Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.PAX7 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Satellite Cells, Perineuronal: The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Myoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5: A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Mice, Inbred C57BLSatellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.GlycogenMyofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Cell SeparationCardiotoxins: Agents that have a damaging effect on the HEART. Such damage can occur from ALKYLATING AGENTS; FREE RADICALS; or metabolites from OXIDATIVE STRESS and in some cases is countered by CARDIOTONIC AGENTS. Induction of LONG QT SYNDROME or TORSADES DE POINTES has been the reason for viewing some drugs as cardiotoxins.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.
  • To assess the role of epigenetic mechanisms intrinsic to the satellite cell, cells will be harvested from mice with different nutritional histories and their activity studied in vitro. (usda.gov)
  • "Our study demonstrates that neither leucine nor protein supplementation (standardized to leucine) in previously untrained, college-aged males provide added benefit in increasing whole-body skeletal muscle mass or whole-body strength," ​ wrote lead researcher Michael Roberts. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The study findings are consistent with an earlier meta-analysis ​, which found that protein supplementation had little muscle hypertrophic effect in athletes who had undertaken little or no previous RET. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Other studies have also reported increases in satellite cell numbers in response to protein supplementation and strength training programmes of similar duration. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Previous studies suggested that supplementation of lactating sows with β -hydroxy- β -methylbutyrate (HMB) could improve the performance of weaning pigs, but there were little information in the muscle fiber type transformation of the offspring and the subsequent performance in pigs from weaning through finishing in response to maternal HMB consumption. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The whole genome of single SC clones of the leg muscle vastus lateralis from healthy individuals of different ages (21-78 years) was analyzed, to study the specific connection between SC aging and muscle impairment. (lifeboat.com)
  • An NSAID was infused via a microdialysis catheter into the vastus lateralis muscle of one leg (NSAID leg) before, during, and for 4.5 h after exercise, with the other leg working as a control (unblocked leg). (rxmuscle.com)
  • Vastus lateralis muscle samples (30 and 240 min postexercise) underwent transcriptome analysis by microarray followed by bioinformatic analysis. (physiology.org)
  • To cope with this, it possesses a tremendous capacity for rapid and effective repair that is widely held to be accomplished by the satellite cells lying between the muscle fiber plasmalemma and the basement membrane. (biologists.org)
  • Although they might provide potential sources for cell therapy of debilitating muscular dystrophies, their relevance to normal physiological muscle repair has not yet been established. (biologists.org)
  • With myocardial infarction (MI) remaining a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, cell therapy now aims to offer a novel option for cardiac repair. (ahajournals.org)
  • Our results suggest that resveratrol combined with NSAID potentially improve muscle recovery and may be a potential candidate for further development as an effective clinical treatment for muscle repair. (medsci.org)
  • Interactions between the immune system and skeletal muscle play a key role in controlling the progress of both the contusion injury and subsequent muscle repair. (medsci.org)
  • This is how they become new muscle protein strands and assist with muscle repair. (bodybuilding.com)
  • Newswise - May 14, 2012 - Oakland, Calif. - A study conducted by Children's Hospital & Research Center Oakland scientists identifies how skeletal muscle stem cells respond to muscle injury and may be stimulated to improve muscle repair in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, a severe inherited disease of muscle that causes weakness, disability and, ultimately, heart and respiratory failure. (newswise.com)
  • The study, led by Julie D. Saba, MD, PhD, senior scientist at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI), shows that a lipid signaling molecule called sphingosine-1-phosphate or "S1P" can trigger an inflammatory response that stimulates the muscle stem cells to proliferate and assist in muscle repair. (newswise.com)
  • Although patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy start out life with enough satellite cells to repair the patients' degenerating muscles, over time the satellite cells fail to keep up with the rate of muscle degeneration. (newswise.com)
  • contains several constituents, including Sacacchin, which has recently drawn attention because it can not only enhance the repair of muscle damagebut also strengthen themuscle enforcement. (researchsquare.com)
  • These keys include DNA repair, effective mobilization of stem cells, and the possibility of restoring cells to earlier epigenetic states. (anti-agingfirewalls.com)
  • Stem cells are defined by three important characteristics: the ability to self-renew, to form clonal populations and to differentiate into different cell types. (medsci.org)
  • In order to achieve this, the awardee will identify novel subsets of MuSC using multidimensional single-cell mass cytometry and then subsequently evaluate the specific cell populations' expression and properties at different periods of human aging. (ca.gov)
  • The prospective isolation and culture expansion of pericytes brought great excitement as it opened the way to the therapeutic use of well-defined cell populations with known regenerative potential to overcome concerns associated with the use of traditional MSC preparations. (springer.com)
  • Methods and Results - A small bone marrow aspirate was taken from the iliac crest of healthy human volunteers, and hMSCs were isolated as previously described. (ahajournals.org)
  • Such a cell population might be found in the adult bone marrow. (ahajournals.org)
  • For example, a murine MSC population isolated from mouse bone marrow and injected into the quadriceps of the mdx mouse demonstrated that the cells could locally contribute dystrophin to the muscle fiber sarcolemma. (ahajournals.org)
  • Skeletal muscle, also known as "striated muscle" or "voluntary muscle," is anchored (with some exceptions) by tendons to bone and is used to affect skeletal movement such as locomotion and in maintaining posture (the tongue is an example of a skeletal muscle that lacks bony supports). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Clinical outcomes are body composition (lean body mass, bone mineral density and fat mass) measured by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry, serological outcomes, physical functioning (muscle strength and cardio-respiratory fitness) assessed with physical tests and psycho-social functioning (mental health, fatigue and health-related quality of life) assessed by questionnaires. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In healthy adult muscle rapid increase of SCs is consistent with the accumulation rate of 13 somatic mutations per genome per year. (lifeboat.com)