Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Radiography, Bitewing: Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.X-Ray Intensifying Screens: Screens which absorb the energy in the x-ray beam that has penetrated the patient and convert this energy into a light pattern which has as nearly as possible the same information as the original x-ray beam. The more light a screen produces for a given input of x-radiation, the less x-ray exposure and thus shorter exposure time are needed to expose the film. In most film-screen systems, the film is sandwiched between two screens in a cassette so that the emulsion on each side is exposed to the light from its contiguous screen.Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Radiology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of x-ray diagnostic and therapeutic services.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.X-Ray Film: A film base coated with an emulsion designed for use with x-rays.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Mass Chest X-Ray: X-ray screening of large groups of persons for diseases of the lung and heart by means of radiography of the chest.Elasmobranchii: A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.Skates (Fish): The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.Radiography, Dual-Energy Scanned Projection: A method of producing a high-quality scan by digitizing and subtracting the images produced by high- and low-energy x-rays.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Radiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Fast Neutrons: Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Radiation ProtectionReproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Tomography, X-Ray: Tomography using x-ray transmission.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Finger Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each finger.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Asbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Thermoluminescent Dosimetry: The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.Teleradiology: The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Cathode Ray Tube: A vacuum tube equipped with an electron emitting CATHODE and a fluorescent screen which emits visible light when excited by the cathode ray. Cathode ray tubes are used as imaging devises for TELEVISIONS; COMPUTER TERMINALS; TEXT TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES; oscilloscopes; and other DATA DISPLAY devices.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Technology, Radiologic: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to the field of radiology. The applications center mostly around x-ray or radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes but the technological applications of any radiation or radiologic procedure is within the scope of radiologic technology.Cadmium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.Spinal DiseasesOccupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Radiation Genetics: A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Radiographic Magnification: Use of optic and geometric techniques to enhance radiographic image quality and interpretation. It includes use of microfocal X-ray tubes and intensifying fluoroscopic screens.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.Carpal Bones: The eight bones of the wrist: SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; TRIQUETRUM BONE; PISIFORM BONE; TRAPEZIUM BONE; TRAPEZOID BONE; CAPITATE BONE; and HAMATE BONE.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.EnglandBone Diseases, MetabolicAnatomic Landmarks: Reference points located by visual inspection, palpation, or computer assistance, that are useful in localizing structures on or within the human body.Solitary Pulmonary Nodule: A single lung lesion that is characterized by a small round mass of tissue, usually less than 1 cm in diameter, and can be detected by chest radiography. A solitary pulmonary nodule can be associated with neoplasm, tuberculosis, cyst, or other anomalies in the lung, the CHEST WALL, or the PLEURA.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Computer Storage Devices: Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Anthracosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by accumulation of inhaled CARBON or coal dust. The disease can progress from asymptomatic anthracosis to massive lung fibrosis. This lung lesion usually occurs in coal MINERS, but can be seen in urban dwellers and tobacco smokers.Patient Positioning: Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.Subtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Technetium Tc 99m Medronate: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Unnecessary Procedures: Diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative procedures prescribed and performed by health professionals, the results of which do not justify the benefits or hazards and costs to the patient.Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Data Display: The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.Frontal Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the FRONTAL SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE or HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Ethmoid Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the ETHMOID SINUS. It may present itself as an acute (infectious) or chronic (allergic) condition.Radiography, Interventional: Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Pneumothorax: An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Sphenoid Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the SPHENOID SINUS. Isolated sphenoid sinusitis is uncommon. It usually occurs in conjunction with other paranasal sinusitis.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Urography: Radiography of any part of the urinary tract.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Toe Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each toe.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Mandibular Fractures: Fractures of the lower jaw.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Cephalometry: The measurement of the dimensions of the HEAD.Maxillary Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the MAXILLARY SINUS. In many cases, it is caused by an infection of the bacteria HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE; STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE; or STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.Thoracic Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.DislocationsMultiple Pulmonary Nodules: A number of small lung lesions characterized by small round masses of 2- to 3-mm in diameter. They are usually detected by chest CT scans (COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY). Such nodules can be associated with metastases of malignancies inside or outside the lung, benign granulomas, or other lesions.Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the body.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.Spondylolysis: Deficient development or degeneration of a portion of the VERTEBRA, usually in the pars interarticularis (the bone bridge between the superior and inferior facet joints of the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE) leading to SPONDYLOLISTHESIS.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Sensilla: Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.Ulna: The inner and longer bone of the FOREARM.Tooth Apex: The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Factor X: Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.Finger Phalanges: Bones that make up the SKELETON of the FINGERS, consisting of two for the THUMB, and three for each of the other fingers.Chorioallantoic Membrane: A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)PrintingOsteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Pleural DiseasesParanasal Sinus Diseases: Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Odontometry: Measurement of tooth characteristics.Silicosis: A form of pneumoconiosis resulting from inhalation of dust containing crystalline form of SILICON DIOXIDE, usually in the form of quartz. Amorphous silica is relatively nontoxic.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Osteitis: Inflammation of the bone.Tooth, Unerupted: A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.Osteosclerosis: An abnormal hardening or increased density of bone tissue.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Tooth, Impacted: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.Local Area Networks: Communications networks connecting various hardware devices together within or between buildings by means of a continuous cable or voice data telephone system.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Bermuda: A British colony in the western North Atlantic Ocean about 640 miles east southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. It comprises a group of about 300 islands of which only about 20 are inhabited. It is called also the Bermuda Islands or the Bermudas. It was named for the Spanish explorer Juan Bermudez who visited the islands in 1515. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p140 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p61)Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Vitaceae: A plant family of the order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, best known for the VITIS genus, the source of grapes.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Parietal Bone: One of a pair of irregularly shaped quadrilateral bones situated between the FRONTAL BONE and OCCIPITAL BONE, which together form the sides of the CRANIUM.Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Tooth Fractures: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.Periostitis: Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.TailPinus ponderosa: A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Time and Motion Studies: The observation and analysis of movements in a task with an emphasis on the amount of time required to perform the task.Bone Diseases: Diseases of BONES.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Chest Tubes: Plastic tubes used for drainage of air or fluid from the pleural space. Their surgical insertion is called tube thoracostomy.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.
... tooth root orientation and anomalous structures that conventional 2D radiography cannot. Processing example using x-ray data ... the wider collimation in CBCT leads to increased scatter radiation and degradation of image quality as demonstrated by ... from a tooth model: single sampled (noisy) image several samples overlay joined images to panoramic algorithmic reconstruction ... is a medical imaging technique consisting of X-ray computed tomography where the X-rays are divergent, forming a cone. CBCT has ...
Lead is the main material used by radiography personnel for shielding against scattered X-rays. ... An derivative technique from projectional radiography used in dental radiography is orthopantomography. This is a panoramic ... X-ray generator[edit]. Main article: X-ray generator. Projectional radiographs are generally use X-rays created by X-ray ... Projectional radiography is a form of radiography and medical imaging that produces two-dimensional images by x-ray radiation. ...
Lead is the main material used by radiography personnel for shielding against scattered X-rays. ... Contrast media used for X-ray CT, as well as for plain film X-ray, are called radiocontrasts. Radiocontrasts for X-ray CT are, ... T: X-ray tube D: X-ray detectors X: X-ray beam R: Gantry rotation ... X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), computerized axial ... Compared to the lowest dose x-ray techniques, CT scans can have 100 to 1,000 times higher dose than conventional X-rays.[45] ...
Dental panoramic radiography. *X-ray motion analysis. MRI. *MRI of the brain ... Two major sources of noise in PET are scatter (a detected pair of photons, at least one of which was deflected from its ... The system detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radioligand, most commonly fluorine-18, which ... "Pheochromocytoma Imaging: Overview, Radiography, Computed Tomography". 10 August 2017 - via eMedicine.. Cite journal requires , ...
Screening panoramic radiography of new adult patients: diagnostic yield when combined with bitewing radiography and ... HAND-HELD X-RAY UNITS. Hand-held, battery-powered x-ray systems are available for intra-oral radiographic imaging. ... The amount of scattered radiation striking the patients abdomen during a properly conducted radiographic examination is ... Routine panoramic radiography of new adult patients in general dental practice: relevance of diagnostic yield to treatment and ...
X-ray Imaging (XRI). Principle of the Bucky Grid. The Bucky grid stops a substantial. part of the scattered rays whilst. ... X-ray detector: cassette with radiographic film and adjacent. fluorescent screens (in radiography) or image intensifier (both ... X-ray Devices in Dentistry. http://www.gendexxray.com/765dc.htm. Panoramic screening orthopantomograpy. http://www.gendexxray. ... X-ray Imaging (XRI). Passage of X-rays through Patients Body. X-rays emitted from a small focal area of the anode. propagate ...
Download All chapters of Test Bank For Essentials of Dental Radiography 9th Edition By Evelyn Thomson,Orlen Johnson Only 19.99 ... When x-rays pass through matter, which interaction results in x-rays being scattered in all directions? ... Should the patient wear a thyroid collar during panoramic radiography?. *Currently, what film speed is recommended to reduce ... What is the term given to the walls or partitions around the dental x-ray machine that protect the radiographer against scatter ...
Gamma radiography:. Radiography using a gamma-ray source.. *Gamma rays:. Electromagnetic ionizing radiation, emitted by ... These tubes generally produce a panoramic beam of radiation.. *Scattered Radiation:. Particulate or EM radiation that has ... X-ray film:. See also Radiographic film. *X-ray tube:. A device for generating X-rays by accelerating electrons from a filament ... Microfocus radiography:. Radiography using an X-ray tube having a small effective focus-size of less than 0.1mm in size. Used ...
Due to the modular design for all x-ray modalities: Radiography Fluoroscopy Mammography Computed Tomography Dental Radiography ... Test Device DigiDent for Digital Dental Radiology (Acceptance- and Constancy Tests) Suitable for intra-oral and panoramic x-ray ... photometric detector with achromatic optic, integrated scattered light tube and mask for screen contact measurements. ... Test Set AEC-Systems for Radiography VD0203800 Set of PMMA-slabs for checking the Automatic Exposure Control. For X-ray units ...
Our approach is to compute the probability for light rays to be trapped in the cavity by examining chaotic scattering dynamics ... Data for screen-film combinations suitable for panoramic radiography were obtained from the Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, ...
Fibrous dysplasia, cone beam computed tomography, ground glass, panoramic radiography. Maxillary Fibrous Dysplasia with Cone ... In chest x-ray films, it may indicate interstitial fibrosis of the lung; in abdominal films, it suggests ascites. ... first patient had bilateral intestinal infiltrates and the second patient had bilateral subpleural reticulation with scattered ...
... gamma-ray spectra, Compton scattering, borehole dimension, and occasionally nuclear magnetic resonance. The data are ... 6 PANORAMIC IRRADIATORS 101-116 * 7 RADIOTHERAPY 117-134 * 8 INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY 135-146 ... The one exception to this is the natural gamma-ray tool, which has no source and detects the natural gamma rays that are ... Although such a source of x- rays technically would provide an alternative to gamma-ray radioisotope sources, the committee ...
Computed Radiography (CR) & Digital Radiography (DR) State X-ray Inspection Protocol. Developed by the H-33 Task Force for the ... It includes diagrams of scatter measurements taken 1 meter from the tube head of panoramic radiograph, panelipse, and ... Computed Radiography (CR) and Digital Radiography (DR) State X-Ray Inspection Protocol. Published January 2010. E-10-2 ... Testing of Dental Panoramic X-Ray Systems Using CT PDF (11.55 KB) [ more ] [ hide ] Administration 8/19/2016 ...
Inverse Kinematics Analysis of Foot Five Metatarsals Skeletal Rays. W. W. Shen, J. B. Ma, J. S. Li, Y. D. Gu. 67. The ... How Accurate Scatter Can Be Estimated in Nuclear Medicine Images? :A Monte Carlo Study. Sh. Oloomi, M. hajizadeh, F. Hashemiyan ... Efficacy of a Combined Wavelet Shrinkage Method for Low-Dose and High-Quality Digital Radiography. H. Watanabe, D. Y. Tsai, Y. ... Diagnosis of Periodontitis with the Energy Information in Dental Panoramic Image. Y. Kanai, K. Ogawa, F. Kaibuki, A. Katsumata ...
... tooth root orientation and anomalous structures that conventional 2D radiography cannot. Processing example using x-ray data ... the wider collimation in CBCT leads to increased scatter radiation and degradation of image quality as demonstrated by ... from a tooth model: single sampled (noisy) image several samples overlay joined images to panoramic algorithmic reconstruction ... is a medical imaging technique consisting of X-ray computed tomography where the X-rays are divergent, forming a cone. CBCT has ...
Combined panoramic, cephalometric and CT (computed tomography) radiography US6416219B1 (en) 2002-07-09. Treatment-diagnostic ... Mammography system and method employing offset compression paddles, automatic collimation, and retractable anti-scatter grid ... In panoramic x-ray imaging, therefore, the primary slot arranged in front of the x-ray generator 66 and the secondary slot ... Bite device used with a panorama x-ray device US7012990B2 (en) 2006-03-14. X-ray radiographic apparatus, X-ray restrictor, and ...
... medical or other radiographic images is realized with an X-ray tube in which an electron beam is scanned through an X-Y raster ... In this procedure panoramic or wide angle X-ray images are produced by generating a narrow linear X-ray beam which is revolved ... Further a significant amount of X-ray scattering occurs during passage of the X-ray beam through the patients entire head ... 1 is a broken-out view of a scanning X-ray system in accordance with the invention as utilized for dental radiography with ...
Biophysics, Medical Faculty, Masaryk University in Brno Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen Godfrey N. Hounsfield X-ray Imaging (XRI) ... X-ray radiography Seminar The "geometrical" unsharpness of X-ray images is limited by finite dimension of the source, i.e. the ... 29 X-ray Devices in Dentistry. Panoramic screening - orthopantomograpy X-ray image of a dental implant ... 23 Interactions of X-ray Photons with Matter: Compton Scatter (CS). At higher energies of photons, the photon energy is not ...
Process and apparatus for scatter reduction in radiography US4403338A (en) * 1980-11-14. 1983-09-06. Stephen Rudin. Process and ... Three-dimensional panoramic dental radiography method and apparatus which avoids the subjects spine ... whereby the quantity of scattered X-rays relative to X-rays forming an image atthe receptor is minimised and X-ray scatter is ... Scatter is quantified by the ratio S/P of X-rays scattered from the subject to the primary rays forming the true image of the ...
Lead is the main material used by radiography personnel for shielding against scattered X-rays. ... An derivative technique from projectional radiography used in dental radiography is orthopantomography. This is a panoramic ... X-ray generator[edit]. Main article: X-ray generator. Projectional radiographs are generally use X-rays created by X-ray ... Projectional radiography is a form of radiography and medical imaging that produces two-dimensional images by x-ray radiation. ...
Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of X-ray on buccal epithelial cells following panoramic radiography: A pediatric study. ... The corresponding residues were scattered over the primary sequence, but came close together on the surface of the folded ...
1) Medical radiology services (using CT, fluoroscopy, general above table radiography, portable general radiography X-ray ... A device that absorbs and scatters X-rays in approximately the same way as tissues of the body. A body phantom is used to make ... Oral health services (using intraoral and panoramic X-ray devices) will follow standards of practice guidelines prescribed by ... Radiology - Portable X-Ray, Above Table X-Ray - ACR-AAPM Technical Standard For Diagnostic Medical Physics Performance ...
This study presents the CBCT as an alternative method to CT or panoramic radiographs for the measurement and the assessment of ... panoramic radiography (OPG) and computed tomography (CT) of the skull base and neck are the preferred radiographic studies [3]. ... Palpation of the styloid process (SP) in the tonsillar fossa is indicative of elongation [2]. X-rays are used to diagnose ESP; ... Images of low quality, such as scattering or insufficient accuracy of bony borders were excluded. Radiological measurements of ...
... exploited to minimise the impact of leakage and scattered radiation in instances where staff are required to remain in an X-ray ... Panoramic Radiography. 0.01. Dental CT. 0.2. Implementation of dose monitoring is critical for dose optimization in digital ... X-ray detectors for digital radiography. Phys Med Biol, 42:1-39. ... X-Ray Image Intensifier[edit]. Fig. 4.9: Typical R/F system ... The basic elements of an X-ray Image Intensifier (XII) and video system are shown in the Figure 4.8. X-rays emerging from the ...
Distortion of panoramic radiographs may be resulted from the distance between the X-ray source, and film or imaging plate, the ... The scatter plot showing the correlations between the two sets of the vertical measurements. The correlations in in the teeth ... Panoramic radiography and periapical radiography are important methods in dental implant planning [1, 2]. However, these two- ... Rotational panoramic radiography in epidemiological studies of dental health. Comparison between panoramic radiographs and ...
The most effective way to reduce dose in dental radiography is to avoid unnecessary X-ray examinations by justification. ... Lecomber, A.R., Faulkner, k., Dose reduction in panoramic radiography. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 22 (1993)69-73. ... The salivaries are often within the primary beam, while the thyroid receives dose mainly due to scattered radiation Since the ... Routine dental X-ray examination for all patients is not justified In addition, the patient dose for each X-ray examination ...
RADIOGRAPHY . or film.. • Incident neutrons excite the innermost electrons in the target a. • X-ra. .511 MeV energy.1 X-Rays • ... is the scattered component and Iv is the direct. • If buildup is not reduced.1 Iv. fast elec- trons cause ionization. .5. • ... Figure 5.:~ .t--~SOURCE I (EXTENDABLE FOR CONTROL ROD L:::============:=:I PANORAMIC SHOTS) 0. 5.. ~--:--. r-n:=:b====.. ... 20 mA for a minute.For 0. Example Design an x-ray radiography system for examining a steel plate varying in thickness from 7 to ...
Conventional radiography and MRI study of the metacarpophalangeal joints of a patient with undifferentiated oligoarthritis ... More recently, also RA disease activity has been evaluated, allowing a panoramic view of the patient. Molecular imaging studies ... magnetic resonance imaging and X-ray findings. Acta dermatol Venereol. 1998;78:463-5. ... main disadvantage is that only superficial joints can be assessed because of the low depth penetration due to light scattering ...
Radiograph machines, intra oral, cephalometric and panoramic machines. *Analytical: X-ray Diffraction (XRD), or fluorescence ... and should be considered to relieve physical burden on personnel exposed to low levels of scatter radiation. ... X-ray radiation sources are divided into two categories; those machines intended to produce x-ray radiation and those machines ... The x-ray room must be used for only one x-ray procedure at a time. ...
  • As a 3D rendition, CBCT offers an undistorted view of the dentition that can be used to accurately visualize both erupted and non-erupted teeth, tooth root orientation and anomalous structures that conventional 2D radiography cannot. (wikipedia.org)
  • Processing example using x-ray data from a tooth model: single sampled (noisy) image several samples overlay joined images to panoramic algorithmic reconstruction in-vivo image The CBCT scanner offers undistorted views of the extremities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Preclude the accuracy of dimensional, and linear measurements yielded from CBCT images, panoramic images reformatted from spiral CT, and panoramic images reformatted from CBCT in comparison to the measurements obtained from the cross-sectional CT. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • In the second part, they were questioned about the clinical method relating to the use of CBCT, the type of radiography they use, the guidelines they follow, and the technologies they prefer. (journaldmims.com)
  • Conebeam x-ray CT (CBCT) is a developing imaging technique designed to provide relatively low-dose high-spatial-resolution visualization of high-contrast structures in the head and neck and other anatomic areas. (ajnr.org)
  • Conebeam x-ray CT (CBCT) is a relatively recent installment in the growing inventory of clinical CT technologies. (ajnr.org)
  • 1 The arrival of marketable scanners in the last 10 years has been, in part, facilitated by parallel advancements in flat panel detector (FPD) technology, improved computing power, and the relatively low power requirements of the x-ray tubes used in CBCT. (ajnr.org)
  • Conventional radiography and MRI study of the metacarpophalangeal joints of a patient with undifferentiated oligoarthritis lasting from less than 6 months. (smw.ch)
  • An improvement in X-ray absorption efficiency can indeed be obtained by increasing the thickness of the phosphor layer. (wikibooks.org)
  • The volumetric data set comprises a 3D block of cubes, known as voxels, each representing a specific degree of x-ray absorption. (aadmrt.com)
  • Neutron-scattering techniques are particularly versatile as they allow the investigation of both structural details (through diffraction) and structural dynamics (through spectroscopy) of the atomic arrangements in materials, and because they allow measurements of coherent and incoherent scattering and absorption processes. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • The guidelines titled, "The Selection of Patients for X-Ray Examination" were first developed in 1987 by a panel of dental experts convened by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (fda.gov)
  • Routine dental X-ray examination for all patients is not justified In addition, the patient dose for each X-ray examination should be optimized so that it is As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) and consistent with producing the required image quality. (iaea.org)
  • The referring dental surgeon should provide a clear request describing the patient's problem and indicating the clinical objectives, so that the radiologist can carry out the correct X-ray examination. (org.in)
  • Before prescribing an X-ray examination the referring dental surgeon should be satisfied that the necessary information is not available, either from radiographic examinations already done, or from any other medical tests or investigations. (org.in)
  • The Cincinnati filter is composed of 2 mm of aluminium, 0.5 mm of copper and 0.4 mm of tin inserted into the collimator box so that the copper layer is towards the -X-ray tube. (mitchmedical.us)
  • SPECT is similar to PET in its use of radioactive tracer material and detection of gamma rays. (hitchhikersgui.de)
  • 2. Scanning X-ray apparatus as defined in claim 1 wherein said attachment means is releasable to enable removal of said probe member from said tube and attachment of another probe member of different configuration to said tube through said attachment means. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. Scanning X-ray apparatus as defined in claim 2 wherein said probe member has a predetermined non-linear configuration, further comprising at least one additional probe member having a differing configuration from said first probe member. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. Scanning X-ray apparatus as defined in claim 1 wherein said attachment means and said base portion of said probe member carry coacting means for assuring that said probe member is received in said attachment means only at a predetermined orientation relative to said X-ray tube. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This is the generic class for apparatus and corresponding processes involving the generation or use of electromagnetic radiation within the X-ray spectrum as defined above. (uspto.gov)
  • Who developed the hot cathode ray tube? (mfan.eu)
  • The difference in electric potential between the cathode and anode in an X-ray tube through which a charged particle is accelerated, usually specified in units of kV or MV. (qclabs.net)
  • This chapter establishes requirements, for which a registrant is responsible, for use of X-ray equipment by or under the supervision of an individual authorized by and licensed in accordance with state statutes to engage in the healing arts. (wa.gov)
  • The Earth Science community has recently shown considerable interest for neutron-scattering techniques, mostly in the field of chemistry and physics of minerals and particularly for in situ studies carried out at temperatures and pressures typical of the Earth's interior environments. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • 5 Although x-ray sources, acquisition geometries, and detectors have rapidly evolved since Hounsfield's original scanner, the theory behind CT has not changed. (ajnr.org)
  • Neutron scattering has an additional advantage over some other techniques in that it allows good data to be obtained under a wide range of sample environments. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • X-ray imaging (XRI) is still one of the most important diagnostic methods used in medicine. (scribd.com)
  • Methods, systems, and elements with specific features characteristic of X-ray applications are classified herein. (uspto.gov)