Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Radionuclide Imaging: The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Gallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of gallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ga atoms with atomic weights 63-68, 70 and 72-76 are radioactive gallium isotopes.Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.Whole Body Imaging: The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Radiography, Abdominal: Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio: The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Multimodal Imaging: The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.Fluorine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.Whole-Body Counting: Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.Tomography, Optical Coherence: An imaging method using LASERS that is used for mapping subsurface structure. When a reflective site in the sample is at the same optical path length (coherence) as the reference mirror, the detector observes interference fringes.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Subtraction Technique: Combination or superimposition of two images for demonstrating differences between them (e.g., radiograph with contrast vs. one without, radionuclide images using different radionuclides, radiograph vs. radionuclide image) and in the preparation of audiovisual materials (e.g., offsetting identical images, coloring of vessels in angiograms).Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in cardiovascular and cerebral circulation.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed: X-ray image-detecting devices that make a focused image of body structures lying in a predetermined plane from which more complex images are computed.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Technetium Tc 99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid: A nontoxic radiopharmaceutical that is used in the diagnostic imaging of the renal cortex.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.Technetium Tc 99m Exametazime: A gamma-emitting RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING agent used in the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow and in non-invasive dynamic biodistribution studies and MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION IMAGING. It has also been used to label leukocytes in the investigation of INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASES.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Incidental Findings: Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Indium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Paranasal Sinuses: Air-filled spaces located within the bones around the NASAL CAVITY. They are extensions of the nasal cavity and lined by the ciliated NASAL MUCOSA. Each sinus is named for the cranial bone in which it is located, such as the ETHMOID SINUS; the FRONTAL SINUS; the MAXILLARY SINUS; and the SPHENOID SINUS.Signal-To-Noise Ratio: The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxyquinoline: An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.Anatomy, Cross-Sectional: Descriptive anatomy based on three-dimensional imaging (IMAGING, THREE-DIMENSIONAL) of the body, organs, and structures using a series of computer multiplane sections, displayed by transverse, coronal, and sagittal analyses. It is essential to accurate interpretation by the radiologist of such techniques as ultrasonic diagnosis, MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING, and computed tomography (TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY COMPUTED). (From Lane & Sharfaei, Modern Sectional Anatomy, 1992, Preface)Thyroid Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYROID GLAND.Pattern Recognition, Automated: In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 1: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Succimer: A mercaptodicarboxylic acid used as an antidote to heavy metal poisoning because it forms strong chelates with them.Patient Positioning: Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Echo-Planar Imaging: A type of MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING that uses only one nuclear spin excitation per image and therefore can obtain images in a fraction of a second rather than the minutes required in traditional MRI techniques. It is used in a variety of medical and scientific applications.Indium: A metallic element, atomic number 49, atomic weight 114.82, symbol In. It is named from its blue line in the spectrum. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.3-Iodobenzylguanidine: A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Space-Time Clustering: A statistically significant excess of cases of a disease, occurring within a limited space-time continuum.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.Gamma Cameras: Electronic instruments that produce photographs or cathode-ray tube images of the gamma-ray emissions from organs containing radionuclide tracers.Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Imino AcidsEchoencephalography: Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood flow reaches by following the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6: A specific pair GROUP C CHROMSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Iohexol: An effective non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiographic procedures. Its low systemic toxicity is the combined result of low chemotoxicity and low osmolality.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.OsteomyelitisPregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Diagnostic Techniques, Ophthalmological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the eye or of vision disorders.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.ThyroglobulinNeck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Thallium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of thallium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Tl atoms with atomic weights 198-202, 204, and 206-210 are thallium radioisotopes.Cysts: Any fluid-filled closed cavity or sac that is lined by an EPITHELIUM. Cysts can be of normal, abnormal, non-neoplastic, or neoplastic tissues.Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Radiation ProtectionWounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Hematoma, Subdural: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Crown-Rump Length: In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3: A specific pair of human chromosomes in group A (CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, 1-3) of the human chromosome classification.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Abscess: Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Unnecessary Procedures: Diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative procedures prescribed and performed by health professionals, the results of which do not justify the benefits or hazards and costs to the patient.Pentetic Acid: An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with a blood clot (THROMBUS).Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Mediastinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Thallium: A heavy, bluish white metal, atomic number 81, atomic weight [204.382; 204.385], symbol Tl.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Siblings: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Retinoscopes: Instruments for RETINOSCOPY that determines the refractive state of the EYE, such as the degree of NEARSIGHTEDNESS; FARSIGHTEDNESS; or ASTIGMATISM. In principle, a retinoscope provides a light source to illuminate the RETINA, and then locates the aerial image of the retina in space to obtain an index of the refractive quality of the patient's lens system.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Blood flow can be visualized and quantified on scans acquired with a scan sequence called 4D flow. These volumetric scans ... Infarct imaging using contrast[edit]. Scar is best seen after giving a contrast agent, typically one containing gadolinium ... Visualising heart muscle scar or fat without using a contrast agent[edit]. Typically a sequence called spin echo is used. This ... Contrast appears in the right ventricle then left ventricle before blushing into the muscle, which is normal (left) and ...
It is usually diagnosed with a contrast-enhanced CT or MRI scan.[1][2] ... A reconstruction of the vertebral arteries from a CT scan, seen from the front. From the bottom, V1 is from the subclavian ... or if free-floating blood clot is visible on scans.[1][2][18] Warfarin is typically continued for 3-6 months, as during this ... They use smaller amounts of contrast and are not invasive. CT angiography and MR angiography are more or less equivalent when ...
In such cases CT scan with intraventricular contrast or MRI can be used. MRI is more sensitive in detection of intraventricular ... Radiological tests, such as X-ray, CT scans which demonstrate "ring-enhancing brain lesions", and MRIs, can also be used to ... CT scan shows both calcified and uncalcified cysts, as well as distinguishing active and inactive cysts. Cystic lesions can ... X-rays are used to identify calcified larvae in the subcutaneous and muscle tissues, and CT scans and MRIs are used to find ...
A contrast-enhanced CT scan of the brain, demonstrating the appearance of a meningioma. ... Meningiomas are visualized readily with contrast CT, MRI with gadolinium,[17] and arteriography, all attributed to the fact ... With the advent of modern sophisticated imaging systems such as CT scans, the discovery of asymptomatic meningiomas has tripled ...
Scanning tunneling microscopy[edit]. In scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), a sharp tip scans the surface of a sample in a ... With SEM imaging, different contrast can be observed, such as thickness, roughness, and edge contrast; the brighter area shows ... Scanning electron microscopy[edit]. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM), a high-energy electron beam (ranging a few 100 eVs ... Marchini, S.; G\"unther, S.; Wintterlin, J. (2007). "Scanning tunneling microscopy of graphene on Ru(0001)". Physical Review B ...
A contrast-enhanced MRV (ATECO) scan has a high detection rate for abnormal transverse sinus stenoses. These stenoses can be ... In IIH these scans typically appear to be normal, although small or slit-like ventricles, dilatation and buckling of the optic ... in phase contrast MRA studies have quantified cerebral blood flow (CBF) in vivo and suggests that CBF is abnormally elevated in ... Both biopsy samples and various types of brain scans have shown an increased water content of the brain tissue. It remains ...
This is diagnosed by CT scan.[18] This syndrome presents a marked susceptibility for the development of pulmonary hypertension. ... Left lung completely affected by bullae shown in contrast to a normal lung on the right. ... the finding of pulmonary emphysema on a CT lung scan confers a higher mortality in tobacco smokers.[6] In 2016 in the United ...
New contrast mechanisms[edit]. BOLD contrast depends on blood flow, which is both slowly changing and subject to noisy ... Smaller voxels imply longer scanning times, since scanning time directly rises with the number of voxels per slice and the ... and there are reported risks for pregnant women to go through the scanning process.[82] Scanning sessions also subject ... "Don't Read Too Much into Brain Scans". Time.. *^ Eklund, Anders; Nichols, Thomas E.; Knutsson, Hans (2016). "Cluster failure: ...
New contrast mechanisms[edit]. BOLD contrast depends on blood flow, which is both slowly changing and subject to noisy ... Smaller voxels imply longer scanning times, since scanning time directly rises with the number of voxels per slice and the ... and there are reported risks for pregnant women to go through the scanning process.[78] Scanning sessions also subject ... it also requires either internal contrast such as BOLD or a non-toxic external contrast agent unlike iron oxide. ...
link) "FIB: Chemical Contrast". Retrieved 2007-02-28. Levi-Setti, R. (1974). "Proton scanning microscopy: feasibility and ... By scanning an area with the beam, the precursor gas will be decomposed into volatile and non-volatile components; the non- ... Grain boundary contrast can also be enhanced through careful selection of imaging parameters. FIB secondary ion images also ... FIB systems operate in a similar fashion to a scanning electron microscope (SEM) except, rather than a beam of electrons and as ...
These sorts of areas often show low levels of contrast enhancement on CT scanning. Low encapsularity and high levels of tissue ... PET scanning suggests that GCCL are tumors with particularly rapid metabolism, and that the metabolic pathways of GCCL may be ... A trend toward less vascularity and tissue density (with lower contrast enhancement on CT) has been noted toward the center of ... On positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, GCCL has been found to have exceedingly high standardized uptake values (SUV) ...
His Ph.D. thesis, in 1958, was Contrast formation in the scanning electron microscope. Analyzing the electrons detected by the ... Everhart, T. E. (2004). "Contrast formation in the scanning electron microscope". In Hawkes, Peter W. Advances in imaging and ... Everhart, T.E.; Wells, O.C.; Oatley, C.W. (1959). "Factors affecting contrast and resolution in the scanning electron ... As of 1959, Everhart produced the first voltage-contrast images of p-n junctions of biased silicon diodes. Voltage contrast, ...
A typical coronary CT calcium scan is done without the use of radiocontrast, but it can possibly be done from contrast-enhanced ... Coronary CT calcium scanEdit. A coronary CT calcium scan is a computed tomography (CT) scan of the heart for the assessment of ... "Heart scan (coronary calcium scan)". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 9 August 2015.. *^ a b Neves, Priscilla Ornellas; Andrade, Joalbo; ... There is a promising future in cardiac MRI by more efficient scans, increasing availability of scanners and more widespread ...
Computed tomography scan (CT or CAT scan): A diagnostic image created after a computer reads x-rays. It can show the shape and ... In contrast to a herniation, none of the central portion escapes beyond the outer layers. Most minor herniations heal within ... MRI scan of cervical disc herniation between fifth and sixth cervical vertebral bodies. Herniation between sixth and seventh ... It shows soft tissues better than CAT scans. An MRI performed with a high magnetic field strength usually provides the most ...
Axial CT scan of abdomen without contrast, showing a 3-mm stone (marked by an arrow) in the left proximal ureter ... Where a CT scan is unavailable, an intravenous pyelogram may be performed to help confirm the diagnosis of urolithiasis. This ... Uroliths present in the kidneys, ureters or bladder may be better defined by the use of this contrast agent. Stones can also be ... Scanning electron micrograph of the surface of a kidney stone showing tetragonal crystals of Weddellite (calcium oxalate ...
Contrast reactions[edit]. Further information: Iodinated contrast § Adverse effects. In the United States half of CT scans are ... A CT scan or computed tomography scan (formerly computerized axial tomography scan or CAT scan)[2] makes use of computer- ... Contrast[edit]. Main article: Contrast CT. Contrast media used for X-ray CT, as well as for plain film X-ray, are called ... "Expert opinion: Are CT scans safe?". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2019-03-14.. *^ "'No evidence that CT scans, X-rays cause cancer'" ...
In contrast, patchy alveolar infiltrates are more typically associated with noncardiogenic edema[2] ... Pulmonary edema on CT-scan (coronal MPR). There is no single test for confirming that breathlessness is caused by pulmonary ...
This type of scan is timed to an injection to capture the contrast as it enters the aorta. The scan then follows the contrast ... Common tests used to diagnose an aortic dissection include a CT scan of the chest with iodinated contrast material and a ... Contrast is injected and the scan performed using a bolus tracking method. ... CT with contrast demonstrating aneurysmal dilation and a dissection of the ascending aorta (type A Stanford) Chest CT with ...
MRI scans are performed 3-6 months after the initial episode and subsequently on an annual basis.[1] If after surgery some ... Normal pituitary gland on MRI (T1 sagittal without contrast enhancement). The arrow points at the posterior pituitary (intense ... It is recommended that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the pituitary gland is performed if the diagnosis is suspected ... MRI with a contrast agent) may be required to identify aneurysms of the brain blood vessels, the most common cause of SAH.[10] ...
... also enables the possibility to create new image contrast weightings after the scan has been completed and the ... It is however not based on maps, but on a series of conventional contrasts that can then be used to compute contrast at other ... Creating a synthetic contrast weighted image is very quick and the scanner setting parameters can be changed interactively. ... For the synthetic images it is easy to keep the sign of the synthesized signal and thereby effectively creating a contrast ...
... like CT scans and MRIs). It doesn't require a special PET scanner-which current tests do-so it can be performed in more ... and TJ Ruth EFFECT OF SHIELDING ON IMAGE CONTRAST IN A DUAL HEAD COINCIDENCE GAMMA CAMERA, Abstract, J of Nuclear Med, ... Fast Whole-body Spect Scanning to Improve the Detection of Bone Metastases in Patients With Diagnosed Cancer, U.S. National ... "Recurrent Colorectal Metastatic Lesion Identified by F-18 FDG Coincidence PET Scan, by Philip Cohen M.D. (1998)" (PDF). "Holy ...
Pathognomonic CT scan data represent EA as 2-4 cm, oval shaped, fat density lesions, surrounded by inflammation. Contrasting ... Ultrasound and CT scans are the normal means of positive diagnosis of Epiploic Appendagitis. Ultrasound scans show "an oval, ... EA is usually diagnosed incidentally on CT scan which is performed to exclude more serious conditions. Although it is self- ... epiploic appendages cannot be seen on CT scan. After cross-sectional imaging and the increased use of abdominal CT for ...
Contrast material may highlight involvement of the mamillary bodies. There appears to be very little value for CT scans. ... The location of the lesions were more frequently atypical among non-alcoholics, while typical contrast enhancement in the ...
They sometimes can be visualized on CT scans without contrast; presence of contrast in the lumen may reveal the enterolith as a ...
In contrast to prokaryotes, eukaryotes reproduce by using mitosis and meiosis. Sex appears to be a ubiquitous and ancient, and ... A scanning electron microscope image of a diatom. Unicellular algae are plant-like autotrophs and contain chlorophyll.[43] They ... Euglenophyta, flagellated, mostly unicellular algae that occur often in fresh water.[43] In contrast to most other algae, they ... In contrast, even the simplest multicellular organisms have cells that depend on each other to survive. ...
PET scans are increasingly read alongside CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, with the combination (called "co- ... Three different PET contrast agents have been developed to image bacterial infections in vivo: [18F]maltose,[19] [18F] ... In the United States, a PET scan is estimated to be ~$5,000, and most insurance companies don't pay for routine PET scans after ... This radiotracer is used in essentially all scans for oncology and most scans in neurology, and thus makes up the large ...
A non-contrast CT scan is a computed tomography scan performed without the use of a special dye intended to make organs show up ... A non-contrast CT scan is a computed tomography scan performed without the use of a special dye intended to make organs show up ... Contrast is a special dye used to target specific organs and tissue prior to undergoing CT scans. When doctors order a CT scan ... CT scans can be performed with and without contrast, depending on the medical circumstances of each unique case. ...
MRI scan of lower spinal canal before. And after contrast. Service Code: 72158, Service Type: Medical ...
An exciting journal in the area of contrast agents and molecular imaging, covering all areas of imaging technologies with a ... "An Individually Optimized Protocol of Contrast Medium Injection in Enhanced CT Scan for Liver Imaging," Contrast Media & ... An Individually Optimized Protocol of Contrast Medium Injection in Enhanced CT Scan for Liver Imaging. Shi-Ting Feng,1 ... To receive news and publication updates for Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging, enter your email address in the box below. ...
Scientists have developed an X-ray imaging method that could drastically improve the contrast of computed tomography (CT) scans ... High-contrast, high-resolution CT scans now possible at reduced dose. 05.06.2012 ... CT scanner »High-contrast »PNAS »PSI »Soleil »Synchrotron »X-ray image »X-ray imaging »X-ray microscopy »X-rays »Zanette » ... Further reports about: , CT scanner , High-contrast , PNAS , PSI , Soleil , Synchrotron , X-ray image , X-ray imaging , X-ray ...
17 ct scan with contrast manufacturers & ct scan with contrast suppliers from China. ... Buy ct scan with contrast from ct scan with contrast manufacturer, ... ct scan with contrast. All ct scan with contrast wholesalers & ct scan with contrast manufacturers come from members. We ... ct scan machine cost scan with your smartphone how to scan with a smartphone how to scan with your smartphone how to scan with ...
... single-scan hybrid imaging techniques that use k-space encoding in one direction and spatial encoding in the other have been ... Susceptibility contrast by echo shifting in spatially encoded single-scan MRI S. Marhabaie, G. Bodenhausen and P. Pelupessy, ... To overcome the effects of static field inhomogeneities, single-scan hybrid imaging techniques that use k-space encoding in one ... we show that by shifting spin echoes one can tune the contrast due to inhomogeneous Tinh2 decay. ...
... and experimental polylactoglycolide matrices were visualized by scanning... ... Visualization of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in 2Dand 3D-Cultures by Scanning Electron Microscopy with Lanthanide Contrasting. ... and experimental polylactoglycolide matrices were visualized by scanning electron microscopy with lanthanide contrasting. ... scanning electron microscopy lanthanide mesenchymal stromal cells tissue engineering Translated from Kletochnye Tekhnologii v ...
The machine uses and axial scanning method to accomplish the scans. However, there is the threat of radiation exposure to the ... The concept was developed in the 20th century using x-rays and a contrast agent. ... This is due to the fact that the contrast agent has detrimental effects on the kidneys of patients, sometimes leading to renal ... Advantages and Disadvantages of CT Scans. There are a number of advantages and disadvantages to the design of the device. ...
I have had some very unnerving experiences with CT-Scans with contrast, and the explanations given to me were cause for concern ... I have had some very unnerving experiences with CT-Scans with contrast, and the explanations given to me were cause for concern ... Has anyone had an unpleasant experience while having a CT-Scan with contrast?. Return to previous page ... Has anyone had an unpleasant experience while having a CT-Scan with contrast? ...
... of Left Kidney using Other Contrast is a medical classification as listed by WHO under t ...
... of Left Elbow using Other Contrast is a medical classification as listed by WHO under th ...
scanning. (. t. ). +. ϕ. y. scanning. (. t. ). +. ϕ. jitter. (. t. ). +. ϕ. sample. (. t. ). .. ... scanning. (. t. ). +. ϕ. 1. y. scanning. (. t. ). +. ϕ. 1. jitter. (. t. ). +. ϕ. m. sample. .. ... Phase contrast coherence microscopy based on transverse scanning. Michael Pircher,* Bernhard Baumann, Erich Götzinger, Harald ... Phase contrast microscopy is a well-established tool to enhance image contrast of unstained samples. However, most techniques ...
Had a CT scan with IV contrast of thorax and upper abdomen. What can be seen on this scan? Which organs is now checked out? ... Lots of things! Your scan included the base of neck, chest, including lymph nodes, blood vessels, the heart, and lungs, and ... Had a CT scan with IV contrast of thorax and upper abdomen. What can be seen on this scan? Which organs is now checked out? ... Can a CT scan contrast cause abdomen pain and back pain all day long. My husband had a scan for abd nd pelvis. Havin this pain ...
PubMed journal article The impact of iodinated contrast agent administered during preoperative computed tomography scan on body ... Iodine in iodinated contrast agents (ICAs) interferes with radioactive iodine treatment (RAIT) and diagnostic scans in patients ... TY - JOUR T1 - The impact of iodinated contrast agent administered during preoperative computed tomography scan on body iodine ... The impact of iodinated contrast agent administered during preoperative computed tomography scan on body iodine pool in ...
Otsuka and Interpharma Praha announced the coming launch of Oraltag (iohexol) for Oral Solution indicated for use in computed tomography (CT) of the abdome
Use of pseudo randomized scanning, for the mechanical scanning elements or the electronic line scanning elements, is important ... The typical scan time of 0.45 seconds for a breast is acceptable. The high sidelobe problem, which results in low contrast, is ... Improved contrast results and reduced scan time are achieved by the invention with use of a commercially realizable structure ... Better image contrast is achieved with use of either mechanical or electronic scanning by operating the mammography system to ...
Cardiac CT to Contrast guides, Unique modules, Quiz of the month, Imaging pearls, Journal Club, Medical Illustrations, CME ... 2. Why do we routinely use oral and IV contrast for CT scanning?. ... 1. What are the common contrast agents used in Body CT Scanning?. ... 4. Who decides on the use of oral and IV contrast in a specific patient?. ...
Cardiac CT to Contrast guides, Unique modules, Quiz of the month, Imaging pearls, Journal Club, Medical Illustrations, CME ... IV Contrast. 1. Why do we use IV contrast material?. 2. Do you use serum creatinine levels or GFR in your practice for ... What are the common volumes of contrast used for IV injection?. 18. What kind of IV access is ideal for use for IV contrast ... 5. Are all CT scans with IV contrast done the same way?. ... 8. Why do you warm IV contrast?. 9. What is the advantage of ...
Mandell on ct scans without contrast vs contrast: Ct scan without contrast is unlikely to show an aneurysm unless it is very ... Diagnostic CT scans used iodine contrast but due to allergy, post treatment CT scans used barium. How accurate/comparable are ... Whats difference between High HD Contrast CT scan vs Normal Chest CT with contrast evaluating interstitial lung markings? ... Unlikely: Ct scan without contrast is unlikely to show an aneurysm unless it is very large and is calcified. A ct angiogram is ...
Role and limitation of FMPSPGR dynamic contrast scanning in the follow-up of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated by ... On FMPSPGR dynamic contrast scanning, 18 of the 24 lesions enhanced on early-phase dynamic scanning corresponding to residuals ... when necrotic portions had no enhancement at the contrast early phase scanning. At the late phase scanning, the enhancement of ... FMPSPGR dynamic contrast scanning is useful in the follow-up of patients with HCC treated by TACE combined with SE T1WI and T2 ...
Scanning tunneling microscopy of DNA: Atom-resolved imaging, general observations and possible contrast mechanism ... Youngquist, M. G. and Driscoll, R. J. and Coley, T. R. and Goddard, W. A. and Baldeschwieler, J. D. (1991) Scanning tunneling ... Successive scans show that the imaging is nondestructive and reproducible. For this study, double-stranded DNA was deposited on ... We have shown that it is possible to image DNA with atomic resolution using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), [R. J. ...
Quantitative phase reconstruction for orthogonal-scanning differential phase-contrast optical coherence tomography Bettina ... Bettina Heise and David Stifter, "Quantitative phase reconstruction for orthogonal-scanning differential phase-contrast optical ... Differential phase contrast in optical coherence tomography Christoph K. Hitzenberger and Adolf F. Fercher. Opt. Lett. 24(9) ... Quantitative phase-contrast imaging of cells with phase-sensitive optical coherence microscopy Christopher G. Rylander, Digant ...
Out of 10,472 contrast-enhanced CTs performed, 3,945 carried out on 1,878 patients were considered for the study. Forty acute ... It is not known whether a time-dependent correlation exists between chemotherapy administration, contrast enhanced CT and onset ... of acute ICM-related adverse reactions (ARs). All consecutive contrast-enhanced CTs performed from 1 January 2010 to 31 ... scans and, therefore, iodinated contrast media (ICM) administration. ...
... without contrast due to poor renal function) shows stool in your colon. - Answered by a verified Oncologist ... What does it mean when a CT Scan ( ... What does it mean when a CT Scan (without contrast due to poor ... What does it mean when a CT Scan (without contrast due to…. ... Ive had ct with contrast , mri with contrast and an endoscopic ...
Lateral laser speckle contrast analysis combined with line beam scanning illumination to improve the sampling depth of blood ... We present a lateral laser speckle contrast analysis method combined with line beam scanning illumination to improve the ... "Lateral laser speckle contrast analysis combined with line beam scanning illumination to improve the sampling depth of blood ... Low-cost laser speckle contrast imaging of blood flow using a webcam Lisa M. Richards, S. M. Shams Kazmi, Janel L. Davis, ...
  • However, since this technique relies on variations in how the different constituents of an object absorb X-rays, it also has severe limitations notably in medical X-raying where cancerous and healthy soft tissue often do not show enough contrast to be clearly distinguished. (innovations-report.com)
  • The image shows excellent soft tissue detail, enhanced with injection of intravenous contrast or oral contrast. (healthtap.com)
  • The body part with the contrast inside will appear lighter on the radiographic image than the surrounding tissue. (buyacompanylaw.ml)
  • X-rays pass through the surrounding tissue, but they are absorbed by the iodine molecule in the contrast. (healthproadvice.com)
  • We have developed a STIR sequence with an ultra-low specific absorption rate that meets hardware limitations and produces adequate tissue contrast in cortical and subcortical brain tissues for deep brain stimulation recipients. (ajnr.org)
  • Tissue contrast-to-noise ratios and implant localization were objectively and subjectively compared by 2 neuroradiologists, and image quality for surgical planning was assessed by a neurosurgeon for high and low specific absorption rate images. (ajnr.org)
  • Our modified fast spin-echo short τ inversion recovery sequence conforms to very conservative radiofrequency safety limits, while it maintains high tissue contrast for presurgical planning, postsurgical assessment, and radiologic evaluations with greater confidence for radiofrequency safety. (ajnr.org)
  • Especially for micro-CT scanning, several X-ray contrast enhancers are performant in sufficiently contrasting soft tissue organ systems by a different attenuation strength of X-rays. (naturalsciences.be)
  • PET works by using a scanning device (a machine with a large hole at its center) to detect positrons (subatomic particles) emitted by a radionuclide in the organ or tissue being examined. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The radiotracers used in PET scans are made by attaching a radioactive atom to chemical substances that are used naturally by the particular organ or tissue during its metabolic process. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The introduction of extra-large slide scanning is an advancement for neuroscience, toxicological pathology and for anyone dealing with large tissue sections. (photonics.com)
  • When doctors order a CT scan during a diagnosis or when examining specific parts of the body, contrast can be very valuable in increasing visibility. (reference.com)
  • While there is controversy about the liberal use of ct scans for the diagnosis of appendicits, it does increase accuracy of diagnosis. (healthtap.com)
  • diagnosis of knee injuries or damage includes a medical history, physical examination , x rays, and the additional, more detailed imaging techniques with MRI or CT scan. (answers.com)
  • No, a CT scan will show nothing useful in the diagnosis of depression. (answers.com)
  • The scan participant cannot be taken into nor given entry to the MRI (magnet) room if a screening form has not been completed by the scan participant, and reviewed with the scan participant by the researcher/technologist conducting the MRI examination. (stanford.edu)
  • Before you have a CT scan, it is important to tell the x-ray technologist or radiologist if you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant. (cancer.ca)
  • If a contrast medium will be used, it is important that you tell the x-ray technologist or radiologist if you are breastfeeding or if you have any allergies or sensitivities to iodine, seafood or contrast dyes. (cancer.ca)
  • Your technologist will bring you into the MRI scan room where you will lie down on the patient table. (massgeneral.org)
  • The technologist positions the part of your body to be scanned in the middle of the large cylindrical magnet. (massgeneral.org)
  • CT scans work through a combination of X-ray technology and computer imaging to produce horizontal images of the body, referred to as slices, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine. (reference.com)
  • To receive news and publication updates for Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging, enter your email address in the box below. (hindawi.com)
  • In the past years, a lot of effort has therefore been put into the development of new X-ray imaging techniques that do not rely solely on absorption but increase the contrast through the observation of other types of interaction between X-rays and matter. (innovations-report.com)
  • To overcome the effects of static field inhomogeneities, single-scan hybrid imaging techniques that use k -space encoding in one direction and spatial encoding in the other have been shown to be superior to traditional imaging techniques based on full k -space encoding. (rsc.org)
  • Like traditional imaging methods, hybrid methods can be implemented in different ways that favor different sources of contrast. (rsc.org)
  • By modifying an established hybrid imaging sequence called Rapid Acquisition by Sequential Excitation and Refocusing (RASER) so as to obtain Echo-Shifted RASER sequences, we show that by shifting spin echoes one can tune the contrast due to inhomogeneous T inh 2 decay. (rsc.org)
  • The en-face imaging speed of the instrument is 40 fps (520×200 pixels). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, the imaging center may perform many many scans per day, so it may take a while before your study is read. (healthtap.com)
  • We also suggest a possible contrast mechanism for DNA imaging by STM based on wave function orthogonality requirements between a molecule and its substrate. (caltech.edu)
  • Successive scans show that the imaging is nondestructive and reproducible. (caltech.edu)
  • Heng He, Ying Tang, Fangyuan Zhou, Jia Wang, Qingming Luo, and Pengcheng Li, "Lateral laser speckle contrast analysis combined with line beam scanning illumination to improve the sampling depth of blood flow imaging," Opt. (osapublishing.org)
  • Both the phantom and animal experimental results suggest that localized illumination and lateral speckle contrast analysis can significantly enhance the deep blood flow signal to improve the sampling depth of laser speckle contrast imaging compared with the traditional full-field illumination laser speckle contrast analysis method. (osapublishing.org)
  • Contrast phase imaging at infrared wavelengths is achieved through an extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity in optical fiber. (edu.pl)
  • We learnt of Dr. Scott Echols and his research into terminal vascular contrast agents through our mutual association with Epical Medical Imaging. (scarletimaging.com)
  • HYPRFlow is a novel imaging strategy that provides fast, high-resolution contrast-enhanced time-resolved images and measurement of the velocity of the entire cerebrovascular system. (ajnr.org)
  • A hepatobiliary, or HIDA, scan uses imaging technology to find problems in a patient's gallbladder, according to Mayo Clinic. (reference.com)
  • A CT scan may be performed in a hospital or outpatient imaging center. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
  • This reduces the time available for contrast imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Book CT Scan Head Contrast with Mahajan Imaging Centre Hz in Ghaziabad @ Rs. (1mg.com)
  • The ACR accreditation verifies that Bayhealth has achieved excellence in CT imaging, dose measurements and scanning protocols. (bayhealth.org)
  • We believe that the presented adaptation of the scan protocol allows for accurate imaging without the risk of interfering with the experimental outcome of the study. (nih.gov)
  • Massachusetts General Hospital Imaging provides MRI services in a comfortable, caring environment using the latest technology, and every scan is read by a radiologist with specialty training. (massgeneral.org)
  • The rastering of the beam across the sample makes STEM suitable for analytical techniques such as Z-contrast annular dark-field imaging , and spectroscopic mapping by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, or electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). (wikipedia.org)
  • The advantage of STEM imaging of biological samples is the high contrast of annular dark-field images, which can allow imaging of biological samples without the need for staining. (wikipedia.org)
  • The advantage of STEM imaging of biological samples is the high contrast of annular dark-field images, which can allow imaging of biological samples without the need for staining. (wikipedia.org)
  • A CTA scan (a scan of the arteries) can be performed with a contrast medium volume reduction of up to 75 percent and up to 50 percent reduction in radiation dose, according to a new study from the University of Twente in Enschede, Netherlands. (healthmanagement.org)
  • Evaluation of the radiation dose in micro-CT with optimization of the scan protocol. (nih.gov)
  • This study was designed to evaluate the radiation dose of micro-CT and to optimize the scanning protocol for longitudinal micro-CT scans. (nih.gov)
  • CTDI(100) was measured with a 100 mm ionization chamber, centrally positioned in a 2.7 cm diameter water phantom, and rotation steps were increased to reduce both scan time and radiation dose. (nih.gov)
  • The radiation dose of a standard micro-CT scan is relatively high and could influence the experimental outcome. (nih.gov)
  • However, the acquisition speeds of en-face images of these systems are rather low because 3D volumes have to be recorded to extract this information. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • One additional feature of the system is that OCT and confocal scanning laser microscopy (cSLM) images can be recorded simultaneously. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In combination with a two-dimensional mathematical-reconstruction algorithm based on a regularized shape from shading method, accurate quantitative phase maps can be determined from a set of two orthogonal en-face DPC-OCT images, as exemplified on various technical samples. (osapublishing.org)
  • The system displays tridimensional images with a transverse resolution that is not limited by the numerical aperture NA of the scanning probe (as suggested by the Rayleigh limit), but it is related to the transverse field behavior of the electromagnetic field inside the micro-cavity. (edu.pl)
  • CT scan images provide more-detailed information than plain X-rays do. (drugs.com)
  • A CT pulmonary scan is a cat scan of the lungs, looking at radiologic images of the lungs in detail, in small "slices" of images. (answers.com)
  • It is very important that the child stays very still during the scan, as movement will affect the quality of the images. (choc.org)
  • Once the CT scan is complete, the images are reviewed by a radiologist. (capecodhealth.org)
  • The mean contrast-to-noise ratio for cerebral tissues without including the contrast-to-noise ratio for ventricular fluid was 35 and 31 for high and low specific absorption rate images. (ajnr.org)
  • Sometimes a physician will recommend an MRI with contrast after a regular MRI has unsuccessfully rendered the quality of images needed. (ibji.com)
  • Furthermore, while NBI) images are much darker than conventional white light (WL) images, i-scan images are as bright as conventional WL images, therefore, i-scan is able to observe much larger areas in a distant view compared with NBI. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Many exams involve contrast-an injection that makes the images more vivid and informative. (massgeneral.org)
  • About 12 hours before a positron emission tomography, or PET, scan, the doctor puts the patient on a diet low in carbohydrates, explains North Shore Univer. (reference.com)
  • In this study, we checked some basic effects of rendering a fibrin hydrogel radiopaque using an iodine-based contrast agent (iodixanol) approved for systemic application. (frontiersin.org)
  • Accurate responses are critical to ensure it is safe for the scan subject/patient to undergo the MRI examination as well as to ensure his/her safety during the MRI examination. (stanford.edu)
  • Notice: This article is meant to give you a broad overview of what you might expect if you undergo a CT scan, with a definition and description of terms and procedures. (healthproadvice.com)
  • The new method is based on the combination of the high contrast obtained by an X-ray technique known as grating interferometry with the three-dimensional capabilities of CT. (innovations-report.com)
  • You can select the high-contrast version below to persist throughout your BGSU website experience. (bgsu.edu)