Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Biomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Hydrogels: Water swollen, rigid, 3-dimensional network of cross-linked, hydrophilic macromolecules, 20-95% water. They are used in paints, printing inks, foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Bioartificial Organs: Artificial organs that are composites of biomaterials and cells. The biomaterial can act as a membrane (container) as in BIOARTIFICIAL LIVER or a scaffold as in bioartificial skin.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Guided Tissue Regeneration: Procedures for enhancing and directing tissue repair and renewal processes, such as BONE REGENERATION; NERVE REGENERATION; etc. They involve surgically implanting growth conducive tracks or conduits (TISSUE SCAFFOLDING) at the damaged site to stimulate and control the location of cell repopulation. The tracks or conduits are made from synthetic and/or natural materials and may include support cells and induction factors for CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; or CELL MIGRATION.Bone Regeneration: Renewal or repair of lost bone tissue. It excludes BONY CALLUS formed after BONE FRACTURES but not yet replaced by hard bone.Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Absorbable Implants: Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Hydrogel: A network of cross-linked hydrophilic macromolecules used in biomedical applications.Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Silk: A continuous protein fiber consisting primarily of FIBROINS. It is synthesized by a variety of INSECTS and ARACHNIDS.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Bioengineering: The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.Elastomers: A generic term for all substances having the properties of stretching under tension, high tensile strength, retracting rapidly, and recovering their original dimensions fully. They are generally POLYMERS.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Compressive Strength: The maximum compression a material can withstand without failure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p427)Microtechnology: Manufacturing technology for making microscopic devices in the micrometer range (typically 1-100 micrometers), such as integrated circuits or MEMS. The process usually involves replication and parallel fabrication of hundreds or millions of identical structures using various thin film deposition techniques and carried out in environmentally-controlled clean rooms.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Implants, Experimental: Artificial substitutes for body parts and materials inserted into organisms during experimental studies.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Mechanical Phenomena: The properties and processes of materials that affect their behavior under force.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Biomimetics: An interdisciplinary field in materials science, ENGINEERING, and BIOLOGY, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Gelatin: A product formed from skin, white connective tissue, or bone COLLAGEN. It is used as a protein food adjuvant, plasma substitute, hemostatic, suspending agent in pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacturing of capsules and suppositories.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Fibroins: Fibrous proteins secreted by INSECTS and SPIDERS. Generally, the term refers to silkworm fibroin secreted by the silk gland cells of SILKWORMS, Bombyx mori. Spider fibroins are called spidroins or dragline silk fibroins.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Elastic Modulus: Numerical expression indicating the measure of stiffness in a material. It is defined by the ratio of stress in a unit area of substance to the resulting deformation (strain). This allows the behavior of a material under load (such as bone) to be calculated.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Cell Engineering: Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (METABOLIC ENGINEERING), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (TISSUE ENGINEERING), or for other BIOENGINEERING research objectives.Nanotechnology: The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2: A potent osteoinductive protein that plays a critical role in the differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells into OSTEOBLASTS.Skin, Artificial: Synthetic material used for the treatment of burns and other conditions involving large-scale loss of skin. It often consists of an outer (epidermal) layer of silicone and an inner (dermal) layer of collagen and chondroitin 6-sulfate. The dermal layer elicits new growth and vascular invasion and the outer layer is later removed and replaced by a graft.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Fibrocartilage: A type of CARTILAGE whose matrix contains large bundles of COLLAGEN TYPE I. Fibrocartilage is typically found in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK; PUBIC SYMPHYSIS; TIBIAL MENISCI; and articular disks in synovial JOINTS. (From Ross et. al., Histology, 3rd ed., p132,136)Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Polyglactin 910: A polyester used for absorbable sutures & surgical mesh, especially in ophthalmic surgery. 2-Hydroxy-propanoic acid polymer with polymerized hydroxyacetic acid, which forms 3,6-dimethyl-1,4-dioxane-dione polymer with 1,4-dioxane-2,5-dione copolymer of molecular weight about 80,000 daltons.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Heart Valves: Flaps of tissue that prevent regurgitation of BLOOD from the HEART VENTRICLES to the HEART ATRIA or from the PULMONARY ARTERIES or AORTA to the ventricles.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Chemical EngineeringDermatologic Surgical Procedures: Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Nanomedicine: The branch of medicine concerned with the application of NANOTECHNOLOGY to the prevention and treatment of disease. It involves the monitoring, repair, construction, and control of human biological systems at the molecular level, using engineered nanodevices and NANOSTRUCTURES. (From Freitas Jr., Nanomedicine, vol 1, 1999).Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Cells, Immobilized: Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Bioprosthesis: Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.Hyaline Cartilage: A type of CARTILAGE characterized by a homogenous amorphous matrix containing predominately TYPE II COLLAGEN and ground substance. Hyaline cartilage is found in ARTICULAR CARTILAGE; COSTAL CARTILAGE; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; and the NASAL SEPTUM.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Collagen Type II: A fibrillar collagen found predominantly in CARTILAGE and vitreous humor. It consists of three identical alpha1(II) chains.Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Neovascularization, Physiologic: The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Periosteum: Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Periodontium: The structures surrounding and supporting the tooth. Periodontium includes the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Polypropylenes: Propylene or propene polymers. Thermoplastics that can be extruded into fibers, films or solid forms. They are used as a copolymer in plastics, especially polyethylene. The fibers are used for fabrics, filters and surgical sutures.Guided Tissue Regeneration, Periodontal: Techniques for enhancing and directing cell growth to repopulate specific parts of the PERIODONTIUM that have been damaged by PERIODONTAL DISEASES; TOOTH DISEASES; or TRAUMA, or to correct TOOTH ABNORMALITIES. Repopulation and repair is achieved by guiding the progenitor cells to reproduce in the desired location by blocking contact with surrounding tissue by use of membranes composed of synthetic or natural material that may include growth inducing factors as well.Ear Cartilage: Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.Collagen Type I: The most common form of fibrillar collagen. It is a major constituent of bone (BONE AND BONES) and SKIN and consists of a heterotrimer of two alpha1(I) and one alpha2(I) chains.Dimethylpolysiloxanes: Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Cryogels: Macroporous hydrogels that are produced at subzero temperatures. Cryogels have pores that are produced by growing ice crystals and have been developed with a tissue-like elasticity that is suitable for cell immunization experiments.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Dental Cementum: The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Iridoids: A type of MONOTERPENES, derived from geraniol. They have the general form of cyclopentanopyran, but in some cases, one of the rings is broken as in the case of secoiridoid. They are different from the similarly named iridals (TRITERPENES).Musculoskeletal System: The MUSCLES, bones (BONE AND BONES), and CARTILAGE of the body.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Skull: The SKELETON of the HEAD including the FACIAL BONES and the bones enclosing the BRAIN.Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Cell Physiological Processes: Cellular functions, mechanisms, and activities.Mechanical Processes: The behaviors of materials under force.SepharoseNIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Rats, Nude: A mutant strain of Rattus norvegicus without a thymus and with depressed or absent T-cell function. This strain of rats may have a small amount of hair at times, but then lose it.Transforming Growth Factor beta3: A TGF-beta subtype that plays role in regulating epithelial-mesenchymal interaction during embryonic development. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta3 and TGF-beta3 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Synthetic Biology: A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.Polyhydroxyethyl Methacrylate: A biocompatible, hydrophilic, inert gel that is permeable to tissue fluids. It is used as an embedding medium for microscopy, as a coating for implants and prostheses, for contact lenses, as microspheres in adsorption research, etc.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Nanotubes: Nanometer-sized tubes composed of various substances including carbon (CARBON NANOTUBES), boron nitride, or nickel vanadate.Iridoid Glycosides: A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.Fibrillar Collagens: A family of structurally related collagens that form the characteristic collagen fibril bundles seen in CONNECTIVE TISSUE.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Surgery, Plastic: The branch of surgery concerned with restoration, reconstruction, or improvement of defective, damaged, or missing structures.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Endothelial cells that line venous vessels of the UMBILICAL CORD.Tissue Transplantation: Transference of tissue within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Nerve Expansion: Procedures that stimulate nerve elongation over a period of time. They are used in repairing nerve tissue.Caproates: Derivatives of caproic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated six carbon aliphatic structure.Mechanotransduction, Cellular: The process by which cells convert mechanical stimuli into a chemical response. It can occur in both cells specialized for sensing mechanical cues such as MECHANORECEPTORS, and in parenchymal cells whose primary function is not mechanosensory.Cell SeparationOsteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Nanotubes, Carbon: Nanometer-sized tubes composed mainly of CARBON. Such nanotubes are used as probes for high-resolution structural and chemical imaging of biomolecules with ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Nerve Tissue: Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Osteopontin: A negatively-charged extracellular matrix protein that plays a role in the regulation of BONE metabolism and a variety of other biological functions. Cell signaling by osteopontin may occur through a cell adhesion sequence that recognizes INTEGRIN ALPHA-V BETA-3.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.ElastinMethacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Artificial Organs: Devices intended to replace non-functioning organs. They may be temporary or permanent. Since they are intended always to function as the natural organs they are replacing, they should be differentiated from PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS and specific types of prostheses which, though also replacements for body parts, are frequently cosmetic (EYE, ARTIFICIAL) as well as functional (ARTIFICIAL LIMBS).Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Organosilicon Compounds: Organic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Information Literacy: The ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, and use the needed information effectively.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Immobilized Proteins: Proteins that are chemically bound to a substrate material which renders their location fixed. The immobilization of proteins allows their use in chemical reactions without being diluted by solvent.Awards and PrizesLiver, Artificial: Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials.

*Krogh length

Microfluidic scaffolds for tissue engineering. Nature Materials (2007) vol. 6 pp. 908-915 August Krogh Biomedical engineering ... Fournier, R. L. Basic Transport Phenomena in Biomedical Engineering 1st edn (Taylor & Francis, London, 1999). Choi et al. ...

*Acellular dermis

"Chitin scaffolds in tissue engineering". Int J Mol Sci. 12: 1876-87. doi:10.3390/ijms12031876. PMC 3111639 . PMID 21673928. ... Tissue Engineering: From Cell Biology to Artificial Organs, p163 Ranganathan, Kavitha; Santosa, Katherine B.; Lyons, Daniel A ... Despite this "memory" of the ECM tissue, methods have been engineered so that these innate characteristics can be modified, ... Additionally, keeping in mind the size and shape of the final tissue, the potential of the physical dimensions of the tissue of ...

*Gel

Scaffolds in tissue engineering. When used as scaffolds, hydrogels may contain human cells to repair tissue. They mimic 3D ... Natural hydrogel materials are being investigated for tissue engineering; these materials include agarose, methylcellulose, ... Their viscoelastic nature results in the soft tissue component of the body, disparate from the mineral-based hard tissue of the ... Discher, D. E.; Janmey, P.; Wang, Y.L. (2005). "Tissue Cells Feel and Respond to the Stiffness of Their Substrate" (PDF). ...

*Thiomer

... a new scaffold material for tissue engineering?". Int. J. Pharm. 256 (1-2): 183-189. Bae, IH; Jeong, BC; Kook, MS; Kim, SH; Koh ... they are used as scaffolds for tissue engineering . Furthermore thiolated polymers such as thiolated hyaluronic acid and ... "Recent developments in thiolated polymeric hydrogels for tissue engineering applications". Tissue Eng. Part B Rev. doi:10.1089/ ... Moreover, thiomers show great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Thiomers can be directly ...

*Cell encapsulation

Chung HJ, Park TG (May 2007). "Surface engineered and drug releasing pre-fabricated scaffolds for tissue engineering". Adv. ... and easy processability make this polymer a good choice for tissue engineering applications. It is used in engineering tissues ... Thus, Type-I collagen obtained from animal tissues is now successfully being used commercially as tissue engineered biomaterial ... blood vessels and ligaments and is thus considered a model scaffold or matrix for tissue engineering due to its properties of ...

*Robert S. Langer

"Biodegradable Polymer Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering". Bio/Technology. 12 (7): 689-693. doi:10.1038/nbt0794-689. Retrieved 6 ... He and the researchers in his lab have made advances in tissue engineering, such as the creation of engineered blood vessels ... 2005). "Engineering vascularized skeletal muscle tissue". Nature Biotechnology. 23 (7): 879-84. doi:10.1038/nbt1109. PMID ... Vacanti, Joseph P; Langer, Robert (July 1999). "Tissue engineering: the design and fabrication of living replacement devices ...

*Fused filament fabrication

FDM is also used in prototyping scaffolds for medical tissue engineering applications. Play media Several projects and ... Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. 126 (2): 237. doi:10.1115/1.1688377. Liquefier Dynamics in Fused Deposition ... Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Transactions of the ASME. 138 (6): 061002. doi:10.1115/1.4032193. http:// ...

*Gordon Wallace (professor)

"A Single Component Conducting Polymer Hydrogel as a Scaffold for Tissue Engineering". Advanced Functional Materials. 22: 2692- ... "A Single Component Conducting Polymer Hydrogel as a Scaffold for Tissue Engineering" - Advanced Functional Materials (2012) " ... He was elected as a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering in 2003. He received the RACI ... "2017 NSW Scientist of the Year - NSW Chief Scientist & Engineer". www.chiefscientist.nsw.gov.au. Retrieved 2017-11-27. " ...

*Supramolecular polymers

A modular and supramolecular approach to bioactive scaffolds for tissue engineering. Nature Materials 2005, 4 (7), 568-74.. ... bio-imaging and diagnosis and tissue engineering, are also well developed. Brunsveld, L.; Folmer, B. J.; Meijer, E. W.; ...

*Ceramic engineering

Because of this, they are of great interest for gene delivery and tissue engineering scaffolds. Most hydroxyapatite ceramics ... electrical engineering, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering. As ceramics are heat resistant, they can be used for ... Materials science engineering is grouped with ceramics engineering to this day. Abraham Darby first used coke in 1709 in ... Society of Optical Engineers, Bellingham WA, 2009) ISBN 978-0-8194-5978-7 Richerson, D.W., Modern Ceramic Engineering, 2nd Ed ...

*Cross-link

"Genipin-crosslinked gelatin scaffolds for articular cartilage tissue engineering with a novel crosslinking method". Materials ... Novel uses for crosslinking can be found in regenerative medicine, where bio-scaffolds are crosslinked to improve their ... Complete Kinetic Modelling and Analysis". Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 51 (28): 9515-9530. doi:10.1021/ ... Engineering Chemistry Research. 50 (13): 7964-7976. doi:10.1002/ie200276v. Reyes-Labarta, J.A.; Olaya, M.M.; Marcilla, A. (2006 ...

*Tissue engineering

... involves the use of a tissue scaffold for the formation of new viable tissue for a medical purpose. While it ... Clinical Tissue Engineering Center State of Ohio Initiative for Tissue Engineering (National Center for Regenerative Medicine) ... Doris Taylor's heart in a jar Tissue-engineered airway Tissue-engineered vessels Artificial skin constructed from human skin ... One of the continuing, persistent problems with tissue engineering is mass transport limitations. Engineered tissues generally ...

*Oral mucosa tissue engineering

Available scaffolds for oral mucosa tissue engineering are: Acellular Dermis. An acellular dermis is made by removing the cells ... Tissue engineered oral mucosa shows promise for clinical use, such as the replacement of soft tissue defects in the oral cavity ... Compound collagen-based scaffolds have been developed in an attempt to improve the function of these scaffolds for tissue ... Tissue engineering of oral mucosa combines cells, materials and engineering to produce a three-dimensional reconstruction of ...

*Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic

... seeding of polymer scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering, cultivation parameters, and tissue construct characterization, ... The focus of her research is on engineering functional human tissues, by an integrated use of stem cells, biomaterial scaffolds ... "Dynamic cell seeding of polymer scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering," Biotechnology Progress 14(2), pp. 193-202, 1998. " ... "Cardiac tissue engineering: cell seeding, cultivation parameters, and tissue construct characterization," Biotechnology and ...

*Aldo R. Boccaccini

In particular his research focuses on bioactive glasses and composites, bioactive coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds and ... and earned his engineering degree in Nuclear Engineering at Instituto Balseiro, S. C. de Bariloche, Argentina in 1987. He then ... The fields of research of Boccaccini in the broad field of materials science and engineering focus on biomaterials for a ... Since 2009 he is working at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at University of Erlangen-Nuremberg as Chair ...

*Synthetic biodegradable polymer

In tissue engineering, biodegradable polymers can be designed such to approximate tissues, providing a polymer scaffold that ... Orthopedic fixation devices Tissue engineering scaffolds Biodegradable vascular stents Biodegradable soft tissue anchors ... Biomedical engineers can tailor a polymer to slowly degrade and transfer stress at the appropriate rate to surrounding tissues ... Biodegradable polymers are used commercially in both the tissue engineering and drug delivery field of biomedicine. Specific ...

*Muscle Tissue Engineering

Several other design criteria considered in muscle tissue engineering include the scaffold porosity, stiffness, ... Muscle tissue engineering is a subset of the general field of tissue engineering, which studies the combined use of cells and ... scaffolds to design therapeutic tissue implants. The major motivation for muscle tissue engineering is to treat a condition ... Engineered skeletal muscle units for repair of volumetric muscle loss in the tibialis anterior muscle of a rat. Tissue ...

*Tricalcium phosphate

Cao H, Kuboyama N (September 2009). "A biodegradable porous composite scaffold of PGA/beta-TCP for bone tissue engineering". ... from bone grafts to tissue engineering". RSC Advances. Royal Society of Chemistry. 3 (28): 11116-11131. doi:10.1039/C3RA00166K ... "Development of porous HAp and β-TCP scaffolds by starch consolidation with foaming method and drug-chitosan bilayered scaffold ... It can be used as a tissue replacement for repairing bony defects when autogenous bone graft is not feasible or possible. It ...

*Resilin

... hydrogels composed of recombinant resilins have been utilized as tissue engineering scaffolds for mechanically-active tissues ... Kim, Yeji; Gill, Emily E.; Liu, Julie C. "Enzymatic Cross-Linking of Resilin-Based Proteins for Vascular Tissue Engineering ... rec1-Resilin could be placed into a polymeric scaffold to mimic the extracellular matrix in order to generate a cell and tissue ... "Resilin-Based Hybrid Hydrogels for Cardiovascular Tissue Engineering". Macromolecular Chemistry & Physics. 214: 203-213. doi: ...

*Knee cartilage replacement therapy

October 2005). "Meniscal regeneration using tissue engineering with a scaffold derived from a rat meniscus and mesenchymal ... These cells are held in place by a small piece of soft tissue from the tibia, called a periosteal flap, which is sutured over ... This drives efforts to develop ways of using a person's own cells to grow, or re-grow cartilage tissue to replace missing or ... For years, the concept of harvesting stem cells and re-implanting them into one's own body to regenerate organs and tissues has ...

*Dental pulp stem cells

"Scaffold's surface geometry significantly affects human stem cell bone tissue engineering". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 214 ... Results suggest that these metaphosphates may be candidates for dental pulp tissue engineering and regenerative endodontics. ... Vishwakarma, Ajaykumar (2014-11-13). Stem Cell Biology and Tissue Engineering in Dental Sciences. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-12- ... Dental pulp is the soft living tissue inside a tooth. Stem cells are found inside the soft living tissue. Scientists have ...

*Self-healing hydrogels

Current research is exploring the effectiveness of using various types of hydrogel scaffolds for tissue engineering and ... Scaffolds act as three-dimensional artificial templates in which the tissue targeted for reconstruction is cultured to grow ... Scaffolds are subject to harsh processing conditions during tissue culturing. These include mechanical stimulation to promote ... Areas where active research is currently being conducted include: Absorbable sutures Tissue engineering and regeneration Drug ...

*Spinal cord injury

Another type of approach is tissue engineering, using biomaterials to help scaffold and rebuild damaged tissues. Biomaterials ... Kabu, S.; Gao, Y.; Kwon, B.K.; Labhasetwar, V. (2015). "Drug delivery, cell-based therapies, and tissue engineering approaches ... Research into new treatments for spinal cord injuries includes stem cell implantation, engineered materials for tissue support ... Conversely, a poorly understood phenomenon is the overgrowth of bone tissue in soft tissue areas, called heterotopic ...

*Polyhydroxybutyrate

... on hydrogels for biomedical applications as an injectable sustained drug delivery matrix or scaffolds for tissue engineering. ... Biochemical Engineering Journal. 39 (1): 15-27. doi:10.1016/j.bej.2007.11.029. "METABOLIX PURCHASES BIOPOL ASSETS FROM MONSANTO ...

*Tooth regeneration

"Tissue engineering of complex tooth structures on biodegradable polymer scaffolds". J Dent Res. 81 (10): 695-700. doi:10.1177/ ... Biopolymer methods in tissue engineering Hill, David J. (2012-05-10). "Toothless no more - Researchers using stem cells to grow ... Tooth regeneration is a stem cell based regenerative medicine procedure in the field of tissue engineering and stem cell ...
Engineering technology is that part of the technological field which requires the application of scientific and engineering knowledge and methods, combined with technical skills, for the implementation and extension of existing technologies. Engineering technology education focuses on preparing engineering technologists for positions that involve product development and improvement, system development, management, manufacturing and engineering operational functions. Graduates also enter the technical sales and customer services field, or continue in graduate work in engineering or management. Placement of graduates has been excellent.. The Engineering Technology Program awards Bachelor of Science in Engineering Technology (BSET) degrees for ...
In recent years, significant success has been made in the field of regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering scaffolds have been developed to repair and replace different types of tissues. The overall goal of the current work was to develop scaffolds of native extracellular matrix components for soft tissue regeneration, more specifically, neural tissue engineering. To date, much research has been focused on developing a nerve guidance scaffold for its ability to fill and heal the gap between the damaged nerve ends. Such scaffolds are marked by several intrinsic properties including: (1) a biodegradable scaffold or conduit, consisting of native ECM components, with controlled internal microarchitecture; (2) support cells ...
A key factor in the tissue engineering approach to tissue repair and regeneration is the use of appropriate cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are derived from bone marrow stroma or connective tissues and they have the potential to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell lines in vitro and in vivo. These cells hold great promise for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. This review is based mainly on the work which has been done in the National University of Singapore on the use of MSCs for engineering cartilage, growth plate, bone and tendon/ligament as well as the clinical trail of autologous chondrocyte implantation. It can help to shape future research on musculosketetal tissue engineering ...
The ability to heal soft tissue injuries and regenerate cartilage is the Holy Grail of musculoskeletal medicine. Articular cartilage repair and regeneration is considered to be largely intractable due to the poor regenerative properties of this tissue. Due to their low self-repair ability, cartilage defects that result from joint injury, aging, or osteoarthritis, are the most often irreversible and are a major cause of joint pain and chronic disability. However, current methods do not perfectly restore hyaline cartilage and may lead to the apparition of fibro- or continue hypertrophic cartilage. The lack of efficient modalities of treatment has prompted research into tissue engineering combining stem cells, scaffold materials and environmental factors. The field of articular cartilage tissue ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Simultaneous electrospin-electrosprayed biocomposite nanofibrous scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. AU - Francis, Lijo. AU - Venugopal, J.. AU - Prabhakaran, Molamma P.. AU - Thavasi, V.. AU - Marsano, E.. AU - Ramakrishna, S.. PY - 2010/10. Y1 - 2010/10. N2 - Currently, the application of nanotechnology in bone tissue regeneration is a challenge for the fabrication of novel bioartificial bone grafts. These nanostructures are capable of mimicking natural extracellular matrix with effective mineralization for successful regeneration of damaged tissues. The simultaneous electrospraying of nanohydroxyapatite (HA) on electrospun polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds might be more promising for bone tissue regeneration. In the current study, nanofibrous scaffolds of gelatin (Gel), Gel/HA (4:1 blend), Gel/HA (2:1 ...
[email protected] Engineering Technology is a technologically advanced program at the Bachelor of Science level utilizing theoretical concepts and hands-on instruction. Program selection is from the following concentrations: Computer Engineering Technology, Electromechanical Engineering Technology, and Mechanical Engineering Technology.. The Mechanical Engineering Technology concentration requires 67 hours is accredited by ABET, Inc. (http://www.abet.org) and enables students to obtain the skills necessary for placement in highly competitive jobs in machine design, manufacturing, engineering, field service engineering, technical sales, thermal analysis, product design, utilities operations, air conditioning design, plant operations, and a variety of other professions. ...
One of the major applications of tissue-engineered skin substitutes for wound healing is to promote the healing of cutaneous wounds. In this respect, many important clinical milestones have been reached in the past decades. However, currently available skin substitutes for wound healing often suffer from a range of problems including wound contraction, scar formation, and poor integration with host tissue. Engineering skin substitutes by tissue engineering approach has relied upon the creation of three-dimensional scaffolds as extracellular matrix (ECM) analog to guide cell adhesion, growth, and differentiation to form skin-functional and structural tissue. The three-dimensional scaffolds can not only cover wound and give a physical barrier against external infection as ...
The field of tissue engineering has advanced and evolved to focus on biomimetic strategies to meet the rise in demands of tissue replacements for surgical reconstruction. One of the key strategies focuses on developing growth factor delivery systems, by incorporating growth factors into tissue scaffolds. While growth factors are crucial cell-inducing components, their limitations such as short half-lives and dose related adverse effects remain a challenge. To overcome these challenges, this thesis is focused on the development of a novel biomimetic tissue scaffold concept incorporating cell-mediated activation of growth factors for cartilage regeneration. The latent transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) was selected as a model latent protein due to its well established effects on cartilage as well as its ...
This thesis presents a foundation for developing a business case for companies interested in the reconstructive and cosmetic procedure markets. The focus is on reviewing adipose tissue engineering research and proposing technology opportunities that could be applied to challenging soft tissue reconstruction cases and adjacently applied to cosmetic applications. To establish the foundation for this type of program, this thesis includes an evaluation of the reconstructive and cosmetic procedure markets, current practices in these markets and their constraints, as well as a literature review of research in adipose tissue engineering and its potential clinical applications. Additionally it captures the competitive landscape of major players in the reconstructive market as well as up-and-coming players in the adipose ...
The cardiovascular tissue engineering laboratory aims to develop tissue engineering and cell-based therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cardiac injury and disease.
Cardiac tissue engineering is an emerging field that may hold great promise for advancing the treatment of heart diseases. Cardiac tissue engineering is in its infancy, and the overall field of tissue engineering, which was formalized in the late 1980s at conferences and workshops sponsored by the National Science Foundation, is still new enough to warrant some description. By broad definition, tissue engineering involves the construction of tissue equivalents through the manipulation and combination of living cells and biomaterials. It is a multidisciplinary field combining diverse aspects of the life sciences, engineering, and clinical medicine. The overall goal of ...
Description: Nanostructured Bioactive Glasses for Hard Tissue Regeneration and Tissue Engineering. Amorphous bioactive materials as tissue engineering scaffolds can regenerate hard tissues using the natural repair mechanisms of the body. This presentation will highlight underlying investigations on nanostructured bioactive glasses in vitro and in vivo.. 3D scaffolds for craniofacial tissue engineering Large bony defects present special challenges in craniofacial surgeries. Two strategies in using 3D fabricated scaffolds to enhance bone regeneration in the craniofacial area will be discussed. Biologically Active Nanostructured Membranes for Periodontal Tissue ...
Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) are widely used for the generation of tissue engineering constructs, since they can differentiate into different cell types occurring in bone tissues. Until now their use for the generation of tissue engineering constructs is limited. All cells inside a tissue engineering construct die within a short period of time after implantation of the construct because vascularization and establishment of connections to the recipient circulatory system is a time consuming process. We therefore compared the influences of bmMSC, VEGF and a combination of both on the early processes of vascularization, utilizing the mice skinfold chamber model and intravital fluorescence microscopy.. Tissue ...
Cardiac tissue regeneration is an integrated process involving both cells and supporting matrix. Cardiomyocytes and stem cells are utilized to regenerate cardiac tissue. Hydrogels, because of their tissue-like properties, have been used as supporting matrices to deliver cells into infarcted cardiac muscle. Bioactive and biocompatible hydrogels mimicking biochemical and biomechanical microenvironments in native tissue are needed for successful cardiac tissue regeneration. These hydrogels not only retain cells in the infarcted area, but also provide support for restoring myocardial wall stress and cell survival and functioning. Many hydrogels, including natural polymer hydrogels, synthetic polymer hydrogels, and natural/synthetic hybrid hydrogels are employed for cardiac tissue ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Electrically Stimulated Adipose Stem Cells on Polypyrrole-Coated Scaffolds for Smooth Muscle Tissue Engineering. AU - Björninen, Miina. AU - Gilmore, Kerry. AU - Pelto, Jani. AU - Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta. AU - Kellomäki, Minna. AU - Miettinen, Susanna. AU - Wallace, Gordon. AU - Grijpma, Dirk. AU - Haimi, Suvi. N1 - EXT="Pelto, Jani". PY - 2016/11/14. Y1 - 2016/11/14. N2 - We investigated the use of polypyrrole (PPy)-coated polymer scaffolds and electrical stimulation (ES) to differentiate adipose stem cells (ASCs) towards smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Since tissue engineering lacks robust and reusable 3D ES devices we developed a device that can deliver ES in a reliable, repeatable, and cost-efficient way in a 3D environment. Long pulse (1 ms) or short pulse (0.25 ms) biphasic electric current at a frequency of 10 Hz was ...
Natural biomaterials such as collagen show promise in tissue engineering applications due to their inherent bioactivity. The main limitation of collagen is its low mechanical strength and somewhat unpredictable and rapid degradation rate; however, combining collagen with another material, such as chitosan, can reinforce the scaffold mechanically and may improve the rate of degradation. Additionally, the high cost and the risk of prion transmission associated with mammal-derived collagen has prompted research into alternative sources such as marine-origin collagen. In this context, the overall goal of this study was to determine if the incorporation of chitosan into collagen scaffolds could improve the mechanical and biological properties of the scaffold. In addition the study assessed if collagen, derived from salmon skin (marine), can provide an alternative to collagen derived from bovine ...
Buy the Paperback Book Functional Tissue Engineering by Farshid Guilak at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on Science and Nature books over $25!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surgical and tissue engineering strategies for articular cartilage and meniscus repair. AU - Kwon, Heenam. AU - Brown, Wendy E.. AU - Lee, Cassandra A. AU - Wang, Dean. AU - Paschos, Nikolaos. AU - Hu, Jerry C.. AU - Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.. PY - 2019/1/1. Y1 - 2019/1/1. N2 - Injuries to articular cartilage and menisci can lead to cartilage degeneration that ultimately results in arthritis. Different forms of arthritis affect ~50 million people in the USA alone, and it is therefore crucial to identify methods that will halt or slow the progression to arthritis, starting with the initiating events of cartilage and meniscus defects. The surgical approaches in current use have a limited capacity for tissue regeneration and yield only short-term relief of symptoms. Tissue engineering approaches are emerging as alternatives to ...
This project will develop and demonstrate a prototype Modular Perfusion Bioreactor (MPB) for tissue engineering applications. While many unique styles of bioreactors have been proposed for various types of stem cell and tissue cultures, there is not a single, easy-to-use device that accommodates the multiple diverse needs of multiple tissue culture types.. In order to take advantage of recent advances in stem cell culture, biomaterials, and tissue engineering techniques, Resodyn Corporation proposes to develop, design, fabricate, and test a multi-functional bioreactor platform system. As a starting point for this multi-functional system, Resodyn Corporation will use its highly scalable (50-1,500ml) and successful (>1x108 cells/ml) hypoxia perfusion bioreactor. The focus of the proposed work will be to design ...
Mol, A; Hoerstrup, S P (2004). Heart valve tissue engineering -- where do we stand? International Journal of Cardiology, 95(Suppl 1):S57-S58. ...
In the industrialized world, cardiovascular disease alone is responsible for almost half of all deaths. Many of the conditions can be treated successfully with surgery, often using transplantation techniques; however, autologous vessels or human-donated organs are in short supply. Tissue engineering aims to create specific, matching grafts by growing cells on appropriate matrices, but there are many steps between the research laboratory and the operating theatre. Neo-tissues must be effective, durable, non-thrombogenic and non-immunogenic. Scaffolds should be bio-compatible, porous (to allow cell/cell communication) and amenable to surgery. In the early days of cardiovascular tissue engineering, autologous or allogenic cells were grown on inert matrices, but patency and thrombogenicity of grafts were disappointing. The ...
Patients with critical-size bone defects, as a result of trauma, congenital malformations or tumor resections, generally have limited healing without clinical intervention. The autograft is the current standard of care for repair of these defects due to capacity for osteointegration and immunological compatibility. However, potential limitations, such as donor site morbidity, have motivated the development of alternative autologous approaches for the treatment of these defects. Materials used in tissue engineering, such as scaffolds, growth factors and adult stem cells, can be derived from patient blood and adipose tissue and are potential autologous therapeutic options. This dissertation investigates a prospective procedure to improve craniofacial bone healing using fibrin scaffolds and platelet rich plasma from patient blood, and adipose-derived stem cells from ...
Biological compatibility of a biological derivation bone tissue engineering scaffold was all sidedly evaluated by biological test of basic and additional evaluation. Results showed that the grades of cell culture with the material were grade Ⅰ. There was no sensitization effect; no irritant reactions were found in test of genotoxicity and test of chronic toxicity, there was no irritant reaction to the material implanted in bone and the hemolytic rate was 0 61%. The results demonstrated that the biological derivation bone tissue engineering scaffold is a satisfactory biomaterial.
The tissue engineering and biomaterials research thrust in the Department of Biomedical Engineering focuses on the development of new materials for applications in medicine and biology as well as on engineering biological tissues from adult stem cells. Specific areas of active research include cardiovascular tissue engineering, biopolymers, nitric oxide releasing materials for improved biocompatibility, tissue-biomaterial interaction, and biomimetic materials.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement of osteoblast functions by sustained release of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) from heparin-coated chitosan scaffold. AU - Yun, Young Pil. AU - Lee, Su Young. AU - Kim, Hak Jun. AU - Song, Jae-Jun. AU - Kim, Sung Eun. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - The aim of this study was to investigate the improvement in osteoblast functions by using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) immobilized heparin-coated chitosan scaffolds and comparing it with that using chitosan scaffold or BMP-2/chitosan scaffold in vitro. BMP-2 was released from the heparin-coated chitosan scaffold in a sustained manner compared to that released from the chitosan scaffold. The osteoblast functions of MG-63 cells grown on the chitosan scaffold, the BMP-2/chitosan scaffold, the BMP-2/Hep/chitosan scaffold were investigated by assessing cell proliferation, ...
Skeletal muscle plays an important role in the bodys physiology but there are still no effective treatments for volumetric muscle loss (VML) resulting from severe traumatic injury or tumor excision. Recent studies show that a tissue engineering strategy using a compound containing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and decellularized extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold generates significant regenerative effects on VML injury, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. The characteristics of human umbilical cord MSCs, including multiplication capacity and multidifferentiation ability, were determined. We constructed a compound containing MSCs and decellularized ECM scaffold which was used for tissue regeneration in a VML model. We found that MSCs and decellularized ECM scaffold generated synergistic effects on promoting skeletal muscle ...
Background. The ADSCs, have the capacity for renewal and the potential to differentiate into multiple lineages of mesenchymal tissues. These cells are capable of forming bone when implanted in an appropriate scaffold. Aims. We evaluate the effect of reconstructing bone defect by using degradable porous scaffolds seeded with ADSCs and compare the suitability of different biomaterial porous scaffolds; Hydroxyapatite/beta-Tricalcium Phosphate, Beta-Tricalcium Phosphate, Calcium Meta phosphate , Collagen-coated CMP.. Methods. ADSCs were obtained 24 adult Beagles undergoing lipectomy. The cells were isolated, cultured, labeled and seeded in vitro. The experimental group received ADSCs scaffolds and the control group received the acellular scaffolds into femoral defects, respectively. The bone blocks were retrieved at 4, 8, 12 weeks after the surgery for radiographic, biochemistry, ...
To date, special interest has been paid to composite scaffolds based on polymers enriched with hydroxyapatite (HA). However, the role of HA containing different trace elements such as silicate in the structure of a polymer scaffold has not yet been fully explored. Here, we report the potential use of silicate-containing hydroxyapatite (SiHA) microparticles and microparticle aggregates in the predominant range from 2.23 to 12.40 μm in combination with polycaprolactone (PCL) as a hybrid scaffold with randomly oriented and well-aligned microfibers for regeneration of bone tissue. Chemical and mechanical properties of the developed 3D scaffolds were investigated with XRD, FTIR, EDX and tensile testing. Furthermore, the internal structure and surface morphology of the scaffolds were analyzed using synchrotron X-ray μCT and SEM. Upon culturing human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) on PCL-SiHA ...
Despite the enthusiasm for bioengineering of functional renal tissues for transplantation, many obstacles remain before the potential of this technology can be realized in a clinical setting. Viable tissue engineering strategies for the kidney require identification of the necessary cell populations, efficient scaffolds, and the 3D culture conditions to develop and support the unique architecture and physiological function of this vital organ. Our studies have previously demonstrated that decellularized sections of rhesus monkey kidneys of all age groups provide a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) with sufficient structural properties with spatial and organizational influences on human embryonic stem cell (hESC) migration and differentiation. To further explore the use of decellularized natural kidney scaffolds for renal ...
Bone is the second most transplanted tissue in the body, with approximately 2.2 million bone graft procedures performed annually worldwide. Currently, autogenous bone is the gold standard for bone grafting due to its ability to achieve functional healing; however, it is limited in supply and results in secondary injury at the donor site. Tissue engineering has emerged as a promising means for the development of new bone graft substitutes in order to overcome the limitations of the current grafts. In this research project, the specific approach for bone tissue engineering involves seeding osteoprogenitor cells within a biomaterial scaffold then culturing this construct in a biodynamic bioreactor. The bioreactor imparts osteoinductive mechanical stimuli on the cells to stimulate the synthesis of an extracellular matrix rich in ...
A polymer scaffold is provided comprising an extensively interconnected macroporous network. The polymer scaffold embodies macropores having a diameter in a range of 0.5-3.5 mm, and preferably in a range of about 1.0-2.0 mm. The polymer scaffold is prepared using a novel process which advantageously combines the techniques of particulate leaching and phase inversion to render a process that provides amplified means by which to control the morphology of the resulting polymer scaffold. The polymer scaffold has utility in the area of tissue engineering, particularly as a scaffold for both in vitro and in vivo cell growth. The polymer scaffold may be produced using pure polymer or alternatively a composite material may be formed consisting of a macroporous polymer scaffold and osteoclast-resorbable calcium ...
Many strategies for tissue engineering of replacement structures, such as heart valves, depend in part on preparing a tissue scaffold from a natural tissue matrix. An essential step in tissue scaffold fabrication is decellularization of the matrix. The objective of any decellularization method is twofold: (1) the preservation of the physical and biochemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and (2) the removal of all cellular material. Decellularization is currently done by contacting xenographic tissue with a combination of chemical detergents and biological agents. These processes can alter ECM structure and composition, which can trigger host immune response and inflammation. Currently, there are no accepted quantitative standards against which to certify the ...
Plastic Surgery International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies in all areas of plastic surgery.
Several methods for auricular cartilage engineering use tissue engineering techniques. However, an ideal method for engineering auricular cartilage has not been reported. To address this issue, we developed a strategy to engineer auricular cartilage using silk fibroin (SF) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel. We constructed different hydrogels with various ratios of SF and PVA by using salt leaching, silicone mold casting, and freeze-thawing methods. We characterized each of the hydrogels in terms of the swelling ratio, tensile strength, pore size, thermal properties, morphologies, and chemical properties. Based on the cell viability results, we found a blended hydrogel composed of 50% PVA and 50% SF (P50/S50) to be the best hydrogel among the fabricated hydrogels. An intact 3D ear-shaped auricular cartilage formed six weeks after the subcutaneous implantation of a ...
A common problem in the design of tissue engineered scaffolds using electrospun scaffolds is the poor cellular infiltration into the structure. To tackle this issue, three approaches to scaffold design using electrospinning were investigated: selective leaching of a water-soluble fiber phase (poly ethylene oxide (PEO) or gelatin), the use of micron-sized fibers as the scaffold, and a combination of micron-sized fibers with codeposition of a hyaluronic acid-derivative hydrogel, Heprasil. These designs were achieved by modifying a conventional electrospinning system with two charged capillaries and a rotating mandrel collector. Three types of scaffolds were fabricated: medical grade poly(ε-caprolactone)/collagen (mPCL/Col) cospun with PEO or gelatin, mPCL/Col meshes with micron-sized fibers, and mPCL/Col microfibers cosprayed with Heprasil. All three scaffold types supported ...
Patients with spina bifida and a neurogenic bladder have traditionally been managed with clean intermittent catheterization and pharmacotherapy in order to treat abnormal bladder wall dynamics, protect the upper urinary tract from damage, and achieve urinary continence. However, some patients will fail this therapy and require surgical reconstruction in the form of bladder augmentation surgery using reconfigured intestine or stomach to increase the bladder capacity while reducing the internal storage pressure. Despite functional success of bladder augmentation in achieving a low pressure reservoir, there are several associated complications of this operation and patients do not have the ability to volitionally void. For these reasons, alternative treatments have been sought. Two exciting alternative approaches that are currently being investigated are tissue engineering and neuromodulation. Tissue ...
2002). The tortuosity of scaffolds fabricated using solvent casting is not controllable because it requires the contact of the particulates during the fabrication procedure, which is a random process facilitated by using high humidity. Similarly, poor interconnectivity of pores is reported for scaffolds produced using gas foaming techniques, where only 10%À30% of the scaffolds pores are connected (Hutmacher, 2001). Control of pore size distribution in scaffolds fabricated using freeze-drying is an interesting research topic. 2010. The acellular matrix (ACM) for bladder tissue engineering: a quantitative magnetic resonance imaging study. Magn. Reson. Med. 64 (2), 341À348. 22404. , 2014. One-pot synthesis of macromesoporous bioactive glasses/polylactic acid for bone tissue engineering. Mater. Sci. Eng. C ...
Surgical repairs of rotator cuff tears have high re-tear rates and many scaffolds have been developed to augment the repair. Understanding the interaction between patients cells and scaffolds is important for improving scaffold performance and tendon healing. In this in vitro study, we investigated the response of patient-derived tenocytes to eight different scaffolds. Tested scaffolds included X-Repair, Poly-Tape, LARS Ligament, BioFiber (synthetic scaffolds), BioFiber-CM (biosynthetic scaffold), GraftJacket, Permacol, and Conexa (biological scaffolds). Cell attachment, proliferation, gene expression, and morphology were assessed. After one day, more cells attached to synthetic scaffolds with dense, fine and aligned fibres (X-Repair and Poly-Tape). Despite low initial cell attachment, the human dermal scaffold (GraftJacket) promoted the ...
Surgical repairs of rotator cuff tears have high re-tear rates and many scaffolds have been developed to augment the repair. Understanding the interaction between patients cells and scaffolds is important for improving scaffold performance and tendon healing. In this in vitro study, we investigated the response of patient-derived tenocytes to eight different scaffolds. Tested scaffolds included X-Repair, Poly-Tape, LARS Ligament, BioFiber (synthetic scaffolds), BioFiber-CM (biosynthetic scaffold), GraftJacket, Permacol, and Conexa (biological scaffolds). Cell attachment, proliferation, gene expression, and morphology were assessed. After one day, more cells attached to synthetic scaffolds with dense, fine and aligned fibres (X-Repair and Poly-Tape). Despite low initial cell attachment, the human dermal scaffold (GraftJacket) promoted the ...
Title: Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based HLA-Independent Cell Therapy for Tissue Engineering of Bone and Cartilage. VOLUME: 1 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Philipp Niemeyer, Ulf Krause, Philip Kasten, Peter C. Kreuz, Philipp Henle, Norbert P. Sudkamp and Alexander Mehlhorn. Affiliation:Department of OrthopaedicSurgery and Traumatology, University Hospital Freiburg, Germany,Hugstetter Str. 55, 79095 Freiburg i. Br. Germany;. Keywords:Mesenchymal Stem Cells, HLA-antigen, Tissue Engineering, bone regeneration, cartilage repair. Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can be obtained from human bone marrow aspirates and, thanks to their differentiation potential and excellent in vitro culture properties, represent an attractive cell line for the regeneration of mesenchymal tissue. Both in vitro and in vivo , they can differentiate into cartilage, bone, tendons ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fibrin and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) hybrid scaffold promotes early chondrogenesis of articular chondrocytes. T2 - An in vitro study. AU - ShaBan, Munirah. AU - Kim, Soon Hee. AU - Idrus, Ruszymah. AU - Khang, Gilson. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Background. Synthetic- and naturally derived- biodegradable polymers have been widely used to construct scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) are bioresorbable and biocompatible, rendering them as a promising tool for clinical application. To minimize cells lost during the seeding procedure, we used the natural polymer fibrin to immobilize cells and to provide homogenous cells distribution in PLGA scaffolds. We evaluated in vitro chondrogenesis of rabbit articular chondrocytes in PLGA scaffolds using fibrin as cell transplantation matrix. Methods. PLGA ...
This paper provides a comprehensive overview of nanofibrous structures for tissue engineering purposes and the role of non-thermal plasma technology (NTP) within this field. Special attention is first given to nanofiber fabrication strategies, including thermally-induced phase separation, molecular self-assembly, and electrospinning, highlighting their strengths, weaknesses, and potentials. The review then continues to discuss the biodegradable polyesters typically employed for nanofiber fabrication, while the primary focus lies on their applicability and limitations. From thereon, the reader is introduced to the concept of NTP and its application in plasma-assisted surface modification of nanofibrous scaffolds. The final part of the review discusses the available literature on NTP-modified nanofibers looking at the impact of plasma activation and polymerization treatments on nanofiber wettability, surface chemistry, cell ...
Introduction: Minimally invasive valve replacement procedures rapidly evolve as alternative treatment option for patients with valvular heart disease. Based on non-living bioprosthetic materials, currently used valve protheses are associated with disadvantages i.e. degenerative dysfunction. Tissue engineering (TE) technologies providing living, autologous heart valves with the capacity of regeneration and growth have shown functionality in long-term animal studies and initial human applications. Here, we introduce a novel strategy combining two promising heart valve technologies: minimally invasive replacement and tissue engineering.. Methods: Trileaflet heart valves (n=8, 30mm) based on rapidly degrading polymer scaffolds and self-expandable stents were engineered from ovine autologous vascular-derived cells. Valves were grown in-vitro for 12d utilizing ...
Biologic scaffolds composed of naturally occurring extracellular matrix (ECM) can provide a microenvironmental niche that alters the default healing response toward a constructive and functional outcome. The present study showed similarities in the remodeling characteristics of xenogeneic ECM scaffolds when used as a surgical treatment for volumetric muscle loss in both a preclinical rodent model and five male patients. Porcine urinary bladder ECM scaffold implantation was associated with perivascular stem cell mobilization and accumulation within the site of injury, and de novo formation of skeletal muscle cells. The ECM-mediated constructive remodeling was associated with stimulus-responsive skeletal muscle in rodents and functional improvement in three of the five human patients.. ...
Title:In Vitro Osteogenesis of Human Stem Cells by Using a Three-Dimensional Perfusion Bioreactor Culture System: A Review. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Gabriele Ceccarelli, Nora Bloise, Marco Vercellino, Rosalia Battaglia, Lucia Morgante, Maria Gabriella Cusella De Angelis, Marcello Imbriani and Livia Visai. Affiliation:Dep. of Molecular Medicine, University of Pavia, Viale Taramelli 3/B, 27100 Pavia, Italy.. Keywords:Biomaterials, extracellular matrix, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), osteogenesis, perfusion bioreactor, scaffolds, tissue engineering. Abstract:Tissue engineering (by culturing cells on appropriate scaffolds, and using bioreactors to drive the correct bone structure formation) is an attractive alternative to bone grafting or implantation of bone substitutes. Osteogenesis is a biological ...
We describe the use of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) in the measurement of anisotropy in electrospun scaffolds of gelatin as a function of the starting conditions. In electrospinning, fiber alignment and overall scaffold anisotropy can be manipulated by controlling the motion of the collecting mandrel with respect to the source electrospinning solution. By using FFT to assign relative alignment values to an electrospun matrix it is possible to systematically evaluate how different processing variables impact the structure and material properties of a scaffold. Gelatin was suspended at varying concentrations (80, 100, 130, 150 mg/ml) and electrospun from 2,2,2 trifluoroethanol onto rotating mandrels (200-7000 RPM). At each starting concentration, fiber diameter remained constant over a wide range of mandrel RPM. Scaffold anisotropy developed as a function of fiber diameter and mandrel RPM. The induction of varying degrees of anisotropy ...
Understanding the material properties of the nanofibers comprising electrospun scaffolds for tissue engineering will elucidate the mechanotransduction of cells seeded onto and attached those scaffolds. The overall mechanical properties of any structure built from fibers depend on 1) the architecture, 2) the properties of the constituent single fibers, and 3) the junctions between fibers. All three must be known to design a structure with predictable mechanical properties. We hypothesize that a basic understanding of the nanolevel mechanical properties of individual electrospun fibers will enable accurate prediction of the overall cellular response and bulk mechanical behavior of electrospun tissue scaffolds.. Copyright © 2010 by ASME ...
Synthetic implants are being used to restore injured or damaged tissues following cancer resection and congenital diseases. However, the survival of large tissue implant replacements depends on their ability to support angiogenesis that if limited, causes extrusion and infection of the implant. This study assessed the beneficial effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on synthetic biomaterials in combination with argon plasma surface modification to enhance vascularisation of tissue-engineered constructs. Non-biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds were manufactured and modified with plasma surface modification using argon gas (PM). Donor rats were then used to extract ADSCs and PRP to modify the scaffolds further. Scaffolds with and without PM were modified with and without ADSCs and PRP and subcutaneously implanted in the ...
Computational approaches have great potential for aiding clinical product development by finding promising candidate designs prior to expensive testing and clinical trials. Here, an approach for designing multilevel bone tissue scaffolds that provide structural support during tissue regeneration is developed by considering mechanical and biological perspectives. Three key scaffold design properties are considered: (1) porosity, which influences potential tissue growth volume and nutrient transport, (2) surface area, which influences biodegradable scaffold dissolution rate and initial cell attachment, and (3) elastic modulus, which influences scaffold deformation under load and, therefore, tissue stimulation. Four scaffold topology types are generated by patterning beam or truss-based unit ...
There has been a considerable growth and development in electrospun nanofibers for research activity, as well as commercial fabrication over the past couple of decades. These continuous nanofibers are solution driven exclusively by an electric field. Numerous studies on electrospun fibrous scaffolds have demonstrated sufficient mechanical properties and support of cell growth for tissue engineering. Despite these substantial achievements, there is still an Edisonian-type procedure to acquire the desired scaffold orientation and mechanical response that mimics the native tissue behavior. In this study, the electrospun scaffolds are fabricated with different fiber orientation -i.e. aligned and patterned (0/90) - by modifying the electrospinning process, specifically electric field and target, over large areas and lengths (30 mm x 30 mm). Mechanical behavior of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preparation, characterization and in vitro test of composites poly-lactic acid/hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. AU - Carfi Pavia, Francesco. AU - Ghersi, Giulio. AU - Brucato, Valerio Maria Bartolo. AU - Conoscenti, Gioacchino. AU - La Carrubba, Vincenzo. AU - Greco, Silvia. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - In this work, the possibility to produce composite Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA)/Hydroxyapatite (HA) porous scaffolds via Thermally Induced Phase Separation (TIPS) for bone tissue engineering applications was investigated. Several PLLA/HA wt/wt ratios (95/5, 90/10, 70/30, 50/50, 34/66) were tested and the as-obtained scaffolds were characterized via Scanning Electron Microscopy, Wide Angle X-Ray Diffraction, Thermogravimetric analysis, Gas Pycnometry, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and ...
Co-advisor: Brad Berron, Chemical Engineering. All living systems have a need to transport critical nutrients throughout their structures. This need is a critical challenge in the next generation of medical devices which use live cells to perform basic functions. It is also one of the primary challenges in engineering thick three-dimensional tissues. In these systems, the flow of nutrients needs to be uniform throughout the material at the micron-scale. In vivo, this is accomplished by an integrated circulatory system, but the detailed multi-scale geometry involved is particularly difficult to recreate ex vivo. In this project, we seek to use lithography-based microfabrication to generate 3D cell/hydrogel structures with embedded microfluidic channels.. Objective: To develop hydrogel-based microfluidic devices that mimic in vivo blood flow. Major project outcomes:. ...
Objectives: Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF)-based membranes have been used for covering alveolar ridge augmentation side in several in vivo studies. Few in vitro studies on PRF and no studies using human periosteal cells for tissue engineering have been published. The aim is a comparison of PRF with the commonly used collagen membrane Bio-Gides scaffolds for periosteal tissue engineering. Material and methods: Human periosteal cells were seeded on membrane pieces (collagen [Bio-Gideand PRF) at a density of 104 cells/well. Cell vitality was assessed by fluorescein diacetate (FDA) and propidium iodide (PI) staining, biocompatibility with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test and proliferation level with the MTT, WST and BrdU tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results: PRF membranes showed slightly inferior biocompatibility, as shown by the LDH test. The ...
The examination of the adhesive properties of poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) for application as a hard tissue adhesive and as an adhesive for forming laminated three-dimensional scaffolds for bone tissue engineering was investigated by two sets of experiments. The adhesive properties of adherends (fabricated with PPF) laminated with PPF were compared with unlaminated controls as well as two well-known hard tissue adhesives, cyanoacrylate and epoxy. By investigating three adhesive parameters (mass, viscosity, and polymer molecular weight), the adhesive properties of PPF were found to match the mechanical properties of unlaminated solid PPF and exceed the adhesive properties of cyanoacrylate and epoxy. The effect of three scaffold fabrication parameters (porosity, porogen size, and polymer molecular weight) on the tensile properties of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Industrialization of a perfusion bioreactor. T2 - Prime example of a non-straightforward process. AU - Talò, G. AU - Turrisi, C. AU - Arrigoni, C. AU - Recordati, C. AU - Gerges, I. AU - Tamplenizza, M. AU - Cappelluti, A. AU - Riboldi, S A. AU - Moretti, M. N1 - Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.. PY - 2018/2. Y1 - 2018/2. N2 - Bioreactors are essential enabling technologies for the translation of advanced therapies medicinal products from the research field towards a successful clinical application. In order to speed up the translation and the spread of novel tissue engineering products into the clinical routine, tissue engineering bioreactors should evolve from laboratory prototypes towards industrialized products. In this work, we thus challenged the industrialization process of a novel technological platform, based on an established research ...
Polymer scaffold use has become commonplace in tissue engineering strategies. Scaffolds provide sturdy interfaces that securely anchor tissue engineered constructs to their designated locations. Researchers have used scaffolds to provide support to developing tissues as well as a growth template to aid the development of the desired phenotypic structure. In addition to using scaffolds for their mechanical support, scaffolds can be used as a diagnostic tool by attaching sensors. Strain gauge sensors have been attached to scaffolds to monitor compression and elongation. These polybutylterphalate (PBT) scaffolds were used in a cartilage tissue-engineering project for femoral cartilage repair. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hepatic tissue engineering for adjunct and temporary liver support. T2 - Liver Transplantation. AU - Chan,Christina. AU - Berthiaume,François. AU - Nath,Bharath D.. AU - Tilles,Arno W.. AU - Toner,Mehmet. AU - Yarmush,Martin L.. PY - 2004/11. Y1 - 2004/11. N2 - The severe donor liver shortage, high cost, and complexity of orthotopic liver transplantation have prompted the search for alternative treatment strategies for end-stage liver disease, which would require less donor material, be cheaper, and less invasive. Hepatic tissue engineering encompasses several approaches to develop adjunct internal liver support methods, such as heparocyte transplantation and implantable hepatocyte-based devices, as well as temporary extracorporeal liver support techniques, such as bioartificial liver assist devices. Many tissue engineered ...
Here, we aimed to investigate osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) in three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted tissue constructs in vitro and in vivo. A 3D Bio-plotter dispensing system was used for building 3D constructs. Cell viability was determined using live/dead cell staining. After 7 and 14 days of culture, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to analyze the expression of osteogenesis-related genes (RUNX2, OSX, and OCN). Western blotting for RUNX2 and immunofluorescent staining for OCN and RUNX2 were also performed. At 8 weeks after surgery, osteoids secreted by osteogenically differentiated cells were assessed by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, Masson trichrome staining, and OCN immunohistochemical staining. Results from live/dead cell staining showed that most of the cells remained alive, with a cell viability of 89%, on day 1 after printing. In vitro osteogenic induction of the 3D construct showed that ...
Biography: An engineer by training, Dr. Padala is currently focused on studying the biomechanics and mechanobiology of heart valve disease and heart failure. He received his BS in mechanical engineering from Osmania University in India in 2004, and an MS in mechanical engineering and PhD in bioengineering from Georgia Tech in 2010. Since joining Emory and establishing his independent laboratory in 2010, his focus has been on studying in-vivo heart valve and cardiac mechanics in pre-clinical models. In 2012, he spent one year at Imperial College London on a Leducq Fondation Career Development Award. He trained under Prof. Sir. Magdi Yacoub, a pioneer in cardiac transplantation and heart valve tissue engineering.. Research Keywords: Heart Failure, Cardiac Valve Disease, Cardiovascular Devices, Cell and Gene Therapy, ...
Symptomatic osteochondral lesions occur frequently, but relatively few treatment options are currently available. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into a new tissue engineering approach to osteochondral regeneration. The concept is a biphasic construct consisting of a porous, osteoconductive chitosan-calcium phosphate scaffold supporting a layer of neocartilage formed by marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Two experiments were conducted to assess the feasibility of this approach. The first experiment characterized the attachment efficiency and proliferation of primary human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded relatively sparely onto the scaffolds surface. The second experiment compared two different methods of creating a biphasic construct using a much higher density of primary porcine marrow stromal cells. About 40% of the sparsely seeded human cells attached ...
The University of Virginia School of Engineering and Applied Science is the third oldest engineering school in a public university in the United States. The Engineering School combines research and educational opportunities at the undergraduate and graduate levels as part of the University of Virginia, a consistently top ranked public institution, founded by Thomas Jefferson. The University of Virginia Engineering School offers bachelor, master and doctoral degrees in a broad range of engineering disciplines and his home to nine departments that include biomedical engineering, civil and environmental engineering, electrical and computer engineering, mechanical and aerospace engineering, systems and ...
Electrospinning is a versatile method to fabricate nanofibers of a range of polymeric and composite materials suitable as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. In this study, we report the fabrication and characterization of polyaniline-carbon nanotube/poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide-co-methacrylic acid) (PANI-CNT/PNIPAm-co-MAA) composite nanofibers and PNIPAm-co-MAA nanofibers suitable as a three-dimensional (3D) conducting smart tissue scaffold using electrospinning. The chemical structure of the resulting nanofibers was characterized with FUR and H-1 NMR spectroscopy. The surface morphology and average diameter of the nanofibers were observed by SEM. Cellular response of the nanofibers was studied with mice L929 fibroblasts. Cell viability was checked on 7th day of cell culture by double staining the cells with calcein-AM and PI dye. PANI-CNT/PNIPAm-co-MAA composite ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcatheter placement of a low-profile biodegradable pulmonary valve made of small intestinal submucosa. T2 - A long-term study in a swine model. AU - Ruiz, Carlos E.. AU - Iemura, Motofumi. AU - Medie, Sibyl. AU - Varga, Peter. AU - Van Alstine, William G.. AU - Mack, Susan. AU - Deligio, Anna. AU - Fearnot, Neal. AU - Beier, Ulf H.. AU - Pavcnik, Dusan. AU - Hijazi, Ziyad M.. AU - Kiupel, Matti. PY - 2005/8. Y1 - 2005/8. N2 - Objective: We sought to investigate a placement of a percutaneous low-profile prosthetic valve constructed of small intestinal submucosa in the pulmonary position in a swine model. Methods: Twelve female farm pigs were stented at the native pulmonary valve to induce pulmonary insufficiency. Once right ventricular dilation occurred, the small intestinal submucosa valve was implanted. The pigs were followed up with transthoracic echocardiographic Doppler scanning. One animal died of heart failure before valve replacement. Animals were euthanized at 1 day, ...
In this volume of journal International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa articles which describe the results of engineering researches and decisions in the fields of structural materials, building materials and construction technologies, applied dynamics of fluid and flow, power engineering, transportation and engineering management of modern production are collected. Published articles will be useful for professionals from field of mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, engineering management and for students and academic teachers of the related specialties.
Reconstructing or repairing a damaged tissue with porous scaffolds to restore the mechanical, biological, and chemical functions is one of the major tissue engineering and wound healing strategies. Recent developments in three-dimensional bioprinting techniques and improvements in the biomaterial properties have made fabrication of controlled and interconnected porous scaffold structures possible. Especially, for wound healing or soft tissue engineering, membranes/scaffolds made out of visco-elastic hydrogels, or other soft biomaterials with regular porous structures are commonly used. When the visco-elastic structures are applied onto a wound or damaged area, various forces might act upon these structures. The applied forces caused by bandage or occlusive dressings, contraction, and/or the ...
Bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are promising strategies for treating bone diseases and reconstructing bone defects. For many years research has been dedicated to understanding the biochemical environment that is required to encourage bone regeneration and the desired properties of biocompatible scaffold materials. These studies demonstrate the potential for stem cell based therapies for bone regeneration. However the field of tissue regeneration is faced with the specific challenge to develop novel tissue regeneration approaches to produce tissue that can simultaneously support loading, but is also porous to allow for cell migration and diffusion of nutrients into the regenerated tissue to maintain viability. Dr. McNamaras research group develop mechanobiology based ...
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) are multipotent stem cells that show great potential as a cell source for osteogenic tissue replacements and it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of lineage specification. Here we explore the role of primary cilia in human ASC (hASC) differentiation. This study focuses on the chemosensitivity of the primary cilium and the action of its associated proteins: polycystin-1 (PC1), polycystin-2 (PC2) and intraflagellar transport protein-88 (IFT88), in hASC osteogenesis. To elucidate cilia-mediated mechanisms of hASC differentiation, siRNA knockdown of PC1, PC2 and IFT88 was performed to disrupt cilia-associated protein function. Immunostaining of the primary cilium structure indicated phenotypic-dependent changes in cilia morphology. hASC cultured in osteogenic differentiation media yielded cilia of a more elongated conformation than those cultured in expansion media, indicating cilia-sensitivity to the chemical environment and a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Using Gelatin Scaffold With Coated Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor as a Transfer System for Transplantation of Human Neural Stem Cells. AU - Chen, Y. W.. AU - Chiou, S. H.. AU - Wong, Tai-Tong. AU - Ku, H. H.. AU - Lin, H. T.. AU - Chung, C. F.. AU - Yen, S. H.. AU - Kao, C. L.. PY - 2006/6/1. Y1 - 2006/6/1. N2 - Gelatin scaffolds for ex vivo cell cultures are a promising development. These scaffolds can be used as three-dimensional skeletons for cell attachment and culture before transplantation. In this study, we isolated and cultivated neural stem cells from human brain tissues in serum-free medium (DMEM+F12 nutrient). Better neuron growth was observed using the tetrazolium assay (MTT) in the group when basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was coated on the gelatin polymer scaffold. Further development of this nontoxic system may help the future development of transplantation of human ...
American Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, an international journal publishes four times a year in print and electronic form. AJEAS is a peer reviewed technical journal publishes original research contributions and is an unparalleled resource for key advances in the field of engineering. Scope of the journal includes but not limited to applied physics and applied mathematics, automation and control, biomedical engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computer engineering, computer science, data engineering and software engineering, earth and environmental engineering, electrical engineering, industrial engineering and ...
Bone tissue engineering strategies require cells with high proliferative and osteogenic potential as well as a suitable scaffold to support the development of these as they form new bone tissue. In this study, we evaluated whether the differentiation stage of amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC) could enhance the regeneration of critical sized femoral defects in a rat model. For this purpose, AFSC were seeded onto a starch-poly(ε-caprolactone) (SPCL) scaffold and were cultured in vitro in osteogenic culture media for different periods of time in order to obtain: i) undifferentiated cells, ii) cells committed to the osteogenic phenotype and iii) "osteoblast-like" cells. In vitro results indicate that AFSC were considered to be osteogenically committed by the end of week 2 and osteoblastic-like after week 3 in culture. Constructs composed of AFSC-SPCL scaffolds ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biological advantages of porous hydroxyapatite scaffold made by solid freeform fabrication for bone tissue regeneration. AU - Kwon, Byeong Ju. AU - Kim, Jungsung. AU - Kim, Yong Hwa. AU - Lee, Mi Hee. AU - Baek, Hyun Sook. AU - Lee, Dae Hyung. AU - Kim, Hye Lee. AU - Seo, Hyok Jin. AU - Lee, Min Hyeon. AU - Kwon, Soon Young. AU - Koo, Min Ah. AU - Park, Jong Chul. PY - 2013/7/1. Y1 - 2013/7/1. N2 - Presently, commercially available porous bone substitutes are manufactured by the sacrificial template method, direct foaming method, and polymer replication method (PRM). However, current manufacturing methods provide only the simplest form of the bone scaffold and cannot easily control pore size. Recent developments in medical imaging technology, computer-aided design, and solid freeform fabrication (SFF), have made it possible to accurately produce porous synthetic bone scaffolds to fit the defected bone shape. ...
A biodegradable polymer with surface properties that promotes cell attachment and host integration is widely recognized as a useful three-dimensional construct for bone tissue engineering applications. In this work, studies were carried out to correlate surface properties of modified polycaprolactone (PCL) films with cell-material interactions. PCL film substrates were subjected to various degrees of chemical hydrolysis using different pretreatment solutions to introduce different densities of carboxylate groups onto the surfaces. The extent of hydrolysis on the films was optimized to allow the deposition of a dense and uniform bone-like apatite layer by an alternate soak treatment, followed by subsequent incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF). The hydrolyzed and apatite-coated PCL films were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, thin film X-ray diffractometer (TF-XRD), water contact angle, and Alizarin red staining. Surface ...
An estimated 10 million cosmetic and reconstructive procedures are performed over the world for cases of accidents, birth defects, burns and other mishaps. The increasing use of tissue engineering and organ regeneration will reduce the use of metals and alloys in the body that are in most cases toxic and have a very high rejection. Wound care will continue to be a major growth driver for this market along with orthopedics. Largest demands for organ transplants include kidney, liver and heart which if processed from the same individual will provide considerable less cost with reduced rejection rates. Dental and neurologic applications are also expected to create demand in the coming years. International activities such as competitions have encouraged the research and development initiatives over the world. In 2013, Methuselah Foundation which is a medical charity announced a million dollar New Organ Liver award to competitors for development ...
PMID: 11958398 Purpose: Currently, a number of bioresorbable and biodegradable membranes used for guided bone regeneration lead to incomplete tissue regeneration. Poor mechanical properties, short degradation time, and the lack of integrated biologic components result in the inability to create and maintain an appropriate environment and to actively support tissue remodeling. In the present study, the osteogenic potential of human calvarial periosteal cells in combination with ultrathin polycaprolactone (pc2) membranes of a slow biodegradation rate was investigated. Materials and Methods: In vitro and in vivo analyses of the tissue-engineered constructs were conducted using imaging techniques, immunohistochemistry, and histology. Two types of membranes were investigated. Group 1 consisted of a plain membrane, and in group 2 membranes were treated with sodium hydroxide. Results: In vitro results showed that ...
Objective The purpose of this study is to use porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) as a corneal graft in 10 cases of staphyloma in dogs. Materials & Methods Corneal grafts using porcine small intestinal submucosa (PSIS) were performed in 10 dogs with staphyloma. After general anesthesia and aseptic preparation, nonviable tissue was removed from the recipient staphyloma bed. The iris was pushed back into the anterior chamber before carefully detached from the corneal wound. The PSIS graft sheet was rehydrated in lactate Ringers solution for 5 minutes prior to the placement on to the corneal lesion, and interruptedly sutured to the cornea with 8/10 polyglactin. The third eyelid was sutured on to the palpebral conjunctiva with simple Mattress using 6/0 silk for 14 days. Result Within 7 weeks, all dogs returned to normal vision with pupillary light and menace reflexes. Minimal anterior synechia and scar in accordance with the size of prior corneal lesion were present. ...
In this work, it was hypothesized that co-cultures of articular chondrocytes (ACs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) would exhibit enhanced sensitivity to chondrogenic stimuli, such as TGF-β3, and would require a reduced concentration of TGF-β3 to achieve an equivalent level of chondrogenesis compared to monocultures of each cell type. Furthermore, it was hypothesized that compared to monocultures, the chondrogenic phenotype of AC/MSC co-cultures would be more stable upon the removal of TGF-β3 from the culture medium. These hypotheses were investigated by culturing ACs and MSCs alone and in a 1:3 ratio on electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone) scaffolds. All cell populations were cultured for two weeks with 0, 1, 3, or 10 ng/ml of TGF-β3. After two weeks growth factor supplementation was removed, and the constructs were cultured for two additional weeks. Cell proliferation, extracellular matrix production, and chondrogenic gene expression were evaluated after two and four weeks. The results ...
Decellularization of porcine heart valves is the removal of cells along with antigenic cellular elements by either physical or chemical decellularization of the tissue. This decellularized valve tissue provides a scaffold with the remaining extracellular matrix (ECM) that can then be used for tissue engineering and valve replacement in humans inflicted with valvular disease. Decellularized biological valves have potential benefit over conventional valves through decreased calcification which is thought to be an immuno-inflammatory response initiated by the recipient. Valvular disease is caused primarily by valvular lesions stemming from infections, especially rheumatic fever (Streptococceus pyogenes), which can result in either a regurgitant or stenotic valve, or both. Regurgitation results from lesions on the valve edges or annular dilation which causes ...
Treatments for bone nonunions (fractures that fail to heal) include surgery and bone grafting. As an alternative to viral gene delivery, Bez et al. developed a two-step therapy. First, endogenous mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells were recruited to the bone nonunion by implanting a collagen sponge in the defect site. Two weeks later, bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) plasmid DNA and microbubbles were injected into nonunions, and ultrasound was applied to oscillate the microbubbles, which helped the recruited progenitors take up the BMP-6. This therapy led to transient BMP-6 secretion, bone regeneration, and fracture healing over 6 weeks in critical-sized tibial nonunions in mini-pigs. ...
The most common cause of ocular morbidity in developed countries is dry eye, many cases of which are due to lacrimal insufficiency. It has been established that lacrimal insufficiency results from processes caused by both immune-related and nonimmune related events such as Sjögrens syndrome, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, chemical and thermal injuries and ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. Patients with these conditions would benefit from repair of their damaged lacrimal tissue by the creation of a replacement for the lacrimal gland.; The new field of tissue engineering built on the interface between principles and methods of the life sciences with those of engineering to develop biocompatible materials has created the possibility for repairing or replacing damaged tissues. This thesis explores the use of tissue ...
Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) populate in the media of the blood vessel, and play an important role in the control of vasoactivity and the remodeling of the vessel wall. Blood vessels are constantly subjected to hemodynamic stresses, and the pulsatile nature of the blood flow results in a cyclic mechanical strain in the vessel walls. Accumulating evidence in the past two decades indicates that mechanical strain regulates vascular SMC phenotype, function and matrix remodeling. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) is a potential cell source for vascular regeneration therapy, and may be used to generate SMCs to construct tissue-engineered vascular grafts for blood vessel replacements. In this review, we will focus on the effects of mechanical strain on SMCs and MSCs, e.g., cell phenotype, cell morphology, cytoskeleton organization, gene expression, signal transduction and receptor activation. We will compare the responses of SMCs and MSCs to equiaxial strain, uniaxial ...
The department offers classes in the following topics - Process Calculations, Mass Transfer Operations, Fundamentals of Chemical Engineering, Process Dynamics & Control, Chemical Engg Thermodynamics, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Petroleum Refining & Petrochemicals, Transport Phenomena, Fluid Flow Operation, Process Equipment Design, Heat Transfer Operation, Polymer Science & Engineering, Material Science & Corrosion Engineering, Chemical Process Industries, Chemical Engineering Drawing, Energy Engineering, Mechanical Operations, Process Utilities, Process Instrumentation, Biochemical Engineering, Process Engg Economics& Optimisation, Advanced Separation Techniques, Fluidization Engineering, Environmental Pollution Control ...
In principle, bone has a good self-healing capacity. However, for defects larger than a certain size ("critical size defect") spontaneous healing of bone injury is not possible. Such defects can occur in many diseases such as osteoarthritis, bone cysts and tumors, or as a result of surgical procedures, for instance osteolyses associated with loosened endoprostheses or osteotomies. The gold standard for the treatment of bone defects is an autologous bone transplantation; however, disadvantages of the method include follow-up operations that are necessary in addition to the bone harvesting from the iliac crest, which are connected with significant comorbidity.1 Availability of natural bone is restricted and often not sufficient to heal large bone defects, while maintenance of an extensive bone bank is expensive and complicated by long-term tissue preservation issues. To overcome these difficulties, a number of synthetic and partial synthetic bone substitute materials have been ...
Mathematical Problems in Engineering is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes results of rigorous engineering research carried out using mathematical tools. Contributions containing formulations or results related to applications are also encouraged. The primary aim of Mathematical Problems in Engineering is rapid publication and dissemination of important mathematical work which has relevance to engineering. All areas of engineering are within the scope of the journal. In particular, aerospace engineering, bioengineering, chemical engineering, computer engineering, electrical engineering, industrial engineering and ...
Looking for online definition of cartilaginous tissue in the Medical Dictionary? cartilaginous tissue explanation free. What is cartilaginous tissue? Meaning of cartilaginous tissue medical term. What does cartilaginous tissue mean?
Stem cell therapy faces many problems including poor survival rates and low viability. Enhancing the biological functions of stem cells improves efficacy of therapies. Estrogen, whose levels are elevated during pregnancy, affects the properties of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Evidence suggests that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), which are a type of adult mesenchymal stem cells, can be used in regenerative medicine. In fact, ADSCs from pregnant animals have been used in clinical therapies. However, the effect of the donors reproductive status on proliferation of ADSCs is unknown. We investigated the effect of 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) on the in vitro proliferation of ADSCs from laboratory rats. ADSCs were obtained from five different groups of 15 rats each - non-pregnant, pregnant, in perinatal period, non-pregnant and treated with E2, and non-pregnant and treated with P. Adhesion and viability of ADSCs were determined by MTT assay, and cell cycle was followed by flow ...
Looking for online definition of Gerbode cardiovascular tissue forceps in the Medical Dictionary? Gerbode cardiovascular tissue forceps explanation free. What is Gerbode cardiovascular tissue forceps? Meaning of Gerbode cardiovascular tissue forceps medical term. What does Gerbode cardiovascular tissue forceps mean?
0033] In a particular embodiment of the present invention, the concentration of the growth and differentiation factors incorporated in cell-guiding scaffolds can be adjusted according to the release kinetics influenced by the scaffold material, the presence of the intermediate binding agent (protein, glycoprotein, glycosaminoglycan, polysaccharide) and the type of the binding (covalent crosslinking or otherwise). According to a specific aspect of the embodiment, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) concentration varies in the range of 1 μg/ml-1000 μg/ml, and more preferably between 5 μg/ml-500 μg/ml, and still more preferably between 10 μg/ml-300 μg/ml. In a multicenter randomized double-blinded clinical study, the bFGF application to periodontal defects at concentration ranging between 300 μg/ml-3000 μg/ml resulted with a significant attachment gain and 2-fold bone height gain after 36 months postoperatively (Kitamura et al. PLoS ONE. 2008; 3(7):e2611.) According to ...
Articular cartilage can easily become damaged or diseased and it does not have the ability to heal itself. A tissue engineering approach to regenerate cartilage is to integrate chondrocytes, the primary cell in cartilage, with biomaterials and biomolecules. Currently, there is limited knowledge on how all these factors influence the expression of upstream insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling molecules. In an effort to better understand how IGF-1 and phenotypic, type II collagen, expression can be modified by altering construct properties, chondrocytes were embedded in alginate hydrogels. Increasing alginate concentration resulted in an upregulation of IGF-1 expression and by increasing cell density further enhanced IGF-1 expression. Additional changes in chondrocyte signaling were observed when exogenously delivering IGF-1 to the constructs. IGF-1 expression decreased while the receptor for IGF-1 (IGF-1R) expression as well as type ...
Polyglycolic acid suture - Polyglycolic acid suture manufacturer, supplier, find Polyglycolic acid suture with high quality, low price.
experimental studies have been performed in order to evaluate the behavior of different types of biomaterials involved in the process of tissue and bone regeneration. The guided bone regeneration (GBR) principles are applied in the rebuilding of periodontal tissues, damaged by the periodontal inflammatory process. Since the introduction of GBR biological principles, a wide range of materials have been tested and used as a physical barrier. At present, the autogenous material continues to be considered the best choice when reconstruction of bone defects is intended. Calcium phosphate ceramics have been widely applied as bone substitutes, coatings, cements, drug delivery systems and tissue engineering scaffolds due to their resemblance to the mineral portion of the bone tissue, relative ease in processing and good cell ...
Dr. Kims Ph.D. works under the supervision of Dr. John P. Fisher (Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland) focused on the investigation of augmented osteogenic signal expression of rat bone marrow stromal cells in synthetic 3D macroporous poly(propylene fumarate) composite scaffolds for craniofacial bone tissue engineering. Currently, his research is about a biphasic composite hydrogel system to deliver therapeutic growth factors and progenitor cell population for osteochondral tissue regeneration. As of Apr 2012, , Dr. Kim completed 11 publications, submitted one additional publication, participated in 28 conference presentations, and co-authored as 2 patent applications ...
We studied the potential of neurogenic induction of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in fibrin-based 3D matrix. The best results were obtained after incubation of mesenchymal stem cells in fibrin 3D matrix in the presence of neurogenic medium containing EGF and bFGF growth factors. Under these conditions, most cells formed numerous branching processes and expressed neural cell marker βIII-tubulin. Optimal combination of 3D matrix and neurogenic factors of the medium can provide new insight into neurogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells, which can be used for the therapy of neural traumas and neurodegenerative diseases ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stem cell-derived cell sheet transplantation for heart tissue repair in myocardial infarction. AU - Guo, Rui. AU - Morimatsu, Masatoshi. AU - Feng, Tian. AU - Lan, Feng. AU - Chang, Dehua. AU - Wan, Feng. AU - Ling, Yunpeng. PY - 2020/1/8. Y1 - 2020/1/8. N2 - Stem cell-derived sheet engineering has been developed as the next-generation treatment for myocardial infarction (MI) and offers attractive advantages in comparison with direct stem cell transplantation and scaffold tissue engineering. Furthermore, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cell sheets have been indicated to possess higher potential for MI therapy than other stem cell-derived sheets because of their capacity to form vascularized networks for fabricating thickened human cardiac tissue and their long-term therapeutic effects after ...
Despite tremendous efforts to develop stem cell-based tooth regenerative strategies, the identification of intrinsic properties of pulpal stem cells is an unresolved question. Dental pulp stem cells are heterogeneous cell subpopulations likely composed of stem cells at different differentiation stages along odontoblastic lineage, which has broken their characterization. Another major drawback in the dental field is that the physiological signals governing the recruitment of pulpal stem cells for tooth repair upon injury still remain unknown.. A decade ago, our laboratory established clonal odontogenic cell lines with stem cell properties from first molar tooth germs of day 18 mouse embryos transgenic for an adenovirus-SV40 recombinant plasmid (pK4) (Priam et al. 2005). These dental pulp-derived cell lines are stable and maintain an undifferentiated phenotype under long-term standard culture conditions. Among the pulp-derived clones, the A4 cell line behaves as a multipotent mesoblastic stem ...
Abdulrasool, Salah Mahdi and Mishra, Rakesh (2006) Computer Assisted Laboratory Instructions: Learning Outcomes Analysis. In: Proceedings of IV international conference on multimedia and information and communication technologies in communication. m-ICTE, Seville, Spain, pp. 330-341. ISBN 8469024698 Abdulrasool, Salah Mahdi and Mishra, Rakesh (2010) Learning and Teaching Mechanical Engineering Courses with Blended Learning Environment - Higher Order Application of Blooms Taxonomy. In: Future Technologies in Computing and Engineering: Proceedings of Computing and Engineering Annual Researchers Conference 2010: CEARC10. University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, pp. 84-91. ISBN 9781862180932 Abdulrasool, Salah Mahdi and Mishra, Rakesh (2009) Teacher Attitudes toward and Perceptions of Mechanical Engineering Student Performance on CAD/CAM/CNC. In: Learning: the sixteenth ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Articular cartilage. AU - Athanasiou, Kyriacos A.. AU - Darling, Eric M.. AU - DuRaine, Grayson D.. AU - Hu, Jerry C.. AU - Reddi, A Hari. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - This book covers the latest research and advancements related to articular cartilage in biology, development, pathology, clinical applications and tissue engineering. The authors take an interdisciplinary approach that encompasses the breadth and depth of basic science, bioengineering, translational science and detailed methological approaches. It is designed to be an all encompassing encyclopedia of articular cartilage. Written at a level that allows wide accessibility, the books comprehensive focus on multiple aspects of articular cartilage sets it apart from other books.. AB - This book covers the latest research and advancements related to articular cartilage in biology, development, pathology, clinical applications ...
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult progenitor cells essentially isolated from bone marrow and adipose tissue and probably present in most of adult tissue, including muscle, synovial tissue, placental tissue, and recently the teeth [1]. They are currently under investigation for tissue engineering applications, in particular bone and cartilage repair, thanks to their potential to differentiate into various lineages such as chondrocytes, osteoblasts, or adipocytes [2, 3]. They may also have a therapeutic value in other clinical applications based on their capacity to limit scar formation through anti-fibrotic properties, to prevent apoptosis, to stimulate endogenous cells for regeneration, and to suppress the host immune response [4]. Such an immunosuppressive ...
PubMed journal article Use of four-layer porcine small intestinal submucosa alone as a scaffold for the treatment of deep corneal defects in dogs and cats: preliminary result were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Human Platelets were purchased from HEMOCARE for the production of PRP. Human adipose-derived stem cells were isolated as per laboratory protocol. The ASCs were cultured under four conditions: 1. Regular DMEM medium, 2. Regular DMEM medium with PRP 3. Adipogenic medium 4. Adipogenic medium with PRP. The cell proliferation was assessed by CYQUANT and the adipogenesis were evaluated by AdipoRed stain and the qPCR of PPAR-gamma and FABP4 gene expression. The mRNA of stemness gene expression of ASCs was compared by qPCR of SOX-2, Nanog and Oct-4 .The angiogenesis of ASCs was evaluated by qPCR of VEGF gene expression and endothelium tube formation assay. The nude mice were implant with fat graft with PRP as experiment and fat graft only as control group. The survival rate was analyzed by volume retention, the histomophometry of mature adipocyte area and vessel density assay by CD31 immunohistochemical stain ...

Tissue Engineering and Biomaterials | Department of Biomedical Engineering | Michigan
         Technological UniversityTissue Engineering and Biomaterials | Department of Biomedical Engineering | Michigan Technological University

Specific areas of active research include cardiovascular tissue engineering, biopolymers, nitric oxide releasing materials for ... on the development of new materials for applications in medicine and biology as well as on engineering biological tissues from ... The tissue engineering and biomaterials research thrust in the Department of Biomedical Engineering focuses ... improved biocompatibility, tissue-biomaterial interaction, and biomimetic materials. ...
more infohttps://www.mtu.edu/biomedical/research/biomaterials/index.html

Download e-book for kindle: 13th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering: by Chwee Teck Lim, James Goh Cho Hong -...Download e-book for kindle: 13th International Conference on Biomedical Engineering: by Chwee Teck Lim, James Goh Cho Hong -...

Biafore Evaluation of Collagen-hydroxyapatite Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering ... Pharmaceutical Sciences and Engineering, Physiological approach Modeling, Regenerative drugs and Tissue Engineering, ... Neural structures Engineering, Orthopaedics, Prosthetics and Orthotics, Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive know-how, ... mobile and Biomolecular Engineering, scientific Engineering, Computational Bioengineering, Computer-Integrated and Computer- ...
more infohttp://yourprofoto.com/books/13-th-international-conference-on-biomedical-engineering-icbme-2008-3-6

Treena Arinzeh | Biomedical EngineeringTreena Arinzeh | Biomedical Engineering

... tissue-engineering scaffolds and biomaterials for the repair of bone and other related musculoskeletal tissue, nerve tissue ... Lecture on Tissue Engineering (Fall 2001-2003). Mechanical Foundations of Biomedical Engineering, Undergraduate Level. Lectures ... Her research interests are in stem cell tissue engineering and applied biomaterials, with a focus in the development of ... Lecture on Adult Stem Cells and Tissue Engineering Applications, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Fall 2004 ...
more infohttp://biomedical.njit.edu/people/arinzeh.php

Kyriacos Athanasiou Wins Nobel Prize of Cyprus - Biomedical EngineeringKyriacos Athanasiou Wins "Nobel Prize" of Cyprus - Biomedical Engineering

His laboratory strives to ensure that engineered and processed tissues have biomechanical function akin to the native tissue. ... without the use of any scaffolds. Recently, his group has shown that the biomimetic cartilage it produces is biocompatible, ... Athanasiou received the award to honor his numerous achievements in the field of biomedical engineering and tissue engineering ... He is Editor-in-Chief of the Annals of Biomedical Engineering, the flagship journal of the Biomedical Engineering Society. ...
more infohttps://bme.ucdavis.edu/blog/kyriacos-athanasiou-wins-nobel-prize-of-cyprus/

BME Students Presented at 39th Annual NEBEC - Biomedical EngineeringBME Students Presented at 39th Annual NEBEC - Biomedical Engineering

Development and Study of a Hybrid Tissue Scaffold Fabrication System for Neurotrophin Delivery ... Thirty one TCNJ engineering students (28 biomedical engineering majors and 3 mechanical engineering majors) students presented ... Constance Hall (Biomedical Engineering) and Dr. Manish Paliwal (Mechanical Engineering). The other teams were as follows:. A ... Kendra Knowles and Dana Mathews from biomedical engineering , and Kyle Mohen from mechanical engineering. Their advisors were ...
more infohttps://biomedicalengineering.tcnj.edu/bme-students-presented-at-39th-annual-nebec/

Oxygen diffusion in marine-derived tissue engineering scaffolds | SpringerLinkOxygen diffusion in marine-derived tissue engineering scaffolds | SpringerLink

... based tissue engineering scaffolds. High diffusivities facilitate the supply of oxygen and nutrients to... ... The design of scaffolds for use in tissue engineering-traditional factors. Tissue Eng. 2001;7:679-89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... based tissue engineering scaffolds. High diffusivities facilitate the supply of oxygen and nutrients to grown tissue as well as ... Scaffolds in tissue engineering bone and cartilage. Biomaterials. 2000;21(24):2529-43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10856-015-5531-2

A comparative study of oxygen diffusion in tissue engineering scaffolds | SpringerLinkA comparative study of oxygen diffusion in tissue engineering scaffolds | SpringerLink

Tissue engineering scaffolds are designed to support tissue self-healing within physiological environments by promoting the ... Oxygen Diffusion Bioactive Glass Tissue Engineering Scaffold Strut Thickness Tissue Phase These keywords were added by machine ... Tissue engineering scaffolds are designed to support tissue self-healing within physiological environments by promoting the ... Optimising bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Biomaterials. 2006;27:964-73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10856-014-5264-7

Hydroxyapatite Whisker Reinforced 63s Glass Scaffolds for Bone Tissue EngineeringHydroxyapatite Whisker Reinforced 63s Glass Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

... Cijun Shuai,1,2 Yiyuan Cao,1 Chengde Gao,1 ... Q. Fu, E. Saiz, M. N. Rahaman, and A. P. Tomsia, "Bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering: state of the art and ... "Fused deposition modeling of novel scaffold architectures for tissue engineering applications," Biomaterials, vol. 23, no. 4, ... M. N. Rahaman, D. E. Day, B. Sonny Bal et al., "Bioactive glass in tissue engineering," Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2015/379294/

Bioresorbable Polymer Blend Scaffold for Tissue Engineering - Digital LibraryBioresorbable Polymer Blend Scaffold for Tissue Engineering - Digital Library

One of the most important aspects of tissue engineering related to material science is design of the polymer scaffolds. The ... A second effort in this thesis addressed the potential separation of the scaffold from the tissue (loss of apposition) due to ... engineering and surgery to enable growth of new living tissues on scaffolding constructed from implanted polymeric materials. ... polymer scaffolds needs to have some specific mechanical strength over certain period of time. In this work bioresorbable ...
more infohttps://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc68008/

Polymer Scaffolds for Tissue EngineeringPolymer Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

Two kinds of novel biodegradable porous scaffolds for tissue engineering have been developed by our group by hybridizing ... The hybrid scaffolds will be useful for tissue engineering. ... chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cells for tissue engineering ... The synthetic polymer sponge, or mesh serving as a skeleton, reinforced the hybrid scaffolds and resulted in easy handling, ... of skin, ligament, cartilage and osteochondral tissue. These cells adhered and spread well in the hybrid scaffolds, ...
more infohttps://www.scientific.net/AST.49.136

Fabrication and Characteristics of Chitosan Sponge as a Tissue Engineering ScaffoldFabrication and Characteristics of Chitosan Sponge as a Tissue Engineering Scaffold

S. V. Madihally and H. W. T. Matthew, "Porous chitosan scaffolds for tissue engineering," Biomaterials, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. ... Fabrication and Characteristics of Chitosan Sponge as a Tissue Engineering Scaffold. Takeshi Ikeda, Kahori Ikeda, Kouhei ... Y. Tabata, "Tissue regeneration based on growth factor release," Tissue Engineering, vol. 9, supplement 1, pp. S5-S15, 2003. ... scaffolds for tissue engineering by improved solid-liquid phase separation," Polymers for Advanced Technologies, vol. 14, no. 8 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/786892/ref/

Materials | Free Full-Text | Heterogeneity of Scaffold Biomaterials in Tissue EngineeringMaterials | Free Full-Text | Heterogeneity of Scaffold Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering

Methods of TE have advanced significantly in recent years, but there are challenges to using engineered tissues and organs ... Review of polymer-based scaffolds revealed that a composite scaffold formed by copolymerization is more effective than single ... Analysis of biomaterials used as scaffolds may, however, elucidate how TE can be enhanced. Ideally, biomaterials should closely ... offers a potential solution for the shortage of transplantable organs and the need for novel methods of tissue repair. ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/9/5/332

Development of a new scaffold for tissue engineering - IEEE Conference PublicationDevelopment of a new scaffold for tissue engineering - IEEE Conference Publication

The field of Tissue Engineering is currently limited in the range of biomaterials available for development of tissue ...
more infohttp://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/802159/keywords?reload=true

Tissue engineering scaffolds promoting matrix protein productionTissue engineering scaffolds promoting matrix protein production

... are conjugated to or immobilized on scaffolds to increase ECM production by cells for tissue engineering, tissue regeneration ... West, Jennifer L. and Mann, Brenda K., "Tissue engineering scaffolds promoting matrix protein production." Patent US7635592B2. ... for attachment to a tissue engineering or cell growth scaffold. The matrix-enhancing molecule retains activity after attachment ... The increased ECM produced by the cells aids in maintaining the integrity of the scaffold, particularly when the scaffold is ...
more infohttps://scholarship.rice.edu/handle/1911/80006

A nanoparticulate injectable hydrogel as a tissue engineering scaffold | IJNA nanoparticulate injectable hydrogel as a tissue engineering scaffold | IJN

Gellan xanthan gels have been shown to be excellent carriers for growth factors and as matrices for several tissue engineering ... bone tissue engineering, bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), hydrogel, nanoparticles, ... Division of Engineering and Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USAAbstract: ... A nanoparticulate injectable hydrogel as a tissue engineering scaffold for multiple growth factor delivery for bone ...
more infohttps://www.dovepress.com/a-nanoparticulate-injectable-hydrogel-as-a-tissue-engineering-scaffold-peer-reviewed-article-IJN

British Library EThOS: Biofunctionalised electrospun scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineeringBritish Library EThOS: Biofunctionalised electrospun scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering

The thesis first focused on the development and characterisation of the tissue scaffold. A non-woven fibrous scaffold was ... The field of tissue engineering has advanced and evolved to focus on biomimetic strategies to meet the rise in demands of ... To overcome these challenges, this thesis is focused on the development of a novel biomimetic tissue scaffold concept ... by incorporating growth factors into tissue scaffolds. While growth factors are crucial cell-inducing components, their ...
more infohttp://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.538200

Nanomaterials | Free Full-Text | Fabrication and Plasma Modification of Nanofibrous Tissue Engineering ScaffoldsNanomaterials | Free Full-Text | Fabrication and Plasma Modification of Nanofibrous Tissue Engineering Scaffolds

... reader is introduced to the concept of NTP and its application in plasma-assisted surface modification of nanofibrous scaffolds ... This paper provides a comprehensive overview of nanofibrous structures for tissue engineering purposes and the role of non- ... Fabrication and Plasma Modification of Nanofibrous Tissue Engineering Scaffolds by Mahtab Asadian 1,*, Ke Vin Chan 1, Mohammad ... tissue engineering electrospun nanofibers; non-thermal plasma treatment; tissue engineering ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/10/1/119

Novel Silk Scaffolds for Ligament Tissue Engineering ApplicationsNovel Silk Scaffolds for Ligament Tissue Engineering Applications

Advancement in the tissue engineering of tendon/ligament has become very much a materials engineering problem than ever, with ... has been overlooked for applications in ligament tissue engineering, only until recently. This is largely due to previous ... This paper describes the use of a silk-based scaffold with knitted architecture and investigates its strengths as compared to ... the selection of appropriate biomaterial and scaffold architecture. Such is the key to successful tendon/ligament tissue ...
more infohttps://www.scientific.net/KEM.326-328.727

665c) Self-Assembled Peptides with RGD Motifs As Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering | AIChE Academy665c) Self-Assembled Peptides with RGD Motifs As Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering | AIChE Academy

665c) Self-Assembled Peptides with RGD Motifs As Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering. ... Self-assembled peptides gain increasing interest as biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds for tissue engineering (1). ... that are amenable to computational design offer open-ended possibilities towards multifunctional tissue engineering scaffolds ... Self-assembled proteins and peptides as scaffolds for tissue regeneration. Advanced Healthcare Materials 16: 2557-86. ...
more infohttps://www.aiche.org/conferences/aiche-annual-meeting/2016/proceeding/paper/665c-self-assembled-peptides-rgd-motifs-scaffolds-tissue-engineering

Self-Assembling MultiDomain Peptides as Scaffolds for Tissue EngineeringSelf-Assembling MultiDomain Peptides as Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

Creating a new generation of biomaterials to support tissue engineering efforts is critical to the development of functional ... "Self-Assembling MultiDomain Peptides as Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering." (2015) Doctoral, Rice University. http://hdl.handle. ... The remaining three new MDPs, K2(TL)6K2, K2(TL)6K2GRGDS, and K(TL)2SLRG(TL)3KGRGDS, were used as cell culture scaffolds and ... These results highlighted the difference that scaffold chemistry can make on cell response. NIH/3T3 fibroblasts, and EpH4-Ev ...
more infohttps://scholarship.rice.edu/handle/1911/88356

DSpace@MIT: 
                Neural stem cell differentiation in collagen scaffolds for retinal tissue engineering[email protected]: Neural stem cell differentiation in collagen scaffolds for retinal tissue engineering

Neural stem cell differentiation in collagen scaffolds for retinal tissue engineering. Research and Teaching Output of the MIT ... Neural stem cell differentiation in collagen scaffolds for retinal tissue engineering. Download ... Laminin coated scaffolds promoted the attachment of NSCs to the scaffold struts and resulted in a more even distribution of ... Rat neural stem cells (NSCs) were cultured in monolayer or in porous collagen scaffolds and exposed to neurogenic or non- ...
more infohttp://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/44853

The Potential of Biomimetic Electrospun-Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering | IntechOpenThe Potential of Biomimetic Electrospun-Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering | IntechOpen

The Potential of Biomimetic Electrospun-Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering , IntechOpen, Published on: 2011-11- ... The Potential of Biomimetic Electrospun-Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering. By Ha Na Park, Jung Bok Lee, Ho-Jin ... Physical Sciences, Engineering and Technology. Chemistry Computer and Information Science Earth and Planetary Sciences ...
more infohttps://www.intechopen.com/books/nanofibers-production-properties-and-functional-applications/the-potential-of-biomimetic-electrospun-nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-bone-tissue-engineering/

Decellularizing Tissue Engineering Scaffolds with Carbon Dioxide  - College of Engineering and Computing | University of South...Decellularizing Tissue Engineering Scaffolds with Carbon Dioxide - College of Engineering and Computing | University of South...

Biomedical Engineering. • Decellularizing Tissue Engineering Scaffolds with Carbon Dioxide Many strategies for tissue ... depend in part on preparing a tissue scaffold from a natural tissue matrix. An essential step in tissue scaffold fabrication is ... Electrical Engineering*Degree Programs*B.S. - Electrical Engineering*Career Plans*Design ICs for Secure Communications ... Compressed carbon dioxide (CO2) for decontamination of biomaterials and tissue scaffolds. Pedro J. Tarafa, Aidaris Jiménez, ...
more infohttp://sc.edu/study/colleges_schools/engineering_and_computing/study/biomedical_engineering/our_research/Matthews2_tissue.php

talks.cam : Nanofibre-reinforced hydrogels : tough biomimetic scaffolds for corneal tissue engineeringtalks.cam : Nanofibre-reinforced hydrogels : tough biomimetic scaffolds for corneal tissue engineering

Nanofibre-reinforced hydrogels : tough biomimetic scaffolds for corneal tissue engineering. Add to your list(s) Download to ... Fracture toughness has occasionally been neglected in the development of tissue engineering scaffolds. In fact, almost all ... of the fiber-reinforced hydrogels and is therefore a key to achieve tough biomimetic scaffolds for corneal tissue engineering. ... Cambridge University Engineering Department Bioengineering Seminar *Cambridge University Engineering Department, Oatley meeting ...
more infohttp://talks.cam.ac.uk/talk/index/50564

Meniscus Tissue Engineering with Nanofibrous Scaffolds by Brendon M. Baker"Meniscus Tissue Engineering with Nanofibrous Scaffolds" by Brendon M. Baker

With the goal of replacing damaged meniscus with engineered biologic tissue that can restore meniscal function, this work ... To explore the use of nanofibrous scaffolds for engineering fibrocartilage, the effect of nanofiber alignment on the ... This work represents a significant advance in meniscus tissue engineering, and has bearing on other fibrous, anisotropic ... and inducers of tissue formation. Towards improving the functionality of aligned nanofibrous scaffolds, composites of multiple ...
more infohttps://repository.upenn.edu/edissertations/212/
  • The problem the group was trying to solve when they made their discovery was that the typical electrospun mat doesn't do so well serving as a framework for facilitating cell and tissue growth. (ceramics.org)
  • In a UAB news release, Bryan A. Blakeney, a recent graduate student and one of the authors is quoted as saying, "Our three-dimensional electrospun nanoscaffolds better mimic nature and encourage cells to live longer and generate more viable, or functional, tissues. (ceramics.org)
  • In the paper, the group says they tested the performance of the FLUF ePCL material and report, "Cells seeded on the cotton ball-like scaffold infiltrated into the scaffold after seven days of growth, compared to no penetrating growth for the traditional electrospun scaffold. (ceramics.org)
  • The results showed that HANw not only improved the mechanical properties but also enhanced bioactivity of the scaffolds. (hindawi.com)
  • The influence of HANw on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 63s glass scaffolds were investigated. (hindawi.com)
  • Bombyx mori silk, though used in biomedical sutures for decades due to its excellent mechanical properties, has been overlooked for applications in ligament tissue engineering, only until recently. (scientific.net)
  • There are many methods to prepare 3D scaffolds, among which the 3D-plotting technique is a promising strategy as the scaffolds prepared by this method possess not only improved mechanical properties and interconnectivity, but also ordered large-pore structure. (rsc.org)
  • By comparing the ink viscoelasticity to that of the cured scaffolds, we find that the chemical gel provides the dominant contribution to the mechanical properties. (illinois.edu)
  • Recently, it was hypothesized that one possibility to engineer pure hyaline cartilage is the production of scaffolds which mimic the mechanical properties and zonal structure of native cartilage. (epfl.ch)
  • The overall goal with my Ph.D. project is the development of a scaffold based on decellularised articular cartilage, which has zone-specific mechanical properties to induce zonal lineage commitment in chondro-progenitors. (epfl.ch)
  • In the first section, the zonal mechanical properties of human articular cartilage were measured by instrumented indentation which was information crucial to targeting the appropriate properties in scaffolds. (epfl.ch)
  • It was demonstrated that the mechanical properties of these scaffolds could be tailored by changing the digest concentration prior to lyophilization. (epfl.ch)
  • However, the developed scaffold fabrication procedure only enabled the achievement of the mechanical properties of the superficial zone, whereas the mechanical properties were too low to target the middle, deep and calcified zone. (epfl.ch)
  • This confirms that mimicking the zone-specific mechanical properties in these prepared scaffolds can produce zonal lineage commitment. (epfl.ch)
  • The remaining three new MDPs, K2(TL)6K2, K2(TL)6K2GRGDS, and K(TL)2SLRG(TL)3KGRGDS, were used as cell culture scaffolds and were compared to their previously published serine-based counterparts to examine the impact of MDP chemistry on the morphology and proliferation of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs). (rice.edu)
  • Both scaffolds exhibited good cell proliferation and cellular adherence. (rsc.org)
  • Cardiomyocytes cultured on a PMNT scaffold triggered proliferation and significantly increased the expression of cardiac-specific gap junction protein, namely connexin 43. (diva-portal.org)
  • The main function of a tissue engineering scaffolds is to act as a substrate for depozition of cells, and their subsequent growth and proliferation. (science24.com)
  • As a result, the oxygen diffusivity is determined by the scaffold porosity and pore architecture. (springer.com)
  • Finite element simulations predicted PGS curing conditions, scaffold pore shape, and strut width capable of matching the scaffold effective stiffnesses to the leaflet peak tangent moduli. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Scaffolds based on natural marine sponges are characterised by lower oxygen diffusivity due to their lower porosity compared with the PU replica foams, which should enable the best oxygen supply to newly formed bone according the numerical results. (springer.com)
  • The oxygen diffusivity of these new BG scaffolds increases over time as a consequence of the degradation in SBF. (springer.com)
  • Scaffolds made by the FR method were found to have the highest oxygen diffusivity due to their high porosity and interconnected pores. (springer.com)
  • High diffusivities facilitate the supply of oxygen and nutrients to grown tissue as well as the rapid disposal of toxic waste products. (springer.com)
  • Lattice Monte Carlo simulations are performed to compare the normalized oxygen diffusivities in scaffolds obtained by the foam replication (FR) method, robocasting and sol-gel foaming. (springer.com)
  • Chondrocytes were isolated from the knee articular joints of a rabbit, and then seeded in the scaffolds. (scientific.net)
  • Biological effects of the biofunctionalised scaffold were assessed using human nasal chondrocytes in a serum free environment and compared with conventional TGF-β1 supplementation on non-biofunctionalised scaffolds (as control). (bl.uk)
  • 63s glass/HANw scaffolds were successfully fabricated by selective laser sintering (SLS). (hindawi.com)
  • But with our 3D nanoscaffold, our rocks, or the fibers that constitute the scaffold, are the size of sand particles. (ceramics.org)
  • For me, the payoff seems to be that the FLUF method isn't limit to ePCL and should be suitable to those investigating the use of inorganic fibers for tissue engineering, too. (ceramics.org)
  • The matrix-enhancing molecule is conjugated to a tether, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) monoacrylate, for attachment to a tissue engineering or cell growth scaffold. (rice.edu)
  • Laminin coated scaffolds promoted the attachment of NSCs to the scaffold struts and resulted in a more even distribution of nestin and [beta]III-tubulin positive cells throughout the scaffold. (mit.edu)
  • Using the foam replication method, the scaffold geometry is defined by the porous structure of Spongia Agaricina and Spongia Lamella . (springer.com)
  • The biofunctionalised scaffold group induced a lower cell metabolic activity and significantly higher gene expression of cartilage specific transcription factor Sox9 after 14 days. (bl.uk)
  • In fact, almost all recent corneal scaffolds' developments aim to achieve transparent scaffolds with the tensile strength and elastic modulus closely-matched to those of native cornea despite the fact that cornea is normally subjected to below-ultimate-strength cyclic tensile loadings due to intraocular pressure, ocular muscle contractions and eye blink. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The solid phase of the scaffolds acts as diffusion barrier that locally inhibits oxygen diffusion, i.e. no oxygen passes through the scaffold material. (springer.com)
  • Shanbhag S, Lee JW, Kotov N. Diffusion in three-dimensionally ordered scaffolds with inverted colloidal crystal geometry. (springer.com)
  • The increased ECM produced by the cells aids in maintaining the integrity of the scaffold, particularly when the scaffold is degradable, either by hydrolysis or by enzymatic degradation. (rice.edu)