The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.
Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
A branch of engineering concerned with the design, construction, and maintenance of environmental facilities conducive to public health, such as water supply and waste disposal.
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.
Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.
A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.
Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer.
Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.
A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.
A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.
Living facilities for humans.
A polysymptomatic condition believed by clinical ecologists to result from immune dysregulation induced by common foods, allergens, and chemicals, resulting in various physical and mental disorders. The medical community has remained largely skeptical of the existence of this "disease", given the plethora of symptoms attributed to environmental illness, the lack of reproducible laboratory abnormalities, and the use of unproven therapies to treat the condition. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Downslope movements of soil and and/or rock resulting from natural phenomena or man made actions. These can be secondary effects of severe storms, VOLCANIC ERUPTIONS and EARTHQUAKES.
Water that is intended to be ingested.
Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The status of health in rural populations.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.
Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.
Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.
Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.
An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Bangladesh" is a country located in South Asia, not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition. It shares borders with India, Myanmar (Burma), and Bay of Bengal. The population is primarily Bengali, and the official language is Bangla (Bengali). The capital city is Dhaka. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, feel free to ask!
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.

Criteria for successful sanitation programmes in low income countries. (1/351)

In the International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade (1981-90), the development of a consensus on the concept of sanitation and the planning and implementation of effective and efficient sanitation programmes was not emphasized. Yet lack of good sanitation is a growing burden and environmental threat. Significant improvement of human health cannot be achieved without good environmental sanitation conditions and practices. A consensus on what makes a sanitation programme successful can help to conserve limited funds and spend those available more wisely. It will also help to reduce the increasing flows of waste poisoning precious sources of drinking water. This article was written to stimulate discussion on what attributes can be taken as characteristic of good environmental sanitation programmes, and on which indicators can be used to assess those attributes in actual sanitation programmes.  (+info)

A reassessment of the cost-effectiveness of water and sanitation interventions in programmes for controlling childhood diarrhoea. (2/351)

Cost-effectiveness analysis indicates that some water supply and sanitation (WSS) interventions are highly cost-effective for the control of diarrhoea among under-5-year-olds, on a par with oral rehydration therapy. These are relatively inexpensive "software-related" interventions such as hygiene education, social marketing of good hygiene practices, regulation of drinking-water, and monitoring of water quality. Such interventions are needed to ensure that the potentially positive health impacts of WSS infrastructure are fully realized in practice. The perception that WSS programmes are not a cost-effective use of health sector resources has arisen from three factors: an assumption that all WSS interventions involve construction of physical infrastructure, a misperception of the health sector's role in WSS programmes, and a misunderstanding of the scope of cost-effectiveness analysis. WSS infrastructure ("hardware") is generally built and operated by public works agencies and financed by construction grants, operational subsidies, user fees and property taxes. Health sector agencies should provide "software" such as project design, hygiene education, and water quality regulation. Cost-effectiveness analysis should measure the incremental health impacts attributable to health sector investments, using the actual call on health sector resources as the measure of cost. The cost-effectiveness of a set of hardware and software combinations is estimated, using US$ per case averted, US$ per death averted, and US$ per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) saved.  (+info)

Variations in infant mortality rates among municipalities in the state of Ceara, Northeast Brazil: an ecological analysis. (3/351)

BACKGROUND: Infant mortality rates vary substantially among municipalities in the State of Ceara, from 14 to 193 per 1000 live births. Identification of the determinants of these differences can be of particular importance to infant health policy and programmes in Brazil where local governments play a pivotal role in providing primary health care. METHODS: Ecological study across 140 municipalities in the State of Ceara, Brazil. RESULTS: To determine the interrelationships between potential predictors of infant mortality, we classified 11 variables into proximate determinants (adequate weight gain and exclusively breastfeeding), health services variables (prenatal care up-to-date, participation in growth monitoring, immunization up-to-date, and decentralization of health services), and socioeconomic factors (female literacy rate, household income, adequate water supply, adequate sanitation, and per capita gross municipality product), and included the variables in each group simultaneously in linear regression models. In these analyses, only one of the proximate determinants (exclusively breastfeeding (inversely), R2 = 9.3) and one of the health services variables (prenatal care up-to-date (inversely), R2 = 22.8) remained significantly associated with infant mortality. In contrast, female literacy rate (inversely), household income (directly) and per capita GMP (inversely) were independently associated with the infant mortality rate (for the model including the three variables R2 = 25.2). Finally, we considered simultaneously the variables from each group, and selected a model that explained 41% of the variation in infant mortality rates between municipalities. The paradoxical direct association between household income and infant mortality was present only in models including female illiteracy rate, and suggests that among these municipalities, increases in income unaccompanied by improvements in female education may not substantially reduce infant mortality. The lack of independent associations between inadequate sanitation and infant mortality rates may be due to the uniformly poor level of this indicator across municipalities and provides no evidence against its critical role in child survival. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that promotion of exclusive breastfeeding and increased prenatal care utilization, as well as investments in female education would have substantial positive effects in further reducing infant mortality rates in the State of Ceara.  (+info)

Fin-de-siecle Philadelphia and the founding of the Medical Library Association. (4/351)

Philadelphia at the time of the founding of the Medical Library Association (MLA) is described. Several factors that promoted the birth of the association are discussed, including the rapid increase in the labor force and the rise of other health related professions, such as the American Hospital Association and the professionalization of nursing. The growth of the public hygiene movement in Philadelphia at the time of Sir William Osler's residency in the city is discussed. Finally, the rapid growth of the medical literature is considered a factor promoting the development of the association. This article continues the historical consideration of the MLA begun in the author's article on the three founders of the association. The background information is drawn from the items listed in the bibliography, and the conclusions are those of the author.  (+info)

Seroprevalence of human cysticercosis in Maputo, Mozambique. (5/351)

We carried out a serosurvey for cysticercosis among people visiting the Central Hospital of Maputo, the capital of Mozambique, between January and June 1993. A standardized questionnaire was designed to obtain information on demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and behavioral characteristics related to the transmission of the infection. Four hundred eighty-nine individuals were tested for anti-cysticercosis antibodies: 222 blood donors and patients from the Department of Orthopedics, 148 patients from the Department of Neurology, and 119 patients from the Department of Psychiatry. The overall positivity rate was 12.1% (59 of 489). Anti-cysticercus antibodies was detected in 14.9% of the blood donors and patients from the Department of Orthopedics, 11.5% of the patients from the Department of Neurology, and 7.6% of the patients from the Department of Psychiatry. Living in poor sanitary conditions seems to be an important factor related to human cysticercosis in Maputo, Mozambique.  (+info)

Considerations regarding mass vaccination against typhoid fever as an adjunct to sanitation and public health measures: potential use in an epidemic in Tajikistan. (6/351)

We report on the ongoing epidemic of typhoid fever in Tajikistan that started in 1996. It has involved more than 24,000 cases to date, and is characterized by multiple point sources, overflow of sewage, contaminated municipal water, and person-to-person spread. Of the Salmonella typhi isolates available for testing in western laboratories, more than 90% are multidrug-resistant (MDR). Most recently, 28 (82%) of 34 isolates are resistant to ciprofloxacin, representing the first reported epidemic of quinolone-resistant typhoid fever. In the past, mass immunization during typhoid fever epidemics has been discouraged. A review of this policy is recommended in light of the alarming emergence of quinolone-resistant strains of S. typhi, the availability of improved vaccines, and the ongoing epidemic in Tajikistan. Mass immunization may be a useful measure for the control of prolonged MDR typhoid fever epidemics, as an adjunct to correction of municipal infrastructure and public health intervention.  (+info)

Hepatitis A incidence rate estimates from a pilot seroprevalence survey in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. (7/351)

BACKGROUND: To assess the impact of water sanitation and sewage disposal, part of a major environmental control programme in Rio de Janeiro, we carried out sero-prevalence studies for Hepatitis A virus (HAV) in three micro-regions in Rio de Janeiro. Each region varied with regard to level of sanitation. We are interested in assessing the discriminating power of age-specific prevalence curves for HAV as a proxy for improvement in sanitation. These curves will serve as baseline information to future planned surveys as the sanitation programme progresses. METHODS: Incidence rate curves from prevalence data are estimated parametrically via a Weibull-like survival function, and non-parametrically via maximum likelihood and monotonic splines. Sera collected from children and adults in the three areas are used to detect antibodies against HAV through ELISA. RESULTS: We compare baseline incidence curves at the three sites estimated by the three methods. We observe a strong negative correlation between level of sanitation and incidence rates for HAV infection. Incidence estimates yielded by the parametric and non-parametric approaches tend to agree at early ages in the microregion showing the best level of sanitation and to increasingly disagree in the other two. CONCLUSION: Our results support the choice of HAV as a sentinel disease that is associated with level of sanitation. We also introduce monotonic splines as a novel non-parametric approach to estimate incidence from prevalence data. This approach outperforms current estimating procedures.  (+info)

The impact of economic sanctions on health and human rights in Haiti, 1991-1994. (8/351)

OBJECTIVES: This report examines the impact of an economic embargo from 1991 to 1994 on health, well-being, and human rights in Haiti. METHODS: Data from surveillance systems for nutrition, reportable diseases, and hospital diagnoses were combined with survey data and interviews with affected women, governmental representatives, diplomats, and staff of nongovernmental organizations. RESULTS: Changes included declining income, rising unemployment, poorer nutrition, declining infant mortality, rising mortality among 1- to 4-year-olds, decreased attention to children's well-being and education, and family breakdown. Survival strategies among poor Haitians included changed dietary habits, informal-sector economic activity, moving in with relatives, selling domestic goods, increased informal unions among couples, decreased school attendance, and indentured servitude among children. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of economic sanctions in Haiti resulted in extensive violations of rights; the impact was greatest on the most disadvantaged Haitians. Many Haitian and international supporters of democracy were unaware of the extensive negative impact that sanctions could have. The impact continues now, 5 years after sanctions ended. Modified policies reduced some of the burden of sanctions, and international assistance prevented what otherwise might have become a humanitarian disaster during sanctions.  (+info)

Sanitation is the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human feces and urine, and the cleaning of homes, workplaces, streets, and other spaces where people live and work. This includes the collection, transport, treatment, and disposal or reuse of human waste, as well as the maintenance of hygienic conditions in these areas to prevent the spread of diseases.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines sanitation as "the use of toilets or latrines that safely dispose of human waste, as well as the safe management of human waste at the household, community, and national levels." Sanitation is an essential component of public health and is critical for preventing the spread of infectious diseases such as cholera, typhoid, hepatitis A, and polio.

Poor sanitation can have serious consequences for individuals and communities, including increased risk of disease and death, decreased productivity, reduced economic growth, and negative impacts on social and mental well-being. Providing access to safe sanitation is a key target of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), with a goal to ensure that everyone has access to adequate and equitable sanitation by 2030.

'Toilet facilities' refer to the designated area or room that contains fixtures and equipment for the purpose of personal hygiene and sanitation, including toilets (water closets), urinals, sinks (wash basins), and sometimes bathing facilities. They are essential in various settings such as hospitals, clinics, healthcare facilities, schools, workplaces, and public places to maintain cleanliness, promote health, and ensure dignity and comfort for individuals. Accessible and well-maintained toilet facilities are crucial for infection control, prevention of diseases, and ensuring the safety and convenience of users, especially those with special needs or disabilities.

Hygiene is the science and practice of maintaining and promoting health and preventing disease through cleanliness in personal and public environments. It includes various measures such as handwashing, bathing, using clean clothes, cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, proper waste disposal, safe food handling, and managing water supplies to prevent the spread of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

In a medical context, hygiene is crucial in healthcare settings to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and ensure patient safety. Healthcare professionals are trained in infection control practices, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Overall, maintaining good hygiene is essential for overall health and well-being, reducing the risk of illness and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "water supply" is not a medical term per se. It is a general term used to describe the system or arrangement providing water for consumption or use, such as a public water supply system or a private well. However, in a medical context, it could refer to the source of water used in a healthcare facility for drinking, cooking, cleaning, and patient care, which must meet certain quality standards to prevent infection and ensure safety.

Sanitary engineering is not typically considered a medical definition, but rather it falls under the field of public health and environmental engineering. However, it is closely related to medicine and public health due to its focus on preventing disease transmission through the design and construction of safe water supplies, sanitary sewage disposal systems, and solid waste management facilities.

Here's a definition of sanitary engineering from the American Public Health Association (APHA):

"Sanitary engineering is the application of engineering principles to public health problems involving the control of environmental factors that affect human health. It includes the design, construction, and maintenance of systems for the collection, treatment, and disposal of wastewater and solid waste; the protection of water supplies from contamination; and the control of vectors of disease through the management of public facilities and environments."

In summary, sanitary engineering involves the application of engineering principles to prevent the spread of diseases by ensuring safe and adequate water supplies, proper sewage disposal, and effective solid waste management.

Infantile diarrhea is a medical condition characterized by loose, watery stools in infants and young children. It can be caused by various factors such as viral or bacterial infections, food intolerances, allergies, or malabsorption disorders. In some cases, it may also be associated with certain medications or underlying medical conditions.

Infantile diarrhea can lead to dehydration and other complications if not treated promptly and properly. It is important to monitor the infant's hydration status by checking for signs of dehydration such as dry mouth, sunken eyes, and decreased urine output. If diarrhea persists or is accompanied by vomiting, fever, or other concerning symptoms, it is recommended to seek medical attention promptly.

Treatment for infantile diarrhea typically involves rehydration with oral electrolyte solutions, as well as addressing the underlying cause of the diarrhea if possible. In severe cases, hospitalization and intravenous fluids may be necessary.

Parasitic intestinal diseases are disorders caused by microscopic parasites that invade the gastrointestinal tract, specifically the small intestine. These parasites include protozoa (single-celled organisms) and helminths (parasitic worms). The most common protozoan parasites that cause intestinal disease are Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Entamoeba histolytica. Common helminthic parasites include roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), tapeworms (Taenia saginata and Taenia solium), hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis).

Parasitic intestinal diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weight loss. The severity and duration of the symptoms depend on the type of parasite, the number of organisms present, and the immune status of the host.

Transmission of these parasites can occur through various routes, including contaminated food and water, person-to-person contact, and contact with contaminated soil or feces. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet and before handling food, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or seafood.

Treatment of parasitic intestinal diseases typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications that target the specific parasite causing the infection. In some cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement and symptom management may also be necessary.

'Ascaris lumbricoides' is the medical term for a type of intestinal roundworm that can infect humans. This parasitic worm is one of the largest that can infest humans, and it is particularly prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene.

The life cycle of Ascaris lumbricoides begins when an infected person passes eggs in their feces. These eggs can then be ingested through contaminated food or water, or by accidentally ingesting soil that contains the eggs. Once inside the body, the larvae hatch from the eggs and migrate through the tissues to the lungs, where they mature further. They are then coughed up and swallowed, entering the digestive system again, where they mature into adult worms.

Adult female Ascaris lumbricoides worms can grow up to 20-35 cm in length, while males are smaller, typically around 15-30 cm. They live in the small intestine and feed on partially digested food. Females can lay tens of thousands of eggs per day, which are passed in the feces and can infect other people if they come into contact with them.

Symptoms of ascariasis (the infection caused by Ascaris lumbricoides) can vary depending on the number of worms present and the severity of the infestation. Mild infections may cause no symptoms at all, while more severe infections can lead to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. In rare cases, the worms can cause intestinal obstruction or migrate to other parts of the body, leading to serious complications.

Treatment for ascariasis typically involves medication to kill the worms, such as albendazole or mebendazole. Preventing infection requires good hygiene practices, including washing hands thoroughly with soap and water after using the toilet and before eating, and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Soaps" is not a medical term, but rather refers to cleaning agents that are widely used in daily life for personal and household hygiene.

However, if you're referring to "saponification," it is a chemical process that occurs when fats or oils react with an alkali, resulting in the formation of soap and glycerin. This term can be relevant in medical contexts, such as in the production of medicated soaps used for various skin conditions.

If you meant something else by "Soaps," please clarify your question, and I will do my best to provide an accurate answer.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Cholera is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is usually transmitted through contaminated food or water. The main symptoms of cholera are profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and dehydration, which can lead to electrolyte imbalances, shock, and even death if left untreated. Cholera remains a significant public health concern in many parts of the world, particularly in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene. The disease is preventable through proper food handling, safe water supplies, and improved sanitation, as well as vaccination for those at high risk.

Helminthiasis is a medical condition characterized by the infection and infestation of body tissues and organs by helminths, which are parasitic worms. These worms can be classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminthiasis infections can occur through various modes of transmission, such as ingestion of contaminated food or water, skin contact with contaminated soil, or direct contact with an infected person or animal. The severity of the infection depends on several factors, including the type and number of worms involved, the duration of the infestation, and the overall health status of the host.

Common symptoms of helminthiasis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, anemia, and nutritional deficiencies. In severe cases, the infection can lead to organ damage or failure, impaired growth and development in children, and even death.

Diagnosis of helminthiasis typically involves microscopic examination of stool samples to identify the presence and type of worms. Treatment usually consists of administering anthelmintic drugs that are effective against specific types of worms. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water, and practicing safe food handling and preparation.

I'm happy to help, but I must clarify that I can't provide a "medical definition" of waste management since it is not a medical term per se. Waste management is a broader environmental and public health issue. However, I can offer a definition related to healthcare facilities:

Waste management in the context of healthcare facilities refers to the practices, processes, and systems used to collect, transport, treat, dispose, recycle, or reuse waste materials generated from healthcare activities. This includes various types of waste such as hazardous (e.g., infectious, chemical, pharmaceutical), non-hazardous, and radioactive waste. Proper management is crucial to prevent infection, protect the environment, conserve resources, and ensure occupational safety for healthcare workers and the public.

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

Water purification is the process of removing or reducing contaminants in water to make it safe and suitable for specific uses, such as drinking, cooking, irrigation, or medical purposes. This is typically achieved through physical, chemical, or biological methods, or a combination thereof. The goal is to eliminate or reduce harmful substances like bacteria, viruses, parasites, heavy metals, pesticides, and other pollutants that can cause illness or negatively impact human health, aquatic life, or the environment.

The specific purification methods used may vary depending on the nature of the contaminants and the desired level of purity for the intended use. Common techniques include filtration (using various types of filters like activated carbon, ceramic, or reverse osmosis), disinfection (using chemicals like chlorine or UV light to kill microorganisms), sedimentation (allowing particles to settle and be removed), and distillation (heating water to create steam, which is then condensed back into pure water).

"Trichuris" is a genus of parasitic roundworms that are known to infect the intestines of various mammals, including humans. The species that commonly infects humans is called "Trichuris trichiura," which is also known as the human whipworm. These worms are named for their long, thin shape that resembles a whip.

The life cycle of Trichuris involves ingestion of eggs containing infective larvae through contaminated food or water. Once inside the human body, the larvae hatch and migrate to the large intestine, where they mature into adult worms that live in the caecum and colon. Adult female worms lay thousands of eggs every day, which are passed in the feces and can survive in the environment for years, waiting to infect a new host.

Infections with Trichuris trichiura can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, and weight loss. In severe cases, it can lead to anemia, malnutrition, and impaired growth in children. Treatment for trichuriasis typically involves medication that kills the adult worms, such as albendazole or mebendazole.

Ascariasis is a medical condition caused by infection with the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. This type of worm infection, also known as intestinal ascariasis, occurs when people ingest contaminated soil, food, or water that contains Ascaris eggs. Once inside the body, these eggs hatch into larvae, which then migrate through the tissues and eventually reach the small intestine, where they mature into adult worms.

The adult worms can grow to be several inches long and live in the small intestine, where they feed on partially digested food. Female worms can produce thousands of eggs per day, which are then passed out of the body in feces. If these eggs hatch and infect other people, the cycle of infection continues.

Symptoms of ascariasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection. Mild infections may not cause any symptoms, while more severe infections can lead to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. In some cases, the worms can cause intestinal blockages or migrate to other parts of the body, leading to potentially serious complications.

Treatment for ascariasis typically involves medication to kill the adult worms and prevent them from producing more eggs. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom and before eating, and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water.

I'm not entirely sure what you're looking for with "Exhibits as Topic" in the context of medical definitions. However, I can provide some general information about how medical conditions or findings might be exhibited, as well as examples of medical resources that discuss various medical topics through exhibits.

In medical terminology, "exhibit" generally refers to something that is shown or displayed, such as a symptom, sign, finding, or condition. For example, a patient with diabetes might exhibit symptoms like increased thirst, frequent urination, and fatigue. In a laboratory setting, a sample might be examined for the presence of certain exhibits, such as bacteria or abnormal cells.

There are many medical resources that use exhibits to help illustrate various topics. For example, museums and educational centers often have exhibits on health-related topics, such as anatomy, disease processes, and medical technology. Medical schools and teaching hospitals may also have exhibits of specimens, models, or other materials used for educational purposes.

In addition, there are many online resources that use interactive exhibits to help explain complex medical concepts. For example, the National Library of Medicine's "Medical Museum" website has a variety of virtual exhibits on topics such as medical instruments, historical medical practices, and public health campaigns. The American Cancer Society also has an interactive exhibit on cancer cells and treatments that allows users to explore different types of cancer and learn about the latest research and treatment options.

Overall, "Exhibits as Topic" in a medical context can refer to a variety of resources and materials used to illustrate and explain medical concepts, findings, or conditions.

Hookworm infections are parasitic diseases caused by the ingestion or penetration of hookworm larvae (immature worms) into the human body. The two main species that infect humans are Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale.

The infection typically occurs through skin contact with contaminated soil, often when walking barefoot on dirty ground. The larvae then penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and travel to the lungs where they mature further. They are coughed up and swallowed, eventually reaching the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on blood.

Hookworm infections can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, weight loss, and fatigue. In severe cases, chronic hookworm infections can lead to serious complications such as protein malnutrition and heart failure. Treatment typically involves the use of anti-parasitic medications, such as albendazole or mebendazole, which kill the adult worms and allow the body to expel them. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene practices, wearing shoes in areas with contaminated soil, and regular deworming of at-risk populations.

Ancylostomatoidea is a superfamily of nematode (roundworm) parasites that includes the genera Ancylostoma and Necator, which are commonly known as hookworms. These parasites are primarily found in the small intestine of their hosts, which can include humans and other animals.

Ancylostomatoidea parasites have a complex life cycle that involves both free-living and parasitic stages. The life cycle begins when the parasite's eggs are passed in the feces of an infected host and hatch into larvae in the soil. The larvae then infect a new host by penetrating the skin, usually through contact with contaminated soil.

Once inside the host, the larvae migrate through the body to the lungs, where they mature and are coughed up and swallowed, allowing them to reach the small intestine. Here, they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on the host's blood, causing anemia and other symptoms of hookworm infection.

Hookworm infections can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue. In severe cases, they can lead to anemia, intestinal obstruction, and even death. Prevention measures include wearing shoes in areas with contaminated soil, practicing good hygiene, and treating infected individuals to prevent the spread of the parasite.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lesotho" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Southern Africa. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

Water pollution is defined medically as the contamination of water sources by harmful or sufficient amounts of foreign substances (pathogens, chemicals, toxic compounds, etc.) which tend to interfere with its normal functioning and can have negative effects on human health. Such pollutants can find their way into water bodies through various means including industrial waste disposal, agricultural runoff, oil spills, sewage and wastewater discharges, and accidental chemical releases, among others.

Exposure to polluted water can lead to a range of health issues, from minor problems like skin irritation or stomach upset, to severe conditions such as neurological disorders, reproductive issues, cancer, and even death in extreme cases. It also poses significant risks to aquatic life, disrupting ecosystems and leading to the decline or extinction of various species. Therefore, maintaining clean and safe water supplies is critical for both human health and environmental preservation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Haiti" is not a medical term. It is a country located in the Caribbean, specifically on the island of Hispaniola. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Helminths are a type of parasitic worm that can infect humans and animals. They are multi-cellular organisms that belong to the phyla Platyhelminthes (flatworms) or Nematoda (roundworms). Helminths can be further classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminth infections are typically acquired through contact with contaminated soil, food, or water. The symptoms of helminth infections can vary widely depending on the type of worm and the location and extent of the infection. Some common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and malnutrition.

Helminths have complex life cycles that often involve multiple hosts. They can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and in some cases, may require long-term treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. Preventive measures such as good hygiene practices, proper sanitation, and access to clean water can help reduce the risk of helminth infections.

Hand disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms on the hands, using a medically approved product such as an alcohol-based hand sanitizer or soap and water. The goal of hand disinfection is to prevent the spread of infections and maintain a clean and hygienic environment, particularly in healthcare settings. It is an essential component of standard precautions to prevent the transmission of pathogens and ensure patient safety. Proper hand disinfection techniques include applying enough product to cover all surfaces of the hands, rubbing the product over all areas for at least 20-30 seconds, and allowing the product to dry completely before touching anything else.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "housing" is not a term that has a medical definition. In a general sense, housing refers to a place where someone lives, such as a house or apartment. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

Environmental Illness (EI) is a condition in which individuals report experiencing various symptoms that they believe are caused or worsened by exposure to specific environmental factors. These factors can include chemicals, allergens, pollutants, or other substances present in the air, water, or food. The symptoms of EI can vary widely and may include headaches, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, respiratory problems, skin irritations, and gastrointestinal issues.

It's important to note that while some people may be more sensitive than others to environmental factors, the term "Environmental Illness" is not recognized as a formal medical diagnosis by major medical organizations such as the American Medical Association or the World Health Organization. Instead, the symptoms of EI are often attributed to other conditions, such as allergies, asthma, or chemical sensitivities.

In some cases, individuals with EI may be diagnosed with a related condition called Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS), which is characterized by heightened sensitivity to chemicals and other environmental factors. However, MCS is also not recognized as a formal medical diagnosis by many major medical organizations.

Overall, while some people may experience symptoms that they believe are caused by exposure to environmental factors, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and treatment plan.

I apologize for any confusion, but "landslides" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Landslides are a geological phenomenon involving the mass movement of soil or rock down a slope. They can occur due to various factors such as heavy rainfall, earthquakes, volcanic activity, or human activities that alter the stability of a slope.

If you have any questions related to health or medicine, please provide more context so I can offer an accurate and helpful response.

Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to consume and meets the health-based standards established by regulatory agencies for human consumption. It is free from harmful levels of contaminants, including microorganisms, chemicals, radiological elements, and aesthetic factors such as taste, odor, and appearance.

Drinking water can come from various sources, including surface water (e.g., rivers, lakes), groundwater (e.g., wells), and treated wastewater that has undergone advanced purification processes. The treatment of drinking water typically involves several steps, such as coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection, to remove or inactivate pathogens and other contaminants.

Access to safe drinking water is essential for human health, as it helps prevent various waterborne diseases and ensures proper hydration. Regular monitoring and testing of drinking water sources and distribution systems are necessary to maintain the quality and safety of the water supply.

Trichuriasis is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode (roundworm) Trichuris trichiura, also known as the whipworm. This infection primarily affects the large intestine (cecum and colon). The main symptoms of trichuriasis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. In heavy infections, there can be severe complications such as anemia, growth retardation, and rectal prolapse. Trichuriasis is typically transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated soil containing Trichuris trichiura eggs, often through poor hygiene practices or exposure to contaminated food and water.

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

Rural health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health challenges and needs of people living in rural areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines rural health as "the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in the rural population."

Rural populations often face disparities in healthcare access and quality compared to their urban counterparts. Factors such as geographic isolation, poverty, lack of transportation, and a shortage of healthcare providers can contribute to these disparities. Rural health encompasses a broad range of services, including primary care, prevention, chronic disease management, mental health, oral health, and emergency medical services.

The goal of rural health is to improve the health outcomes of rural populations by addressing these unique challenges and providing high-quality, accessible healthcare services that meet their needs. This may involve innovative approaches such as telemedicine, mobile health clinics, and community-based programs to reach people in remote areas.

Child welfare is a broad term that refers to the overall well-being and protection of children. It encompasses a range of services and interventions aimed at promoting the physical, emotional, social, and educational development of children, while also protecting them from harm, abuse, and neglect. The medical definition of child welfare may include:

1. Preventive Services: Programs and interventions designed to strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment, such as home visiting programs, parent education classes, and family support services.
2. Protective Services: Interventions that aim to protect children from harm, abuse, or neglect, including investigations of reports of maltreatment, removal of children from dangerous situations, and provision of alternative care arrangements.
3. Family Reunification Services: Efforts to reunite children with their families when it is safe and in the best interest of the child, such as family therapy, parent-child visitation, and case management services.
4. Permanency Planning: The development of long-term plans for children who cannot safely return to their families, including adoption, guardianship, or other permanent living arrangements.
5. Foster Care Services: Provision of temporary care for children who cannot safely remain in their own homes, including placement with foster families, group homes, or residential treatment facilities.
6. Child Health and Development Services: Programs that promote the physical, emotional, and developmental well-being of children, such as health screenings, immunizations, mental health services, and early intervention programs for children with special needs.
7. Advocacy and Policy Development: Efforts to promote policies and practices that support the well-being and protection of children, including advocating for laws and regulations that protect children's rights and ensure their safety and well-being.

Child mortality refers to the death of children under a specific age, typically under 5 years old. It is usually expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 live births in a given population during a specified period. High child mortality rates are often indicative of underlying issues related to health care access, nutrition, sanitation, and socioeconomic factors. The United Nations Millennium Development Goals set a target to reduce under-five child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015, and this goal has been continued in the Sustainable Development Goals with a new target of ending preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age by 2030.

Capital expenditures, also known as capital expenses or CapEx, refer to the funds used by a company to acquire, upgrade, and maintain physical assets such as property, buildings, machinery, and equipment. These expenditures are considered long-term investments and are intended to enhance the company's ability to generate future revenue and profits.

Capital expenditures are typically significant in amount and are recorded on a company's balance sheet as assets, rather than being expensed immediately on the income statement. Instead, the cost of these assets is gradually expensed over their useful life through depreciation or amortization.

Examples of capital expenditures include purchasing new manufacturing equipment, constructing a new building, renovating an existing facility, or upgrading computer systems and software. These types of expenses are often necessary for a company to remain competitive and grow its business over time.

Developed countries, also known as high-income countries or industrialized nations, are sovereign states that have advanced economies and highly developed infrastructure. These countries typically have high levels of industrialization, urbanization, and technological development, along with a high standard of living and access to quality healthcare, education, and social services.

The World Bank defines developed countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of $12,695 or more in 2020. Examples of developed countries include the United States, Canada, Germany, France, Japan, Australia, and many others in Western Europe and Asia.

It's important to note that the term "developed" is relative and can change over time as a country's economy and infrastructure advance or decline. Additionally, there are significant disparities within developed countries, with some regions or populations experiencing poverty, inequality, and lack of access to basic needs and services.

Nematode infections, also known as roundworm infections, are caused by various species of nematodes or roundworms. These parasitic worms can infect humans and animals, leading to a range of health problems depending on the specific type of nematode and the location of the infection within the body.

Common forms of nematode infections include:

1. Ascariasis: Caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, this infection occurs when people ingest the parasite's eggs through contaminated food or water. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, mature into adult worms, and can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In severe cases, the worms may obstruct the intestines or migrate to other organs, leading to potentially life-threatening complications.
2. Hookworm infections: These are caused by Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. The larvae penetrate the skin, usually through bare feet, and migrate to the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on blood. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and protein loss.
3. Trichuriasis: Also known as whipworm infection, this is caused by Trichuris trichiura. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, mature into adult worms, and reside in the large intestine, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal prolapse in severe cases.
4. Strongyloidiasis: Caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, this infection occurs when the larvae penetrate the skin, usually through contaminated soil, and migrate to the lungs and then the small intestine. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes. In immunocompromised individuals, strongyloidiasis can lead to disseminated disease, which is potentially fatal.
5. Toxocariasis: This infection is caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, found in dogs and cats, respectively. Humans become infected through ingestion of contaminated soil or undercooked meat. Symptoms include fever, cough, abdominal pain, and vision loss in severe cases.
6. Enterobiasis: Also known as pinworm infection, this is caused by Enterobius vermicularis. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, mature into adult worms, and reside in the large intestine, causing perianal itching and restlessness, especially at night.

Preventive measures include:

1. Proper hand hygiene: Wash hands with soap and water after using the toilet, changing diapers, handling pets or their feces, and before preparing or eating food.
2. Personal hygiene: Keep fingernails short and clean, avoid biting nails, and wear shoes in public areas, especially where soil may be contaminated with human or animal feces.
3. Food safety: Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly, cook meat properly, and avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or fish.
4. Environmental cleanliness: Regularly clean surfaces that come into contact with food, such as countertops, cutting boards, and utensils. Dispose of trash properly and maintain a clean living environment.
5. Pet care: Keep pets healthy and regularly deworm them as recommended by a veterinarian. Pick up pet feces promptly to prevent contamination of the environment.
6. Public health measures: Implement public health interventions, such as regular waste disposal, sewage treatment, and vector control, to reduce the transmission of parasitic infections.

Sewage is not typically considered a medical term, but it does have relevance to public health and medicine. Sewage is the wastewater that is produced by households and industries, which contains a variety of contaminants including human waste, chemicals, and other pollutants. It can contain various pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can cause diseases in humans if they come into contact with it or consume contaminated food or water. Therefore, the proper treatment and disposal of sewage is essential to prevent the spread of infectious diseases and protect public health.

Typhoid-Paratyphoid vaccines are immunizations that protect against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers, which are caused by the Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi, respectively. These vaccines contain inactivated or attenuated bacteria or specific antigens that stimulate an individual's immune system to develop immunity against these diseases without causing the illness itself. There are several types of typhoid-paratyphoid vaccines available, including:

1. Ty21a (oral live attenuated vaccine): This is a live but weakened form of the Salmonella Typhi bacteria. It is given orally in capsule form and requires a series of 4 doses taken every other day. The vaccine provides protection for about 5-7 years.
2. Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) typhoid vaccine: This vaccine contains purified Vi antigens from the Salmonella Typhi bacterium's outer capsular layer. It is given as an injection and provides protection for approximately 2-3 years.
3. Combined typhoid-paratyphoid A and B vaccines (Vi-rEPA): This vaccine combines Vi polysaccharide antigens from Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A and B. It is given as an injection and provides protection for about 3 years against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers A and B.
4. Typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs): These vaccines combine the Vi polysaccharide antigen from Salmonella Typhi with a protein carrier to enhance the immune response, particularly in children under 2 years of age. TCVs are given as an injection and provide long-lasting protection against typhoid fever.

It is important to note that none of these vaccines provides 100% protection, but they significantly reduce the risk of contracting typhoid or paratyphoid fevers. Additionally, good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, can further minimize the risk of infection.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Parasitic diseases are infections or illnesses caused by parasites, which are organisms that live and feed on host organisms, often causing harm. Parasites can be protozoans (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), or ectoparasites (ticks, mites, fleas). These diseases can affect various body systems and cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of parasite and the location of infection. They are typically spread through contaminated food or water, insect vectors, or direct contact with an infected host or contaminated environment. Examples of parasitic diseases include malaria, giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, ascariasis, and leishmaniasis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pest control" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Pest control refers to the regulation or management of species considered to be pests, which can include insects, rodents, and other organisms that can cause damage to crops, transmit diseases, or otherwise negatively impact human activities.

In a medical context, you might be looking for information on "pesticide exposure" or "insect-borne diseases." Pesticide exposure refers to the contact with pesticides, which are substances used to control pests. These exposures can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or skin contact and may lead to a variety of health effects depending on the type and amount of pesticide involved. Insect-borne diseases are illnesses transmitted to humans through the bite of infected insects, such as mosquitoes, ticks, or fleas. Examples include malaria, Lyme disease, and Zika virus infection.

Typhoid fever is an acute illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. It is characterized by sustained fever, headache, constipation or diarrhea, rose-colored rash (in some cases), abdominal pain, and weakness. The bacteria are spread through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with an infected person's feces. If left untreated, typhoid fever can lead to severe complications and even be fatal. It is diagnosed through blood, stool, or urine tests and treated with antibiotics. Vaccination is available for prevention.

Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia or snail fever, is a parasitic infection caused by several species of the trematode flatworm Schistosoma. The infection occurs when people come into contact with freshwater contaminated with the parasite's larvae, which are released by infected freshwater snails.

The larvae penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and mature into adult worms in the blood vessels of the urinary tract or intestines. The female worms lay eggs, which can cause inflammation and scarring in various organs, including the liver, lungs, and brain.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis may include fever, chills, cough, muscle aches, and diarrhea. In chronic cases, the infection can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, bladder cancer, and seizures. Schistosomiasis is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions with poor sanitation and lack of access to safe drinking water. It is preventable through improved water supply, sanitation, and snail control measures. Treatment typically involves the use of a medication called praziquantel, which kills the adult worms.

Cholera vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against the infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. There are several types of cholera vaccines available, including:

1. Inactivated oral vaccine (ICCV): This vaccine contains killed whole-cell bacteria and is given in two doses, with each dose administered at least 14 days apart. It provides protection for up to six months and can be given to adults and children over the age of one year.
2. Live attenuated oral vaccine (LCV): This vaccine contains weakened live bacteria that are unable to cause disease but still stimulate an immune response. The most commonly used LCV is called CVD 103-HgR, which is given in a single dose and provides protection for up to three months. It can be given to adults and children over the age of six years.
3. Injectable cholera vaccine: This vaccine contains inactivated bacteria and is given as an injection. It is not widely available and its effectiveness is limited compared to oral vaccines.

Cholera vaccines are recommended for travelers visiting areas with known cholera outbreaks, particularly if they plan to eat food or drink water that may be contaminated. They can also be used in response to outbreaks to help control the spread of the disease. However, it is important to note that vaccination alone is not sufficient to prevent cholera infection and good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, should always be followed.

Communicable disease control is a branch of public health that focuses on preventing and controlling the spread of infectious diseases within a population. The goal is to reduce the incidence and prevalence of communicable diseases through various strategies, such as:

1. Surveillance: Monitoring and tracking the occurrence of communicable diseases in a population to identify trends, outbreaks, and high-risk areas.
2. Prevention: Implementing measures to prevent the transmission of infectious agents, such as vaccination programs, education campaigns, and environmental interventions (e.g., water treatment, food safety).
3. Case management: Identifying, diagnosing, and treating cases of communicable diseases to reduce their duration and severity, as well as to prevent further spread.
4. Contact tracing: Identifying and monitoring individuals who have been in close contact with infected persons to detect and prevent secondary cases.
5. Outbreak response: Coordinating a rapid and effective response to disease outbreaks, including the implementation of control measures, communication with affected communities, and evaluation of interventions.
6. Collaboration: Working closely with healthcare providers, laboratories, policymakers, and other stakeholders to ensure a coordinated and comprehensive approach to communicable disease control.
7. Research: Conducting research to better understand the epidemiology, transmission dynamics, and prevention strategies for communicable diseases.

Effective communicable disease control requires a multidisciplinary approach that combines expertise in medicine, epidemiology, microbiology, public health, social sciences, and healthcare management.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Trachoma is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. It primarily affects the eyes, causing repeated infections that lead to scarring of the inner eyelid and eyelashes turning inward (trichiasis), which can result in damage to the cornea and blindness if left untreated.

The disease is spread through direct contact with eye or nose discharge from infected individuals, often through contaminated fingers, shared towels, or flies that have come into contact with the discharge. Trachoma is prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and limited access to clean water, making it a significant public health issue in many developing countries.

Preventive measures include improving personal hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, promoting facial cleanliness, and providing safe water and sanitation facilities. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to eliminate the infection and surgery for advanced cases with trichiasis or corneal damage.

Environmental health is a branch of public health that focuses on the study of how environmental factors, including physical, chemical, and biological factors, impact human health and disease. It involves the assessment, control, and prevention of environmental hazards in order to protect and promote human health and well-being.

Environmental health encompasses a wide range of issues, such as air and water quality, food safety, waste management, housing conditions, occupational health and safety, radiation protection, and climate change. It also involves the promotion of healthy behaviors and the development of policies and regulations to protect public health from environmental hazards.

The goal of environmental health is to create safe and healthy environments that support human health and well-being, prevent disease and injury, and promote sustainable communities. This requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves collaboration between various stakeholders, including policymakers, researchers, healthcare providers, community organizations, and the public.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Bangladesh" is a country located in South Asia, rather than a medical term or condition. It is bordered by India to the west, north, and east, and by Myanmar (Burma) to the southeast, with the Bay of Bengal to the south. The official name of the country is the People's Republic of Bangladesh.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you!

"Food handling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in the context of public health and food safety, it generally refers to the activities involved in the storage, preparation, and serving of food in a way that minimizes the risk of contamination and foodborne illnesses. This includes proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and wearing gloves, separating raw and cooked foods, cooking food to the correct temperature, and refrigerating or freezing food promptly. Proper food handling is essential for ensuring the safety and quality of food in various settings, including restaurants, hospitals, schools, and homes.

Hepatitis A antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to a Hepatitis A virus infection or after vaccination. There are two types of Hepatitis A antibodies:

1. IgM anti-HAV (Hepatitis A Virus) antibodies: These are the first type of antibodies produced by the immune system during a Hepatitis A infection. They appear in the blood within 2 to 4 weeks after exposure to the virus and remain detectable for up to 12 weeks. The presence of IgM anti-HAV antibodies indicates a recent or ongoing Hepatitis A infection.

2. IgG anti-HAV antibodies: These are the second type of antibodies produced by the immune system during a Hepatitis A infection, and they appear in the blood several weeks after the onset of illness. IgG anti-HAV antibodies remain detectable for many years, providing long-term immunity against future Hepatitis A infections. After vaccination, only IgG anti-HAV antibodies are produced, indicating immunity to Hepatitis A.

Testing for Hepatitis A antibodies is used to diagnose acute or past Hepatitis A infections and to assess immunity following vaccination.

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

Water quality, in the context of public health and environmental medicine, refers to the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of water that determine its suitability for various uses, such as drinking, recreation, or industrial processes. The term encompasses a wide range of parameters, including but not limited to:

1. Microbial contaminants: Presence of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microorganisms that can cause waterborne diseases.
2. Chemical contaminants: Including heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury), pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), disinfection byproducts, and other potentially harmful substances.
3. Physical parameters: Such as temperature, turbidity (cloudiness), color, taste, and odor, which can affect the water's acceptability for different uses.
4. Radiological contaminants: Exposure to ionizing radiation from radioactive elements present in water sources.

Regulatory agencies establish guidelines and standards for water quality to protect public health and minimize potential adverse effects associated with exposure to contaminated water. Regular monitoring, treatment, and management of water sources are essential to ensure safe and reliable water supplies.

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DOD', 'Sanitation Day' coming to Netflix in July". Pulse Nigeria. 2021-06-29. Retrieved 2021-09-22. Sanitation Day at IMDb ... Sanitation Day is a 2021 Nigerian crime thriller film produced, written and directed by Seyi Babatope. The film stars Blossom ... "Comic-Thriller Sanitation Day Set for Cinema Release on January 29". m.guardian.ng. 25 January 2021. Retrieved 2021-02-16. Grey ... The corpse of a young man is found in Baba Risi's Face-me-I-face-you during the routine communal environmental sanitation on ...
"Sanitation Cuttings". Forest Encyclopedia Network. Retrieved 2010-04-04. Sanitation cutting is done when legally required, for ... In forestry and silviculture, a sanitation harvest or sanitation cutting is a harvest of trees for the purpose of removing ... Sanitation harvesting is used to prevent the diseases or pests from spreading to other nearby trees. It is a form of ...
A plug in sanitation is an object that is used to close a drainage outlet firmly. The insertion of a plug into a drainage ...
... (related to but distinct from a "safely managed sanitation service") is a term used to categorize types of ... A lower level of service is now called "limited sanitation service" which refers to the use of improved sanitation facilities ... A higher level of service is called "safely managed sanitation". This is basic sanitation service where excreta is safely ... It is not necessarily identical with sustainable sanitation. The opposite of "improved sanitation" has been termed "unimproved ...
... is a sanitation system designed to meet certain criteria and to work well over the long-term. ... Sustainable sanitation systems consider the entire "sanitation value chain", from the experience of the user, excreta and ... Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) Kohlitz, J. and Iyer, R. (2021) 'Rural Sanitation and Climate Change: Putting Ideas ... The Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) includes five features (or criteria) in its definition of "sustainable sanitation ...
Sustainable Sanitation Alliance - a network that deals with sustainable sanitation, of which ecosan can be regarded as a sub- ... Ecological sanitation, commonly abbreviated as ecosan (also spelled eco-san or EcoSan), is an approach to sanitation provision ... "Sanitation First - Tackling Poverty One Toilet at a Time". Sanitation First. Retrieved 2 August 2021. Nana, C., Dagerskog, L. ( ... The main objectives of ecological sanitation are to reduce the health risks related to sanitation, contaminated water and waste ...
... was a British journal published in the 20th century. It documented developments in sanitation, water ... By 1946 it was known as Sanitation, drainage and water supply, but by 1967 it was known as Modern Sanitation and Building ... sanitation officers, builders, and students. G. Newnes limited. Modern Sanitation and Building Maintenance. 1967. v t e (Use ... Mitchell, George Eric (1946). Sanitation, drainage and water supply: (formerly Modern sanitary engineering) for the use of ...
... s Knowledge and Learning Hub Sanitation Workers in India - a 5-month long study of sanitation workers across ... Advancing Container-Based Sanitation Businesses as a Viable Answer to the Global Sanitation Crisis. Water and Sanitation for ... The importance of sanitation workers in the struggle for human rights is seen in the 1968 labor strike of the sanitation ... The safety of sanitation workers is influenced by: Design and construction of the toilet or other piece of sanitation ...
"Potential Sanitation Solutions During an Emergency Response , Global Water, Sanitation and Hygiene , Healthy Water , CDC". www. ... Emergency sanitation is the management and technical processes required to provide sanitation in emergency situations. ... Providing handwashing facilities and management of fecal sludge are also part of emergency sanitation. The immediate sanitation ... emergency Sanitation Operation System". Journal of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene for Development. 5 (1): 156-164. doi:10.2166/ ...
The Charleston sanitation strike was a more than two-month movement in Charleston, South Carolina that protested the pay and ... Petersburg sanitation strike of 1968 "Garbage Strike Linked to Outside Parties". News and Courier. Charleston, South Carolina. ... On August 15, 1969, the city's Black sanitation workers declared a strike, and some other public workers joined in the effort. ... 5000 a year and either rain gear or uniforms for sanitation workers, but the garbage workers held out for more of their demands ...
... is the process of ensuring healthy conditions in swimming pools. Proper sanitation is needed to ... Two distinct and separate methods are employed in the sanitation of a swimming pool. The filtration system removes organic ... The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also provides information on pool sanitation and water related ... Pool operators must also store and handle cleaning and sanitation chemicals safely. Disease prevention should be the top ...
... s can be of two types: Ship Sanitation Control Exemption Certificates (SSCEC) are issued to vessels ... A Ship Sanitation Certificate is a document that corroborates a ship's compliance with maritime sanitation and quarantine rules ... Implementation of ship sanitation control exemption certificate/ship sanitation control certificate". who.int. Archived from ... Ship Sanitation Control Certificates (SSCC) are issued when a health risk is found, and control measures (fumigation, etc.) ...
Petersburg sanitation strike of 1968 Charleston sanitation strike of 1969 1960s portal "Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike", ... The Memphis sanitation strike began on February 12, 1968, in response to the deaths of sanitation workers Echol Cole and Robert ... Leach was one of the original sanitation workers who participated in the Memphis sanitation strike and served as the public ... In 1960 the average sanitation worker in Memphis earned $0.94-$1.14 an hour, however in 1968 sanitation laborers earned $1.60 ...
... involves planning and managing Dubai's waste and sewage management infrastructure, within the United Arab ... Water supply and sanitation in Abu Dhabi Bushnaq, Khaled. "System Overflow". Construction Week. Retrieved 1 October 2012. Hare ... Dubai Municipality maintains two main sanitation plants, one in Al Awir, and one in Jebel Ali. Several smaller sewage treatment ... Water supply and sanitation in the United Arab Emirates, Economy of Dubai). ...
... systems are a low-cost sanitation solution. They can be used in rapidly growing urban areas, refugee ... Container-based sanitation (abbreviated as CBS) refers to a sanitation system where toilets collect human excreta in sealable, ... Container-Based Sanitation Alliance Library of Sustainable Sanitation Alliance contains more documents on this topic (CS1 maint ... Sanergy's approach to solving the sanitation crisis involves five key steps: building a network of container-based sanitation ...
"Marine Sanitation Devices." Code of Federal Regulations, 33 CFR 159 "Marine Sanitation Device". Commercial Regulations and ... A marine sanitation device (MSD) is a piece of machinery or a mechanical system that is dedicated to treat, process, and/or ... USCG has certified three kinds of marine sanitation devices. A Type I MSD has a flow-through discharge design. The sewage is ... In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets performance standards for marine sanitation devices, and ...
... (SuSanA) "Sustainable sanitation". Sustainable Sanitation Alliance. Retrieved 8 November 2017. ... used in sanitation List of water supply and sanitation by country Sanitation WASH Human right to water and sanitation Water ... 4-10 "Sustainable Sanitation Alliance: Grant of $2.7 million to supercharge sustainable sanitation knowledge platform". ... Sustainable Sanitation Alliance. Retrieved 22 March 2021. SuSanA (2008). Towards more sustainable sanitation solutions - SuSanA ...
... from 2015 the awards were split into the Sarphati Sanitation Award for Lifetime Achievement and the Sarphati Sanitation Award ... The Sarphati Sanitation Awards were created in 2013 to honour individuals or organisations having made contributions to global ... They are awarded every two years, and named in honour of Samuel Sarphati, a Dutch sanitation engineer. They were created by ... 2013 : Sanergy, a Kenyan company using container-based sanitation as an alternative to sewers. 2015: Life Time Achievement : Dr ...
... (WASA) was established by Lahore Development Authority in 1976. The Water And Sanitation Agency ( ... The Water And Sanitation Agency (WASA) (Urdu: ایجنسی برائے پانی اور نکاسی آب) is a Governmental body responsible for planning, ... Water And Sanitation Agency (WASA) is essentially responsible for Planning, Designing and Construction of Water Supply for: ... Water And Sanitation Agency (Articles containing Urdu-language text, Public benefit corporations, Water companies of Pakistan, ...
The Ministry of Sanitation is a Ministry of the Government of Maharashtra. state. The Ministry is headed by a cabinet level ... Gulab Raghunath Patil is Current Minister of Sanitation Government of Maharashtra. (Articles with short description, Short ...
Water supply and sanitation in Ghana Clean Up the World Gyamfi, Ivy (21 November 2014). "National Sanitation Day must be ... The National Sanitation Day (NSD) is an initiative by the Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development. A bill has ... "Bill on National Sanitation Day reaches Cabinet". Modern Ghana. 28 January 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015. v t e (Infobox ... "President announces National Sanitation Day". Ghana News Agency. Accra - Ghana. 31 October 2014. Retrieved February 6, 2015. " ...
The main objective in declaring 2008 as the International Year of Sanitation is to help get the sanitation MDG back on track ... Particular concerns are: Removing the stigma around sanitation, so that the importance of sanitation can be more easily and ... SuSanA (2008) Towards more sustainable sanitation solutions - SuSanA Vision Document. Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SuSanA) ... The network Sustainable Sanitation Alliance was formed in 2007 in order to have a joint label for the planned activities for ...
... is the common name, in the United States, given to the sanitation procedures in food ... SSOPs, in conjunction with the Master Sanitation Schedule and Pre-Operational Inspection Program, form the entire sanitation ... To assure thorough sanitation, the use of the following items (and others) may be necessary: Alkaline steel wool Detergent Dry ...
... are two facets of military medicine that seek to ensure reduction of casualties through avoidance ... Lack of field hygiene and sanitation were major contributors to non-combat casualties and deaths in pre-modern field armies, ... Inadequate field hygiene and sanitation are also major medical problems and causes of death among refugee populations around ... supervises food sanitation; administers waste disposal; and controls, prevents, and combats insect-borne diseases transmitted ...
... experienced strikes by sanitation workers, including the Memphis sanitation strike and the St. Petersburg sanitation strike, ... The Atlanta sanitation strike of 1977 was a labor strike involving sanitation workers in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. ... 2018 Atlanta sanitation strike St. Petersburg sanitation strike of 1968 Mantler 2013, p. 116: "...the Memphis strike appeared ... In 1970, sanitation workers in Atlanta went on strike, demanding an increase in pay. Atlanta Mayor Sam Massell opposed the ...
... (CLTS) is an approach used mainly in developing countries to improve sanitation and hygiene ... Galvin, M (2015). "Talking shit: is Community-Led Total Sanitation a radical and revolutionary approach to sanitation?". Wiley ... Community-Led Total Sanitation. 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2015. Ahmed, SA (2008) "Community Led Total Sanitation in Bangladesh: ... Opening the Door on the Global Sanitation Crisis. London: Earthscan Mara, D; Lane, J; Scott, BA; Trouba, D (2010). "Sanitation ...
The 2018 Atlanta sanitation strike was a labor strike involving 120 sanitation workers for Republic Services in Atlanta, ... 1977 Atlanta sanitation strike "Teamsters Authorize Strike at Republic Services in Atlanta". International Brotherhood of ... Ellison, Denver; Spink, John; Brasch, Ben (August 10, 2018). "UPDATE: Atlanta sanitation workers end strike with hopes of new ... Ellison, Denver; Spink, John; Brasch, Ben (August 10, 2018). "Atlanta sanitation workers go on strike". WSBB-FM. Retrieved ...
... , acquired from the Etruscans, was very advanced compared to other ancient cities and provided water ... Other aqueducts of importance to Roman sanitation was the Aqua Marcia built between 144-140 BC, which provided large amounts of ... Although there were many sewers, public latrines, baths and other sanitation infrastructure, disease was still rampant. The ... Although there were many sewers, public latrines, baths and other sanitation infrastructure, disease was still rampant. Most ...
... emergency sanitation, environmental sanitation, onsite sanitation and sustainable sanitation. A sanitation system includes the ... or emptying a sanitation technology at any step of the sanitation chain are called "sanitation workers".: 2 Several sanitation ... Onsite sanitation (or on-site sanitation) is defined as "a sanitation system in which excreta and wastewater are collected and ... Media related to Sanitation at Wikimedia Commons Sustainable Sanitation Alliance Sanitation and Wastewater Atlas of Africa ( ...
... entitled Ship Sanitation Control Certificate/Ship Sanitation Control Exemption Certificate ("Ship Sanitation Certificates" or ... The CDC Vessel Sanitation Program (VSP) may choose to issue SSCCs/SSCECs upon request during VSP inspections of cruise ships. ... There is NO authorized way for a cargo vessel to obtain a Ship Sanitation Certificate in the United States at this time. ... If you have questions specifically about ship sanitation inspections on cruise ships, please contact CDC VSP at [email protected]. ...
Web survey powered by SurveyMonkey.com. Create your own online survey now with SurveyMonkeys expert certified FREE templates.
... sanitation, and hygiene needs. Water-related emergencies can include outbreaks, natural disasters, or man-made disasters. ... homeWater, Sanitation, & Hygiene (WASH)-related Emergencies & Outbreaks. *Preparing a Home Water Supplyplus icon *Making Water ...
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Improving childrens access to water, sanitation and hygiene ... Significantly more Kenyans have access to safe drinking water (59 per cent) than to basic sanitation (29 per cent). Since 2000 ... Global evidence shows that better water, sanitation, and hygiene could prevent the deaths of 297,000 children aged under five ... Achieving universal access to drinking water and sanitation by 2030 will be challenging given current levels of investment, ...
ATSDR guides safe sanitation and disinfection practices in homes, schools, and daycares during the COVID-19 pandemic. ... ATSDR guides safe sanitation and disinfection practices in homes, schools, and daycares during the COVID-19 pandemic. ... NCHH developed a Safe Sanitation and Disinfection Guideexternal icon in English and Spanish for healthy housing officials and ... ATSDR led the effort to provide guidance on recommended safe sanitation and disinfection practices for homes, schools, and ...
Total Sanitation and Sanitation Marketing Project. WSP is promoting better sanitation in a number of rural areas in Indonesia ... Sanitation entrepreneurs provide local solutions. Warga is one of many sanitation entrepreneurs who have started their own ... The cost of poor sanitation for Indonesia. Sanitation remains a large problem for Indonesia. Annually, untreated sewage emit ... The World Bank Water and Sanitation Program is implementing a project to help provide affordable sanitation facilities for ...
2015 targets for safe drinking water and sanitation" (10/11). Most of those resources will need to come from the private sector ...
In developing countries, sanitation habits are a major stressor on the availability of clean water. The report says about 3 ... "As long as you dont have basic sanitation, that form will continue unabated. And it spreads enormous disease around the world ... The negative effects of pollution and sanitation on health have reached such staggering proportions that only scientists from ... Sanitation habits increase global health stresses. Elizabeth Howell. CMAJ January 01, 2008 178 (1) 17; DOI: https://doi.org/ ...
World Health Statistics data visualizations dashboard , SDG Target 6.2 , Sanitation and hygiene. ...
The low-cost sanitation programme has now become famous worldwide for how it involves poor communities in upgrading their own ... The low-cost sanitation programme has now become famous worldwide for how it involves poor communities in upgrading their own ... ORIGINS OF THE OPP SANITATION PROGRAMME The low-cost sanitation programme has now become famous worldwide for how it involves ... I have spent two days in Orangi and looked at the Sanitation Project. My comments are as under:. * The process adopted by Dr ...
... sanitation - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to public health events ...
Author of Report on All India Seminar on Rural Environmental Sanitation, February 2-3, 1962 ... Report on All India Seminar on Rural Environmental Sanitation, February 2-3, 1962 ...
... sanitation, and hygiene information for use before and after a disaster or emergency. Information provided by the Centers for ... Food, Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Information for Use Before and After a Disaster or Emergency. ... NASD: Flooded Private Sewage Systems: Safety, Sanitation And Clean-Up Concernsexternal icon ...
Read the latest news about sanitation on TechCrunch ... sanitation. The toilet paper startup backed by Marc Benioff, ... Sanitation And Health Rights in India launched its non-profit for sanitation and water purification services Mar 24, 2016 ... Sanitation and Health Rights in India is the fruit of work that 29-year-old Anoop Jain has struggled with for the better part ...
Reusing the old equipment and leftover designs, sTo Len has created a series of monoprints on paper that remix old sanitation ... This department intervention gives both the public and the sanitation employees a fresh look at their often invisible labor and ... Interdisciplinary artist sTo Len was the Public Artist in Residence for the NY Department of Sanitation from 2021-23. During ... his residency, Len revitalized a dormant sanitation screen printing shop that housed hand-printed street signs, trucks, and ...
People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population) - Eswatini from The World Bank: Data ... People using safely managed sanitation services (% of population) - Eswatini. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme ( JMP ) for ...
... used by the Division of Sanitation Facilities Construction to standardize reporting on the current sanitation deficiencies ... IHS is seeking feedback on updates to the Sanitation Deficiency System Guide, ... The Indian Sanitation Facilities Act authorizes the IHS to provide essential sanitation facilities, such as safe drinking water ... Sanitation Deficiency System, Final Draft for Tribal Consultation [PDF - 187 KB]. Office of Environmental Health and ...
Can understanding how people perceive sanitation help achieve sustainable access to sanitation in cities? ... Sanitation challenges. Sanitation is funded and delivered in different ways globally. In many places, it is increasingly viewed ... Sanitation in informal settlements: a networked problem. Can understanding how people perceive sanitation help achieve ... My key argument has been that if sanitation solutions are to work, they must be rooted in how this sanitation network operates ...
Source of Innovation: Facility to Foster Innovation in Brazils Basic Sanitation Sector. Home Whats our Impact Source of ... The objective is to promote the development and adoption of innovative solutions in the Basic Sanitation sector of Brazil ...
SeeClickFix encourage les habitants à devenir des citoyens actifs en prenant soin de et en améliorant leur ville en signalant des problèmes non urgents dans leur quartier.
Cooks Direct is your go-to shop for Hand Sanitation and all other foodservice equipment and supplies from the industrys top ... What hand sanitation supplies do I need stock up on to ensure all my hand sanitation equipment is operational at all times? ... We carry a variety of commercial hand sanitation products including sanitation towels touchless towel dispensers, soap ... If you need assistance in choosing the best hand sanitation supplies for your institutional kitchen, please give us a call at ...
We provide a platform for knowledge exchange, networking and discussion on all sustainable sanitation topics. ... is an informal network of organisations with a common vision on sustainable sanitation. ... As a member you can interact with thousands of sanitation enthusiasts on the discussion forum. You can also get engaged in one ... 01-02-2024 • Sanitation for Millions:. Toilets Making the Grade® school competition - A Competition where all Participants are ...
Tag: Hygiene and Sanitation. World Toilet Day: Taking to Twitter to talk toilets! November 30, 2017 ... Tags: Event Recording, UN-Water, Private Sector, Hygiene and Sanitation, WASH4Work, World Toilet Day, UNICEF. ... Upcoming webinar: Fostering WASH & Wellbeing at Work-Exploring the impact of sanitation and hygiene in the workplace November 1 ... Tags: Twitter chat, ToiletTalk, Hygiene and Sanitation, World Toilet Day, WSSCC, Integration. ...
apples contaminated contamination harvest harvesting hydrogen peroxide poo sanitation star san washing ... dryhop #neipa bottle conditioning infected beer infection metallic taste philly sour sanitation west coast ipa ... Do any of you worry about sanitation with the suction that is created by cooling it down? Should I do something to protect the ... After watching hundreds and thousands of uniform youtube videos on the equipment sanitation, I found their material to be quite ...
Environmental Sanitation. Safe drinking water and adequate environmental sanitation are preconditions for health and for ... Health and Environmental Sanitation. Health is not one of the benefits of sustainable development: it is a prerequisite. ... Promising health and sanitation intervention approaches are explored in partnership actions for scaling-up at the village, ... NCCR North-South Research on Health and Sanitation is conducted in the following regions and countries:. Central Asia: ...
MAXIMUM 150 WORDS: Remember: front load your paragraphs! This content should include a strong opening sentence describing the health topic in the Eastern Mediterranean (include key words "Eastern Mediterranean" and health topic name for search engine optimization). You should focus on the issue as it relates to the Region and the magnitude of problem in the region, as well as a brief mention of current situation/problem.. ...
There is hope for Kenyans as they are set to benefit from enhanced clean water and sanitation facilities over the next five ... She reveals that only 28 per cent of rural and 32 per cent of urban Kenyans have access to Improved Sanitation and also about 6 ... There is hope for Kenyans as they are set to benefit from enhanced clean water and sanitation facilities over the next five ... US gives Kenya $100m for water, sanitation and hygiene. By Nanjinia Wamuswa , 1yr ago ...
Raritans wide range of products includes marine toilets, sanitation devices, holding tanks, accessories, and many more. ... Categories Marine Sanitation Accessories, Marine Sanitation Devices Tags marine sanitation device Marine Sanitation Device ... Categories Marine Sanitation Accessories, Marine Sanitation Devices Tags marine sanitation device Raritan Marine Sanitation ... Categories Marine Sanitation Devices Tags marine sanitation device Marine Sanitation Device Experts Give Potentially Life ...
  • One of them is "Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Promotion" (WASH) and it includes the following areas: Hygiene promotion, water supply, excreta management, vector control, solid waste management and WASH in disease outbreaks and healthcare settings. (wikipedia.org)
  • 91 Hygiene promotion is seen by many as an integral part of sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council defines sanitation as "The collection, transport, treatment and disposal or reuse of human excreta, domestic wastewater and solid waste, and associated hygiene promotion. (wikipedia.org)
  • With many villagers citing cost as a deterrent to better hygiene, providing affordable sanitation facilities is key in tackling open defecation. (worldbank.org)
  • A World Bank study shows that Indonesia loses 2.4 percent of its GDP annually due to inadequate sanitation, poor hygiene and lack of access to safe water. (worldbank.org)
  • Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) investments help reduce illness from water-borne diseases. (mcc.gov)
  • In the push towards achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6 and bringing sanitation services to everyone by 2030, we cannot neglect Sustainable Development Goal 8, which requires decent conditions for all workers, including sanitation workers. (ipsnews.net)
  • Locally produced sanitation facilities are cheaper than existing models. (worldbank.org)
  • The low-cost sanitation programme has now become famous worldwide for how it involves poor communities in upgrading their own settlements. (dawn.com)
  • The low-cost sanitation programme of the Orangi Pilot Project, initiated by Dr Akhtar Hameed Khan, has now become famous around the world for how it involves poor communities in upgrading their own settlements. (dawn.com)
  • In 1981, Ghulam Kibriya came to my office and informed me that the Orangi Pilot Project, which the renowned social scientist Akhtar Hameed Khan had initiated, was having problems with its sanitation programme, and that maybe I could be of assistance to him. (dawn.com)
  • The Learning Programme is designed for ship inspectors who are in charge of inspection of ships and issuance of Ship Sanitation Certificates under the IHR (2005). (who.int)
  • A new doctoral programme with a focus on sanitation and management will be started, resulting in a strengthening of the field of social sciences and increased public knowledge. (lu.se)
  • The survey questions and response categories pertaining to access to sanitation are fully harmonized between MICS and DHS, which is adopted from the standard questionnaire promoted for inclusion into survey instruments by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme on Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) This can be accessed through www.wssinfo.org. (who.int)
  • The increasingly urban nature of the global sanitation crisis presents a vital challenge to research, policy and practice, indeed to anyone concerned with more just cities. (iied.org)
  • The CDC Vessel Sanitation Program (VSP) may choose to issue SSCCs/SSCECs upon request during VSP inspections of cruise ships. (cdc.gov)
  • A new virtual reality (VR) tool developed by WHO will significantly advance the ship sanitation inspection training process. (who.int)
  • When the VR tool is fully launched, it will elevate the standards of training in the field of ship sanitation inspection. (who.int)
  • Its aim is to let trainees practice the skills they are likely to use in a live ship inspection and to determine how they will apply the Ship Sanitation Inspection knowledge and skills within their own work environment. (who.int)
  • An improved sanitation facility is defined as one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact. (who.int)
  • The percentage of population using an improved sanitation facility. (who.int)
  • The indicator is computed as the rate of the number of people who use an improved sanitation facility, urban and rural, expressed as a percentage. (who.int)
  • Interdisciplinary artist sTo Len was the Public Artist in Residence for the NY Department of Sanitation from 2021-23. (booklyn.org)
  • The Department of Sanitation Services is the exclusive recycling collection service provider for single-family homes and duplexes in the city of Dallas. (dallascityhall.com)
  • Commercial and multi-family properties may request collection services from the Department of Sanitation, or may elect service from a private solid waste hauler that is authorized to conduct business within the city. (dallascityhall.com)
  • Poor sanitation conditions lead to a high prevalence of fecal-borne diseases, such as typhoid and diarrhea, which in any two-week period afflicts 11 percent of Indonesia's children. (worldbank.org)
  • The term environmental sanitation is used to cover the wider concept of controlling all the factors in the physical environment which may have deleterious impacts on human health and well-being. (wikipedia.org)
  • Public health experts have found a strong link between inadequate water and sanitation systems among the poor of the developing world, and major outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. (mongabay.com)
  • Afogados" ironically means "drowned," perhaps an apt description for a city built on a mangrove swamp with inadequate water and sanitation systems. (mongabay.com)
  • For example, our 'everyday sanitation' project with Renu Desai and Steve Graham in Mumbai , we demonstrated that not only did people living in different informal settlements experience distinct forms of inadequate sanitation, the consequences for people's everyday lives were strikingly different. (iied.org)
  • Sanitation includes all four of these technical and non-technical systems: Excreta management systems, wastewater management systems (included here are wastewater treatment plants), solid waste management systems as well as drainage systems for rainwater, also called stormwater drainage. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, diarrhea, a main cause of malnutrition and stunted growth in children, can be reduced through adequate sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Access to clean water and adequate sanitation is a fundamental pillar for improving the livelihoods and well-being of the world's poor. (mcc.gov)
  • For many years, major international organisations have focused on giving people in poor countries access to adequate sanitation facilities. (lu.se)
  • There are still 45 countries in the world where less than half of the population has access to adequate sanitation facilities. (lu.se)
  • Topics that this project aims to improve relate to sanitation in the broadest sense: they include for example topics in the field of health, infrastructure and international development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of MCC's partners invest in urban water and sanitation projects where rapid population growth is straining outdated infrastructure and weak water and sanitation utilities. (mcc.gov)
  • As part of MCC's $66 million Cabo Verde Compact that closed in 2017, MCC supported the Government of Cabo Verde in strengthening its institutions and infrastructure to improve water and sanitation services for its citizens, unleash the tourism industry's full potential, and help people lift themselves out of poverty. (mcc.gov)
  • Large infrastructure investments will be needed to address the region's current water problems, with at least $8 billion required just to meet the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 2015 targets for safe drinking water and sanitation" (10/11). (kff.org)
  • One factor driving the disease is that the city - built on a mangrove swamp - has deficient sanitation infrastructure, making the urban center a perfect breeding ground for mosquitos. (mongabay.com)
  • But public health experts point to a more fundamental problem: the lack of basic water and sanitation infrastructure, particularly in places like Racife, could be a major factor propelling the rise of the virus, and a major culprit behind its rapid spread. (mongabay.com)
  • In Environment and Urbanization , Renu and I look at the everyday life of sanitation in informal settlements and develop the idea of 'sites of entitlement' as a basis for better understanding how sanitation infrastructure and services are perceived and experienced in informal settlements. (iied.org)
  • In this study we aim to quantify the impacts of mining projects on access to water and sanitation infrastructure as. (lu.se)
  • In this study we aim to quantify the impacts of mining projects on access to water and sanitation infrastructure as well as diarrhea and malnutrition among children using data from 131 Demographic and Health Surveys from sub-Saharan Africa. (lu.se)
  • Sanitation is a global development priority and the subject of Sustainable Development Goal 6. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sub-Saharan African region in particular is lagging behind the ambitious goal of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development to ensure universal access to improved and reliable water and sanitation for all (Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6). (lu.se)
  • Please contact VSP ( [email protected] ) with questions about sanitation inspections on cruise ships. (cdc.gov)
  • If you have questions specifically about ship sanitation inspections on cruise ships, please contact CDC VSP at [email protected] . (cdc.gov)
  • The eLearning course aims at introducing the key competencies, with a focus on knowledge and skills, required to perform Ship Sanitation Inspections. (who.int)
  • The Public Health Agency of Sweden has appointed 53 municipalities that are entitled to issue ship sanitation certificates following inspections. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • In March, 2015, the UN's Special Rapporteur on the human right to clean drinking water and basic sanitation, Léo Heller, issued a statement forcefully reminding the world that: "There is a strong link between weak sanitation systems and the current outbreak of the mosquito-borne Zika virus, as well as dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. (mongabay.com)
  • The WikiProject Sanitation seeks to provide up-to-date information to the general public and to people working in the WASH sector or related sectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each seeks to provide practical information and guidance to increase the proportion of the population with access to sanitation. (cdc.gov)
  • Lack of access to sanitation has an impact not only on public health but also on human dignity and personal safety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Access to water is a critical element of economic growth and poverty reduction, from household drinking water and sanitation to power-generation by utilities and crop irrigation. (mcc.gov)
  • In Burkina Faso in West Africa, where only 22.6 per cent of the population have access to basic sanitation, there is little regulation, particularly for the manual emptiers, who use ropes to lower themselves into pits and septic tanks, usually with no protective equipment, and are exposed to deadly asphyxiating gases. (ipsnews.net)
  • A new index shows which countries are leaders in improving access to water and sanitation for their citizens. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The WaSH Performance Index evaluates country performance in improving access to water and sanitation and in eroding inequalities in access. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Can understanding how people perceive sanitation help achieve sustainable access to sanitation in cities? (iied.org)
  • The publication of each of these texts during 2008-declared the International Year of Sanitation by the United Nations General Assembly to draw attention to the 2.6 billion people without access to basic sanitation-is timely. (cdc.gov)
  • Background: Access to improved water and sanitation infrastructures are key determinants of health. (lu.se)
  • Improvements in access to modern water and sanitation infrastructures after mine opening were much larger in households near mining sites than in comparison areas located further away (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) water: 18.60, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 13.08-26.46 and aRRR sanitation: 2.56, 95 % CI: 1.32-4.99). (lu.se)
  • Conclusions: Our results suggest that the opening of mines is associated with improvements in access to modern water and sanitation infrastructures (SDG 6) as well as in some health outcomes (SDG 3). (lu.se)
  • Access to good sanitation is a basic human right. (lu.se)
  • Although the notion of eating a fruit or vegetable grown in excreta is unappealing to some, for most of the world's population, a solution to both the sanitation and waste-disposal conundrums results from building a toilet that has composting ability. (cdc.gov)
  • The World Health Organization defines the term "sanitation" as follows: "Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. (wikipedia.org)
  • The word 'sanitation' also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal. (wikipedia.org)
  • By developing a financially sound, transparent and accountable basis for the delivery of water and sanitation services to the people of Cabo Verde, MCC investments are helping to make these vital services more effective and affordable, including for women-led households and other vulnerable populations. (mcc.gov)
  • They are central to solving the sanitation puzzle and protecting their rights is not just a moral imperative, but also the only way to build up a workforce that is able to deliver sanitation services at the scale required. (ipsnews.net)
  • Though we routinely measure water and sanitation coverage worldwide, this is the first use of the data to fairly rank and compare how countries are fulfilling their obligation to progressively improve these services or, in other words, the efforts they are making compared to their peers. (sciencedaily.com)
  • In the event a customer submits a service request claiming regular collection services were not provided, but Sanitation later determines through vehicle on-board cameras that the rollcart(s) in question were not set out at the prescribed time of collection or did not comply with collection requirements, a collection fee of $25 for garbage and $25 for recyclable materials may be assessed to the dwelling unit's utility account. (dallascityhall.com)
  • Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage. (wikipedia.org)
  • A sanitation system includes the capture, storage, transport, treatment and disposal or reuse of human excreta and wastewater. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reuse activities within the sanitation system may focus on the nutrients, water, energy or organic matter contained in excreta and wastewater. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] However, many in the WASH sector only include excreta management in their definition of sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another definition is in the DFID guidance manual on water supply and sanitation programmes from 1998: "For the purposes of this manual, the word 'sanitation' alone is taken to mean the safe management of human excreta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, we are also working on establishing connections between local groups and organisations that work specifically with sanitation issues, and programmes. (lu.se)
  • Over the course of this work, conducted largely in Mumbai and recently in Cape Town and Kampala, I've returned to one key argument - that urban sanitation must be understood as a networked process in the lives of the urban poor. (iied.org)
  • Urban sanitation links different spheres that go far beyond the safe separation of humans from their wastes, and includes the vital role of land and housing security, food and nutrition, livelihood and education, religion and caste, gender and dignity, contaminated domestic environments and the pollution of water supplies within slums and beyond into downstream rural areas. (iied.org)
  • El Salvador, Niger, and Pakistan are performing better in improving water and sanitation for their citizens than industrial giants like Russia and Brazil according to the new WaSH Performance Index developed by The Water Institute at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's Gillings School of Global Public Health. (sciencedaily.com)
  • WSP estimates that 100 million people in Indonesia lack proper sanitation facilities, and as many as 66 million still practice open defecation. (worldbank.org)
  • While Brazil has repeatedly proposed enhancing its water and sanitation systems, lack of funds, bureaucratic red tape and corruption have combined to stall improvements. (mongabay.com)
  • It was a short meeting, in which he complained bitterly about the greed and lack of innovation in Pakistani professionals and academic institutions, which were unable to help him make sanitation technology and extension processes simpler and cheaper so that communities could finance, build, manage and maintain their own sanitation systems. (dawn.com)
  • The indicator is calculated by multiplying the estimate of the population using sewer connections by the proportion of sewage treated, doing the same for on-site sanitation, and combining the two figures. (who.int)
  • The plight of sanitation workers is in large part due to the fact that many consider them second-class citizens, and many others 'flush and forget' what happens down the (sewer) line. (ipsnews.net)
  • Using this method, the report revealed that a country's Gross Domestic Product did not determine performance in improving water and sanitation for its citizens. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Sanitation and Health Rights in India is the fruit of work that 29-year-old Anoop Jain has struggled with for the better part of the last six years. (techcrunch.com)
  • The Sanitation Workers Project is a structured, first-of-its-kind 5-month long study of sanitation workers across India carried out by Dalberg Advisors in 2017. (susana.org)
  • As information and best practices emerged for preventing the spread of COVID-19, ATSDR led the effort to provide guidance on recommended safe sanitation and disinfection practices for homes, schools, and daycare facilities. (cdc.gov)
  • The World Bank Water and Sanitation Program is implementing a project to help provide affordable sanitation facilities for rural communities. (worldbank.org)
  • Now he's a fledgling entrepreneur producing sanitation facilities. (worldbank.org)
  • The program is expanding their outreach to entrepreneurs seeking to provide affordable sanitation facilities. (worldbank.org)
  • The sanitation entrepreneurs receive training in producing facilities, as well as assistance in obtaining credit also support from local banks and links to markets. (worldbank.org)
  • They then provide a one-stop service for the community's sanitation needs, which include installing household sanitation facilities and help in facilitating credit for payment. (worldbank.org)
  • The SDS Guide is used by the IHS Sanitation Facilities Construction Program to standardize the program's collection of data and reporting on the current sanitation deficiencies affecting American Indian and Alaska Native homes and communities. (ihs.gov)
  • The Indian Sanitation Facilities Act authorizes the IHS to provide essential sanitation facilities, such as safe drinking water and sewerage systems, to Indian homes and communities. (ihs.gov)
  • The IHS Division of Sanitation Facilities Construction will then formulate recommendations for IHS leadership to review and consider. (ihs.gov)
  • Mark Calkins leads the IHS Office of Environmental Health and Engineering Division of Sanitation and Facilities Construction program, the largest engineering program in the Public Health Service, with a staff of over 500 engineers and support personnel. (ihs.gov)
  • Use of improved sanitation facilities is a proxy for the use of basic sanitation. (who.int)
  • The use of sanitation facilities is part of the wealth-index used by household surveys to divide the population into wealth quintiles. (who.int)
  • Linear regression is used to provide estimates of the population using improved sanitation facilities, as well as the proportion of improved supplies which are shared by multiple households. (who.int)
  • Since data on use of sanitation facilities and treatment of faecal wastes are not generally available from the same datasets, the estimates resulting from independent regressions are combined. (who.int)
  • Research has shown that the questions we need to answer are not only diverse, they are also changing, and vary from place to place (for an overview of existing knowledge and debates, see the April and October issues of Environment and Urbanization on sanitation). (iied.org)
  • The estimate in 2017 by JMP states that 4.5 billion people currently do not have safely managed sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the sanitation facility business growing in his village, Warga and the people in his community hope that their village will soon be open defecation free. (worldbank.org)
  • There is particular concern over the discrimination against manual scavengers, people that are socially (and sometimes institutionally) designated to do sanitation work because they belong to the lowest rungs of the caste hierarchies in South Asian countries. (ipsnews.net)
  • I was asked to try and understand why sanitation projects are so expensive that neither the people nor the state can afford them. (dawn.com)
  • He again spoke against the engineers and architects, called them thieves and anti-poor, and said that their solutions were so expensive that the people could not possibly afford them and that the solution to the problem lay in the affordability of sanitation by the people of Orangi. (dawn.com)
  • The mobile zone sanitation system, presented as an innovative idea by a team of 11 students from the UMSA electronics engineering degree during a hackathon, is a device designed for the sanitation of open and closed areas that could be contaminated by COVID and have a large influx of people, such as hospitals, markets and streets. (who.int)
  • ATSDR guides safe sanitation and disinfection practices in homes, schools, and daycares during the COVID-19 pandemic. (cdc.gov)
  • In this short training course, an overview of the 7 step sanitation practices for open plants will be presented through an interactive self-paced format. (nsf.org)
  • As long as you don't have basic sanitation, that form will continue unabated. (cmaj.ca)
  • Large mining projects can promote economic growth and hence investments in water and sanitation infrastructures, but at the same time lead to rapid population growth and environmental degradation. (lu.se)
  • Sanitation systems aim to protect human health by providing a clean environment that will stop the transmission of disease, especially through the fecal-oral route. (wikipedia.org)
  • As can be seen by the list of articles below, articles of interest to this project range from purely sanitation-related topics (like sanitation , toilet ) to articles that are more on the public health and medical side (like neglected tropical disease , diarrhea , helminthiasis ), articles in the field of natural sciences (like groundwater pollution ) and so forth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The negative effects of pollution and sanitation on health have reached such staggering proportions that only scientists from different disciplines working together will be able to reverse the problem, says an author of the United Nations Environment Programme's most recent Global Environment Outlook . (cmaj.ca)
  • Yet this will feel like a distant reality for the millions of sanitation workers in developing countries who are forced to work in conditions that endanger their health and even their lives. (ipsnews.net)
  • The stigma and risks facing sanitation workers is also prevalent in many parts of the world, as a recent report by International Labour Organisation, WaterAid, World Bank and World Health Organisation shows. (ipsnews.net)
  • The Indian Health Service is currently engaging in tribal consultation on proposed updates to the Sanitation Deficiency System (SDS) - A Guide for Reporting Sanitation Deficiencies for American Indian and Alaska Native Homes and Communities (commonly known as the SDS Guide). (ihs.gov)
  • Almost everywhere gender is - or should be - central to sanitation planning, implementation, and maintenance, whether in relation to health and safety for women and girls, education, or livelihood opportunities. (iied.org)
  • The state of sanitation workers remains a blind spot, as workers face significant challenges on multiple fronts - financial, health and social. (susana.org)
  • Maggie Black is a writer who focuses on social development and sanitation, and Ben Fawcett is an environmental health engineer. (cdc.gov)
  • Each book is a worthwhile read for anyone interested in water and sanitation or in international health. (cdc.gov)
  • The vital importance of sanitation to human health and well-being and its role as an engine of development are well recognized. (who.int)
  • Ship sanitation certificates are used to prevent, detect and manage international threats to human health. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • The Public Health Agency of Sweden's regulations and general guidelines contain information about the municipalities with the power to issue ship sanitation certificates, the certificate's formulation, when a ship must present such a certificate, and which authority must receive the certificate. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • 2 Several sanitation "levels" are being used to compare sanitation service levels within countries or across countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are some variations on the use of the term "sanitation" between countries and organizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In developing countries, it normally includes drainage, solid waste management, and vector control, in addition to the activities covered by the definition of sanitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • however special emphasis is given to sanitation issues in developing countries and countries in transition as the need for improvements is greatest there. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of MCC's commitment to reduce poverty worldwide, the agency has invested $2.2 billion in clean water, sanitation, and natural resource improvement projects in partner countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America since 2004. (mcc.gov)
  • In developing countries, sanitation habits are a major stressor on the availability of clean water. (cmaj.ca)
  • By comparing how they are improving water and sanitation compared to best-in-class countries at similar levels of development, the Index provides a fair comparison of progress on water and sanitation. (sciencedaily.com)
  • NCHH developed a Safe Sanitation and Disinfection Guide external icon in English and Spanish for healthy housing officials and homeowners/building owners. (cdc.gov)
  • The human rights of millions of sanitation workers, in particular informal workers, have been violated for a long time, despite the critical importance of their role," Léo Heller, the Special Rapporteur on the human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation, said in his World Toilet Day statement last month. (ipsnews.net)
  • Catarina de Albuquerque, vice chair of Sanitation and Water for All and former United Nations special rapporteur on the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation, and Edmund J. Cain, vice president of grant programs for the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, will offer remarks and participate in discussion at the launch. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Preventing human contact with feces is part of sanitation, as is hand washing with soap. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Human Right to Water and Sanitation was recognized by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly in 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sanitation and decent work are both human rights, and one human right cannot come at the expense of another. (ipsnews.net)
  • National and municipal governments need to take decisive action and put in place urgent measures to protect the human rights of sanitation workers, including laws and regulation to eliminate manual scavenging, recognise sanitation work and gradually formalise it, increasing the protection of the workers. (ipsnews.net)
  • De Albuquerque, a human rights lawyer, says the Index brings together technical analysis of water and sanitation progress and human rights. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The Organizer's Manual will provide tools to build your Face-to-face course according to human and financial resources available, plans and objectives of your organization for improving competencies of ship inspectors who are in charge of inspection of ships and issuance of Ship Sanitation Certificates under the IHR (2005). (who.int)
  • This document clarifies that the CDC currently does not require ships to present ship sanitation control certificates when calling on US ports and that cargo vessels cannot obtain a ship sanitation control or exemption certificate in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Ships in international traffic must have a valid ship sanitation certificate confirming that there are no infectious agents or other hazardous substances on board. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • Municipalities must use the official form that can be found on page 129-130 (annex 1) in WHO:s handbook for the inspection of ships and issuance of ship sanitation certificates. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • Municipalities can also use the evidence report form found on page 141-142 (annex 8) in Handbook for the inspection of ships and issuance of ship sanitation certificates. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • The master of the ship must be able to present a ship sanitation certificate to the Swedish Coast Guard or Swedish Customs upon arrival at the first Swedish port. (folkhalsomyndigheten.se)
  • Why invest in sanitation? (lu.se)
  • My own work has focused on how different groups, especially residents, perceive and experience sanitation, and the implications for improved conditions. (iied.org)
  • Black and Fawcett's historical perspective on sanitation alludes to the potential environmental and economic implications of the benefit of such a strategy. (cdc.gov)
  • The project database contains nearly 400 sanitation projects of many different organizations dealing with research, implementation, advocacy, capacity development etc. (susana.org)
  • Who is authorized to issue Ship Sanitation Certificates in the United States? (cdc.gov)
  • He explains further that Recife is currently negotiating with the state to complete one of the major stalled sanitation projects, which raises the issue of Brazil's intractable bureaucracy. (mongabay.com)
  • It will also be used by 41 State Parties with authorized ports to issue ship sanitation certificates. (who.int)
  • As a result, most nationally representative household surveys include information about water and sanitation. (who.int)
  • Asked why the construction work in Recife has stopped, Dr. Guilherme Tavares, who works with SANEAR , the agency responsible for the city´s sanitation needs, responds: "Different factors produce the challenges. (mongabay.com)
  • We could not complete this work, which was aimed at developing alternatives to the existing formal sanitation standards. (dawn.com)
  • My key argument has been that if sanitation solutions are to work, they must be rooted in how this sanitation network operates in the contexts, lives and perceptions of the poor. (iied.org)
  • The simulation helps them to learn how to conduct a comprehensive end-to-end sanitation inspection of the entire ship including how to undertake risk assessment work, and how to interact with a captain and the crew. (who.int)