In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms. It may be present in higher organisms and has an intrinsic molecular activity only 5% of that of DNA Polymerase I. This polymerase has 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is effective only on duplex DNA with gaps or single-strand ends of less than 100 nucleotides as template, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 2.7.7.7.
Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC 2.7.7.7.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A selective increase in the number of copies of a gene coding for a specific protein without a proportional increase in other genes. It occurs naturally via the excision of a copy of the repeating sequence from the chromosome and its extrachromosomal replication in a plasmid, or via the production of an RNA transcript of the entire repeating sequence of ribosomal RNA followed by the reverse transcription of the molecule to produce an additional copy of the original DNA sequence. Laboratory techniques have been introduced for inducing disproportional replication by unequal crossing over, uptake of DNA from lysed cells, or generation of extrachromosomal sequences from rolling circle replication.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
DNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
The ordered rearrangement of gene regions by DNA recombination such as that which occurs normally during development.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
Variation in a population's DNA sequence that is detected by determining alterations in the conformation of denatured DNA fragments. Denatured DNA fragments are allowed to renature under conditions that prevent the formation of double-stranded DNA and allow secondary structure to form in single stranded fragments. These fragments are then run through polyacrylamide gels to detect variations in the secondary structure that is manifested as an alteration in migration through the gels.
Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The infiltrating of tissue specimens with paraffin, as a supporting substance, to prepare for sectioning with a microtome.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
A heat stable DNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE from the bacteria Thermus aquaticus. It is widely used for the amplification of genes through the process of POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION. EC 2.7.7.-.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-RIBOSE groups from nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) onto protein targets, thus building up a linear or branched homopolymer of repeating ADP-ribose units i.e., POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Ordered rearrangement of B-lymphocyte variable gene regions of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS, thereby contributing to antibody diversity. It occurs during the first stage of differentiation of the IMMATURE B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe: (1) heat denaturation of double-stranded DNA, (2) annealing of probes to target DNA, and (3) joining of the probes by thermostable DNA ligase. After the reaction is repeated for 20-30 cycles the production of ligated probe is measured.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Genes encoding the different subunits of the IMMUNOGLOBULINS, for example the IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES and the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES. The heavy and light immunoglobulin genes are present as gene segments in the germline cells. The completed genes are created when the segments are shuffled and assembled (B-LYMPHOCYTE GENE REARRANGEMENT) during B-LYMPHOCYTE maturation. The gene segments of the human light and heavy chain germline genes are symbolized V (variable), J (joining) and C (constant). The heavy chain germline genes have an additional segment D (diversity).
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A specific pair of GROUP E CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Ordered rearrangement of T-cell variable gene regions coding for the gamma-chain of antigen receptors.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.
The technique of using FIXATIVES in the preparation of cytologic, histologic, or pathologic specimens for the purpose of maintaining the existing form and structure of all the constituent elements.
Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A mammalian fetus expelled by INDUCED ABORTION or SPONTANEOUS ABORTION.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T7-like phages, in the family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects E. coli. It consists of linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and non-permuted.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
3 beta,12 beta,14-Trihydroxy-5 beta-card-20(22)-enolide. A cardenolide which is the aglycon of digoxin. Can be obtained by hydrolysis of digoxin or from Digitalis orientalis L. and Digitalis lanata Ehrh.
Family of retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (ras) originally isolated from Harvey (H-ras, Ha-ras, rasH) and Kirsten (K-ras, Ki-ras, rasK) murine sarcoma viruses. Ras genes are widely conserved among animal species and sequences corresponding to both H-ras and K-ras genes have been detected in human, avian, murine, and non-vertebrate genomes. The closely related N-ras gene has been detected in human neuroblastoma and sarcoma cell lines. All genes of the family have a similar exon-intron structure and each encodes a p21 protein.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of polyadenylic acid from ATP. May be due to the action of RNA polymerase (EC 2.7.7.6) or polynucleotide adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.19). EC 2.7.7.19.
Blood samples can be sent away for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing to confirm infection. Other diseases that might ... "Dectection of Persistent Cytauxzoon Felis Infection by Polymerase Chain Reaction in Three Asymptomatic Domestic Cats". Journal ...
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) shows promise for rapid diagnosis of Brucella species in human blood specimens. Positive PCR at ... PCR testing for fluid and tissue samples other than blood has also been described. A history of animal contact is pivotal; in ...
"Detection of Mycoplasma agalactiae in sheep milk samples by polymerase chain reaction". Veterinary Microbiology. 54 (1): 17-22 ...
Tests that use polymerase chain reaction (PCR, aka nucleic acid amplification) to identify genes unique to N. gonorrhoeae are ... These PCR-based tests require a sample of urine, urethral swabs, or cervical/vaginal swabs. Culture (growing colonies of ... Traditionally, gonorrhea was diagnosed with Gram stain and culture; however, newer polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based ... It is also possible for an individual to have an allergic reaction to the bacteria, in which case any appearing symptoms will ...
Bones are milled to a powder and treated with a solution before the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. Samples for DNA ... Polymerase chain reaction is a process that can amplify segments of DNA and is often used on extracted ancient DNA. It has ... methods utilizes silica and takes advantage of polymerase chain reactions in order to collect ancient DNA from bone samples. ... Extension occurs when Taq polymerase is added to the sample and matches base pairs to turn the two single strands into two ...
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for antigen receptor rearrangements (PARR) identifies circulating tumour cells based on unique ... Flow cytometry detects antibodies linked to tumour cell surface antigens in fluid samples or cell suspensions. ... 2011 Jan;48(1):223-35 Utility of polymerase chain reaction for analysis of antigen receptor rearrangement in staging and ... Weiss AT, Klopfleisch R, Gruber AD (2010). "T-Cell Receptor γ Chain Variable and Joining Region Genes of Subgroup 1 are ...
The methods used were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The dominant parasites were ... Another study of 97 blood samples of South African nyalas revealed the presence of tick-borne hemoparasites (blood parasites). ... During an attempt of blood sampling in the nyala, it was found that Vitamin E levels varied during stress.[20] ... "Conditioning of nyala (Tragelaphus angasi) to blood sampling in a crate with positive reinforcement" (PDF). Zoo Biology. 14 (3 ...
Polymerase chain reaction[edit]. A polymerase chain reaction is a form of enzymatic DNA synthesis in the laboratory, using ... Artificial gene synthesis is the process of synthesizing a gene in vitro without the need for initial template DNA samples. In ... The term DNA synthesis can refer to DNA replication - DNA biosynthesis (in vivo DNA amplification), polymerase chain reaction ... cycles of repeated heating and cooling of the reaction for DNA melting and enzymatic replication of the DNA. ...
"Usefulness of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for detection of rabies RNA in archival samples". Japanese ... 10: PCR technology for lyssavirus diagnosis". In Clewley JP (ed.). The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for Human Viral ... particularly in decomposed samples or archival specimens. The diagnosis can be reliably made from brain samples taken after ... Autolysed samples can, however, reduce the sensitivity and specificity of the FAT. The RT PCR assays proved to be a sensitive ...
isolates have been detected in semen via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescent antibody assay. In 36.6% of ... In normal vaginal microflora, 43.5% of samples were U. Parvum positive. Bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis samples were ... parvum samples isolated from clinical patients reveals a much more diverse set of strains (at least 19), suggesting that ... washed samples, U. parvum was present. Andrology studies surrounding U. parvum demonstrated that the bacteria can remain on the ...
Recent sequencing technologies normally require DNA samples to be amplified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Amplification ... The first two steps are performed individually on each sample and the last step looks at the overlap in all samples. However, ... looking for recursive splicing events per sample and summarizing predicted recursive splicing events for all analyzed sample ( ... RPKM estimation and differential expression analysis between samples (groups of samples). Results of differential expression ...
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests for Lyme disease have also been developed to detect the genetic material (DNA) of the ... "Recovery of Lyme spirochetes by PCR in semen samples of previously diagnosed Lyme disease patients". 14th International ... "Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in synovial fluid from patients with Lyme arthritis". The ... "Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi DNA by polymerase chain reaction in the urine and breast milk of patients with Lyme ...
Diagnosis in horses can be conducted with postmortem samples used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Positive PCR ... system lesions and association with Parelaphostrongylus species by histology and specific nested polymerase chain reaction in ...
Samples of CSF undergo cell count, Gram stains, and viral cultures, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Polymerase chain ... A cerebrospinal fluid sample is taken by lumbar puncture and is tested for leukocyte levels to determine if there is an ... reaction has increased the ability of clinicians to detect viruses such as enterovirus, cytomegalovirus, and herpes virus in ...
"A polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of the parasite Wuchereria bancrofti in human blood samples". Am J Trop Med Hyg ... A polymerase chain reaction test can also be performed to detect a minute fraction, as little as 1 pg, of filarial DNA. Some ... A blood smear is a simple and fairly accurate diagnostic tool, provided the blood sample is taken during the period in the day ... This can occur for years until the inflammatory reaction rises again. In the inflammatory (acute) phase, the antigens from the ...
The four main tests are a potassium hydroxide smear, culture, histology examination, and polymerase chain reaction. The sample ... In some cases, WSO is a misdiagnosis of "keratins granulations" which are not a fungus, but a reaction to nail polish that can ... Dermatophytids can be thought of as an allergic reaction to the fungus. The causative pathogens of onychomycosis are all in the ... To reliably identify nondermatophyte molds, several samples may be necessary. There are five classic types of onychomycosis: ...
Seeds that appear to be GMOs may be tested again using a polymerase chain reaction test. Brazil is the second largest producer ... About 6 million sample tests were to be conducted annually. ... In reaction to this, in early 2008 a pro-rBST advocacy group ...
It was difficult to detect small quantities of virus until the advent of polymerase chain reaction; since then, stored samples ... of a sample of German medical students in 1952 - prior to the advent of the vaccines - had SV40 antibodies. An analysis ...
The water sample is then placed in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) machine. The PCR machine in Italy produces DNA, 98% ... where DNA can replicate through polymerase chain reaction despite the absence of the original DNA in the new water sample. The ... After filtering to remove all the bacteria, polymerase chain reaction was performed, which demonstrated the absence of ... The Italian team emits with a coil for 1 hour the EMS of the WAV file on a sample of distilled water in a sealed metal tube. ...
Several different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests are available for the detection of Leishmania DNA.[3] With this assay, ... Occasionally, amastigotes may be seen lying free between cells.[15] However, the retrieval of tissue samples is often painful ... RNA polymerase II transcribes long polycistronic messages in the absence of defined RNA pol II promoters, and Leishmania has ...
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of samples collected through nasopharyngeal swab is the most commonly used ...
Effects of Heparin on Polymerase Chain Reaction for Blood White Cells. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 1999, 13 (3): 133-140. PMID 10323479 ... Higgins, C. The use of heparin in preparing samples for blood-gas analysis (PDF). Medical Laboratory Observer. October 2007.. ... Outbreak of adverse reactions associated with contaminated heparin. N Engl J Med. 2008, 359 (25): 2674-84. PMC 3810025. PMID ...
Researchers are currently developing a polymerase chain reaction-based method of detecting the parasites in skin biopsies. ... Diagnosticians must not rely entirely on blood samples, since microfilariae have also been detected in the skin. Ultrasound may ... Microscopic examination is the most practical diagnostic tool used to identify the M. ozzardi microfilariae in blood samples ...
This sample can then be tested by either culture or by polymerase chain reaction. Prevention is mainly by vaccination with the ... polymerase chain reaction (PCR), direct fluorescent antibody (DFA), and serological methods (e.g. complement fixation test). ... Diagnosis is by collecting a sample from the back of the nose and throat. ...
... but is now usually performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. For example, the standard protocols for DNA ... In RFLP analysis, a DNA sample is digested into fragments by one or more restriction enzymes, and the resulting restriction ... The basic technique for the detection of RFLPs involves fragmenting a sample of DNA with the application of a restriction ... RFLP analysis was also the basis for early methods of genetic fingerprinting, useful in the identification of samples retrieved ...
The methodology would employ polymerase chain reaction to replicate a small DNA sample to a size sufficiently large for testing ... and it is hard to get a carbon sample of them without the carbon in the parchment contaminating it.[19] ...
It can be formed artificially, using various methods including polymerase chain reactions (PCR) or ligase chain reactions (LCR ... PCR can be used to determine sex from a human DNA sample.[15] The loci of Alu element insertion is selected, amplified and ... adapted for carrying out the method includes a pair of primers to amplify the locus and optionally polymerase chain reaction ... "The ligase chain reaction as a primary screening tool for the detection of culture positive tuberculosis". Thorax. 55 (11): 955 ...
First, in 1983 Kary Mullis invented the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, a method for amplifying DNA concentrations. ... The biochip is used to simultaneously analyze a panel of related tests in a single sample, producing a patient profile. The ... This discovery made possible the detection of extremely small quantities of DNA in samples. Secondly in 1986 Hood and co- ... On antibody-antigen binding a chemiluminescence reaction produces light. Detection is by a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. ...
The detection of airborne mycobacterium tuberculosis using micropore membrane air sampling and polymerase chain reaction. Chest ...
... she developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that could detect Encephalitozoon intestinalis in stool samples. Her ...
... by polymerase chain reaction, PCR) and then detecting the paternally inherited DNA from the plasma sample. The technology for ... There was a problem, however, of how to ascertain which DNA in the sample was that of the fetus and which was the mother's ( ... detecting the presence of a paternally inherited nucleic acid of fetal origin in the sample.. ... According to the patent, fetal DNA is from 0.39% of the sample (the lowest concentration measured in early pregnancy), to as ...
... detecting the viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)[6][23] and detecting proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ... Muyembe took a blood sample from a Belgian nun; this sample would eventually be used by Peter Piot to identify the previously ... Virus strain samples isolated from both outbreaks were named "Ebola virus" after the Ebola River, near the first-identified ... After confirming samples tested by the United States National Reference Laboratories and the Centers for Disease Control, the ...
Many modern molecular tests such as flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, gene ... Interventional radiologists can access areas in the body under imaging for an intervention or diagnostic sampling. ...
Tagging can be done in various ways, such as nick translation, or Polymerase chain reaction using tagged nucleotides. ... The tissue sample is chemically treated in order to make the cell membranes permeable to the fluorescently tagged ... Repetitive DNA sequences must be blocked by adding short fragments of DNA to the sample. The probe is then applied to the ... If the pathogen is present in the tissue sample, then the pathogen's cells will fluoresce after treatment with the tagged ...
This can be detected at low cost using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) of intron 1, followed by gel electrophoresis. Two bands ... enable it to be used in sex determination of unknown human samples. AMELX's intron 1 contains a 6 bp deletion relative to ... causing misidentification of the sample as female.[3] The misidentification rate may vary among populations, but in general ... of DNA, at 106bps and 112bps, are resolved if both the AMELX and AMELY versions of the gene are present (i.e. the sample is ...
... blood-sample testing with polymerase chain reaction is required.[4]. A safe and effective vaccine against yellow fever exists, ... A direct confirmation can be obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, where the genome of the virus is ... compared to an earlier sample) can confirm yellow fever. Together with clinical symptoms, the detection of IgM or a four-fold ...
... revolutionized molecular biology by allowing the polymerase chain reaction to be used in research as a simple and rapid ... to detect prokaryotes from environmental samples (such as water or soil) by multiplying their ribosomal genes. This allows the ... This new appreciation of the importance and ubiquity of archaea came from using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ... Archaea exhibit a great variety of chemical reactions in their metabolism and use many sources of energy. These reactions are ...
... by performing polymerase chain reaction using dNTPs or NTPs derived from bacteria grown in an isotopically enriched environment ... These early studies focussed on tRNA because these nucleic acids were the only samples available at that time with low enough ...
The current techniques for paternity testing are using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length ... An episode of Solved shows this test used to see if a blood sample matches with the victim of a kidnapping. ... In the 2018 case of Anderson V Spencer the Court of Appeal permitted for the very first time DNA samples taken from a Deceased ... To satisfy the chain-of-custody legal requirements, all tested parties have to be properly identified and their specimens ...
Effects of heparin on polymerase chain reaction for blood white cells»։ J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 13 (3): 133-40։ 1999։ PMID 10323479 ... Higgins, C. (October 2007)։ «The use of heparin in preparing samples for blood-gas analysis»։ Medical Laboratory Observer ... A Supply Chain Under Scrutiny։ Վերցված է նոյեմբերի 1, 2018 ...
Polymerase chain reaction[edit]. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays are the most commonly used molecular technique to ... Tissue or fluid samples are tested for the presence of a specific pathogen, which is determined by growth in a selective or ... Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR (1977) DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors" Proceedings of the National Academy of ... This binding then sets off a chain of events that can be easily and definitively observed, depending on the test. More complex ...
A type of polymerase chain reaction that detects the virus's RNA is more accurate.[2] ... tracking the spread of avian influenza requires laboratory testing of samples from infected birds. Some strains such as Asian ... The most dangerous adverse effect is a severe allergic reaction to either the virus material itself or residues from the hen ... These core proteins and vRNA form a complex that is transported into the cell nucleus, where the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ...
Generally this is achieved through the use of the polymerase chain reaction, a highly sensitive technique that underpins much ... Once the target is determined, a sample of blood or bone marrow is obtained, nucleic acid is extracted, and the sample analyzed ... Generally this is achieved through the use of reverse transcription of the RNA followed by polymerase chain reaction. RNA-based ... These can measure minute levels of cancer cells in tissue samples, sometimes as low as one cancer cell in a million normal ...
Histone proteins are made up of long chains of amino acids. If the amino acids that are in the chain are changed, the shape of ... ribose polymerase) and its product poly(ADP)-ribose (PAR) accumulate at sites of DNA damage as part of a repair process.[32] ... Due to limits of sample size, there is a probability that an effect will not be demonstrated to within statistical significance ... The acetylation event converts the positively charged amine group on the side chain into a neutral amide linkage. This removes ...
The amino acids in a polypeptide chain are linked by peptide bonds. Once linked in the protein chain, an individual amino acid ... About 4,000 reactions are known to be catalysed by enzymes.[32] The rate acceleration conferred by enzymatic catalysis is often ... The sample is prepared for normal electron microscopic examination, and then treated with an antibody to the protein of ... by proteins such as RNA polymerase. Most organisms then process the pre-mRNA (also known as a primary transcript) using various ...
Strains were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. ... It did not occur near the virus storage area, and no samples were compromised, but the incident prompted a review of risks to ... reactions, including toxic or allergic reaction at the site of the vaccination (erythema multiforme), spread of the vaccinia ... Efficacy and adverse reaction incidence are similar to Dryvax.[62] The vaccine is not routinely available to the US public; it ...
A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) then coats each bead with clonal copies of the DNA molecule followed by immobilization for ... Sample preparation[edit]. The success of any DNA sequencing protocol relies upon the DNA or RNA sample extraction and ... "Use of automated sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-generated amplicons to identify three types of cholera toxin subunit B ... Chain-termination methods[edit]. Main article: Sanger sequencing. The chain-termination method developed by Frederick Sanger ...
Humar A, Ohrt C, Harrington MA, Pillai D, Kain KC (1997). "Parasight F test compared with the polymerase chain reaction and ... these tests will give negative results with samples containing only P. vivax, P. ovale, or P. malariae; many cases of non- ... Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase [EC 4.1.2.13] catalyzes a key reaction in glycolysis and energy production and is produced by ... Glutamate is a principal amino donor to other amino acids in subsequent transamination reactions. The multiple roles of ...
Another possible method of detection is by polymerase chain reaction. If other sources of infection are suspected, cultures of ... Blood culture bottles: orange cap for anaerobes, green cap for aerobes, and yellow cap for blood samples from children[1]. ... Shear MJ (1944). "Chemical treatment of tumors, IX: Reactions of mice with primary subcutaneous tumors to injection of a ... according to the nationwide inpatient sample from the United States, the incidence of severe sepsis increased from 200 per ...
Technologies based upon the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method will become nearly ubiquitous gold standards of diagnostics ... Instrumentation can control sampling, reagent use, reaction times, signal detection, calculation of results, and data ... There is a general chain of events that applies to infections.[22] The chain of events involves several steps-which include the ... A sample taken from potentially diseased tissue or fluid is then tested for the presence of an infectious agent able to grow ...
Another method of screening is with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Some libraries are stored as pools of clones and screening ... The number of clones to get a sampling of all the genes is determined by the size of the organism's genome as well as the ...
... that he was told by Nobel-prize-winning chemist Kary Mullis that LSD had helped him develop the polymerase chain reaction that ... On the West Coast in the early 1960s LSD and morning glory seeds were readily available, so I sampled those, too.. ... Adverse psychiatric reactions are possible, such as anxiety, paranoia, and delusions.[7] Distressing flashbacks might occur in ... Other physical reactions to LSD are highly variable and nonspecific, some of which may be secondary to the psychological ...
... in unusual cases it may be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of the blister fluid or scabs.[7] Testing for ... The fluid can also be "cultured", whereby attempts are made to grow the virus from a fluid sample. Blood tests can be used to ...
Polymerase chain reaction and specific mutation testing. *Sequencing. Treatments[edit]. Although research is ongoing, treatment ... Sample, Ian (2012-09-17). "Regulator to consult public over plans for new fertility treatments". The Guardian. London. ... "David Keilin's respiratory chain concept and its chemiosmotic consequences" (PDF). Nobel institute.. ... Human mitochondrial DNA encodes 13 proteins of the respiratory chain, while most of the estimated 1,500 proteins and components ...
They assessed the presence of DNA/RNA with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques for Y. pestis from the tooth sockets in ... despite extensive samples from other mass graves.[39] Other arguments include the lack of accounts of the death of rats before ...
Polymerase chain reaction is a method of identifying genes related to antibiotic susceptibility.[18] In the PCR process, a ... Sometimes multiple samples may be taken if the source of an infection is not clear.[1] These samples are transferred to the ... Genetic testing, such as via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA microarray, DNA chips, and loop-mediated isothermal ... and genetic methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing have been available since the early 2000s. Research is ...
... and their lengths compared to each other by Southern blotting or by the much faster method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR).[ ... One way of identifying and categorizing multiple bacterial organisms in a sample is to use ribotyping.[37] In ribotyping, ... differing lengths of chromosomal DNA are isolated from samples containing bacterial species, and digested into fragments.[37] ...
Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in blood samples using polymerase chain reaction.. Rattanathongkom A1, Sermswan RW, ... were used for amplification of bacterial DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Amplification with these primers yielded a ... Non-specific amplification of other bacterial DNAs from 18 samples of bacteria was not observed. Blood samples from seven ... Experiments involving inoculation of the organism into uninfected blood samples showed that the method could be used to detect ...
... environmental and food samples. Although this technique can be extremely effective with … ... polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology has been recognised as a rapid, sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tool for ... Biotechnical use of polymerase chain reaction for microbiological analysis of biological samples Biotechnol Annu Rev. 2000;5:87 ... Since its introduction in the mid-80s, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology has been recognised as a rapid, sensitive and ...
Specific and Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Clinical Samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction. Anamika ... "Specific and Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Clinical Samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction," ...
Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium in clinical samples by polymerase chain reaction.. de Barbeyrac B1 ... were examined for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Urogenital ... Cultures of all the samples were negative. The oligonucleotides were chosen from the published nucleotide sequences of the P1 ... Respiratory tract specimens, 75 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples and 19 throat swabs from 75 hospitalized adult patients ( ...
Pathogens Causing Meningitis in Culture-Negative Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Walaa ... culture-negative CSF samples from suspected cases of bacterial meningitis were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction ... Four (10%) samples were negative by real-time PCR for all tested organisms. Conclusion. The use of molecular techniques as real ... Positive real-time PCR results for Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected in 36 (90%) of culture-negative CSF samples while no ...
Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in clinical samples from pediatric patients by polymerase chain reaction.. L Skakni, A ... The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA in clinical samples (nasopharyngeal ... Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in clinical samples from pediatric patients by polymerase chain reaction. ... Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in clinical samples from pediatric patients by polymerase chain reaction. ...
Rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses from clinical samples by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.. R ... Rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses from clinical samples by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. ... Rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses from clinical samples by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. ... Rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses from clinical samples by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. ...
... bancrofti DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A single microfilaria in 100 µl of blood or added to 1 ml of blood, a ... The parasite DNA in human blood and hydrocele samples and in mosquitoes was isolated free of any PCR inhibitors using simple ... Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Technique for the Detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in Human Blood Samples, Hydrocele Fluid, ... Identification of Single Specimens of the Anopheles Gambiae Complex by the Polymerase Chain Reaction Julie A. Scott, William G ...
Francisella tularensis in infected murine spleens and culture-positive blood samples was reliably detected by nested PCR ... yielded amplifiable DNA without dilution of the murine tissues samples. ... Abstract We have developed a highly sensitive method for detection of Francisella tularensis in clinical samples based on a ... nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the FopA gene. Mice infected with F. tularensis were killed at 24-hr intervals, and ...
Using a patient's buffy coat and tick-bite site crust samples, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using ... Six days after doxycycline administration, PCR with the buffy coat sample was negative but PCR with a crust tissue sample from ... Until now, the utility of tick-bite site samples for HGA diagnosis has not been reported. ... PCR with buffy coat and crust samples obtained before doxycycline administration was positive. ...
Polymerase chain reaction genotyping of Epstein-Barr virus in scraping samples of the tongue lateral border in HIV-1 ... Detection and genotyping of Epstein-Barr virus by polymerase chain reaction in tissue obtained from cases with Hodgkins ... by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Fraga-Fernandez et al. 1990, 1992, Dias et al. 2000, 2001). ... EBV-1 was identified in the 31 samples (15 without OHL, 7 with clinical OHL and 9 with subclinical OHL), EBV-2 in 12 samples ( ...
... and virulence factors of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from various samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR). ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a rapid method with high sensitivity and specificity for specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ... band 800 bp: inlA, band 517 bp: inlC, and band 237bp: inlJ). PCR: polymerase chain reaction; DNA: deoxyribonucleic acid. ... of Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from clinical and non-clinical samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction ...
Application of polymerase chain reaction to detect RNA coliphage Qβ in environmental water samples Limsawat Sunun Limsawat ... Application of polymerase chain reaction to detect RNA coliphage Qβ in environmental water samples. Water Sci Technol 1 March ... in reaction incorporating with lower Taq polymerase concentration (0.5 unit/40 μl total reaction) caused quite low sensitivity ... The maximum sensitivity is 0.3 PFU/reaction using condition of 35-cycle amplification with Taq polymerase 2.5 units and 55°C ...
... was used as template to optimise a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of bluetongue virus RNA. Pairs of ... and buffy coat samples from cattle infected with BTV4. Positive results were obtained from samples taken 7 days post-infection ... p.i.) (containing 1.6 x 10(3) TCID50 of virus/ml of whole blood) and from the RBC sample only, taken 14 days p.i. (16 TCID50/ml ... However, at 28 days p.i. (less than 1.6 TCID50/ml) BTV RNA was not detected using the PCR in either sample. ...
... ... Liquefaction of sputum samples with NaOH and subsequent removal of inhibitors of the polymerase reaction with a 50% sucrose ... for the routine preparation of sputum samples for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by using polymerase chain reaction ... Multiple samples can be handled simultaneously, and results can be obtained in one working day. ...
... ... Purification of sputum samples through sucrose improves detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction. ... Liquefaction of sputum samples with NaOH and subsequent removal of inhibitors of the polymerase reaction with a 50% sucrose ... for the routine preparation of sputum samples for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by using polymerase chain reaction ...
Polymerase Chain Reaction.. Sample preparation was performed similarly to that described by Costello et al. (1). Briefly, each ... reads from each environmental sample show that samples from a given environment type cluster together well. Samples are feces ( ... when including more barcoded samples), 2,000 sequences were randomly sampled without replacement from each sample in the env5 ... These include samples from human feces (n = 3), skin (n = 3), and the dorsal tongue surface (n = 3) (1); fecal samples from ...
Polymerase chain reaction. PCR-sequence-specific primers (SSP) for the detection of KIR gene loci in genomic DNA are detailed ... Sample preparation. Genomic DNA was extracted from 5 × 106 PBMCs, bone marrow mononuclear cells, or BLCL tissue culture cells ... Primer pairs were then designed to specifically identify the intact KIR2DS4 gene and KIR1D from genomic DNA samples (Table I⇑ ... Amplification of KIR2DS4 using previously published primer pairs (29) was performed on genomic DNA samples. PCR products were ...
... chain reaction for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in pooled serum samples and use of pooled polymerase chain reaction ... chain reaction for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in pooled serum samples and use of pooled polymerase chain reaction ... chain reaction for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in pooled serum samples and use of pooled polymerase chain reaction ... chain reaction for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in pooled serum samples and use of pooled polymerase chain reaction ...
Sample collection, DNA extractions, polymerase chain reaction amplifications. We collected specimens of the target species from ... Convergence of independent chains and adequate mixing of all parameters were checked in Tracer using the Effective Sample Size ... We ran the analyses with an uncorrelated relaxed molecular clock with 2 independent chains of 50 million generations, sampling ... Sampling sites and median joining (MJ) mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) haplotype networks (shown as insets ...
Many scientists and other polymerase chain reaction (PCR) users believe samples need to be refrigerated immediately after ... Waiting for a reaction to finish can be inconvenient, though, and leaving a thermal cycler cooling overnight can severely ... If we can study DNA from samples that have been in the environment for hundreds and even thousands of years, it is to be ... This results in users waiting for the reactions to finish so that they can place the tubes in a fridge or freezer, or ...
... polymerase chain reaction; semi-quantitative multiplex measurement ... However, a quantitative assessment is preferred when monitoring environmental samples for respiratory viruses. In this study, ... Semi-quantitative analysis of influenza samples using the Luminex xTAG( ) respiratory viral panel kit.. ... Respiratory-infections; Respiratory-equipment; Viral-infections; Viral-diseases; Sampling; Environmental-factors; Pulmonary- ...
Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Total RNA was deoxyribonuclease (DNase) I-treated, and complementary DNA (cDNA ... Patient-derived samples were analyzed by IHC for immunoregulatory molecules. Data analysis was done in a blinded fashion, and ... Indeed, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed higher expression of IDO, PD-L1, and ... Reactions were run on an ABI Prism 7300 Sequence Detection System machine and analyzed. Prevalidated primers and probes ...
Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Syrian patients by double-repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction ... Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Syrian patients by double-repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction ... Sample. Following an agreement with the Syrian Ministry of Health, we were able to obtain samples from 88 patients previously ... The double-repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction (DRE-PCR) genotyping method addresses variations in the proximity ...
Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis of Lebanese patients by double-repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction ... Double-repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction was used to differentiate between strains. Various correlations related to ... Sample. Following an agreement with the National Tuberculosis Programme of the Lebanese Ministry of Health, sputum samples from ... Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis of Lebanese patients by double-repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction ...
... polymerase chain reaction.. * CDC prefers simultaneous testing of paired samples. IgM tests are not strongly supportive of ... Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of body fluids (e.g., feces, milk, and vaginal mucus) is a more reliable method to ... polymerase chain reaction; PET = positron emission tomography.. * This algorithm is intended for use as a general guide and ... CDC accepts samples and performs testing at no charge if the samples have been submitted with the approval of or through a ...
... polymerase chain reaction; TCR, T-cell receptor. ... Light chain restriction, κ/λ. NA. Polytypic. Polytypic. ... Spontaneously Ruptured Spleen Samples in Patients With Infectious Mononucleosis. Analysis of Histology and Lymphoid ...
Samples were re-tested using identical protocols and only 59.3% of the samples with 10 parasite/ml or less were qRT-kDNA PCR ... Furthermore, 10.8% of the PCR negative samples were positive in the second test. Most samples with higher parasitemias remained ... Of 4,757 samples, 680 (14.3%) were found positive for Leishmania k-DNA but most of those (69%) had less than 10 parasites/ml of ... DNA sequencing of ITS1 PCR products showed that 20/22 samples were Leishmania donovani while two had ITS1 sequences homologous ...
Thus identification of a given species using a limited sample is of great importance in current application of DNA barcodes. ... In addition, discrepancies between nuclear and cpDNA barcodes in some samples demonstrated the ability to discriminate hybrid ... to explore whether DNA barcodes can provide reliable specific-species discrimination in the context of incomplete sampling. ... we hypothesized that a specific-species could be identified from a phylogenetic framework using incomplete sampling-through ...
... when false-positive samples from patients (n = 83) with a known microbiologic diagnosis of MTBC or patients receiving current ... MTBC, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; AFB, acid-fast bacilli; n, no. of samples. ...
  • Two 22-base oligonucleotide primers, based on sequences from a specific DNA probe, were used for amplification of bacterial DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (nih.gov)
  • Non-specific amplification of other bacterial DNAs from 18 samples of bacteria was not observed. (nih.gov)
  • The total time required for sample processing, amplification and visualization was approximately 3.5 h. (nih.gov)
  • Oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify a 490-basepair DNA fragment in the 5′ end of the pWb 12 repeated DNA sequence in Wuchereria bancrofti for specific amplification of W. bancrofti DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (ajtmh.org)
  • The sensitivity of the PCR amplification was improved by optimizing the parameters to be evaluated for efficient PCR including KCl in buffer components, Taq polymerase, annealing temperature, and number of cycles. (iwaponline.com)
  • The maximum sensitivity is 0.3 PFU/reaction using condition of 35-cycle amplification with Taq polymerase 2.5 units and 55°C annealing temperature. (iwaponline.com)
  • A method is described for the routine preparation of sputum samples for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by using polymerase chain reaction amplification. (sun.ac.za)
  • Liquefaction of sputum samples with NaOH and subsequent removal of inhibitors of the polymerase reaction with a 50% sucrose centrifugation step (5 min) in a desktop centrifuge allow direct amplification of a 123-bp repetitive region of the M. tuberculosis genome. (sun.ac.za)
  • Each ReadyMix contains Sigma's antibody mediated hot start mechanism, JumpStart™ Taq DNA Polymerase, for highly specific amplification. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • All samples were subjected to amplification on the ABI PRISM 7700 Sequence Detection Systems. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technology has permitted rapid amplification of BTV and EHDV RNA in clinical samples, and RT-PCR-based procedures are now available. (scribd.com)
  • To address this issue, herein, we describe an integrated sample-in-digital-answer-out (SIDAO) diagnostic system incorporating DNA extraction and digital recombinase polymerase amplification, which enables rapid and quantitative nucleic acid analysis from bodily fluids within a disposable cartridge. (springer.com)
  • To implement this objective, a commercial, clinical, genus DNA amplification method utilizing the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was interfaced with novel air sampling strategies in the laboratory. (cdc.gov)
  • testing: sample preparation, DNA amplification and detection. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The method has been demonstrated as useful for studying variations in gene sequences - such as copy number variants and point mutations - and it is routinely used for clonal amplification of samples for next-generation sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, nucleic acids may be quantified by comparing the number of amplification cycles and amount of PCR end-product to those of a reference sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the most significant limitation of PCR is that PCR amplification efficiency in a sample of interest may be different from that of reference samples. (wikipedia.org)
  • in Clinical Stool Samples Using SYBR Green Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction," The Scientific World Journal , vol. 2014, Article ID 645084, 8 pages, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • We therefore investigated the impact of sample collection quality and the presence of visible mould in samples upon respiratory virus detection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. (aappublications.org)
  • For home swab collection to testing, a private laboratory now cannot charge beyond Rs 2,000 for real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (indianexpress.com)
  • This multiplex PCR assay will provide specific, rapid and reliable results and allow for the cost effective detection of target pathogens in a single reaction tube in mixed bacterial communities that are prevalent in shrimp products. (scialert.net)
  • The inconsistency of the detection limit between plaque assay and RT-PCR assay may be caused by the effects of inhibitors in night soil sample. (iwaponline.com)
  • Conclusions: This modification is highly reproducible for quantitation of mRNA and significantly reduces the number of PCR reactions required for each assay. (elsevier.com)
  • It can be used to assay several RNA molecules in a given sample by designing RNA mimics and PCR primers to generate PCR products of different lengths so that they can be analyzed by the laser scanning of a single lane of electrophoretic gel. (elsevier.com)
  • All 15 blood samples of antibody positive ruminants and three antibody negative samples were subjected to conventional Trans-PCR assay with a commercial PCR kit (Genekam Biotechnology AG, Duisburg, Germany). (doaj.org)
  • 1625 samples tested positive by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. (bmj.com)
  • Specimens with an optical density greater than 30% of the recommended cut off point were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay (Amplicor, Roche, Switzerland). (bmj.com)
  • Sample colonies for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) diagnostic assay development. (usda.gov)
  • 3. The microfluidic device of claim 1 wherein at least one of said reservoirs is a zone for receiving sample material in a sample assay. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The current study was designed to develop and validate a rapid and accurate diagnostic assay to detect two important genera of dermatophytes in dogs, Microsporum and Trichophyton differentially by a uniplex PCR reaction.18S ribosomal RNA gene of both the genera was used to design common forward and reverse primers. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • A PCR solution is made similarly to a TaqMan assay, which consists of template DNA (or RNA), fluorescence-quencher probes, primers, and a PCR master mix, which contains DNA polymerase, dNTPs, MgCl2, and reaction buffers at optimal concentrations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anamika Singh and Vijendra Kumar Kashyap, "Specific and Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Clinical Samples by Polymerase Chain Reaction," Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases , vol. 2012, Article ID 654694, 5 pages, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • Routine application of the polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples. (bmj.com)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from previously treated patients (n = 88) from all regions of Syrian Arab Republic were characterized in terms of antibiotic sensitivity and genotyping using double-repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction (DRE-PCR) method for the proximity of the repetitive DNA elements IS6110 (a mobile genetic element) and PGRS. (who.int)
  • Les isolats de Mycobacterium tuberculosis issus de patients précédemment traités (n = 88) provenant de toutes les régions de la République arabe syrienne ont été caractérisés en termes de sensibilité aux antibiotiques et en fonction de leur génotype au moyen de la méthode de PCR d'éléments répétitifs doubles (DRE-PCR) pour la proximité des éléments d'ADN IS6110 répétés (élément génétique mobile) et des séquences répétées PGRS (Polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence). (who.int)
  • Au total, 87 isolats de Mycobacterium tuberculosis issus de patients de toutes les régions du Liban ont été recueillis et caractérisés en termes de sensibilité aux médicaments. (who.int)
  • Polymerase chain reaction using IS6110 primer to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical samples. (bvsalud.org)
  • We evaluate the quantitative capabilities of the system by analyzing Mycobacterium tuberculosis genomic DNA from both spiked saliva and serum samples, and demonstrate excellent analytical accuracy and specificity. (springer.com)
  • Two reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction tests, 1 quantitative (qRT-nPCR) and 1 standard (RT-nPCR), were evaluated to assess sensitivity for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) of a single positive serum sample in a pool of 30. (illinois.edu)
  • Semi-quantitative analysis of influenza samples using the Luminex xTAG( ) respiratory viral panel kit. (cdc.gov)
  • However, a quantitative assessment is preferred when monitoring environmental samples for respiratory viruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The efficacy of quantitative real-time kinetoplast DNA/PCR (qRT-kDNA PCR) for detecting Leishmania donovani in dried-blood samples was assessed in volunteers living in an endemic focus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Quantitative PCR reaction setup is tedious and time consuming. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Automated methods have been developed and validated for Quantitative PCR reaction setup. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Telomere length was assessed using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. (mdpi.com)
  • Comparison of quantitative airborne fungi measurements by active and passive sampling methods. (cdc.gov)
  • The present study compared the airborne fungi collection performance of a two-stage cyclone sampler (active method) to the performance of the Personal Aeroallergen Sampler (passive method) using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays. (cdc.gov)
  • Blood samples from seven patients proven to have melioidosis by haemoculture were positive using these primers. (nih.gov)
  • Some non-suspicious soil samples collected from different locations yielded positive results with presently published primers or probes targeting the B or C gene of pX02 and with primers targeting the chromosomal sequence B813. (nih.gov)
  • Using a patient's buffy coat and tick-bite site crust samples, we performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing using Ehrlichia - or Anaplasma -specific primers. (ajtmh.org)
  • Nested polymerase chain reaction was performed using the primers Hp1, Hp2, Hp3 targeting 16S rRNA gene. (elsevier.com)
  • We and others recently have analyzed a series of melanoma metastases by gene expression profiling and confirmatory assays, and found that some samples contain abundant CD8 + T cell infiltrates and some do not ( 13 - 16 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • The current study demonstrates that concentration methods of P. falciparum gametocyte-infected whole blood samples can enhance transmission in mosquito-feeding assays. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The polymerase chain reaction method is used to quantify nucleic acids by amplifying a nucleic acid molecule with the enzyme DNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several different methods can be used to partition samples, including microwell plates, capillaries, oil emulsion, and arrays of miniaturized chambers with nucleic acid binding surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • Respiratory tract specimens, 75 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples and 19 throat swabs from 75 hospitalized adult patients (of whom 55 were seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus) with pulmonary infiltrates, were examined for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (nih.gov)
  • The major findings of this study are the presence of DNA from M. pneumoniae in respiratory specimens from patients for whom cultures were negative and DNA from M. genitalium in respiratory and urogenital samples. (nih.gov)
  • In this preliminary study, we have proceeded to look for C. burnetii DNA in those antibody positive specimens employing an imported commercial C. burnetii polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit. (doaj.org)
  • A highly sensitive, specific, rapid and simple method to detect Burkholderia pseudomallei in blood samples was developed. (nih.gov)
  • Experiments involving inoculation of the organism into uninfected blood samples showed that the method could be used to detect as few as 1 bacterial cell ml-1 of whole blood. (nih.gov)
  • We have used the polymerase chain reaction to detect Mycoplasma genitalium in artificially seeded human throat swab samples as well as in clinical material. (asm.org)
  • A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ELISA technique to detect Bacillus anthracis from soil samples has been developed. (nih.gov)
  • The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect Mycoplasma pneumoniae DNA in clinical samples (nasopharyngeal aspirations or bronchoalveolar lavages) obtained from 100 children, 1 month to 16 years old. (docphin.com)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a polymerase chain reaction ( PCR )-based method to detect Schistosoma mansoni DNA in stool samples from individuals living in a low-endemicity area in Brazil . (bvsalud.org)
  • As the polymerase chain reaction can successfully detect infection in urine samples, 3 we investigated whether the test rate could be increased by asking the male contacts of infected women to send a urine sample directly from home to a laboratory instead of having a doctor take a urethral swab. (bmj.com)
  • The success of detection of indigenous RNA coliphages (group III) in night soil sample using the developed RT-PCR methods means that the developed method has great potential as a direct detection method of viruses in environmental sample. (iwaponline.com)
  • Here, different gametocyte concentration methods of blood samples were explored to optimize conditions for detection of positive mosquito infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study we evaluated Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for rapid detection of S. pneumoniae directly from the clinical samples and antimicrobial susceptibilities of the culture isolates Material & methods: A total of 90 clinical samples from sterile sites were cultured. (ijrhs.org)
  • however, conventional competitive RT-PCR methods require four or five reactions per sample of RNA, employing serial dilutions of an internal competitor sequence, making analysis of multiple samples a tedious process. (elsevier.com)
  • Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected during slaughtering. (doaj.org)
  • Novel environmental air and water mycobacteria sampling and analytical methods are needed to circumvent difficulties associated with the use of culture-based methodologies. (cdc.gov)
  • Good correlations between the two sampling methods for the fungi A. alternata, C. cladosporioides, and E. nigrum were observed and the mean effective passive sampling rates (+/-std. (cdc.gov)
  • Contamination Controls for Root Canal Sample Analysis by Molecular Methods: A pilot study. (diva-portal.org)
  • Digital polymerase chain reaction (digital PCR, DigitalPCR, dPCR, or dePCR) is a biotechnological refinement of conventional polymerase chain reaction methods that can be used to directly quantify and clonally amplify nucleic acids strands including DNA, cDNA, or RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since its introduction in the mid-80s, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology has been recognised as a rapid, sensitive and specific molecular diagnostic tool for the analysis of micro-organisms in clinical, environmental and food samples. (nih.gov)
  • Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Mycoplasma genitalium in clinical samples by polymerase chain reaction. (nih.gov)
  • Polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in clinical samples. (asm.org)
  • The amplified DNA fragments from all of our clinical samples possessed the AluI, Sau3AI, and DdeI restriction sites, but three samples from two patients did not contain the SspI site and none of the samples contained the EcoRI site. (asm.org)
  • We have developed a highly sensitive method for detection of Francisella tularensis in clinical samples based on a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the FopA gene. (ajtmh.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the EBV genotype prevalent in 53 samples of scrapings from the lateral border of the tongue of HIV-1 seropositive patients, with and without OHL, and to correlate the genotypes with presence of clinical or subclinical OHL with the clinic data collected. (scielo.br)
  • EBV-1 was identified in the 31 samples (15 without OHL, 7 with clinical OHL and 9 with subclinical OHL), EBV-2 in 12 samples (10 without OHL, 1 with clinical and 1 subclinical OHL), and a mixed infection in 10 samples (2 without OHL, 3 with clinical and 5 with subclinical OHL). (scielo.br)
  • Skakni L, Sardet A, Just J, Landman-Parker J, Costil J, Moniot-Ville N, Bricout F, Garbarg-Chenon A. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in clinical samples from pediatric patients by polymerase chain reaction. (docphin.com)
  • Out of 52 clinically positive dogs based on clinical signs, direct microscopy of skin or hair and wood's lamp technique, 46 samples (88.46%) were positive for dermatophytosis through the uniplex PCR out of which 38 samples (82.6%) were positive for Microsporum, 6 samples (13.04%) for Trichophyton and two samples (4.34%) were positive for mixed infection of Microsporum and Trichophyton. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This study aimed to determine the prevalence, and virulence factors of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from various samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR). (scielo.br)
  • Development of Multiplex PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) Method for Detection of Salmonella spp. (scialert.net)
  • The objective of this study was to establish a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method for rapid and simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp. (scialert.net)
  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a rapid method with high sensitivity and specificity for specific deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences and permits direct detection of the pathogens 2 . (scielo.br)
  • Five different previously isolated strains, including the type strain of M. genitalium, could all be detected by the polymerase chain reaction, and DNAs from other mycoplasmal and bacterial species yielded negative results. (asm.org)
  • In a second experiment, ten teeth were placed in a bacterial solution containing Enterococcus faecalis for three days and sampled as above. (diva-portal.org)
  • The results show that the teeth could not entirely become free from bacterial DNA using the performed cleaning routine as all samples were positive for bacterial DNA after cleaning. (diva-portal.org)
  • Analyzing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is promising, however, the influence of current antifungal drugs on the performance of this diagnostic tool remains controversial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • OUTLINE: Cryopreserved mRNA from diagnostic samples is analyzed for gene expression by reverse transcriptase-PCR. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Anterior nasal swab samples were collected from infants participating in an ongoing community-based, longitudinal, dynamic birth cohort study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Swab samples were examined by enzyme immunoassay (MicroTrak II, Behring, Germany). (bmj.com)
  • The dip in rates comes after an overall reduction in cost of viral transport medium used to store swab samples and reduction in consumable and personal protective equipment worn by technicians who collect samples. (indianexpress.com)
  • This review describes PCR technology as a microbial detection method, PCR inhibitors in biological samples and various sample preparation techniques that can be used to facilitate PCR detection, by either separating the micro-organisms from PCR inhibitors and/or by concentrating the micro-organisms to detectable concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • The parasite DNA in human blood and hydrocele samples and in mosquitoes was isolated free of any PCR inhibitors using simple purification techniques. (ajtmh.org)
  • Some investigators recognize the occurrence of OHL under the subclinical form, which is identified by the cytophatics effects of EBV by histopathology or cytopathology, and DNA viral confirmation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Fraga-Fernandez et al. (scielo.br)
  • However, the recommendation for RNA is the storage at -80°C until the moment of its extraction [ 23 ], but samples of cerebral tissue are routinely stored at -20°C, in this condition viral RNA can be degraded disabling retrospectives studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Samples for viral culture must be placed into a viral transport medium (VTM). (issuu.com)
  • Until now, the utility of tick-bite site samples for HGA diagnosis has not been reported. (ajtmh.org)
  • This case report presents the diagnosis and screening of suspected rabies samples of cow and mule. (researcherslinks.com)
  • Reverse-Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) has been used in rabies diagnosis with good results, even in decomposed materials. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The hnRT-PCR technique allows a sensitive, specific and fast diagnosis for rabies virus, even when samples are in a decomposed state. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In humans, receptors that signal activation include the NK cytotoxicity receptors ( 4 ), whose ligands remain unclear, and NKG2D, which has been shown to recognize MHC class I chain-related proteins A and B and UL16-binding proteins ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Type I NKT cells, also called invariant NKT (iNKT), express a T-cell receptor (TCR) with a canonical rearrangement formed by a constant α chain (Vα14Jα18 in mice and Vα24Jα18 in humans) paired with a strict repertoire of β chains (Vβ8, Vβ7, Vβ2 in mice and Vβ11 in humans). (springer.com)
  • Hence, this is an important means of dissemination of resistance in humans through the food chain [1,3,25]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Six days after doxycycline administration, PCR with the buffy coat sample was negative but PCR with a crust tissue sample from the tick-bite site remained positive. (ajtmh.org)
  • Development of the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of bluetongue virus in tissue samples. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{WadeEvans1990DevelopmentOT, title={Development of the polymerase chain reaction for the detection of bluetongue virus in tissue samples. (semanticscholar.org)
  • RATIONALE: Studying samples of tumor tissue from patients with cancer in the laboratory may help doctors identify and learn more about biomarkers related to cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PURPOSE: This research study is looking at gene expression in tissue samples from patients with acute myeloid leukemia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is also able to account for heterogeneous sequencing samples, such as from tumor tissue, by estimating the subpopulation percentage for each heterogeneous variant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These measurements were performed on small tissue samples that simulate endomyocardial biopsies. (wikigenes.org)
  • Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. (aappublications.org)
  • No growth could be detected using the conventional culture technique from the post-wash samples. (diva-portal.org)
  • Gastric biopsy samples obtained from 14 patients with upper abdominal pain, clinically diagnosed as acid peptic disease, were analysed for the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using partially (template A) and completely purified DNA (template B). Antigen specific primer was used to analyse the sample by PCR method. (elsevier.com)
  • A prevalence of 65.1%, 100%, 66.7%, and 73.3% respectively was observed by polymerase chain reaction. (elsevier.com)
  • This study estimates the diagnostic sensitivity of RT-nPCR for BVDV and confirms that it is a useful diagnostic tool for pools of 30 serum samples and that prevalence of BVDV in adult cattle from auction markets is low. (illinois.edu)
  • The prevalence of C trachomatis in samples from the intervention and control groups was 27% and 39% respectively. (bmj.com)
  • Chitterling samples showed the highest prevalence of Y. enterocolitica compared to the other samples. (scirp.org)
  • These included gastric biopsies from peptic ulcer disease and Non ulcer dyspepsia subjects, as visualized on endoscopy, saliva and stool samples from apparently normal healthy adults. (elsevier.com)
  • Of the 125 initial stool samples, 80 were ELISA reactive and eggs were identified in 19 of the samples by parasitological examination. (bvsalud.org)
  • For the PCR evaluations, 56 stool samples were selected and divided into five groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • Gastrointestinal tract: Stool samples and rectal swabs f. (issuu.com)
  • The purpose was to validate the use of RUNX3 as a potential biomarker for detection of cancer in serum samples and to determine its sensitivity alone and in combination with p16, RASSF1A and CDH1 using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Tan S, Ida H, Lau Q, Goh B, Chieng W, Loh M and Ito Y: Detection of promoter hypermethylation in serum samples of cancer patients by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction for tumour suppressor genes including RUNX3. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Serum samples were obtained from the US Department of Agriculture brucellosis testing laboratories in 3 Midwestern states. (illinois.edu)
  • A total of 2,990 serum samples were collected and randomly pooled into 100 pools for testing. (illinois.edu)
  • Results: A total of 15 antibody positive and three antibody-negative serum samples belonging to 11 goat, 4 sheep, 1 cattle, and 2 buffaloes were tested in duplicate for the presence of C. burnetii DNA by the commercial agar gel PCR kit and an in-house Trans-PCR. (doaj.org)
  • Double-repetitive-element polymerase chain reaction was used to differentiate between strains. (who.int)
  • In particular, treatment of patients with multidrug resistant (MDR) strains is long and costly, and requires the use of drugs which frequently cause severe adverse reactions. (who.int)
  • The gJ sequence resulted to be the most informative segment, it allowed the differentiation among field sample strains, and also, between wild and vaccine viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Patients with high risk of invasive aspergillosis and lung infiltrates are sampled via BAL, the sample is analyzed for fungal DNA by Apsergillus specific PCR. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Urine samples obtained at home provide a non-invasive and less time consuming alternative. (bmj.com)
  • Mould was associated with increased time of samples reaching the laboratory and reduced ERV3 loads and respiratory virus detection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. (aappublications.org)
  • Women in the intervention group were asked to complete a questionnaire, including the number of male sexual partners over the preceding six months, and to supply their partners with an envelope containing a 10 ml sterile container, information on collecting the first urine sample of the morning, and a prepaid envelope for returning the sample to the laboratory at the Aarhus University Hospital. (bmj.com)
  • While samples collected at home for tests will cost Rs 2,000 from Monday, one would have to shell out Rs 1,200 for samples taken directly at the laboratory for testing purposes. (indianexpress.com)
  • If a laboratory collects samples from a hospital, a Covid care centre or from a drive-through kiosk, the rate for the test has been capped at Rs 1,600 - down from Rs 2,200. (indianexpress.com)
  • For samples provided directly at the laboratory, the rate has been capped at Rs 1,200, reduced from the earlier Rs 1,900. (indianexpress.com)
  • After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. (aappublications.org)
  • Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. (aappublications.org)
  • PCR results for eight urogenital samples from male patients were positive for M. genitalium. (nih.gov)
  • Ten samples from eight patients were found positive. (asm.org)
  • Francisella tularensis in infected murine spleens and culture-positive blood samples was reliably detected by nested PCR following this extraction procedure. (ajtmh.org)
  • PCR with buffy coat and crust samples obtained before doxycycline administration was positive. (ajtmh.org)
  • Two of the 100 pools of field samples were positive, and each positive pool had a single positive individual sample upon confirmation. (illinois.edu)
  • Of 4,757 samples, 680 (14.3%) were found positive for Leishmania k-DNA but most of those (69%) had less than 10 parasites/ml of blood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Samples were re-tested using identical protocols and only 59.3% of the samples with 10 parasite/ml or less were qRT-kDNA PCR positive the second time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, 10.8% of the PCR negative samples were positive in the second test. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PCR testing scored eight samples as positive from these four groups. (bvsalud.org)
  • Results: Out of 90 samples 34 were positive for S. pneumoniae by PCR and 23 samples showed growth in culture. (ijrhs.org)
  • From the 50 positive fresh samples, 26 (52%) were positive for RT-PCR and 45 (90%) for hnRT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • From the 48 positive decomposed samples, 17 (34, 3%) were positive for RT-PCR and 36 (75%) for hnRT-PCR. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Only one buffalo serum sample was positive for C. burnetii with a band at 243 bp in in-house Trans-PCR. (doaj.org)
  • Conclusion: Commercial PCR kit, Genekam did not identify any positive sample, probably because it targeted a larger amplicon of 687 bp. (doaj.org)
  • The presence of H. pylori in the samples was confirmed by running a positive control. (elsevier.com)
  • Among the 14 samples studied, 8 showed the presence of H. pylori with both templates A and B. Among these 8 samples only 3 showed positive for the presence of H. pylori with urease method. (elsevier.com)
  • A sample was considered positive only if the result was confirmed on retesting. (bmj.com)
  • All air samples collected in the proximity of the indoor whirlpools and the associated changing rooms were strongly positive for airborne mycobacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • Isolates identified as presumptive positive were characterized as colonies with a pink or deep-red center on MacConkey and CIN agar, and verified further through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of 16S rRNA gene for the Yersinia genera. (scirp.org)
  • Results showed that 4.4% swine fecal samples, 7.5% milk samples and 11.3% chitterling samples were presumptive positive for Y. enterocolitica by the direct plating method on selective agars. (scirp.org)
  • Samples tested positive by polymerase chain reaction on May 18. (umn.edu)
  • Genome specific product sizes were detected in clinically positive samples. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • For example, if Sample A, when assayed in 1 million partitions, gives one positive reaction, it does not mean that the Sample A has one starting molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia Coli isolates from environmental and waste water samples in Mauritius. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • S.v. Antibiotic resistance of Escherichia Coli isolates from environmental and waste water samples in Mauritius. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • With ERIC-PCR the largest similarity among all samples was at 95%, which was found between isolates from a chitterling and milk sample. (scirp.org)
  • Uncleaned thirty chitterling samples procured from a local grocery store, forty-five swine fecal samples, and forty unpasteurized cow milk samples supplied by the University farm were evaluated for the presence of Y. enterocolitica. (scirp.org)
  • After conducting virulence tests, the fecal samples were revealed as non-pathogenic. (scirp.org)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the Reverse-transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and Heminested RT-PCR (hnRT-PCR) techniques for the detection of rabies virus genome in brain samples stored at -20°C (average freezers) for distinct periods and after decomposition for 72 hours in room temperature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In many cases, personal genome assembly is also complicated by sample heterogeneity, such as tumor samples with subpopulations of somatically-acquired variants that are present in only a subset of the sequencing data. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Total genomic dsRNA, extracted from purified core particles of bluetongue virus serotype 1 from South Africa (BTV1SA), was used as template to optimise a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of bluetongue virus RNA. (semanticscholar.org)
  • With the aim to characterize them, seven different genomic regions (thymidine kinase, glycoproteins D, G, B, C, and J, and infected cell polypeptide 4) were partially sequenced and compared between field samples. (frontiersin.org)
  • The assembly programs currently used to create personal genomic sequences often assume sample homogeneity and are plagued by an inability to handle non-universal variants (see Figure 1 ), but these tools must account for this type of data if they are to be useful for studying cancer genomics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In immunohistochemistry tests blood and bone marrow samples are treated with specific antibodies so that cancer cells with proteins that bind to these antibodies change color and are visible under the microscope. (news-medical.net)
  • Although this technique can be extremely effective with pure solutions of nucleic acids, it's sensitivity may be reduced dramatically when applied directly to biological samples. (nih.gov)
  • An RT-PCR technique for direct detection of enteric viruses in environmental water samples was developed by using RNA coliphage Qβ as a model virus. (iwaponline.com)
  • Order your FREE superior quality 0.2 ml PCR tubes sample pack designed for optimal fit with all leading thermal cyclers at http://www.alkami.com/pgorder.htm The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been referred to as arguably the most outstanding biotechnological invention to date and is rapidly becoming a standard technique in molecular biology research. (bio.net)
  • Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed for both samples gave a product of 443-bp amplifying the highly conserved "N"-region gene of virus confirming the rabies infection in both cases. (researcherslinks.com)
  • The aim of this work was to evaluate the RT-PCR and hnRT-PCR for rabies virus detection in original tissues stored at -20°C for different periods considering their use for rabies virus detection in stored and decomposed samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • DNA sequencing of ITS1 PCR products showed that 20/22 samples were Leishmania donovani while two had ITS1 sequences homologous to Leishmania major . (biomedcentral.com)
  • This revolution in sequencing technology, combined with the development of advanced computational tools that exploit metadata to relate hundreds of samples to one another in ways that reveal clear biological patterns, has reinvigorated studies of the 16S rRNA gene ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Studies of 16S rRNA provide a view of which microbial taxa are present in a given sample because it is an excellent phylogenetic marker ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Of the thirty-chitterling samples examined by PCR for the 16S rRNA gene, 26% samples contained the identification gene for the bacteria of interest. (scirp.org)
  • No false-positives results were found in the negatives samples evaluated to the molecular techniques. (biomedcentral.com)