither absorb, emit, nor scatter radiation. Governing equation of heat transfer between two surface Ai and Aj q ... Mahan Radiation Heat Transfer: A Statistical Approach, Volume 1 Richard M. Goody Yuk Ling Yung Atmospheric Radiation K. G. ... is the wavelength of radiation rays, I {\displaystyle I} is the radiation intensity, ε {\displaystyle \varepsilon } is the ... Kernel function is also used in integral equation for surface radiation exchanges. Kernel function relates to both the geometry ...
Wu, C. 's.; Shaknov, I. (1950). "The Angular Correlation of Scattered Annihilation Radiation". Physical Review. 77 (1): 136. ...
Mie's scattering model can be used to find the intensity of the scattered radiation. The intensity of Mie scattered radiation ... Also, the scattered radiation is polarized in the same sense as the incident radiation. In the small-particle (or long- ... Mie scattering (sometimes referred to as a non-molecular scattering or aerosol particle scattering) takes place in the lower ... the radiation pattern of the scattered field will be similar to the corresponding radiation pattern of the angular part of ...
Since the radiation lengths tend to be shorter for higher atomic number materials; hence larger scattering angles are expected ... MT uses multiple scattering radiography. In addition to energy loss and stopping cosmic rays undergo Coulomb scattering. The ... X is the length of scattering medium, and X0 is the radiation length for the material. This needs to be convolved with the ... where θ is the muon scattering angle and θ0 is the standard deviation of scattering angle, is given approximately by θ 0 = 14.1 ...
Heszler, P; Carlsson, JO (1995). "Scattered light investigation during LCVD of W from WF6/H2/Ar gas mixture". Vacuum. Elsevier ... The time dependent spectral analysis of this radiation offers a powerful tool to study the chemical reactions and their ... Perhaps, his most important breakthroughs are the discovery and application of emission of thermal radiation from nanoparticles ...
Later (in the US and Canada) she devoted herself to nuclear spectroscopy and to studies of 3He and 4He scattering. A study of ... While serving at Laval, she worked for two years at the Kellogg Radiation Laboratory at California Institute of Technology in ...
In scattered fighting across South Vietnam 85 PAVN/VC and two ARVN were reported killed. The New York Times reported that VC ... The USS Worden operating in the Gulf of Tonkin was accidentally hit by two AGM-45 Shrike anti-radiation missiles fired by U.S. ... In scattered fighting northwest and northeast of Saigon 39 PAVN and six ARVN were killed. U.S. jets mounted their second ... In scattered fighting in the Central Highlands and Bình Định province the South Vietnamese reported 153 PAVN and ten ARVN ...
The ozone layer surrounding the Earth absorbs significant amounts of ultraviolet radiation. A 1976 report by the US Academy of ... David McTaggart lobbied the Canadian Greenpeace Foundation to accept a new structure bringing the scattered Greenpeace offices ...
Backscatter Electromagnetic radiation v t e (Articles lacking sources from June 2015, All articles lacking sources, ... The Back Scattering Alignment (BSA) is a coordinate system used in coherent electromagnetic scattering. The coordinate system ... The alternative coordinate system in electromagnetic scattering is the Forward Scattering Alignment (FSA) which is primarily ... Both coordinate systems contain essentially the same information and meaning, and thus a scattering matrix can be transformed ...
The scattering of α and β particles by matter and the structure of the atom". The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical ... The blackbody radiation curves (1862) at left are also compared with the early, classical limit model of Rayleigh and Jeans ( ... There the top physicists of the scientific community met to discuss the problem of "Radiation and the Quanta." By this time the ... With decreasing temperature, the peak of the blackbody radiation curve shifts to longer wavelengths and also has lower ...
L. Holmlid, "Redshifts in space caused by stimulated Raman scattering in cold intergalactic Rydberg Matter with experimental ... Rydberg matter is highly stable against disintegration by emission of radiation; the characteristic lifetime of a cluster at n ... "Cluster KN formation by Rydberg collision complex stabilization during scattering of a K beam off zirconia surfaces". The ...
In particular, gamma ray bursts, galactic radiation, and the cosmic microwave background radiation are examined. The SME ... Lorentz violation bounds on Bhabha scattering have been given by Charneski et al. (2012). They showed that differential cross ... Vacuum Cherenkov radiation at superluminal speed of any particle (protons, electrons, neutrinos) having a charge structure. In ... This is similar to the known Cherenkov radiation in media, in which particles are traveling faster than the phase velocity of ...
Thus the mopane worm is scattered over a fairly large area. As the larval stage of the mopane worm is fairly short, in contrast ... 108 Effects of Elevated Ultraviolet-B Radiation on Native and Cultivated Plants of Southern Africa Food Insects Site includes ...
Hepp, Klaus; Lieb, Elliott H (1973). "On the superradiant phase transition for molecules in a quantized radiation field: the ... From Rayleigh to Bragg Scattering". Physical Review Letters. 91 (20): 203001. Bibcode:2003PhRvL..91t3001B. doi:10.1103/ ... Dicke, R. H. (1954). "Coherence in Spontaneous Radiation Processes". Physical Review. 93 (1): 99-110. Bibcode:1954PhRv...93... ...
"Higher-order finite-difference schemes for electromagnetic radiation, scattering, and penetration .1. Theory," in IEEE Antennas ... P. A. Tirkas and C. A. Balanis, "Finite-difference time-domain method for antenna radiation," in IEEE Transactions on Antennas ... "New Class of RCS-Reduction Metasurfaces Based on Scattering Cancellation Using Array Theory," in IEEE Transactions on Antennas ...
Nanofluid Absorption Fluid Radiation Scattering Solar collector Solar energy Sreekumar, S.; Shah, N.; Mondol, J.; Hewitt, N.; ... An ideal solar collector will absorb the concentrated solar radiation, convert that incident solar radiation into heat and ... On reaching the receiver the solar radiations transfer energy to the nanofluid via scattering and absorption. ... solar collectors are solar thermal collectors where nanoparticles in a liquid medium can scatter and absorb solar radiation. ...
More than 3,000 people attended her memorial service, where her ashes were scattered in the ocean off her native Makaha. Sunn ... Sunn continued to surf daily despite the pain from bouts of chemotherapy, radiation treatments, medications and the financial ...
Synchrotron light (also referred to as synchrotron radiation) is radiation that is emitted when charged particles moving at ... Small Angle and Wide Angle X-ray Scattering) Tomography Beamline Although the current facility has space for seven light beams ... The facility is the only synchrotron radiation facility in the Middle East and is one of around 60 in the world. As of May 2017 ... While the second beam provides infrared radiation for a microscope that would study biological tissue; including cancer cells. ...
Helium scattering has a higher resolution than EELS, with a resolution of 0.5-1 meV compared to 7 meV. However, He scattering ... phonons can be excited by optical radiation in the infrared wavelength or longer. Phonons take on both labels such that ... During He scattering, the He atom does not actually penetrate into the material, being scattered only once at the surface; in ... He scattering is also more sensitive to very low frequency vibrations, on the order of 1 meV. This is the reason for its high ...
Birnholtz, Ofek; Hadar, Shahar; Kol, Barak (2014). "Radiation reaction at the level of the action". International Journal of ... This technique is useful for scattering or other processes where the maximum momentum scale k satisfies the condition k/M≪1. ... Birnholtz, Ofek; Hadar, Shahar; Kol, Barak (2013). "Theory of post-Newtonian radiation and reaction". Physical Review D. 88 (10 ... They simplify calculations, and allow treatment of dissipation and radiation effects. Presently, effective field theories are ...
Walls GL (1942): The Vertebrate Eye and Its Adaptive Radiation. New York, Hafner. Ward R, Reperant J, Hergueta S, Miceli D, ... Aerial perspective Due to light scattering by the atmosphere, objects that are a great distance away have lower luminance ...
Its surface is thought to have a pink tinge, resulting from chemical changes produced by the effect of radiation on frozen ... Johnston's Archive List Of Centaurs and Scattered-Disk Objects, Minor Planet Center 2012 VP113 at the JPL Small-Body Database ...
Many are grouped in a central core, but there is a halo of associated objects scattered across more than 10 arc-minutes. The ... The appearance is similar to a bowshock, but the type of radiation shows that it is not a bowshock. The observed infrared ... The dust becomes decoupled from the gas that carried it away from the molecular cloud by radiation pressure from the hot stars ...
... instruments to study scattered solar radiation and soil composition, and a device named Groza which was designed to measure ...
With the Earth's atmosphere full of dust and other material, radiation from the sun would be refracted and scattered back into ... With the sun's radiation being severely diminished, the first species to die would be plants and animals who survive through ... In this scenario massive amounts of debris injected into the atmosphere would block some of the sun's radiation for an extended ... of the sun's radiation might not reach the surface.[why?] After the first 20 days, the land temperature might drop quickly, by ...
Such effects can be shock waves, heat radiation, the formation of craters with associated earthquakes, and tsunamis if water ... in diameter approximately 1.849 billion years ago Debris from the event would have been scattered across the globe. Two 10- ... is heavily forested and was discovered in 2007 when a metal detector revealed fragments of meteoric iron scattered around the ...
... a small-angle neutron-scattering detector, and wide-angle neutron scattering facilities. The cyclotron is used for the ... and other applied radiation sciences. The university provides a wide range of irradiation, laboratory, and holding facilities, ... faculty member Bertram Brockhouse in 1994 for his work in neutron scattering; and alumna Donna Strickland in 2018 for her work ... for his work with neutron scattering Donna Strickland, Nobel laureate in physics for her work with laser physics Myron Scholes ...
Sunlight scattered or reflected by astronomical objects is generally not considered daylight. Therefore, daylight excludes ... This includes direct sunlight, diffuse sky radiation, and (often) both of these reflected by Earth and terrestrial objects, ...
Populations are generally scattered in the Appalachians, but more frequent in the Ozarks and Ouachitas. Asplenium bradleyi can ... At the time, Wherry attributed the diversity of Appalachian spleenworts to the adaptive radiation of hypothesized northern and ...
The radiation can ionize the atoms in a solid-state transistor. These ionized atoms and corresponding electrons can interfere ... in vacuum electrons do not suffer from scattering and can reach a velocity of up to 3×1010 cm/s. Therefore, a vacuum-channel ... Therefore, a vacuum-channel transistor can be used in a high radiation environment such as outer space or inside a nuclear ... Moreover, vacuum-channel transistors are expected to operate at higher temperature and radiation level than a traditional ...
The energy fluxes of electrons in three ranges were measured separately using scatter geometry, absorbers, and the phototube ... solar cell-powered spacecraft instrumented to study the artificial radiation belt produced by the Starfish high-altitude ... p-n junction semiconductor diodes were used to measure the energy spectrum of electrons and protons in the artificial radiation ...
There is no need for women to wear thyroid shields when they undergo screening mammography because scatter radiation is minimal ... The radiation dose decreased slightly with increasing breast density, whereas the scatter radiation dose increased with ... CHICAGO - Scatter radiation to areas of the body near the breast during screening mammography is negligible and likely does not ... To better understand the potential impact of scatter radiation, Dr. Chetlen and her team sought to measure the dose received by ...
8.1 IntroductionNuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation has become an established field of condensed-matter ... Nuclear Resonant Scattering of Synchrotron Radiation: Applications in Magnetism DOI link for Nuclear Resonant Scattering of ... Nuclear Resonant Scattering of Synchrotron Radiation: Applications in Magnetism DOI link for Nuclear Resonant Scattering of ... 8.1 IntroductionNuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation has become an established field of condensed-matter ...
This Demonstration shows the angular distribution of gravitational wave radiation from the scattering of two point particles. ... Angular Distribution of Gravitational Wave Radiation from Scattering by Two Point Particles. Initializing live version ... This Demonstration shows the angular distribution of gravitational wave radiation from the scattering of two point particles. ... Angular Distribution of Gravitational Wave Radiation from Scattering by Two Point Particles. Satya Mohapatra ...
Title:Angular momentum loss in gravitational scattering, radiation reaction, and the Bondi gauge ambiguity. Authors:Gabriele ... Abstract: Recently, Damour computed the radiation reaction on gravitational scattering as the (linear) response to the angular ... We find that the angular momentum flux in this gauge is precisely the one used by Damour for his radiation reaction result. We ... Another puzzle is that the resultant radiation reaction, of ${\cal O}(G^3)$, is nevertheless correct and confirmed by a number ...
Antenna radiation pattern measurement using a near-field wire scattering technique. T Calazan, RP Griffiths, AL Cullen, DEN ... Antenna radiation pattern measurement using a near-field wire scattering technique. / Calazan, T; Griffiths, RP; Cullen, AL; ... title = "Antenna radiation pattern measurement using a near-field wire scattering technique", ... T1 - Antenna radiation pattern measurement using a near-field wire scattering technique ...
Scattered radiation is estimated according to the projection image data and the surface contour characterization. The acquired ... radiographic projection image data is updated according to the estimated scattered radiation. An image of the field of view is ... A method for scattered radiation correction acquires radiographic projection image data for a first portion of a subject that ... Constraining the estimation of scattered radiation to this FOV tends to underestimate the magnitude of the scattered radiation ...
... has been widely used for radiation protection, but it does not provide full body protection and it is often shared between ... Clinical images of the three protection scenarios for scatter radiation: (a) no protection, (b) protection with radiation ... new equipment to protect the operator from scatter radiation Xinhong Wang 1 , Mengxi Xu 2 , Cong Chen 2 , Zhongkun Bao 3 , ... we developed a novel trolley to protect radiographers against X-ray radiation by reducing scatter radiation during neonatal ...
Radiation and scattering of waves / Leopold B. Felsen, Nathan Marcuvitz.. Saved in: ...
Scattered Radiation Swiss scientists from the University of Lausanne suggested that such measures simply arent enough to ... After all, during the day UV radiation can be found wherever there is natural, visible light, so its an unavoidable risk2.. ... Protection against Harmful UV Radiation for the Eyes Background Article by ZEISS Expert Dr. Christian Lappe Technical Article ... These lenses cover a wavelength of up to 400 nm, which corresponds to the definition of UV radiation by the strict Australian ...
What is Scatter Radiation. Doctor in hospital room explaining x-ray on tablet for senior woman during consultation in clinic ... During the study, it was found that even at twelve feet away, there was still enough scattered radiation to penetrate through ... Low Radiation CT Scanners To successfully reduce the radiation dose in ra... ... According to the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements, the average daily radiation exposure for a person is ...
Scattering, Radiation Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Conformation of Lys-plasminogen and the kringle 1-3 fragment of plasminogen analyzed by small-angle neutron scattering. ... Temperature changes induce large structural changes which can be detected with either dynamic light scattering or analytical ... Combined analytical ultracentrifugation, light scattering and fluorescence spectroscopy studies on the functional associations ...
However, radiation can be dangerous and can harm normal tissues if exposed to high dose for long time. Therefore, shielding and ... The purpose of this work is to study and calculate Klein-Nishina electronic cross section 𝜎 , Compton scattering cross section ... Different forms of shielding material help to ensure that radiation only reaches the targets and does not damage healthy cells ... Build up factors will be calculated using narrow beams and broad beams of gamma radiation under the same conditions. Respective ...
Quisque elementum nibh at dolor pellentesque, a eleifend libero pharetra. Mauris neque felis, volutpat. ...
... Nat Chem. 2019 Nov;11(11):1058-1066. ... Here, we perform temperature-jump small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering measurements on a dynamic enzyme, cyclophilin A, ... but their implementation in X-ray scattering experiments has been limited. ...
Not the answer youre looking for? Browse other questions tagged electromagnetic-radiation scattering or ask your own question ... The Rayleigh scattering effect applies to light signals, and the scattering of a signal when passing through a material ... Rayleigh scattering affects light passing through air, and the light wavelengths range from ~650 nm (red) to ~420 nm (blue) ... That is at least three orders of magnitude difference in frequency, so the Rayleigh scattering cross section will be 12 orders ...
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation Journal of. Synchrotron Radiation IUCr IT WDC search IUCr Journals. ...
Since that time, radiation therapy has developed into a recognized medical specialty. ... Radiation dose or exposure is measured in units of absorbed radiation per unit of tissue. The Gray (Gy) represents 1 J/kg of ... The radiation oncologist and other members of the multidisciplinary team must decide whether radiation will play a role in the ... Radiation therapy, general principles. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plan for nasopharynx. View Media Gallery ...
Scattering, Radiation * Subtraction Technique* * Tomography, Emission-Computed / methods* * Tomography, X-Ray Computed / ... or x-ray scatter) artifacts. Proper interpretation of PET emission images corrected for attenuation by using the CT image ...
9:30 AM Tutorial 1: Basic Data Analysis I with RAW Is this good data? Radiation Damage? 10:00 AM Coffee Break 10:15 AM Data ... SA_Scat] ACA 2018 - Small Angle Scattering Workshop. *To: ,[email protected], ... "Applications of Small Angle Scattering to Structural Biology: AnIntroduction." On behalf of the organizing committee, we are ... Model-dependent Analysis of SAS Data Calculated scattering profiles from atomic models, Shape reconstruction,Atomistic modeling ...
RASCAS: RAdiation SCattering in Astrophysical Simulations L. Michel-Dansac, J. Blaizot, T. Garel, A. Verhamme, T. Kimm and M. ... A Strange EUV Emission: Scattered Continuum in the Lyman Limit Absorption Edge toward the Quasar SDSS J125903.26+621211.5?. ...
It is shown that, depending upon the size of the sphere and the wavelength of the incident radiation, the back-scattering may ... It is shown that, depending upon the size of the sphere and the wavelength of the incident radiation, the back-scattering may ... The method is applicable for problems with nonconservative scattering as well as for conservative scattering problems. ... The method is applicable for problems with nonconservative scattering as well as for conservative scattering problems. ...
Cross section and Compton scattering: …cross section is called the Thomson cross section, symbolized by the Greek letter sigma ... photon scattering. *. In radiation: Cross section and Compton scattering. …cross section is called the Thomson cross section, ...
... for scattering the NIR laser radiation (4) are distributed such that by multiple scattering at the scattering centers (3) of ... of the NIR laser radiation (4) the specific absorption coefficient of the scattering centers (3) is not higher than the ... of an NIR laser radiation (4 ), wherein in the material (2) scattering centers (3) ... transmitted to NIR laser radiation (4) as the material (2) at a workpiece thickness (D) corresponding material thickness ...
... ... Youre reviewing:Invisible Laser Radiation When Open Avoid Direct Eye Or Skin Exposure To Direct Or Scattered Radiation. ... Invisible Laser Radiation When Open Avoid Direct Eye Or Skin Exposure To Direct Or Scattered Radiation ... Radiation Hazards , Thermal Hazards , Switch & Guard Hazards , Arc Flash Hazards , Authorised Personnel Labels , Electrical ...
... theory of radiation fields and radiation from moving charges; bremsstrahlung; synchrotron; Compton scattering; plasma effects. ... Theory and applications of astrophysical radiation processes: transfer theory; thermal radiation; ... Theory of continuous radiation and spectral line formation. Applications to the sun and stars. ... Problems of origin, evolution, and structure of planetary atmospheres, emphasizing elements common to all; roles of radiation, ...
Measurement of scattering of radiation. *Light scattering: The concentration of oil droplets in dilute food emulsions can be ... measurement of adsorption of radiation, and (iii) measurement of scattering of radiation. Each instrumental methods has its own ... Measurement of adsorption of radiation. *UV-visible: The concentration of certain lipids can be determined by measuring the ... Ultrasonic scattering: The concentration of oil droplets in concentrated food emulsions can be determined using ultrasonic ...
Double scattering proton therapy is a form of passive scattering radiation, offering precise cancer treatment with less risk of ... Double scattering proton therapy is a form of passive scattering radiation, offering precise cancer treatment with less risk of ... What are the benefits of double scattering radiation?. Much like Pencil Beam Scanning, double scattering proton therapy allows ... With double scattering beams, this can be placed at any depth in the body, delivering targeted dose of radiation directly to ...
To compare the risk of secondary cancer from scattered and leakage doses following intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), ... Figure 4 , Radiation Oncology. Figure 4. From: Risk of second cancer from scattered radiation of intensity-modulated ... The percentage secondary scattered dose measurements of five patients for IMRT (blue, diamond), VMAT (red, square) and TOMO ( ...
  • Age-dependent structural changes in intact human lenses detected by synchrotron radiation x-ray scattering. (
  • To understand alterations in the spatial organization of the crystallins, the major determinant of lens transparency, the x-ray scattering by intact normal human lenses from individuals 6-82 years of age was measured using synchrotron radiation. (
  • article{osti_1606445, title = {Using Complementary Methods of Synchrotron Radiation Powder Diffraction and Pair Distribution Function to Refine Crystal Structures with High Quality Parameters-A Review}, author = {Lee, Seungyeol and Xu, Huifang}, abstractNote = {Determination of the atomic-scale structures of certain fine-grained minerals using single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been challenging because they commonly occur as submicron and nanocrystals in the geological environment. (
  • In this paper, we compare SAXS patterns of identical nanodiamond samples measured at the TR-SAXS extreme state of matter end-station (BINP SB RAS) in the static mode under realistic conditions simulating fast real-time measurements with polychromatic SR beam and traditional SAXS BioMUR beamline at the Kurchatov Synchrotron Radiation Source (NRC 'Kurchatov Institute') with monochromatic synchrotron radiation (SR) beam. (
  • comprehensively describes from a modern perspective the basics of x-ray physics as well as the completely new opportunities offered by synchrotron radiation. (
  • Over the past two decades, LIH SB RAS and BINP SB RAS have jointly conducted experiments on time-resolved (TR) small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) with detonating high explosives. (
  • Measurements under various bending radii have made it possible to calculate the contribution of scattering as well as absorption and changes in modes of propagation, and the dependence of delivered energy to a target at a distance on the coupled value of energy. (
  • As a rule, even in a relatively simple case-in which directed external radiation illuminates a homogeneous layer of medium-the absorption of radiation changes non-monotonically with the depth. (
  • Generation and character of photon beams, absorption and scattering processes in tissue. (
  • Attenuation, absorption and scatter of tissue. (
  • Absorption-- The process by which radiation imparts some or all of its energy to any material through which it passes. (
  • The competing effects of elastic scatter, which increases with dose due to the formation of polymer, and sample absorption were quantified and found to introduce errors of up to 5% under certain conditions. (
  • Synchrotron powder diffraction and scattering techniques are useful complementary methods for studying this type of minerals. (
  • We apply synchrotron X-ray diffraction and neutron scattering techniques to obtain in-situ information on the grain nucleation and growth during the phase transformations. (
  • Learners will analyze the radiation, scattering, and diffraction phenomenon with the Kirchhoff -Helmholtz Equation. (
  • Nuclear medicine (5 hours): Radioactivity, nuclear transformations, radionuclide production and radiopharmaceuticals, radiation detection and measurement. (
  • The measurement is based on the backward scattering of light. (
  • It includes investigation of atmosphere and circumstellar envelopes of various types of stars, search for extrasolar planets with gravitational microlensing method, and measurement of gamma radiation by detection of Cherenkov radiation. (
  • In addition to structural materials we also study magnetic materials by neutron scattering and muon-spin rotation techniques. (
  • Neutron-scattering and bulk thermomagnetic measurements reveal a phase transition at ∼ 0.3 K from a disordered spin-ice-like regime to an emergent charge ordered state, in which emergent magnetic charge degrees of freedom exhibit three-dimensional order while spins remain partially disordered. (
  • However, since ionizing radiation is undetectable by our human senses, the medical staff has to decide on suitable measures without any way to see or feel their current and actual radiation exposure. (
  • We immediately implemented this new system in two labs to reinforce to physicians and staff how their radiation practices were affecting their dose exposure," Dr. Mis notes. (
  • Radiation exposure quickly decreased, even during training, because the 'red cloud' became easier to conceptualize. (
  • These experiments confirm that the size of scattering inhomogeneities determined in dynamic experiments with single bunch exposure with polychromatic SR beam is correct. (
  • Acute Exposure-- An exposure to ionizing radiation for a duration of less than 15 days. (
  • Regarding acute radiation syndrome, high radiation levels involve an exposure period up to 2 days. (
  • This term refers to the practice of making every reasonable effort to keep exposure to radiation as far below the dose limit as possible while still achieving the purpose for which radiation is licensed to be used. (
  • Where no applicable regulations exist regarding reducing the risk from ionizing radiation exposure in the clinical setting, radiographic equipment, its use and the facilities (including mobile facilities) in which such equipment is used should conform to the recommendations in NCRP Report No. 102, NCRP Report No. 105, and NCRP Report No. 147 (incorporated by reference, see § 718.5 ). (
  • Early-responding tissues, such as skin, mucosa, and gastrointestinal epithelium, tend to respond acutely to radiation exposure, whereas radiation-induced effects are not immediately observed in late-responding tissues, such as vascular tissue, nerves, brain parenchyma, and spinal cord. (
  • Summary of retrospective asbestos and welding fume exposure estimates for a nuclear naval shipyard and their correlation with radiation exposure estimates. (
  • Scatter plots and Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to assess the degree of association between the estimates of exposure to asbestos , welding fume, and ionizing radiation. (
  • These results suggest a fairly large proportion of study population workers were exposed to asbestos and welding fume, that the absolute level of confounding exposure did not affect the risk estimates, and that weak relationships existed between monitored lifetime cumulative occupational radiation dose and asbestos or welding fume. (
  • Labeled 'Danger - Visible and/or invisible laser radiation - avoid direct exposure to beam. (
  • The epidemiologic and molecular links between ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure and subsequent development of both melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers have been well elucidated. (
  • The radiation exposure is low at approximately 2.5 mrem. (
  • To characterize whether the system modification leads to any additional scattered radiation to the patient, a Radcal 9095 exposure meter with a general-purpose ion chamber (10X6-6) was used to measure exposure levels at spatial positions corresponding to the patient chest wall and the breast. (
  • For most individuals, the main source of Units and measurements of UV radiation exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the sun. (
  • are the main source of deliberate exposure to However, UV radiation detectors for research or artificial UV radiation. (
  • Solar radiation erythemal exposure of 100 joules per square meter (J.m-2). (
  • Background and Objective: Computed Tomography of brain (CT brain) is a higher radiation dose imaging technique than in the conventional radiographic examination. (
  • Computed tomography, psychophysics, and scattered radiation and its effect on image are also elucidated. (
  • Corrigendum to "Shielding analysis of the ITER Collective Thomson Scattering system" [Fusion Eng. (
  • The RK200-04 Solar Radiation Sensor is measures solar radiation within 300-3000nm wavelength band. (
  • And as you may know, blue light, with its shorter wavelength, scatters easier than other colors and makes focusing on objects difficult. (
  • The usual melt particles are large in comparison with the infrared radiation wavelength. (
  • We assume also that the thickness of the steam layer at the particle surface is much greater than the radiation wavelength. (
  • Visitors to the 2020 Tokyo Olympics can expect to arrive at an airport "scattered" with robots to help them, an official said Tuesday as he unveiled seven new machines to perform tasks from helping with luggage to language assistance. (
  • Yutaka Kuratomi, a representative from the Japan Airport Terminal, hopes that by 2020, the terminals will be "scattered with robots", and it will be "normal" to see visitors communicating with machines. (
  • Scattering and beam profile measurements are discussed which have provided new data that may be used for future improvement or applications of these types of waveguides. (
  • The purpose of this work was to characterize the radiation dose performance of this prototype system through scatter radiation measurements and mean glandular dose (MGD) estimations. (
  • The result of scattered radiation dosimetry may provide to evaluate of radiation risk to the patient. (
  • The Raman spectroscopy of polymer gel dosimeters has been investigated with a view to developing a novel dosimetry technique that is capable of determining radiation dose within a micrometer of spatial resolution. (
  • Ample volumes of air and soil extending beyond the location of interest for dose rate calculation were included in the calculation model to properly simulate important radiation attenuation and scattering events that affect far-field dose rates. (
  • Two of the most frequently used methods are based on measuring the attenuation of a beam of electromagnetic radiation or ultrasound when it passes through the bone. (
  • In the case of solar irradiation of a thick layer of snow, visible radiation can lead to maximum heating of the snow at a depth of tens of centimeters ( Dombrovsky et al. (
  • If the sensing face is downwards, it can test the reflected radiation and solar radiation on the incident to the inclined plane. (
  • It is widely used to monitor the solar radiation in meteorology, solar energy, agriculture, construction materials aging and atmospheric pollution and etc. (
  • Aerosols interact with the atmospheric system scattering and absorbing solar radiation, with a significant impact on atmospheric energy and hydrologic processes. (
  • Most aerosols scatter solar radiation, cooling the atmosphere. (
  • However, black carbon, mineral dust and brown carbon (organic aerosol with radiation absorbing properties) absorb solar radiation and warm the atmosphere. (
  • Atmospheric aerosols significantly affect the earth's radiation balance by absorbing and scattering solar radiation, leading to a decrease in atmospheric visibility and contributing to climate change. (
  • U-factor is the rate at which a window or skylight conducts non-solar heat flow - it's a measure of thermal transmittance through conduction, convection, and radiation. (
  • The SHGC is the fraction of incident solar radiation admitted through a window, both directly transmitted and absorbed and subsequently released inward. (
  • Since 1997, the Erythemal Efficacy Spectrum represents about 5% of solar energy, and the of human skin has become an International radiation spectrum is between 290 and 400 nm. (
  • The performance of the protective eyewear was measured using radiation dosimeters in a fluoroscopy suite. (
  • Individual dosimeters, which can easily chosen arbitrarily as the boundary between non- be placed at strategic places on individuals, are ionizing and ionizing radiation. (
  • Radiation astromathematics problems , solutions including work due on September 15, 2022. (
  • The radiation can be delivered in several ways, including brachytherapy (using seeds that are implanted in the patient's body) and external beam radiation that projects the energy through the skin. (
  • This is a sophisticated form of external beam radiation, which is delivered by linear accelerators (LINACS). (
  • The process has evolved from a passive scattering approach to scanning proton beam therapy. (
  • Labeled: 'Caution - Laser Radiation: Do not stare into beam or view directly with optical instruments. (
  • New X-ray equipment reduces the size of the beam, and eliminates "scatter"-photons bouncing around the room. (
  • Two dimensional scattering examples along with validations are reported showing the near surface field distributions for a homogeneous circular dielectric cylinder and an elliptic dielectric cylinder each with transverse magnetic plane wave excitation. (
  • Before treatment, your radiation team will use computerized tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to map out the location of the prostate and tumor cells. (
  • We extended the study of Compton scattering on atom with independent particle model to double-ionised helium atoms with corrections from Coulomb and magnetic interaction. (
  • The angular dependence of the integrated scattering intensity is consistent with short-range order within the crystallin assemblies. (
  • Absorber-- Any material that absorbs or lessens the intensity of ionizing radiation. (
  • Oncologists can change the intensity of doses and radiation beams to better deliver high doses of radiation to tumor cells while delivering lower doses to surrounding healthy tissues. (
  • Oncologists can change the intensity and shape of the radiation beams to better target radiation delivered to the prostate while limiting radiation to nearby bladder and rectal tissue. (
  • In this case, the radiation intensity calculations can be based on the traditional radiation transfer theory, not only inside but also outside the particle (Dombrovsky, 2000). (
  • Upon application, zinc oxide particles sit on the outermost layer of skin, the stratum corneum, where they scatter, absorb, and reflect ultraviolet radiation, protecting living skin below. (
  • The study shows that when the extinction coefficient is so small, the increase in scattering albedo can intensify the cooling of the three black surfaces of the rectangular medium. (
  • It was shown that for Mc' Ilvine parameter of order 2-4 even a small order of magnitude of the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient may essentially affect the phase space distribution of the radiation belt proton fluxes. (
  • Additionally, since an acoustic wave has a much lower scattering coefficient in biological tissue than light, PAI offers high spatial resolution imaging at a greater depth than conventional optical imaging methods, thereby ultrasonically breaking through the optical diffusion limit. (
  • where h is the average convective heat transfer coefficient for the heat transfer from a hot particle to ambient water through a thin steam layer, P ( t , r ) is the heat loss rate due to thermal radiation, and T 0 is the uniform temperature of the melt droplet in the beginning of cooling. (
  • Her research interests include surface-enhanced Raman scattering, interaction of anticancer drugs with DNA, negative ions, radiation damage to DNA and teaching pedagogy and student learning. (
  • Rehfuess, is based on the consensus reached radiation level at the Earth's surface and an at the Munich meeting, and is intended to be indicator of the potential for skin used by national and local authorities and damage. (
  • Using Cherenkov telescopes MAGIC I and II located at Canary island La Palma (ORM) we observe scattering of gamma rays in Earth's atmosphere. (
  • The recent new analytical formulation of electromagnetic wave scattering by perfectly conducting two-dimensional objects using the on-surface radiation boundary condition approach is conveniently extended to the case of twodimensional homogeneous convex dielectric objects. (
  • Therefore, one can ignore electromagnetic wave effects in the analysis of the radiation field inside the particle. (
  • Radiation therapy is an effective treatment that kills prostate cancer cells by using high energy rays or particles. (
  • The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (
  • The main part of the radiation emitted by particles is absorbed in ambient water, at least in the case of a not-too-high volume fraction of particles (Dombrovsky, 2003). (
  • This allows us to assume that radiation heat transfer between the particles is insignificant compared to local heat transfer to surrounding water, and consider a model problem for single particles. (
  • KARL provides highly resolved profiles of the scattering characteristics of aerosol and cloud particles (backscattering, extinction and depolarization) as well as water vapor profiles within the lower troposphere. (
  • For the spring period 2007, the available KARL data were statistically analyzed using a characterization scheme, which is based on optical characteristics of the scattering particles. (
  • Here, it is assumed that the thermal radiation of the medium is negligible. (
  • Modeling of Anisotropic Scattering of Thermal Radiation in Pulver. (
  • Simple estimates show that thermal radiation is the main mode of heat transfer from a single particle to ambient water (Dinh et al. (
  • The primary disadvantage of Raman spectroscopy is that the Raman scattering cross sections are very small, so detecting a Raman signal can be difficult. (
  • In a simple fiber-coupled Raman system (Figure 1), the photons emitted from the sample are filtered to remove the contaminant Rayleigh scattering before they enter the spectrometer, which typically uses a high-quality imaging or line detector. (
  • An extreme version of this approach is transmission Raman, where the forward-scattered signal is measured. (
  • SERS is one method to increase the actual Raman-scattering cross section. (
  • Principal component analysis offers a simple method of quantifying the absorbed radiation dose from the Raman spectrum of the polymer gel. (
  • The Koldewey Aerosol Raman LIDAR (KARL) is an instrument for the active remote sensing of atmospheric parameters using pulsed laser radiation. (
  • The secondary objective was to calculate the effective dose caused by scattered radiation. (
  • The study of the radiation scatter in interventional cardiolog. (
  • As touched upon in the previous post , interventional X-ray professionals have a number of tools and techniques at their disposal, which they can use to minimize their radiation dose. (
  • Within interventional X-ray, there are also a number of machine related settings that will affect radiation dose, such as frame rate, collimation and angulation. (
  • During osteosynthesis of a fracture patients are exposed to the primary radiation of an X-ray image and scattered (secondary) radiation. (
  • By this means, diffusion scattering is realized in a broadband. (
  • Correlation coefficients were calculated separately for 0-, 15-, 20-, and 25-year time-lagged cumulative exposures, total radiation dose (which included medical X-ray dose) and occupational radiation dose. (
  • Spearman correlation coefficients between cumulative radiation dose and cumulative asbestos exposures ranged from 0.09 (occupational dose) to 0.47 (total radiation dose), and those between radiation and welding fume from 0.14 to 0.47. (
  • Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, Newton's law of cooling. (
  • Numerical simulation was carried out in the present paper to demonstrate the effect of the pitch-angle scattering on the phase space distribution of the proton fluxes measured in the Earth magnetosphere. (
  • The rectangular medium has one semitransparent and diffuse boundary (the other three boundaries are black) and is isotropically scattering. (
  • An electric arc is a continuous stream of electrons flowing through a medium between two conductors of an electric circuit and accompanied by intense heat generation and radiation. (
  • In this research line we plan to advance the understanding of the aerosol radiative forcing and the effects of the aerosol-radiation interactions (ARI) upon meteorology. (
  • The SCALE code system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory includes state-of-the-art capabilities for radiation source term and radiation transport simulations that can be used in numerous applications, including dose rate analyses of complex consolidated interim storage facilities (CISFs). (
  • A series of independent simulations was made using the complete site geometry (all casks present), but with only one cask containing radiation sources to obtain the dose rate maps produced by each storage cask. (
  • An introduction to the theory of radiation, antennae and wave propagation, and microwave scattering theory. (
  • Robinson described the stereotactic delivery as akin to spokes on a wheel: the focal point of the radiation, the scar in the ventricle, is the hub and the small doses of radiation delivered by a device rotating around the patient are the spokes. (
  • Because of the treatment planning involved with this type of radiation therapy, the doctor can deliver far more precise, intense and effective doses of radiation with less risk of damaging surrounding tissue. (
  • Guided by advanced imaging techniques, SBRT (or SABR) delivers large doses of radiation over a short period of time to a precise area. (
  • For some patients, temporary (high dose rate) brachytherapy is used to administer higher doses of radiation through catheters placed in the prostate for a short time. (
  • The propagation of radiation in an absorbing and scattering medium is one of the problems often encountered in the study of a variety of natural phenomena, as well as in diverse applications. (
  • With analysis of light curves and gamma radiation spectra we model physical phenomena in extreme conditions: pulsars, black holes, active galactic nuclei and starburst galaxies. (
  • Scientific research in theoretical physics covers a wide range of phenomena from interactions of electromagnetic fields with surfaces and Compton scattering on atoms, to thermodynamics of black holes and unification of all forces. (
  • Combination of KARL data with data from other instruments on site, namely radiosondes, sun photometer, Micro Pulse LIDAR, and tethersonde system, resulted in a comprehensive data set of scattering phenomena in the Arctic atmosphere. (
  • When solving the isotropic scattering RTCs, the RTCs without considering scattering are normalized at first, and then the normalized RTCs are used to trace the energy scattered by control volumes. (
  • Finally, the isotropic scattering RTCs are solved by reverse calculation. (
  • The transport form of the RTE is similar to that for hypothetical isotropic scattering, which follows from Eqs. (
  • VT disappeared much faster than expected from the radiation effects alone. (
  • Acute Radiation Syndrome-- The signs and symptoms which, taken together, characterize a person suffering from the effects of intense radiation. (
  • Munich, 20004) have been needed to raise awareness of the damaging convened with the aim to harmonize the effects of UV radiation, and to encourage reporting of the UVI and to improve its use as changes in lifestyle that will arrest the trend an educational tool to promote sun towards more and more skin cancers. (
  • The conference program will also include reports on front and back end electronics, radiation effects, low mass mechanics and construction techniques, and new technologies such as monolithic and 3D integrated detectors. (
  • In particular, this feature of radiative transfer in scattering media was considered in Dombrovsky (1996), Dombrovsky and Baillis (2010), and Modest and Mazumder (2021). (
  • The results of this study show that scattered radiation is detectable in a third of patients undergoing an osteosynthesis. (
  • This is the first study that presents that no radiation protection for patients undergoing an osteosynthesis is necessary. (
  • The ENCORE-VT study, [ 1 ] presented in Chicago and published simultaneously in Circulation , describes the results of noninvasive ablation using stereotactic radiation in 19 patients with refractory VT. (
  • The radiation dose in this study was within the spectrum used to treat most cancers. (
  • Robinson told me that radiation takes weeks to months to cause fibrosis, but in this study, VT went away almost immediately. (
  • There is no previous study to determine the radiation dose delivered to the eye of the lens. (
  • This study aim to measure the scattered radiation dose to the lens of the eyes in Rado Phantom during scanning CT brain.Method : An experimental study was performed at Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ubonrajchathani University and Sappasit-tiprasong hospital Ubonrajchathani. (
  • The nested case-control study (N = 4388) primarily assessed the relationship between lung cancer and external ionizing radiation. (
  • We also study scattering on two centres, for example scattering on positronium (Z. Kaliman). (
  • Desviación de la RADIACIÓN (térmica, electromagnética, o nuclear) respecto de su dirección original, como resultado de interacciones o colisiones con átomos, moléculas o grandes partículas en la atmósfera u otro medio. (
  • These markers show up on imaging scans and help the radiation oncologist see the tumor's position, which helps prepare the patient for treatment each day. (
  • We discuss some features of soft radiation to all-loop orders for processes with two and three hard partons. (
  • However, both effective doses due to direct radiation and scattered radiation are low. (
  • We also present some results on the radiation of four soft gluons from two hard partons, and we discuss the colour monster contribution and its relation with the violation (and generalization) of Casimir scaling. (
  • The media can't seem to resist using it when they report the latest advances in metamaterials - arrays of minuscule 'elements' that bend, scatter, transmit or otherwise shape electromagnetic radiation in ways that no natural material can. (
  • 18th Trento Workshop on Advanced Silicon Radiation Detectors" will take place February 28 - March 2, 2023 at FBK in Trento, Italy. (
  • Automatic compensation of background radiation, therefore no light absorber required. (
  • This measures the amount of light that travels through a glazing material without being reflected, absorbed, or scattered. (
  • For those wishing to take a formally structured undergraduate university semester-length course, this is the Fall offering for principles of radiation astronomy . (