Saponins: A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.TriterpenesPanax: An araliaceous genus of plants that contains a number of pharmacologically active agents used as stimulants, sedatives, and tonics, especially in traditional medicine. Sometimes confused with Siberian ginseng (ELEUTHEROCOCCUS).Sapogenins: The aglucon moiety of a saponin molecule. It may be triterpenoid or steroid, usually spirostan, in nature.Ginsenosides: Dammarane type triterpene saponins based mainly on the aglycones, protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol.Quillaja: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE whose members produce SAPONINS.Oleanolic Acid: A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.Panax notoginseng: A plant species of the genus PANAX. It contains damarane-type tetracyclic TRITERPENES. The common names of Sanchi or Tienchi are also used for Panax pseudoginseng which is distinguished in containing oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpenoids.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Sapindus: A plant genus of the family SAPINDACEAE that contain SAPONINS.Pulsatilla: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain cernuosides and other oleanane and hederagenin saponins.Platycodon: A plant genus of the family CAMPANULACEAE that contains platycodin and other triterpenoid SAPONINS. It is a constituent of kikyo-to (MEDICINE, KAMPO).Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Diosgenin: A spirostan found in DIOSCOREA and other plants. The 25S isomer is called yamogenin. Solasodine is a natural derivative formed by replacing the spiro-ring with a nitrogen, which can rearrange to SOLANINE.Camellia: A plant genus in the family THEACEAE, order THEALES best known for CAMELLIA SINENSIS which is the source of Oriental TEA.Hemolytic Agents: Substances that are toxic to blood in general, including the clotting mechanism; hematotoxins may refer to the hematopoietic system.Tomatine: An alkaloid that occurs in the extract of leaves of wild tomato plants. It has been found to inhibit the growth of various fungi and bacteria. It is used as a precipitating agent for steroids. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)Spirostans: Cholestane derivatives containing a fused lactone ring at the 16,17-position and a spiroglycosidic linkage at C-22. Members include sarsaponin, DIOSGENIN and yamogenin.Aralia: A plant genus in the family ARALIACEAE, order Apiales, subclass Rosidae. It includes Aralia californica S. Watson, Aralia nudicaulis L., and Aralia racemosa L.Tribulus: A plant genus of the family ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. Members contain steroidal saponins. Ingestion by grazing animals causes PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS called geeldikkop (yellow thick head) in South Africa.Quillaja Saponins: Natural detergents made up of a heterogeneous mixture of molecules having a triterpenoid core structure. They vary in aglycone (sapogenin) and sugar moieties, including glucose.Liliaceae: A monocot family within the order Liliales. This family is divided by some botanists into other families such as Convallariaceae, Hyacinthaceae and Amaryllidaceae. Amaryllidaceae, which have inferior ovaries, includes CRINUM; GALANTHUS; LYCORIS; and NARCISSUS and are known for AMARYLLIDACEAE ALKALOIDS.Spectrometry, Mass, Fast Atom Bombardment: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.Sapindaceae: The soapberry plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain SAPONINS.Saponaria: A plant species of the family CARYOPHYLLACEAE. It is a source of SAPONINS. The common name "Soapwort" is also used with VACCARIA. The common name of "Bouncing Bet" is occasionally used with VIOLA.Polygonatum: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain benzoquinones, steroidal saponin, and ribosome-inactivating proteins.Asparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.Caryophyllaceae: A plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. The species are diverse in appearance and habitat; most have swollen leaf and stem joints.Albizzia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains julibroside (triterpenoid saponins).Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Rubiaceae: The Madder plant family of the order Rubiales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida includes important medicinal plants that provide QUININE; IPECAC; and COFFEE. They have opposite leaves and interpetiolar stipules.Dioscorea: A plant genus best known for edible underground tubers. Yam may also refer to a moist variety of sweet potato, IPOMOEA BATATAS.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Dracaena: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. The common name of "dragon's blood" is also used for CROTON and Daemonorops (ARECACEAE).Astragalus Plant: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Dipsacaceae: A plant family of the order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes called the teasel family.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Bupleurum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE that is the source of bupleurum root and of bupleurotoxin and is an ingredient of sho-saiko-to.Autophagy: The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.Phytolacca: A plant genus of the family PHYTOLACCACEAE, order Caryophyllales.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).

Nitric oxide inhibits cardiac energy production via inhibition of mitochondrial creatine kinase. (1/1244)

Nitric oxide biosynthesis in cardiac muscle leads to a decreased oxygen consumption and lower ATP synthesis. It is suggested that this effect of nitric oxide is mainly due to the inhibition of the mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase. However, this work demonstrates that nitric oxide is able to inhibit soluble mitochondrial creatine kinase (CK), mitochondrial CK bound in purified mitochondria, CK in situ in skinned fibres as well as the functional activity of mitochondrial CK in situ in skinned fibres. Since mitochondrial isoenzyme is functionally coupled to oxidative phosphorylation, its inhibition also leads to decreased sensitivity of mitochondrial respiration to ADP and thus decreases ATP synthesis and oxygen consumption under physiological ADP concentrations.  (+info)

Comparison of synthetic saponin cholesterol absorption inhibitors in rabbits: evidence for a non-stoichiometric, intestinal mechanism of action. (2/1244)

The hypocholesterolemic activities of pamaqueside and tiqueside, two structurally similar saponins, were evaluated in cholesterol-fed rabbits. The pharmacological profiles of the saponins were virtually identical: both dose-dependently decreased the intestinal absorption of labeled cholesterol 25-75%, increased fecal neutral sterol excretion up to 2.5-fold, and decreased hepatic cholesterol content 10-55%. High doses of pamaqueside (>5 mg/kg) or tiqueside (>125 mg/kg) completely prevented hypercholesterolemia. Decreases in plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels were strongly correlated with increased neutral sterol excretion. Ratios of neutral sterol excreted to pamaqueside administered were greater than 1:1 at all doses, in opposition to the formation of a stoichiometric complex previously suggested for tiqueside and other saponins. Ratios in tiqueside-treated rabbits were less than unity, a reflection of its lower potency. Pamaqueside-treated rabbits exhibited a more rapid decline in plasma cholesterol concentrations than control animals fed a cholesterol-free diet, indicating that the compound also inhibited the absorption of biliary cholesterol. Intravenous administration of pamaqueside had no effect on plasma cholesterol levels despite plasma levels twice those observed in rabbits given pamaqueside orally. These data indicate that pamaqueside and tiqueside induce hypocholesterolemia by blocking lumenal cholesterol absorption via a mechanism that apparently differs from the stoichiometric complexation of cholesterol hypothesized for other saponins.  (+info)

Extraction and analysis of cosmetic active ingredients from an anti-cellulitis transdermal delivery system by high-performance liquid chromatography. (3/1244)

A new transdermal delivery system that controls cellulitis is evaluated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection. An extraction procedure and the validation of the analytical method to assay the active excipients from the Centella asiatica plant (asiaticoside, madacessic acid, and asiatic acid) are described. Excellent results ae obtained in terms of linearity, accuracy, and specificity of the analytical method.  (+info)

Effect of alpha-hederin on hepatic detoxifying systems in mice. (4/1244)

AIM: To examine whether alpha-hederin (Hed) modulates hepatic detoxifying systems as a means of hepatoprotection. METHODS: Mice were injected Hed 10 and 30 sc for 3 d, and liver cytosols were prepared 24 h after the last dose to study antioxidant enzymes and nonenzymatic defense components. RESULTS: Hed increased liver glutathione (GSH) content (20%), but had no effect on GSH peroxidase, GSH reductase, and GSH S-transferase. The activities of superoxide dismutase and quinone reductase were unaffected by Hed treatment. At the high dose of Hed, catalase activity was decreased by 20%. Hepatic content of metallothionein was dramatically increased (50-fold), along with elevations of hepatic Zn and Cu concentrations (25%-80%). Hed also increased ascorbic acid concentration (20%), but no effect on alpha-tocopherol in liver. CONCLUSION: Hed enhanced some nonenzymatic antioxidant components in liver, which play a partial role in Hed protection against hepatotoxicity produced by some chemicals.  (+info)

Effect of saponins of Panax notoginseng on synaptosomal 45Ca uptake. (5/1244)

AIM: To explore the calcium uptake antagonism of saponins of Panax notoginseng (PNS). METHODS: Synaptosomes were prepared from rat cerebral cortex by using differential Ficoll gradients. The effects of PNS on synaptosomal 45Ca uptake were measured in vitro or after acute treatment. RESULTS: PNS 50-800 mg.L-1 produced a concentration-rated inhibition of Ca2+ uptake [IC50 = 111 (46-176) mg.L-1]. Both initial and maximal uptake were inhibited. Similar effect was obtained after acute PNS treatment with 200 i.p. The blocking effect of PNS was reversed by calcium in media. CONCLUSION: PNS is a calcium channel blocker in neurons.  (+info)

Novel techniques for in vivo hemolysis studies in guinea pigs. (6/1244)

The in vivo toxic-hemolytic studies using small experimental animals are complicated by difficulties in preventing hemolysis during repeated collection of blood specimens and in measuring hemoglobin concentration in small amounts of plasma sample. To solve these problems we tried to develope the new techniques for the in vivo hemolysis studies using guinea pigs. The hemolysis accident was minimized to 2.75 mg/dl by collecting the blood directly into heparinized microhematocrit tubes by small longitudinal incision in the auricular artery. The hemoglobin in a small amount of sample (10 microliters) was determined by the new analytical system using a microflow spectrophotometer with a modified cyanmethemoglobin method. The standard curve of the hemoglobin concentration in the system revealed a line of Y = 1.8X + 0.79 (r = 0.999), CV < 1% with a minimum detectable concentration of 1.25 mg/dl. By using the new techniques, it was found that the plasma hemoglobin concentration in normal animals were 7.27 +/- 0.44 mg/dl (mean +/- S.E.). The in vivo hemolytic activity of saponin was observed dose-dependently at doses of 30-50 mg/kg, i.v. in the guinea pigs. It is concluded that the present techniques are useful for in vivo hemolytic studies in small experimental animals such as guinea pigs.  (+info)

The hemolytic activity of bracken extracts in guinea pigs. (7/1244)

This study was conducted to elucidate the hemolytic activity of a new toxic substance in bracken fern. A crude extract (CE) was prepared from the methanol extracts of bracken by the column chromatography. When the CE was injected subcutaneously in guinea pigs, the hemoglobinuria and hemolysis were observed within 6 hr, and 3 days later edema and hemorrhages in the urinary bladder were observed. The CE was then fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and three (HF, BF and CF) of the fractions showed the toxic activities in guinea pigs. The HF caused the hemolysis, whereas both the BF and the CF caused the hemorrhagic cystitis without any hemolytic activities. The HF was further fractionated by the HPLC, resulting of the 3 fractions (HF-I, II and III). The hemolysis was caused only with the HF-II, and HF-II as well as HF did not cause the hemorrhagic cystitis. HPLC analysis revealed that both BF and CF contains braxin B and braxin C, respectively, and both HF and HF-II do not contain braxin A, B or C. These facts suggest that bracken fern contains a new toxic substance (hemolysin) which induces the acute hemolysis in guinea pigs.  (+info)

Immune-stimulating complexes induce an IL-12-dependent cascade of innate immune responses. (8/1244)

The development of subunit vaccines requires the use of adjuvants that act by stimulating components of the innate immune response. Immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOMS) containing the saponin adjuvant Quil A are potential vaccine vectors that induce a wide range of Ag-specific responses in vivo encompassing both humoral and CD4 and CD8 cell-mediated immune responses. ISCOMS are active by both parenteral and mucosal routes, but the basis for their adjuvant properties is unknown. Here we have investigated the ability of ISCOMS to recruit and activate innate immune responses as measured in peritoneal exudate cells. The i.p. injection of ISCOMS induced intense local inflammation, with early recruitment of neutrophils and mast cells followed by macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. Many of the recruited cells had phenotypic evidence of activation and secreted a number of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, reactive oxygen intermediates, IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, and IFN-gamma. Of the factors that we investigated further only IL-12 appeared to be essential for the immunogenicity of ISCOMS, as IL-6- and inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (KO) mice developed normal immune responses to OVA in ISCOMS, whereas these responses were markedly reduced in IL-12KO mice. The recruitment of peritoneal exudate cells following an injection of ISCOMS was impaired in IL-12KO mice, indicating a role for IL-12 in establishing the proinflammatory cascade. Thus, ISCOMS prime Ag-specific immune responses at least in part by activating IL-12-dependent aspects of the innate immune system.  (+info)

  • Saponins act by binding with bile acids and cholesterol, so it is thought that these chemicals potentially have the ability to "clean" or purge these fatty compounds from the body, lowering the blood cholesterol levels. (
  • Saponins are a class of chemical compounds found in particular abundance in various plant species. (
  • Saponins are a structurally diverse class of compounds occurring in many plant species, which are characterized by a skeleton derived of the 30-carbon precursor oxidosqualene to which glycosyl residues are attached. (
  • A wide range of steroidal saponins have been extracted from the family Convallariaceae, but no more than 30 compounds were reported from the genus Aspidistra [ 3 - 7 ]. (
  • Like cholesterol, saponins are able to bind with these compounds and disrupt the proliferation of cancer cells. (
  • Triterpenoid saponins , the main bioactive compounds of Polygala tenuifolia Willd, are easily hydrolyzed to polygalacic acid (PA). (
  • Rich in flavanoids, saponins and other antioxidant compounds, the herb is good for colds, flu, and boosting the immune system (it was thought to ward off the plague during times of epidemic). (
  • The universality of ELSD results in an inapplicable fingerprint with huge signals from primary compounds and smaller signals from saponins. (
  • The papaya (Carica papaya) leaf (PL) contains high levels of saponins and polyphenolic compounds, and historically, it has been used as a folk medicine for numerous ailments, including cancer. (
  • Saponins and total phenolic compounds were assessed for their antioxidant, free radical scavenging, ion-reducing capacity, and antipancreatic cancer activity. (
  • Saponins, widely distributed in the plant kingdom, include a diverse group of compounds characterized by their structure containing a steroidal or triterpenoid aglycone and one or more sugar chains. (
  • To date, quite a bit of research has been published which attempt to explore the in vivo anticancer effects and the underlying mechanisms of pennogenyl saponins, compounds which are present at quite low levels in the plant. (
  • Tannins have a high affinity for binding proteins, and saponins are non-polar steroidal compounds with a high affinity for binding to lipids in the gastro-intestinal tract of animals. (
  • These findings suggest that animals ingesting foods with alkaloids may increase their preference for tannin or saponin-containing foods to reduce the negative impacts of these secondary compounds. (
  • A phytochemical study was carried out on Ajuga multiflora, and obtained a novel ursane-type triterpene saponin, i.e., 3-epi-ursolic acid 3-O-palmitoyl 28-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl ester (1), named ajugoside. (
  • Moreover, details of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in the Panax species are largely unknown. (
  • The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) assignment discovered 41 unique sequences representing 11 genes involved in triterpene saponin backbone biosynthesis in the 454-EST dataset. (
  • It is worth emphasizing that the candidate cytochrome P450 (Pn02132 and Pn00158) and UDP-glycosyltransferase (Pn00082) gene most likely to be involved in hydroxylation or glycosylation of aglycones for triterpene saponin biosynthesis were discovered from 174 cytochrome P450s and 242 glycosyltransferases by phylogenetic analysis, respectively. (
  • The candidate genes involved in triterpene saponin biosynthesis, including the putative CYP450s and UGTs, were obtained in this study. (
  • BACKGROUND: Saponins are a class of secondary plant metabolites consisting of a sugar moiety glycosidically linked to a hydrophobic aglycone (sapogenin) that often possess insecticidal activities. (
  • Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) is another native plant that has a report of being rich in saponins, the rhizome is used. (
  • Its seeds are rich in saponins and will lather well in cold, preferably soft, water when rubbed between the hands like a bar of soap. (
  • The bulb, stripped of its outer covering, is very rich in saponins and can as be dried and grated up as required to be used as soap flakes. (
  • Identification of fenugreek genotype rich in saponins and fixed oil will be useful for pharmaceutical industries. (
  • If a honeycomb-shaped bubble lattice at least 2cm (a little less than 1 inch) persists in the cylinder for ten minutes, you can be positive that the plant is rich in saponins. (
  • Two new triterpenoids, termichebuloside A (1), an unusual dimeric triterpenoid saponin, and termichebulolide (2), an oleanolic acid-type lactone, along with 11 known triterpenoids, were isolated from MeOH extract of the barks of Terminalia chebula. (
  • Tea saponin is molluscicide from plant extract, the active content is a kind of triterpenoid saponin extracted from camellia seeds. (
  • Kong X, Yang Y, Wu W, Wan H, Li X, Zhong M, Su X, Jia S, Lin N. Triterpenoid Saponin W3 from Anemone flaccida Suppresses Osteoclast Differentiation through Inhibiting Activation of MAPKs and NF-κB Pathways. (
  • Triterpenoid saponin W3, a natural occurring saponin, is the major active component and the highest content of the TS found in A. flaccida, also can be synthesized chemically in vitro [ 5 ]. (
  • According to in vivo studies on secondary metabolites of albutra (akar kuning plant, Arcangelisia flava (L) Merr), saponins extract without alkaloids showed a hepatoprotector activity. (
  • A separate study found that giving a certain saponin extract to rats with high cholesterol reduced "bad" (LDL) cholesterol without affecting "good" (HDL) cholesterol. (
  • As a result of further phytochemical studies, one new (ocimuside, 1) and one known (ilexoside, 2) triterpenoid saponins were isolated from the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum. (
  • This contribution may be due to the biocidal aspects of triterpenoid saponins , the main component of the plant extract, which may have favoured the sanitation of the root environment, possibly acting on nematodes, which damage the root system (Ritzinger, Borges, Ledo, & Caldas, 2007), resulting in better root development than with only HS application. (
  • The hypocholesterolemic activity is related to the defatted part of the seed extract [ 3 ] and involves saponin-rich subfractions [ 4 ]. (
  • Product Description Ginseng Saponin from stem and leaf Ginsenosides Molecular Formula:C42H72O13 Product name Ginseng Root Extract Extract part Panax C.A.Mey'dried root Item Physicochemical Indexes Appearance Light yellow to Yellow powder Odor & taste. (
  • In this current study, β-ecdysterone (1) and three pennogenin steroidal saponins (2-4) were isolated from the EtOH extract of Paris polyphylla var. (
  • In this study, W3, a saponin isolated from the extract of A. flaccida was identified as the major active ingredient by using an osteoclast formation model induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). (
  • Antioxidant activities of saponins extracted from Radix Trichosanthis: an in vivo and in vitro evaluation," BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , vol. 14, article 86, 2014. (
  • These saponins exhibit in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects, such as anti-proliferation, anti-metastasis, anti-angiogenesis, anti-multidrug resistance, and autophagy regulation actions. (
  • In natural product research, analysis of the chemotherapeutic efficacy of saponins against various cancer cells is often confined to in vitro analysis and structure elucidation 2 . (
  • Finally, histological analysis in aphids fed with Q. saponaria saponins demonstrated strong aberrations of the aphid gut epithelium, and exposure of midgut CF-203 cell lines to Q. saponaria saponins in vitro confirmed the cytotoxic effect. (
  • Development of tools for the in vitro conservation and modulation of saponin production of four medicinal Maesa spp. (
  • In-vitro Antitumor Activity and Antifungal Activity of Pennogenin Steroidal Saponins from paris Polyphylla var. (
  • Feedlot and in vitro ruminal experiments were conducted to assess the effects of saponin-containing surfactant applied during tempering of barley grain on cattle growth performance and on ruminal fermentation. (
  • 2005. Tea saponins affect in vitro fermentation and methanogenesis in faunated and defaunated rumen fluid. (
  • This means that, in the digestive tract, saponins produce an emulsification of fat-soluble molecules. (
  • The saponin molecules consist of a hydrophobic region, called aglycone, which is linked to one or several oligosaccharide (sugar) chains that build the hydrophilic part of the molecule. (
  • Saponins can impact the immune system through their adjuvant activity, their ability to improve effectiveness of orally administered vaccines by facilitating the absorption of large molecules, and their immune-stimulatory effects. (
  • Often, the hydrophilic piece is a sugar molecule, or perhaps a short chain of sugar molecules, and there can be more than one chain on each saponin. (
  • Saponins are a family of molecules known for creating soap-like foam in water that have been used to fulfil this role. (
  • The inhibitory effects of triterpenoid saponins are thought to be attributed not to the property of their aglycons but to that of the whole of their molecules (Saha et al. (
  • Thus a field experiment was conducted to study the influence of solar UV-B on the growth response and saponin synthesis in cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum ) var. (
  • The result indicates that solar UV-B may possibly suppress the plant growth by regulating the synthesis of natural growth inhibitor's like saponin. (
  • Drug solubility was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and saponin solubilisation capacity was compared to the conventional surfactant Brij-35. (
  • For danazol, the solubilisation capacity of the best saponins was 2-3 times higher than Brij-35, whereas for fenofibrate it was slightly lower than the reference surfactant. (
  • In the feedlot experiment, treatments with three barley grain/barley silage based diets were prepared using barley grain at 7.7% moisture (dry, D), after tempering to 18% moisture (M), or after tempering with a saponin-based surfactant included at 60 ml/t (MS). Each treatment was rolled at settings determined previously to yield optimally processed barley. (
  • A number of plants contain quite high concentrations of saponins and have been used as an alternative soap. (
  • In addition, related signaling pathways and target proteins involved in the anticancer effects of saponins are also summarized in this work. (
  • Our results suggest that these three pennogenin steroidal saponins could be utilized to develop anticancer medicines. (
  • It's important to realize that most of the research into the effects of saponins on cancer cells has been preliminary and involved specific enzymes, proteins, or other components of saponins extracted in specific ways and matched against specific cancer cells under specific situations. (
  • Food and nonfood sources of saponins have come into renewed focus in recent years due to increasing evidence of their health benefits. (
  • The well known sources of saponins are soybeans, peas, and some herbs with the names that indicate foaming properties such as soapwort, soapberry, soapbark and soap root. (
  • Moreover, tannins and saponins hasten alkaloid excretion from the body, which might also allow animals to eat more high-alkaloid forages when presented with tannins first. (
  • Cholesterol-lowering activity of saponins, which has been demonstrated in animal and human trials, has been attributed to inhibition of the absorption of cholesterol from the small intestine, or the reabsorption of bile acids [ 10 - 12 ]. (
  • Legumes, such peas and soybeans, also contain small quantities of saponins, which are proving their worthiness as phytochemicals. (
  • Closely related to Soapwort are a number of other native plants that contain useful quantities of saponins, including Ragged Robin (Lychnis flos-cuculi) and many of the Campions (Silene spp). (
  • Eleven new furostanol saponins, typaspidosides B-L ( 1 - 11 ), one new spirostanol saponin, typaspidoside M ( 12 ), and five known spirostanol saponins, 25 S -atropuroside ( 13 ), neoaspidistrin ( 14 ), (25 S )-pratioside D 1 ( 15 ), 25 S -aspidistrin ( 16 ) and 25 S -neosibiricoside ( 17 ) were isolated from the rhizomes of Aspidistra typica Baill. (
  • The aglycones of 1 - 3 (unusual furostanol saponins with opened E ring type), 9 and 10 (the methoxyl substituent at C-23 position) were found, identified from natural products for the first time. (
  • Saponins have historically been understood to be plant-derived, but they have also been isolated from marine organisms such as sea cucumber. (
  • This study aimed to purify and characterize one class of compound, the saponins, from the viscera of the Australian sea cucumber Holothuria lessoni . (
  • Dietary saponins of sea cucumber alleviate orotic acid-induced fatty liver in rats via PPARalpha and SREBP-1c signaling. (
  • Saponins of sea cucumber (SSC) are proven to exhibit various biological activities. (
  • Solvent extraction of saponins from the internodes and leaves were used for the bioassay of Amaranthus hypocotyl growth and expansion of cucumber cotyledons. (
  • However it is unknown whether saponins of sea cucumber (SSC) may improve lipid metabolism in animal models. (
  • Considering the high market potential of steroidal saponins and vivid reports of steroidal saponins and fixed oil content in fenugreek seeds, the present study was carried out to identify fenugreek genotype rich in steroidal saponins and fixed oil content. (
  • Method: Cytotoxic activity of saponin mixtures from M. arabica (tops and roots), M. arborea (tops) and M. sativa (tops, roots and seeds) and related prosapogenins from M. arborea and M. sativa (tops) against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines is described. (
  • In their natural state, the seeds have a coating which contains bitter-tasting saponins , making them unpalatable . (
  • Ophiopogonis radix ( Ophiopogon japonicus ), all contain saponins ( Ministry of Public Health of the People's Republic of China, 2015 ). (
  • Effects of ginseng saponins isolated from red ginseng on ultraviolet B-induced skin aging in hairless mice. (
  • The topical application of total ginseng saponins (10 pg or 100 ng/mouse) and ginsenoside Rb(1) (100 fg, 10 pg, or 1 ng/mouse) significantly inhibited increases in skin thickness and wrinkle formation and the reduction in skin elasticity induced by long-term UVB irradiation. (
  • The cholesterol lowering effect of dietary saponins in humans is also supported by ecological studies [ 13 ]. (
  • As per the Arnold-Schultz law, what can inhibit or kill at large doses can become a therapeutic stimulant in small doses and it's my firm belief that our natural daily exposure to dietary saponins rarely exceeds this small therapeutic dose. (
  • Preliminary research from a 2010 study concluded that saponins from Terminalia arjuna (arjun tree) may offer a therapeutic benefit for kidney or urinary stones. (
  • In plants, saponins may serve as anti-feedants, and to protect the plant against microbes and fungi. (
  • Since prehistoric times, cultures throughout the world have used piscicidal (fish-killing) plants, mostly those containing saponins, for fishing. (
  • Saponin is found in both of these plants, as well as in many other plants of the leguminosæ. (
  • The list42 of plants in which saponin has been discovered is given in the note. (
  • In nature, plants rely on saponins as a mechanism to fight parasites. (
  • Saponins are a component in over a hundred different types of plants and foods including beans, chickpeas, peanuts, quinoa, and soy. (
  • Saponins are a diverse family of natural surfactants, which are present in a wide variety of plants [ 16 , 17 ]. (
  • Earlier we have reported that the exclusion of solar UV-B increased the growth and yield of cotton plants as compared with ambient UV-B. The UV-B radiation effects on the saponins and the impact of ambient and reduced UV-B on the accumulation of saponins has not been investigated yet. (
  • 2010 ). Saponins are widely distributed in plants and involved in various biological activities such as antimicrobial, antitermitic, molluscicidol and anti-human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) protease (Crombie et al. (
  • Furthermore, a few studies indicated a promoting effect of higher light intensities on saponin concentrations in plants (Mathur et al. (
  • Influence of saponin plants on the volatile fraction of thyme in herbal teas. (
  • Many of California's Native American tribes traditionally used soaproot, (genus Chlorogalum) and/or the root of various yucca species, which contain saponin, as a fish poison. (
  • A simple UHPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of such hydrolysable tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruit rinds of different species of Terminalia (T. chebula, T. arjuna, T. bellirica) and Phyllantus emblica. (
  • C3H/HeJ (Ipsd) and C3H/HeSnJ (Ipsr) mice also showed an adjuvant associated increase in titer with saponin. (
  • The saponin QS21 has been used and studied for years as an adjuvant agent to improve vaccines for both humans and animals. (
  • Here, we used CpG-C together with the clinically relevant saponin-based adjuvant AbISCO-100/Matrix-M (AbISCO), to assess if TLR9 co-stimulation would quantitatively or qualitatively modulate HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env)-specific B and T cell responses in rhesus macaques. (
  • The resultant purified saponins were profiled using MALDI-MS/MS and ESI-MS/MS which revealed the structure of isomeric saponins to contain multiple aglycones and/or sugar residues. (
  • The ability of saponins to act as immunological adjuvants by enhancing the immune response to antigens has been recognized since 1940's [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • Saponins are also used as adjuvants in vaccine preparations. (
  • When consumed in the diet, several classes of phytochemical saponins are suspected to exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activity as antifungal and antibacterial agents. (
  • The objectives of the invention are achieved by including a small amount of a saponin in an aqueous enzyme-based composition containing a bacterial inhibiting stabilizer. (
  • An environmentally safe cleaning and/or water-clarifying aqueous solutions containing enzymes, stabilizers and a saponin. (
  • Further fractionation of the aqueous fraction yielded a saponin mixture. (