###### Sample Size

The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The

**sample size**should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)###### Research Design

###### Data Interpretation, Statistical

###### Models, Statistical

###### Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

###### Computer Simulation

###### Binomial Distribution

The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.

###### Models, Genetic

Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.

###### Reproducibility of Results

The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

###### Bias (Epidemiology)

Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.

###### Clinical Trials as Topic

Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.

###### Algorithms

###### Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide

###### Sampling Studies

###### Treatment Outcome

###### Epidemiologic Research Design

###### Genetic Predisposition to Disease

###### Case-Control Studies

Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

###### Genotype

The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

###### Pilot Projects

###### Statistics as Topic

###### Biostatistics

###### Biometry

###### Bayes Theorem

A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.

###### Gene Frequency

The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.

###### Likelihood Functions

Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.

###### Genome-Wide Association Study

###### Statistical Distributions

The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.

###### Monte Carlo Method

In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)

###### Alleles

###### Publication Bias

The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.

###### Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic

Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.

###### Risk Factors

###### Linkage Disequilibrium

Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.

###### Sensitivity and Specificity

Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

###### Endpoint Determination

###### Genetics, Population

###### Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

###### Linear Models

###### Polymorphism, Genetic

The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.

###### Meta-Analysis as Topic

A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.

###### Effect Modifier, Epidemiologic

###### False Positive Reactions

###### Gene Expression Profiling

###### Cluster Analysis

A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.

###### Confidence Intervals

A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.

###### Genetic Association Studies

The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.

###### Genetic Markers

###### Analysis of Variance

###### Selection Bias

###### Genetic Processes

###### Software

###### Mathematical Computing

###### Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

###### Clinical Protocols

###### Odds Ratio

The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

###### Cohort Studies

Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

###### Regression Analysis

Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

###### Statistics, Nonparametric

A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)

###### Haplotypes

###### Prospective Studies

###### Genetic Linkage

###### Questionnaires

###### Chromosome Mapping

###### Prevalence

###### Neoplasms

###### Feasibility Studies

###### Double-Blind Method

###### Magnetic Resonance Imaging

###### Genome, Human

###### Pinaceae

###### Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures

###### Publishing

"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.

###### Multicenter Studies as Topic

###### Longitudinal Studies

###### Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic

Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.

###### Clinical Trials Data Monitoring Committees

Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.

###### Patient Selection

###### Follow-Up Studies

###### Models, Theoretical

###### Logistic Models

Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

###### Genetic Diseases, Inborn

###### Cross-Sectional Studies

Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

###### Data Collection

Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.

###### Maternal-Child Nursing

The nursing specialty that deals with the care of women throughout their pregnancy and childbirth and the care of their newborn children.

###### Walruses

###### Phenotype

The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

###### Severity of Illness Index

###### Computational Biology

A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

###### Pregnancy

###### Quality Control

###### Risk

The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.

###### Risk Assessment

###### Retrospective Studies

Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

###### Databases, Factual

Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.

###### Ethical Review

A formal process of examination of patient care or research proposals for conformity with ethical standards. The review is usually conducted by an organized clinical or research ethics committee (CLINICAL ETHICS COMMITTEES or RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES), sometimes by a subset of such a committee, an ad hoc group, or an individual ethicist (ETHICISTS).

###### Asian Continental Ancestry Group

###### Epidemiologic Methods

###### Discriminant Analysis

A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.

###### European Continental Ancestry Group

###### Age Factors

Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

###### Genetic Heterogeneity

The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)

###### Biomedical Research

###### Evidence-Based Medicine

An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)

###### Genetics, Medical

###### Quality of Life

###### Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic

Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.

###### Poisson Distribution

###### Prognosis

###### Journal Impact Factor

###### Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic

Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.

## The significance of non-significance. (1/2102)

We discuss the implications of empirical results that are statistically non-significant. Figures illustrate the interrelations among effect size, sample sizes and their dispersion, and the power of the experiment. All calculations (detailed in Appendix) are based on actual noncentral t-distributions, with no simplifying mathematical or statistical assumptions, and the contribution of each tail is determined separately. We emphasize the importance of reporting, wherever possible, the a priori power of a study so that the reader can see what the chances were of rejecting a null hypothesis that was false. As a practical alternative, we propose that non-significant inference be qualified by an estimate of the sample size that would be required in a subsequent experiment in order to attain an acceptable level of power under the assumption that the observed effect size in the sample is the same as the true effect size in the population; appropriate plots are provided for a power of 0.8. We also point out that successive outcomes of independent experiments each of which may not be statistically significant on its own, can be easily combined to give an overall p value that often turns out to be significant. And finally, in the event that the p value is high and the power sufficient, a non-significant result may stand and be published as such. (+info)## A simulation study of confounding in generalized linear models for air pollution epidemiology. (2/2102)

Confounding between the model covariates and causal variables (which may or may not be included as model covariates) is a well-known problem in regression models used in air pollution epidemiology. This problem is usually acknowledged but hardly ever investigated, especially in the context of generalized linear models. Using synthetic data sets, the present study shows how model overfit, underfit, and misfit in the presence of correlated causal variables in a Poisson regression model affect the estimated coefficients of the covariates and their confidence levels. The study also shows how this effect changes with the ranges of the covariates and the sample size. There is qualitative agreement between these study results and the corresponding expressions in the large-sample limit for the ordinary linear models. Confounding of covariates in an overfitted model (with covariates encompassing more than just the causal variables) does not bias the estimated coefficients but reduces their significance. The effect of model underfit (with some causal variables excluded as covariates) or misfit (with covariates encompassing only noncausal variables), on the other hand, leads to not only erroneous estimated coefficients, but a misguided confidence, represented by large t-values, that the estimated coefficients are significant. The results of this study indicate that models which use only one or two air quality variables, such as particulate matter [less than and equal to] 10 microm and sulfur dioxide, are probably unreliable, and that models containing several correlated and toxic or potentially toxic air quality variables should also be investigated in order to minimize the situation of model underfit or misfit. (+info)## Laboratory assay reproducibility of serum estrogens in umbilical cord blood samples. (3/2102)

We evaluated the reproducibility of laboratory assays for umbilical cord blood estrogen levels and its implications on sample size estimation. Specifically, we examined correlation between duplicate measurements of the same blood samples and estimated the relative contribution of variability due to study subject and assay batch to the overall variation in measured hormone levels. Cord blood was collected from a total of 25 female babies (15 Caucasian and 10 Chinese-American) from full-term deliveries at two study sites between March and December 1997. Two serum aliquots per blood sample were assayed, either at the same time or 4 months apart, for estrone, total estradiol, weakly bound estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Correlation coefficients (Pearson's r) between duplicate measurements were calculated. We also estimated the components of variance for each hormone or protein associated with variation among subjects and variation between assay batches. Pearson's correlation coefficients were >0.90 for all of the compounds except for total estradiol when all of the subjects were included. The intraclass correlation coefficient, defined as a proportion of the total variance due to between-subject variation, for estrone, total estradiol, weakly bound estradiol, and SHBG were 92, 80, 85, and 97%, respectively. The magnitude of measurement error found in this study would increase the sample size required for detecting a difference between two populations for total estradiol and SHBG by 25 and 3%, respectively. (+info)## A note on power approximations for the transmission/disequilibrium test. (4/2102)

The transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) is a popular method for detection of the genetic basis of a disease. Investigators planning such studies require computation of sample size and power, allowing for a general genetic model. Here, a rigorous method is presented for obtaining the power approximations of the TDT for samples consisting of families with either a single affected child or affected sib pairs. Power calculations based on simulation show that these approximations are quite precise. By this method, it is also shown that a previously published power approximation of the TDT is erroneous. (+info)## Comparison of linkage-disequilibrium methods for localization of genes influencing quantitative traits in humans. (5/2102)

Linkage disequilibrium has been used to help in the identification of genes predisposing to certain qualitative diseases. Although several linkage-disequilibrium tests have been developed for localization of genes influencing quantitative traits, these tests have not been thoroughly compared with one another. In this report we compare, under a variety of conditions, several different linkage-disequilibrium tests for identification of loci affecting quantitative traits. These tests use either single individuals or parent-child trios. When we compared tests with equal samples, we found that the truncated measured allele (TMA) test was the most powerful. The trait allele frequencies, the stringency of sample ascertainment, the number of marker alleles, and the linked genetic variance affected the power, but the presence of polygenes did not. When there were more than two trait alleles at a locus in the population, power to detect disequilibrium was greatly diminished. The presence of unlinked disequilibrium (D'*) increased the false-positive error rates of disequilibrium tests involving single individuals but did not affect the error rates of tests using family trios. The increase in error rates was affected by the stringency of selection, the trait allele frequency, and the linked genetic variance but not by polygenic factors. In an equilibrium population, the TMA test is most powerful, but, when adjusted for the presence of admixture, Allison test 3 becomes the most powerful whenever D'*>.15. (+info)## Measurement of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis prescription adherence using a novel approach. (6/2102)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to test a novel approach to monitoring the adherence of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients to their dialysis prescription. DESIGN: A descriptive observational study was done in which exchange behaviors were monitored over a 2-week period of time. SETTING: Patients were recruited from an outpatient dialysis center. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of patients undergoing CAPD at Piedmont Dialysis Center in Winston-Salem, North Carolina was recruited for the study. Of 31 CAPD patients, 20 (64.5%) agreed to participate. MEASURES: Adherence of CAPD patients to their dialysis prescription was monitored using daily logs and an electronic monitoring device (the Medication Event Monitoring System, or MEMS; APREX, Menlo Park, California, U.S.A.). Patients recorded in their logs their exchange activities during the 2-week observation period. Concurrently, patients were instructed to deposit the pull tab from their dialysate bag into a MEMS bottle immediately after performing each exchange. The MEMS bottle was closed with a cap containing a computer chip that recorded the date and time each time the bottle was opened. RESULTS: One individual's MEMS device malfunctioned and thus the data presented in this report are based upon the remaining 19 patients. A significant discrepancy was found between log data and MEMS data, with MEMS data indicating a greater number and percentage of missed exchanges. MEMS data indicated that some patients concentrated their exchange activities during the day, with shortened dwell times between exchanges. Three indices were developed for this study: a measure of the average time spent in noncompliance, and indices of consistency in the timing of exchanges within and between days. Patients who were defined as consistent had lower scores on the noncompliance index compared to patients defined as inconsistent (p = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a methodology that may be useful in assessing adherence to the peritoneal dialysis regimen. Of particular significance is the ability to assess the timing of exchanges over the course of a day. Clinical implications are limited due to issues of data reliability and validity, the short-term nature of the study, the small sample, and the fact that clinical outcomes were not considered in this methodology study. Additional research is needed to further develop this data-collection approach. (+info)## Statistical power of MRI monitored trials in multiple sclerosis: new data and comparison with previous results. (7/2102)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the durations of the follow up and the reference population sizes needed to achieve optimal and stable statistical powers for two period cross over and parallel group design clinical trials in multiple sclerosis, when using the numbers of new enhancing lesions and the numbers of active scans as end point variables. METHODS: The statistical power was calculated by means of computer simulations performed using MRI data obtained from 65 untreated relapsing-remitting or secondary progressive patients who were scanned monthly for 9 months. The statistical power was calculated for follow up durations of 2, 3, 6, and 9 months and for sample sizes of 40-100 patients for parallel group and of 20-80 patients for two period cross over design studies. The stability of the estimated powers was evaluated by applying the same procedure on random subsets of the original data. RESULTS: When using the number of new enhancing lesions as the end point, the statistical power increased for all the simulated treatment effects with the duration of the follow up until 3 months for the parallel group design and until 6 months for the two period cross over design. Using the number of active scans as the end point, the statistical power steadily increased until 6 months for the parallel group design and until 9 months for the two period cross over design. The power estimates in the present sample and the comparisons of these results with those obtained by previous studies with smaller patient cohorts suggest that statistical power is significantly overestimated when the size of the reference data set decreases for parallel group design studies or the duration of the follow up decreases for two period cross over studies. CONCLUSIONS: These results should be used to determine the duration of the follow up and the sample size needed when planning MRI monitored clinical trials in multiple sclerosis. (+info)## Power and sample size calculations in case-control studies of gene-environment interactions: comments on different approaches. (8/2102)

Power and sample size considerations are critical for the design of epidemiologic studies of gene-environment interactions. Hwang et al. (Am J Epidemiol 1994;140:1029-37) and Foppa and Spiegelman (Am J Epidemiol 1997;146:596-604) have presented power and sample size calculations for case-control studies of gene-environment interactions. Comparisons of calculations using these approaches and an approach for general multivariate regression models for the odds ratio previously published by Lubin and Gail (Am J Epidemiol 1990; 131:552-66) have revealed substantial differences under some scenarios. These differences are the result of a highly restrictive characterization of the null hypothesis in Hwang et al. and Foppa and Spiegelman, which results in an underestimation of sample size and overestimation of power for the test of a gene-environment interaction. A computer program to perform sample size and power calculations to detect additive or multiplicative models of gene-environment interactions using the Lubin and Gail approach will be available free of charge in the near future from the National Cancer Institute. (+info)###### 54 Sample size determination Studys hypothesis is superiority of intervention | Course Hero

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**size**varies from clay in shales and claystones; through silt in siltstones; sand in sandstones; and gravel, cobble, to ... The classification factors are often useful in determining a**sample's**environment of deposition. An example of clastic ... These sand-**size**particles are often quartz but there are a few common categories and a wide variety of classification schemes ... The gravel**sized**particles that make up conglomerates are well rounded while in breccias they are angular. Conglomerates are ...###### Centrifugation

The larger the

**size**and the larger the density of the particles, the faster they separate from the mixture. By applying a ...**Samples**are centrifuged with a high-density solution such as sucrose, caesium chloride, or iodixanol. The high-density solution ... The homogenised**sample**is placed in an ultracentrifuge and spun in low speed - nuclei settle out, forming a pellet ... There is a correlation between the**size**and density of a particle and the rate that the particle separates from a heterogeneous ...###### Chernoff bound

Suppose we pick an integer k and a random

**sample**S⊂A of**size**k. Mark the relative**size**of the sub-population in the**sample**(,B∩ ...**Sampling**variant[edit]. The following variant of Chernoff's bound can be used to bound the probability that a majority in a ... The operator norm of the sum of t independent**samples**is precisely the maximum deviation among d independent random walks of ... Mark the relative**size**of the sub-population (,B,/,A,) by r. ... Notice that the number of**samples**in the inequality depends ...###### Eurasian magpie

Another behaviour exhibiting intelligence is cutting their food in correctly

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In all three cases, measurements are made on macroscopic

**samples**and it is normal to express the results as molar quantities. ... a is a correction for intermolecular forces and b corrects for finite atomic or molecular**sizes**; the value of b equals the Van ... as he was the first to recognise that atoms were not simply points and to demonstrate the physical consequences of their**size**...###### 2000 United States Census

Anderson, Margo; Fienberg, Stephen E. (1999). "To

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Article is stub-

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Muyembe took a blood

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During post surgical recovery, patients collect 24-hour urine

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Effect

**size**. *Statistical power. *Optimal design. ***Sample****size**determination. *Replication. *Missing data ...###### Acne

During the 1880s, they observed bacteria by microscopy in skin

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The proper name Paris you provided is a good example of how one

**size**does not fit all. The pronunciation of an ' after the s is ... a lost cause until WMF provides us with functional discussion-threading software that properly handles MediaWiki code**samples**, ...###### Tornado

... es vary in intensity regardless of shape,

**size**, and location, though strong tornadoes are typically larger than weak ... only areas high within the storm are observed and the important areas below are not**sampled**.[96] Data resolution also decreases ... Tornadoes come in many shapes and**sizes**, and they are often visible in the form of a condensation funnel originating from the ... there is a wide range of tornado**sizes**. Weak tornadoes, or strong yet dissipating tornadoes, can be exceedingly narrow, ...###### Mann-Whitney U test

where n1 is the

**sample****size**for**sample**1, and R1 is the sum of the ranks in**sample**1.. Note that it doesn't matter which of the ... One method of reporting the effect**size**for the Mann-Whitney U test is with the common language effect**size**.[7][8] As a**sample**... The maximum value of U is the product of the**sample****sizes**for the two**samples**. In such a case, the "other" U would be 0. ... In the case of small**samples**, the distribution is tabulated, but for**sample****sizes**above ~20, approximation using the normal ...###### Pinophyta

Leaf

**size**varies from 2 mm in many scale-leaved species, up to 400 mm long in the needles of some pines (e.g. Apache Pine, ... age and kind of tissue**sampled**, and analytical technique. The ranges of concentrations occurring in well-grown plants provide a ... The**size**of mature conifers varies from less than one meter, to over 100 meters.[8] The world's tallest, thickest, largest, and ... The tracheids of earlywood formed at the beginning of a growing season have large radial**sizes**and smaller, thinner cell walls ...###### Evolution of biological complexity

Markov, A. V.; Anisimov, V. A.; Korotayev, A. V. (2010). "Relationship between genome

**size**and organismal complexity in the ... and large organisms only appear more diverse due to**sampling**bias. ... Since the effective population**size**in eukaryotes (especially multi-cellular organisms) is much smaller than in prokaryotes,[22 ...###### Radiography

Sharpness of a radiographic image is strongly determined by the

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This also provides insight in the uniformity of the

**sampled**lot. A H2O case capacity test measurement of 4 fired .35 Whelen ... The default database however contains some errors, so measuring**sizes**, weights and case capacities of components intended for ...###### Medical device

"

**Sample****Size**Selection Using Margin of Error Approach", Medical Device and Diagnostic Industry, 28 (10): 80-89. ... The downside is that additional security features would put an extra strain on the battery and**size**and drive up prices. Dr. ... The largest market shares in Europe (in order of market share**size**) belong to Germany, Italy, France, and the United Kingdom. ...###### Alkali metal

This

**sample**of uraninite contains about 100,000 atoms (3.3×10−20 g) of francium-223 at any given time.[61] ... Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride.[118] On the basis of**size**a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but ... The radius of the H− anion also does not fit the trend of increasing**size**going down the halogens: indeed, H− is very diffuse ... The high lattice enthalpy of lithium fluoride is due to the small**sizes**of the Li+ and F− ions, causing the electrostatic ...###### Species distribution

Creel, N.M. and S. (1995). "Communal Hunting and Pack

**Size**in African Wild Dogs, Lycaon pictus". Animal Behaviour. 50: 1325- ... In this analysis, it is imperative that data from at least 50**sample**plots is considered. The number of individuals present in ... Recent studies have indicated that the grid**size**used can have an effect on the output of these species distribution models.[7] ... The map gallery Gridded Species Distribution contains**sample**maps for the Species Grids data set. These maps are not inclusive ...###### HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2

... in a larger

**sample**the risk association was found closer to "HL-A8" (Current name: HLA-B8).[12] This association later migrated ... the average**size**is 1 centiMorgan (or 1 cM). The average length of these 'haplotypes' are about 1 million nucleotides. ...###### Brain tumor

The definitive diagnosis of brain tumor can only be confirmed by histological examination of tumor tissue

**samples**obtained ... The amount of radiotherapy depends on the**size**of the area of the brain affected by cancer. Conventional external beam "whole- ... anaplasia: the cells in the neoplasm have an obviously different form (in**size**and shape). Anaplastic cells display marked ...**size**, and rate of growth of the tumor.[11] For example, larger tumors in the frontal lobe can cause changes in the ability to ...###### Baháʼí Faith by country

... the Baháʼí Faith is often omitted from religious surveys due to the high

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**Size**, Characteristics, and Needs. National Institute of Justice, United States Department of Justice. September 2008. ... The Center for Court Innovation in New York City had used Respondent Driven

**Sampling**(RDS), Social Network Analysis, capture/ ... who constituted the final statistical

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###### Feces

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Mahalanobis, P. C.; Mukherjea, R.K.; Ghosh, A (1946). "A

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Particle

**size**distribution[edit]. The finer the particle**size**of an activated carbon, the better the access to the surface area ... Exner, T; Michalopoulos, N; Pearce, J; Xavier, R; Ahuja, M (March 2018). "Simple method for removing DOACs from plasma**samples**... The most popular aqueous phase carbons are the 12×40 and 8×30**sizes**because they have a good balance of**size**, surface area, and ... Some carbons have a mesopore (20 Å to 50 Å, or 2 to 5 nm) structure which adsorbs medium**size**molecules, such as the dye ...**Sample** **Size** Methodology. (eBook, 1990) [WorldCat.org]

**Sample**

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**size**determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. It includes both random

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**size**_methodology>. a schema:CreativeWork ;. rdfs:label "

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Dorey, F. J. and Korn, E. L. (1987), Effective

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Power and

**sample****size**(PSS) in Stata 14 allows the computation of:1.**Sample****size**if power and detectable effect**size**are given2 ... Statistical power if**sample**and detectable effect**size**are given3. Detectable effect**size**if power and**sample****size**are ... RELATED VIDEOSTOUR OF POWER AND**SAMPLE****SIZES**IN STATAExplore the power and**sample**-**size**methods introduced in Stata 14, ... for comparing a single**sample**proportion to a reference value using Stata.**SAMPLE****SIZE**CALCULATIONLearn how to do a**sample****size**...###### 54 **Sample** **size** determination Studys hypothesis is superiority of intervention | Course Hero

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**Sample****size**determination Studys hypothesis is superiority of intervention from BIO 100 at Arizona Agribusiness and Equine ...**Sample****size**calculation by HRI Main variable difference between arms SD in each arm Β (power) α (Significance level) N (**sample**... 54**sample****size**determination studys hypothesis is. *. School. Arizona Agribusiness and Equine Center- Estrella Mountain*. ... 5.4**Sample****size**determination: Studys hypothesis is superiority of intervention arm (probiotic) over control (placebo). ...###### "**Sample** **Size** Formulas for Estimating Intraclass Correlation Coefficient" by Mengxiao Xu

Two

**sample****size**formulas were derived, one for achieving a prespecified confidence interval width and the other for requiring a ... Although the concept of ICC is applicable to binary outcomes, existed**sample****size**formulas for this case can only provide about ... A large**sample**variance estimator for ICC was derived, which was then used to obtain an asymmetric confidence interval for ICC ...**Sample**formulas have been derived for explicitly incorporation of a prespecified probability of achieving the prespecified ...###### NHESS - **Sample** **size** matters: investigating the effect of **sample** **size** on a logistic regression susceptibility model for debris...

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Our

**sample****size**calculator can help determine if you have a statistically significant**sample****size**. ... Get familiar with**sample**bias,**sample****size**, statistically significant**sample****sizes**, and how to get more responses. Soon youll ...**Sample****size**is the number of completed responses your survey receives. Its called a**sample**because it only represents part of ... The higher the**sampling**confidence level you want to have, the larger your**sample****size**will need to be. ...###### Buy **Sample** **Size** Unisex Body Moisturisers | eBay

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**Sample**

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Could anybody offer any advice on a linear regression

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"One Random

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KeysSample

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Expectation of generated

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the

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###### Calculation3

- It gives recommendations on how to find appropriate differences, conduct the
**sample size**calculation(s) and how to report these in grant applications, protocols and manuscripts. (biomedcentral.com) - Despite the paramount importance of an a-priori
**sample size**calculation, until now there has not been comprehensive guidance in specifying the target effect size, or difference. (biomedcentral.com) - The target difference is a key quantity in
**sample size**calculation, and is the most difficult to determine, as most other quantities are fixed (e.g., type I error rate = 0.05, power = 80 or 90%) or are parameters that can be estimated (standard deviation, control group event proportion). (biomedcentral.com)

###### Variance2

- A large sample variance estimator for ICC was derived, which was then used to obtain an asymmetric confidence interval for ICC by the modified Wald method. (uwo.ca)
- In practice, since p is unknown, the maximum variance is often used for
**sample size**assessments. (infogalactic.com)

###### Calculations5

- Sample size calculations are central to the design of health research trials. (biomedcentral.com)
- Biostatistician: What is the difference that we should base our
**sample size**calculations on? (biomedcentral.com) - Sample size calculations for designing clinical proteomic profiling studies using mass spectrometry. (ox.ac.uk)
- At the design stage, however, covariates are not typically available and are often ignored in
**sample size**calculations. (ox.ac.uk) - A method is proposed for accommodating information on covariates, data imbalances and design-characteristics, such as the technical replication and the observational nature of these studies, in
**sample size**calculations. (ox.ac.uk)

###### Hypothesis test2

- Since you have access to the entire population, the database, in a before (old system) and after the move (new system) and I'm assuming you do not want to check every entry, instead just a sample, then I would recommend using an hypothesis test approach rather than a lot sampling approach. (asqasktheexperts.com)
- Alternatively,
**sample size**may be assessed based on the power of a hypothesis test. (infogalactic.com)

###### Probability3

- Sample formulas have been derived for explicitly incorporation of a prespecified probability of achieving the prespecified precision, i.e., the width or lower limit of a confidence interval for ICC. (uwo.ca)
- Although the concept of ICC is applicable to binary outcomes, existed
**sample size**formulas for this case can only provide about 50% assurance probability to achieve the desired precision. (uwo.ca) - The BOOT and NOETHER sample-size estimators are particularly appropriate for this nonparametric setting because they do not require assumptions about the shape of the underlying continuous probability distribution. (montana.edu)

###### Determination1

- Sample size determination is the act of choosing the number of observations or replicates to include in a statistical sample . (infogalactic.com)

###### Proportion1

- For example, if we wish to know the proportion of a certain species of fish that is infected with a pathogen, we would generally have a more precise estimate of this proportion if we sampled and examined 200 rather than 100 fish. (infogalactic.com)

###### Estimates2

- Sample sizes are judged based on the quality of the resulting estimates. (infogalactic.com)
- The simulation study shows that (a)
**sample size**estimates can have large uncertainty, (b) BOOT is at least as accurate as and can be much more accurate than ANPV, and (c) BOOT and NOETHER achieve similar accuracy, although NOETHER is prone to underestimation. (montana.edu)

###### Study13

- even larger sample sizes do not further reduce it, and they approach the upper limit of
**sample size**given, in this study, by the autocorrelation range of the spatial data sets. (nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net) - Model uncertainty due to sampling and model selection, and its predictive ability, are explored statistically and spatially through the example of 100 models estimated in one study area and validated in a neighbouring area: depending on the study area and on
**sample size**, the predicted probabilities for debris flow release differed, on average, by 7 to 23 percentage points. (nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net) - The
**sample size**is an important feature of any empirical study in which the goal is to make inferences about a population from a sample. (infogalactic.com) - In practice, the
**sample size**used in a study is determined based on the expense of data collection, and the need to have sufficient statistical power . (infogalactic.com) - In complicated studies there may be several different sample sizes involved in the study: for example, in a stratified survey there would be different sample sizes for each stratum. (infogalactic.com)
- In experimental design , where a study may be divided into different treatment groups , there may be different sample sizes for each group. (infogalactic.com)
- For the special case of the Wilcoxon test, a simulation study is conducted to compare BOOT to two other sample-size estimators. (montana.edu)
- Power and
**Sample Size**for Longitudinal and Multilevel Study Designs, a five-week, fully online course covers innovative, research-based power and**sample size**methods, and software for multilevel and longitudinal studies. (coursera.org) - The goal of the course is to teach and disseminate methods for accurate
**sample size**choice, and ultimately, the creation of a power/sample size analysis for a relevant research study in your professional context. (coursera.org) - Most National Institutes of Health (NIH) study sections will only fund a grant if the grantee has written a compelling and accurate power and
**sample size**analysis. (coursera.org) - The final course project is a peer-reviewed research study you design for future power or
**sample size**analysis. (coursera.org) - The new method suggests certain experimental designs which lead to the use of a smaller number of samples when planning a study. (ox.ac.uk)
- Analysis of data from the proteomic profiling of colorectal cancer reveals that fewer samples are needed when a study is balanced than when it is unbalanced, and when the IMAC30 chip-type is used. (ox.ac.uk)

###### Proportions1

- To ensure that the trial provides good evidence to answer the trial's research question, the target effect size (difference in means or proportions, odds ratio, relative risk or hazard ratio between trial arms) must be specified under the conventional approach to determining the
**sample size**. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Estimate2

- A more accurate method to estimate the sample size: iteratively evaluate the formula since the t value also depends on n. (psu.edu)
- This expression describes quantitatively how the estimate becomes more precise as the
**sample size**increases. (infogalactic.com)

###### Data3

- My question is if I'm trying to determine the
**sample size**of migrated data to see if it migrated correctly to the target database, is the Z1.4 table applicable to that? (asqasktheexperts.com) - In a census , data are collected on the entire population, hence the
**sample size**is equal to the population size. (infogalactic.com) - When the observations are independent , this estimator has a (scaled) binomial distribution (and is also the sample mean of data from a Bernoulli distribution ). (infogalactic.com)

###### Sensitivity1

- The DELTA 2 guidance stresses specifying important and realistic differences, and undertaking sensitivity analyses in calculating sample sizes. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Probabilities1

- Two
**sample size**formulas were derived, one for achieving a prespecified confidence interval width and the other for requiring a prespecified lower confidence limit, both with given assurance probabilities. (uwo.ca)

###### Power and sample6

- The power and
**sample size**methods and software taught in this course can be used for any health-related, or more generally, social science-related (e.g., educational research) application. (coursera.org) - The course philosophy is to focus on the conceptual knowledge to conduct power and
**sample size**methods. (coursera.org) - Power and
**sample size**selection is one of the most important ethical questions researchers face. (coursera.org) - The Institute of Education Sciences (IES), the statistics, research, and evaluation arm of the U.S. Department of Education, also offers competitive grants requiring a compelling and accurate power and
**sample size**analysis (Goal 3: Efficacy and Replication and Goal 4: Effectiveness/Scale-Up). (coursera.org) - Write a power and
**sample size**analysis that is aligned with the planned statistical analysis This is a five-week intensive and interactive online course. (coursera.org) - If you select this option, enter values less than 1 in Ratios on the Power and
**Sample Size**for 2 Variances dialog box. (minitab.com)

###### Differences1

- A given number of samples must be analysed in order to detect clinically relevant differences between cancers and controls, with adequate statistical power. (ox.ac.uk)

###### Detect1

- With the p-test you can define the confidence, defect rate to detect, and
**sample size**to fit your needs concerning ability to make measurements, cost, and risk. (asqasktheexperts.com)

###### Studies1

- Studies with very low event rates can require very large sample sizes. (clinicaltrialist.com)

###### Sigma1

- The crude method to find the sample size: \(n=\left(\dfrac{z_{\alpha/2}\sigma}{E}\right)^2\) Then round up to the next whole integer. (psu.edu)

###### Large2

- Like I said the 67% profile that auto profile is creating does a great job, I just don't understand the problem when I know my
**sample size**is large enough. (neatvideo.com) - on the other hand, the sample must not be too large, because a large sample is likely to violate the assumption of independent observations due to spatial autocorrelation. (nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net)

###### Analysis1

- In this way, an optimised
**sample size**can be derived from an exploratory analysis. (nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net)

###### Effect size1

- This is a commentary on a collection of papers from two important projects, DELTA (Difference ELicitation in TriAls) and DELTA 2 that aim to provide evidence-based guidance on systematically determining the target effect size, or difference and the resultant sample sizes for trials. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Clinical8

- The determination of the
**sample size**is considered for ranking and selection problems as well as for the design of clinical trials. (worldcat.org) - In this article, the authors provide guidance on how to calculate the
**sample size**required to develop a clinical prediction model. (bmj.com) - Drawing on various real-world applications, Sample Sizes for Clinical Trials takes readers through the process of calculating sample sizes for many types of clinical trials. (routledge.com)
- a useful compendium that takes the reader through the process of calculating sample sizes and addresses many points to consider for the most common types of clinical trials and data. (routledge.com)
- a useful introduction to the clinical researcher and as a reference for the statistician interested in
**sample size**formulae for specific designs. (routledge.com) - A
**sample size**estimate is just one aspect of a clinical study design. (psiweb.org) - However, there is an increasing interest in transcription profiling of small samples, as large amounts of material can be difficult, if not impossible, to obtain in both clinical and experimental settings. (biomedcentral.com)
- Fine needle aspirates (FNA) (~1-2 μ g) and fine needle core biopsies (~2 μ g of total RNA) offer feasible, atraumatic clinical sampling procedures of limited material. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Population38

- This is the sub-population to be studied in order to make an inference to a reference population(A broader population to which the findings from a study are to be generalized) In census, the
**sample size**is equal to the population size. (slideshare.net) - When a representative sample is taken from a population, the finding are generalized to the population. (slideshare.net)
- The probability that your sample accurately reflects the attitudes of your population. (surveymonkey.com)
- It's called a sample because it only represents part of the group of people (or target population ) whose opinions or behavior you care about. (surveymonkey.com)
- For example, one way of sampling is to use a "random sample," where respondents are chosen entirely by chance from the population at large. (surveymonkey.com)
- If you were taking a random sample of people across the U.S., then your population size would be about 317 million. (surveymonkey.com)
- Similarly, if you are surveying your company, the size of the population is the total number of employees. (surveymonkey.com)
- If you want a smaller margin of error, you must have a larger
**sample size**given the same population. (surveymonkey.com) - Survey sampling can still give you valuable answers without having a
**sample size**that represents the general population. (surveymonkey.com) - On the other hand, political pollsters have to be extremely careful about surveying the right sample size-they need to make sure it's balanced to reflect the overall population. (surveymonkey.com)
- The first thing is that the regression tries to fit the existing data and the sample is not representative of the population, then the regression won't be useful just like estimating a distribution mean from a sample that is skewed massively to the left or right won't represent the true underlying mean of the population. (physicsforums.com)
- So in saying this, you will have to figure out if the sample you have has some decent amount of correspondence with the overall nature of the population data. (physicsforums.com)
- The
**sample size**is an important feature of any empirical study in which the goal is to make inferences about a population from a sample. (wikipedia.org) - In a census, data are collected on the entire population, hence the
**sample size**is equal to the population size. (wikipedia.org) - 460 0 obj stream We can determine fixed
**sample size**for a given population. (ntanet.org) - Do you … The
**sample size**is determined based on the population. (ntanet.org) - It may be necessary for example, for management to know, not that a market is worth $85m annually, but simply that it is worth … The determination of
**sample size**starts usually when the population is 11 and above. (ntanet.org) - Well, all you need is your desired confidence level and margin of error, as well as the number of people that make up your total population size. (fluidsurveys.com)
- Using this population genetic information we simulate a case-control sample (grey lines) where the red dots indicate the disease locus and blue dots indicate linked genetic variation. (nih.gov)
- Estimating effective population size and mutation rate from sequence data using Metropolis-Hastings sampling. (genetics.org)
- We present a new way to make a maximum likelihood estimate of the parameter 4N mu (effective population size times mutation rate per site, or theta) based on a population sample of molecular sequences. (genetics.org)
- The method can potentially be extended to cases involving varying population size, recombination, and migration. (genetics.org)
- A study was made to ascertain how large a sample is needed to make media effectiveness decisions which are generalizable to the total educable mentally handicapped (EMH) population. (ed.gov)
- The distribution of the sample multiple correlation coefficient r depends only on the population coefficient R, number of variates M, and the
**sample size**N. (thefreedictionary.com) - Bivariate analysis was employed to construct a composite score to rank each site's probability of being an anomaly, and statistical simulations were conducted to evaluate the ranking variation between the population based "true" pattern of user behavior and different sample based "observed" patterns. (igi-global.com)
- Choose a sample statistic (e.g., sample mean, sample standard deviation) that you want to use to estimate your chosen population parameter. (kmpro.org)
- Typically, nonnative alleles in a population are detected through the analysis of genetic markers in a sample of individuals. (usgs.gov)
- The new equation incorporates the effects of the genotypic structure of the sampled population and shows that conventional methods overestimate the likelihood of detection, especially when nonnative or F-1 hybrid individuals are present. (usgs.gov)
- Below is a random sample of size 8 drawn from a normal population. (jiskha.com)
- Below is a second random sample, independent from the first, of size 8 from a second normal population. (jiskha.com)
- Suppose a random sample of size 50 is selected from a population with σ = 10. (jiskha.com)
- Suppose you have a sample of 6 observations from a normal population. (jiskha.com)
- you plan to take a random sample from the population and use the samples mean as an estimate of population mean. (jiskha.com)
- Let's assume you have taken 100 samples of size 36 each from a normally distributed population. (jiskha.com)
- 1. The sample mean, the sample proportion and the sample standard deviation are all unbiased estimators of the corresponding population parameters. (jiskha.com)
- What does the central limit theorem say about the sampling distribution of the mean if samples of size 100 are drawn from this population. (jiskha.com)
- Assume that many samples of size n are taken form a large population of people and the mean IQ score is computed for each sample. (jiskha.com)
- The present systematic review aims to specify the overall incidence of AE and PAE across all settings and procedures, so as to describe the influence of heterogeneity factors such as
**sample size**, settings, type of events, terminology, methods of collecting data or characteristics of the study population. (bmj.com)

###### Calculate5

- Using Minitab, the manufacturer can calculate this test's power based on the
**sample size**, the minimum difference they want to be able to detect, and the standard deviation to determine if they can rely on the results of their analysis. (minitab.com) - In order to proceed with further development of the test, the study investigators have decided that they would need to draw the conclusion that test A is at least as test B. With significance level 0.05 and power 0.90, how can I calculate the required
**sample size**for patients with vision impairment. (mathhelpforum.com) - 14/05/2018 · Calculate your sample mean and sample standard deviation. (kmpro.org)
- This R package can be used to calculate the required samples size for unconditional multivariate analyses of unmatched case-control studies. (cancer.gov)
- The results from TransCount were used to calculate the Pearson correlation coefficient between transcript concentrations for different sample sizes. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Particle11

- Citation Query Adapting the
**sample size**in particle filters through KLD-sampling. (psu.edu) - Mark Bumiller of HORIBA Scientific discusses the importance of sampling as it relates to the accuracy, precision, and reliability of particle size measurement. (horiba.com)
- Good (or bad) sampling technique directly impacts particle size analysis. (horiba.com)
- Nanowerk News ) A new sample handling system from Beckman Coulter, Inc. reduces minimum volume requirements on the Multisizer 4 COULTER COUNTER Particle Characterization System from 10 mL to 4 mL. (nanowerk.com)
- Customers using the Multisizer 4 for counting particles in protein formulations, in applications such as pharmaceutical development, needed to work with smaller sample volumes," said Elsa Burgess, director of Worldwide Operations for the Particle Characterization Business Center. (nanowerk.com)
- Serving particle customers since 1960, the group specializes in the Coulter Principle, laser diffraction, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential determination, and BET analysis to understand all aspects of particulate samples. (nanowerk.com)
- Significantly expanded and completely updated, this revision of the 1985 text provides an in-dept look at particle size-selective criteria for aerosol exposure assessment. (acgih.org)
- The history and current status of practical sampling instrumentation for the measurement of various particle size fractions is discussed. (acgih.org)
- A section also reviews the general framework for developing TLVs ® and discusses how the new particle size-selective sampling criteria may be applied in that process. (acgih.org)
- The second part of the book deals with emerging issues where new knowledge is pointing the way towards the development of new or extended particle size-selective criteria. (acgih.org)
- Among the topics of discussion are the distinction between particles that penetrate into the lung and those which are actually deposited, how the particle size affects the manner in which particles react with biological systems, and how standards should be set to define and determine the acceptability of aerosol sampling instruments in relation to the new particle size-selective criteria. (acgih.org)

###### Reproducibility2

###### Statistically significant sample size7

- Does having a statistically significant
**sample size**matter? (surveymonkey.com) - But you might be wondering whether or not a statistically significant
**sample size**matters. (surveymonkey.com) - Customer feedback is one of the surveys that does so, regardless of whether or not you have a statistically significant
**sample size**. (surveymonkey.com) - Here are some specific use cases to help you figure out whether a statistically significant
**sample size**makes a difference. (surveymonkey.com) - Having a statistically significant
**sample size**can give you a more holistic view on employees in general. (surveymonkey.com) - When conducting a market research survey, having a statistically significant
**sample size**can make a big difference. (ntanet.org) - When it comes to market research, a statistically significant
**sample size**helps a lot. (ntanet.org)

###### Interplay between sample size2

- CONCLUSIONS: We showed that genomic predictor accuracy is determined largely by an interplay between
**sample size**and classification difficulty. (biomedsearch.com) - The interplay between
**sample size**and. (ugent.be)

###### Populations6

- It includes both random sampling from standard probability distributions and from finite populations. (worldcat.org)
- We describe in detail a method of simulating case-control samples at a set of linked SNPs that replicates the patterns of LD in human populations, and we used it to assess power for a comprehensive set of available genotyping chips. (nih.gov)
- Our results allow us to compare the performance of the chips to detect variants with different effect sizes and allele frequencies, look at how power changes with
**sample size**in different populations or when using multi-marker tags and genotype imputation approaches, and how performance compares to a hypothetical chip that contains every SNP in HapMap. (nih.gov) - Using the revised equation, we describe a new approach to determining the number of individuals to sample and the number of diagnostic markers to analyze when attempting to monitor the arrival of nonnative alleles in native populations. (usgs.gov)
- Remembering that the F distribution is a ratio of independent chi- squares divided by their degrees of freedom, it can be shown that, under random, independent sampling, if the variances of the populations are equal, then s21/s2 has an F distribution with, in this case, 7 numerator and 7 denominator degrees of freedom (where the degrees of freedom are n − 1 for the corresponding samples). (jiskha.com)
- Objectives To perform a systematic review of the frequency of (preventable) adverse events (AE/PAE) and to analyse contributing factors, such as
**sample size**, settings, type of events, terminology, methods of collecting data and characteristics of study populations. (bmj.com)

###### Determine9

- Determine
**sample size**. (slideshare.net) - This article illustrates how confidence intervals constructed around a desired or anticipated value can help determine the
**sample size**needed. (nih.gov) - My question is, how would I determine how many journeys I would need to get a sufficient
**sample size**for the regression? (physicsforums.com) - How many samples do you need to determine if the average thickness of paper from one supplier is the same as another supplier? (minitab.com)
- For instance, if you specify values for the minimum difference and power, Minitab will determine the
**sample size**required to detect the specified difference at the specified level of power. (minitab.com) - Chapter 6 introduces topic set size design to enable test collection builders to determine an appropriate number of topics to create. (springer.com)
- Can you honestly say you determine a statistically valid
**sample size**when you audit? (elsmar.com) - It is possible to use the Power and
**Sample Size**functionality in MINITAB to determine sample sizes to perform statistical tests. (kmpro.org) - To overcome this problem, it is necessary to conduct power analysis during the study design phase to determine the
**sample size**required to detect the effects of interest. (mande.co.uk)

###### Standard deviation2

- Using a standard deviation of 4.58 grams and a power of 85%, how many cereal boxes do you need to sample? (minitab.com)
- One calculates
**sample size**based on a specified difference of interest, an assumption about the standard deviation or event rate of the outcome being studied, and conventional choices for Type I error (chance of rejecting the null hypothesis if it is true) and statistical power (chance of rejecting the null hypothesis if the specified difference actually exists). (biomedcentral.com)

###### 10001

- In the sample amplifying from 1000 cells, transcripts expressed with at least 121 transcripts/cell were statistically reliable and for 250 cells, the limit was 1806 transcripts/cell. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Regression Analysis1

- The purpose of the current study is determination of
**sample size**in regression analysis of hydrologic variables by means of power analysis where power analysis is considered for generally fitting the model. (thefreelibrary.com)

###### Experiment7

- One of the most important problems in designing an experiment or a survey is
**sample size**determination and this book presents the currently available methodology. (worldcat.org) - If the power to detect this difference is low, they may want modify the experiment by sampling more parts to increase the power and re-evaluate the formulations. (minitab.com)
- Chapter 7 describes power-analysis-based methods for determining an appropriate
**sample size**for a new experiment based on a similar experiment done in the past, detailing how to utilize the author's R tools for power analysis and how to interpret the results. (springer.com) - A crucial step in designing an experiment is determining the
**sample size**, the statistical power and detectable effect size. (timberlake.co.uk) - A question I'm most often asked (other than excluding those pesky outliers) is "what is a suitable
**sample size**for my experiment? (nc3rs.org.uk) - If the effect size you are interested in detecting is an absolute change of less than 2 (blue line), it will not be possible to power the experiment correctly. (nc3rs.org.uk)
- This finding has important implications for any experiment where only extremely small samples such as single cell analyses or laser captured microdissected cells are available. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Uncertainty3

- This variation occurs because the distribution of the virus is an unknown, there is always a level of uncertainty that any given sample will be truly representative of the entire seed lot. (cornell.edu)
- 2009) believed that one of the most important surveys in metric estimations is the rate of uncertainty related to the period of data record (
**sample size**), sample period (period of sampling) and sample overlap among stream gauge records. (thefreelibrary.com) - Model uncertainty due to sampling and model selection, and its predictive ability, are explored statistically and spatially through the example of 100 models estimated in one study area and validated in a neighbouring area: depending on the study area and on
**sample size**, the predicted probabilities for debris flow release differed, on average, by 7 to 23 percentage points. (nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net)

###### Small25

- If the sample is too small: 2. (slideshare.net)
- Reasonable prediction makes significant practical sense to stochastic and unstable time series analysis with small or limited
**sample size**. (hindawi.com) - Sample sizes may be chosen in several different ways: experience - A choice of small sample sizes, though sometimes necessary, can result in wide confidence intervals or risks of errors in statistical hypothesis testing. (wikipedia.org)
- I buy small gift bags from the dollar store and chock them full of various samples and other free stuff. (thriftyfun.com)
- It was observed that upon introduction of a small amount of water (5%) into P 2 O 5 dried samples, for most samples, both absolute intensity of (200) reflection and its full width at half maximum declined. (usda.gov)
- Size Small Aus. (ebay.com.au)
- Therefore, one potential reason for the reported inconsistencies might be that
**sample size**is usually very small in most tDCS studies (including those from our research group). (frontiersin.org) - nil-effects reported as an additional finding in papers with the actual focus on another, significant, effect, etc.), small
**sample size**in tDCS research could lead to both under-and overestimation of tDCS efficacy. (frontiersin.org) - Actually you can draw some valid conclusions from the small sample sizes. (elsmar.com)
- If you draw small samples from a process that has a very small error rate, the probability of finding a non-conformance is extremely small. (elsmar.com)
- The current system is outdated in its methodology as all day live mediums like radio cannot he measured by diary method of recall and that too with such small samples. (exchange4media.com)
- When I auto profile the sample Neat Video tells me the
**sample size**is to small. (neatvideo.com) - An advantage for the individual user is the small fluid, e.g., blood sample required, which enables the user to avoid using finger tip sticks for samples. (google.com)
- 1978), Hayes (1987), Peterman (1990b) and others have showed, type II error is mostly a big error, especially when the
**sample size**is small. (thefreelibrary.com) - We find that if effects have i) low base probability, ii) small effect size or iii) low grant income per publication, then the rational (economically optimal)
**sample size**is small. (arxiv.org) - Overall, the model describes a simple mechanism explaining both the prevalence and the persistence of small sample sizes, and is well suited for empirical validation. (arxiv.org)
- April totals include March games, and Rest includes all games after May 31, though I'm omitting the early June 2008 data to avoid the distraction of a small
**sample size**. (baseballprospectus.com) - The demonstrated method will prepare 96 samples in 96-well plate format for small to medium throughput laboratories. (selectscience.net)
- If skin is intact and healthy, massage a small pearl sized amount into each heel then spread to the arch and ball of the foot. (purepro.com)
- The Art of Hot Stone Reflexology DVD by Nature's Stones or The Art of Hot Stone Foot & Hand Massage DVD by Nature's Stones Add value to your healing treatments by reselling the small size to your clients to promote self care between visits. (purepro.com)
- Extending these results to humans, however, is challenging due to the small size of needle biopsy samples. (nih.gov)
- Statistics in Small Doses 9 - Does
**sample size**matter? (nysora.com) - A
**sample size**should be large enough to detect a difference (if there truly is a difference), but not so large that small clinically unimportant differences are detected. (nysora.com) - On the other hand, a study with a sample that is too small will be unable to detect clinically important effects. (nysora.com)
- Next month, statistics in small doses will touch upon those factors that can influence
**sample size**- might their appropriate use help your**sample size**? (nysora.com)

###### ANOVA2

- Readers can easily use the author's Excel tools for topic set size design based on the paired and two-sample t -tests, one-way ANOVA, and confidence intervals. (springer.com)
- 2. Fixes a problem with the repeated measures ANOVA routine when solving for
**sample size**of something other than the regular test statistic (e.g. n-Wilks Lambda or n-Pillai-Bartlett Trace). (ncss.com)

###### Estimating parameters1

- Also discussed is
**sample size**determination for estimating parameters in a Bayesian setting by considering the posterior distribution of the parameter and specifying the necessary requirements. (worldcat.org)

###### Sufficient sample size1

- Determining a statistically sufficient
**sample size**is critical for market research. (kmpro.org)

###### Precision4

- using a confidence level, i.e. the larger the required confidence level, the larger the
**sample size**(given a constant precision requirement). (wikipedia.org) - Larger sample sizes generally lead to increased precision when estimating unknown parameters. (wikipedia.org)
- In some situations, the increase in precision for larger sample sizes is minimal, or even non-existent. (wikipedia.org)
- Poorer techniques such as grab sampling often lead to many orders of magnitude greater error in both the accuracy and precision of the measurement. (horiba.com)

###### Probability distributions1

- We present new results concerning probability distributions of times in the coalescence tree and expected allele frequencies for coalescent with large
**sample size**. (diva-portal.org)

###### Impacts2

###### Variances1

- Explore the power and sample-size methods introduced in Stata 14, including solving for power,
**sample size**, and effect size for comparisons of means, proportions, correlations and variances. (timberlake.co.uk)

###### Compute2

- This paper outlines how to compute power and
**sample size**in the simple case of unadjusted IORs. (mdpi.com) - How do we compute
**sample size**fluctuations? (jiskha.com)

###### Formulas3

- This paper presents simple formulas for computing power and
**sample size**for IOR. (mdpi.com) - After plugging these three numbers into the Survey
**Sample Size**Calculator, it conducts two survey**sample size**formulas for you and comes up with the appropriate number of responses. (fluidsurveys.com) - Specifically, assuming that a scientist's income derives only from 'positive' findings (positive publication bias) and that individual samples cost a fixed amount, allows to leverage basic statistical formulas into an economic optimality prediction. (arxiv.org)

###### Calculating4

- Calculating the sample. (bmj.com)
- The method used here is suitable for calculating sample sizes for studies that will be analysed by the log-rank test. (statsdirect.com)
- Calculating the right
**sample size**is crucial to gaining accurate information! (fluidsurveys.com) - 5 Steps for Calculating
**Sample Size**. (kmpro.org)

###### Measurement3

- Radio operators have long questioned the accuracy of the "diary methodology" that is currently being used to carry out the measurement as well as the overall
**sample size**, which is just 480 individuals across 4 cities (Bangalore, Kolkata, Delhi and Mumbai). (exchange4media.com) - Fast sample preparation becomes especially important in relation to shorter measurement times expected in next-generation synchrotron sources. (iucr.org)
- Although in general all shapes of samples can be examined, cylindrical shapes are preferable as the field of view remains equally filled at every angle and the sample thickness remains constant throughout the tomographic measurement. (iucr.org)

###### Statisticians3

- This is one of the biggest problems statisticians face in that they need to collect a sample, but the sample needs to be a good representation. (physicsforums.com)
- Unfortunately, widespread misconceptions about
**sample size**hurt not only statisticians, but also the quality of medical science generally. (biomedcentral.com) - The goal this month is to relate the importance of
**sample size**as told by investigators and statisticians themselves. (nysora.com)

###### Results11

- Generally, the rule of thumb is that the larger the
**sample size**, the more statistically significant it is-meaning there's less of a chance that your results happened by coincidence. (surveymonkey.com) - We can't tell you how big a sip to take at a wine-tasting event, but when it comes to collecting data, Minitab Statistical Software's Power and
**Sample Size**tools can tell you how much data you need to be sure about your results. (minitab.com) - In the upper part, a simulation can be prompted for a given
**sample size**(number of subjects) by pressing "One Random Sample of Size N". By pressing the button "R Random Samples of Size N" samples are repeatedly generated and the distribution of the results per category are indicated using selected percentiles. (r-project.org) - Our results revealed that SPAEML was capable of detecting quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs) at sample sizes as low as n = 300 and consistently specifying signals as additive and epistatic for larger sizes. (nature.com)
- Although classical statistical significance tests are to some extent useful in information retrieval (IR) evaluation, they can harm research unless they are used appropriately with the right sample sizes and statistical power and unless the test results are reported properly. (springer.com)
- But before you check it out, I wanted to give you a quick look at how your
**sample size**can affect your results. (fluidsurveys.com) - Now that we know how both margins of error and confidence levels affect the accuracy of results, let's take a look at what happens when the
**sample size**changes. (fluidsurveys.com) - The results induce recommendations on criterion selection when a certain
**sample size**is given and help to judge what**sample size**is needed in order to guarantee an accurate decision based on a certain criterion respectively. (uni-muenchen.de) - the provision results in a great reduction in
**sample size**over the combined years. (thefreedictionary.com) - Under such circumstances-which are typical of early stages of introgression and therefore most important for conservation efforts-our results show that improved detection of nonnative alleles arises primarily from increasing the number of individuals sampled rather than increasing the number of genetic markers analyzed. (usgs.gov)
- The accuracy of the 3D reconstruction results are influenced by samples size directly. (spie.org)

###### 0.051

- Type I error is essentially always set to be 0.05, and sample sizes producing power less than 80% are considered inadequate. (biomedcentral.com)

###### Tomography2

- A simple two-spindle based lathe system for the preparation of cylindrical samples intended for X-ray tomography is presented. (iucr.org)
- Since this lathe system easily yields near-cylindrical samples ideal for tomography, a usage for a wide variety of otherwise challenging specimens is anticipated, in addition to potential use as a time- and cost-saving tool prior to focused ion-beam milling. (iucr.org)

###### Insufficient1

- 1 ] had to exclude 85% of the FNA of breast cancer samples from further microarray analysis due to insufficient material. (biomedcentral.com)

###### 20181

- The report provides revenue of the global capillary and venous blood sampling devices market for the period 2018-2030, considering 2019 as the base year and 2030 as the forecast year. (yahoo.com)

###### Approach4

- This approach allowed the researchers to analyze simultaneously the proteome, phosphoproteome and N-terminome of each platelet sample. (asbmb.org)
- The approach will allow the researchers to interrogate more fully limited samples from Scott syndrome patients to look for spliced genes that might be producing low levels of anoctamin-6. (asbmb.org)
- A comprehensive approach to
**sample size**determination and power with applications for a variety of fields**Sample Size**Determination and Power features a modern introduction to the applicability of**sample size**determination and provides a variety of discussions on broad topics including epidemiology, microarrays, survival analysis and reliability, design of experiments, regression, and confidence intervals. (whsmith.co.uk) - This manuscript describes an automated gel size selection approach for purifying DNA fragments for next-generation sequencing. (jove.com)

###### Spatial2

- In order to obtain useful maps, it should be reasonable to use a 30 × 30 km mesh size, or even larger, to build spatial variation maps of Pb, Sb and with more caution for Cu, Sr, Rb and Zn. (springer.com)
- The instrument achieves 0.9 μm true spatial resolution with minimum achievable voxel size of 100 nm. (zeiss.com)

###### Capillary9

- Capillary and Venous Blood Sampling Devices Market - Scope of the Report This report on the global capillary and venous blood sampling devices market studies the past as well as the current growth trends and opportunities to gain valuable insights of the indicators for the market during the forecast period from 2020 to 2030. (yahoo.com)
- The report also provides the compound annual growth rate (CAGR %) of the global capillary and venous blood sampling devices market from 2020 to 2030. (yahoo.com)
- Extensive secondary research involved reaching out to key players' product literature, annual reports, press releases, and relevant documents to understand the capillary and venous blood sampling devices market. (yahoo.com)
- These serve as valuable tools for existing market players as well as for entities interested in participating in the global capillary and venous blood sampling devices market. (yahoo.com)
- The report delves into the competitive landscape of the global capillary and venous blood sampling devices market.Key players operating in the global capillary and venous blood sampling devices market are identified and each one of these is profiled in terms of various attributes. (yahoo.com)
- Company overview, financial standings, recent developments, and SWOT are the attributes of players in the global capillary and venous blood sampling devices market profiled in this report. (yahoo.com)
- What is the sales/revenue generated by capillary and venous blood sampling devices across all regions during the forecast period? (yahoo.com)
- What are the opportunities in the global capillary and venous blood sampling devices market? (yahoo.com)
- The report analyzes the global capillary and venous blood sampling devices market in terms of product, application, end user, and region.Key segments under each criteria are studied at length, and the market share for each of these at the end of 2030 has also been provided. (yahoo.com)

###### Binomial distribution3

- When the observations are independent, this estimator has a (scaled) binomial distribution (and is also the sample mean of data from a Bernoulli distribution). (wikipedia.org)
- This approximation has a functional form based on the binomial distribution, but with the number of individuals per sampling unit ( n ) replaced by a parameter ( v ) that has similar interpretation as, but is not the same as, the effective
**sample size**( n deff ) often used in survey sampling. (apsnet.org) - The choice of v was determined iteratively by finding a parameter value that allowed the zero term (probability that a sampling unit is disease free) of the binomial distribution to equal the zero term of the beta-binomial. (apsnet.org)

###### Logistic2

- A sequence of hierarchical random effects logistic regression models was fitted to compare the performance of the full dataset-based and sample-based classifications. (igi-global.com)
- Gail MH, Haneuse S. Power and
**sample size**for multivariate logistic modeling of unmatched case-control studies . (cancer.gov)

###### Overlap1

- By increasing the sample thickness, single projections commonly appear faded due to structural overlap in the third dimension which quickly reaches a level at which interpretation is no longer possible. (iucr.org)

###### Confidence intervals1

- Dorey, F. J. and Korn, E. L. (1987), Effective sample sizes for confidence intervals for survival probabilities. (wiley.com)

###### Influence3

- Sample size and minor allele frequency had a major influence on SPAEML's ability to distinguish between additive and epistatic signals, while the number of markers tested did not. (nature.com)
- It can be expected that the same parameters influence the
**sample size**of biopsies in vivo. (springer.com) - The budget set aside for qualitative research is an important influence on the
**sample size**. (chron.com)

###### Significance of sample size1

- Understand the significance of
**sample size**. (slideshare.net)

###### Determination of sample size1

- Determination of
**sample size**is considered as the basic aspect in scientific researches (Colosimo et al. (thefreelibrary.com)

###### Larger sample3

- Pilot testing found that the decision aid provides a larger
**sample size**than auditor**sample size**judgments without the aid. (thefreedictionary.com) - Bootstrap Sample: Select a smaller sample from a larger sample with Bootstrapping. (kmpro.org)
- The trade-off means qualitative data from fewer people or less data collected from a larger sample. (chron.com)

###### Determining3

- Even if you're a statistician, determining survey
**sample size**can be tough. (surveymonkey.com) - PASS is a computer program for estimating
**sample size**or determining the power of a statistical test or confidence interval. (wikipedia.org) - c) measuring a color change of the indicator and determining the concentration of the analyte in the sample. (google.com)

###### Power and Sample Size4

- You can use Minitab's Power and
**Sample Size**tools to make sure you collect enough data to conduct a reliable analysis, while avoiding wasting resources by collecting more data than you need. (minitab.com) - Minitab's Power and
**Sample Size**tools help you balance your need for statistical power with the expense of gathering data by answering this question: How much data do you need? (minitab.com) - Timberlake Group Technical Director, Dr. George Naufal introduces insights to power and
**sample size**in Stata. (timberlake.co.uk) - Stata 14 also allows you the freedom to add your own method to analyse power and
**sample size**. (timberlake.co.uk)