Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Glycomics: The systematic study of the structure and function of the complete set of glycans (the glycome) produced in a single organism and identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Serum Globulins: All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Serum Response Factor: A MADS domain-containing transcription factor that binds to the SERUM RESPONSE ELEMENT in the promoter-enhancer region of many genes. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Serum Sickness: Immune complex disease caused by the administration of foreign serum or serum proteins and characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, and urticaria. When they are complexed to protein carriers, some drugs can also cause serum sickness when they act as haptens inducing antibody responses.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.CreatinineBlood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Blood Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.Serum Amyloid P-Component: Amyloid P component is a small, non-fibrillar glycoprotein found in normal serum and in all amyloid deposits. It has a pentagonal (pentaxin) structure. It is an acute phase protein, modulates immunologic responses, inhibits ELASTASE, and has been suggested as an indicator of LIVER DISEASE.Serum Bactericidal Test: Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.TriglyceridesBilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Blood Protein Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Serum Albumin, Radio-Iodinated: Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Serum Response Element: A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of many growth-related genes. The regulatory transcription factor SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Mice, Inbred BALB CAge Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Hypothyroidism: A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.JapanCholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.gamma-Glutamyltransferase: An enzyme, sometimes called GGT, with a key role in the synthesis and degradation of GLUTATHIONE; (GSH, a tripeptide that protects cells from many toxins). It catalyzes the transfer of the gamma-glutamyl moiety to an acceptor amino acid.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Blood Urea Nitrogen: The urea concentration of the blood stated in terms of nitrogen content. Serum (plasma) urea nitrogen is approximately 12% higher than blood urea nitrogen concentration because of the greater protein content of red blood cells. Increases in blood or serum urea nitrogen are referred to as azotemia and may have prerenal, renal, or postrenal causes. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Complement C4: A glycoprotein that is important in the activation of CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C4 is cleaved by the activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C4A and COMPLEMENT C4B.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Fluoroimmunoassay: The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.Immunoradiometric Assay: Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Liver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Microchemistry: The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
Diagnostics involves the detection of antigens and antibodies in blood samples; the profiling of sera to discover new disease ... Therefore, sample buffers contain a high percent of glycerol (to lower the freezing point), and the humidity of the ... Reference peptides are printed on the slides to allow for protein quantification of the sample lysates. RPAs allow for the ... Reverse phase protein microarray (RPPA) involve complex samples, such as tissue lysates. Cells are isolated from various ...
The blood serum can be gained from a clotted blood sample. Normally it is assumed that all the proteins that appear in the CSF ... Oligoclonal bands (OCBs) are bands of immunoglobulins that are seen when a patient's blood serum, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) ... but are not present in the serum, are produced intrathecally (inside the CNS). Therefore, it is normal to subtract bands in ... significance of corresponding bands in serum for diagnosis of multiple sclerosis". Clinical Chemistry. 34 (4): 764-5. PMID ...
In medicine, protein electrophoresis is a method of analysing the proteins mainly in blood serum. Before the widespread use of ... The electrophoresis may be performed with a small volume of sample in a number of alternative ways with or without a supporting ... Traditionally, two classes of blood proteins are considered: serum albumin and globulin. They are generally equal in proportion ... Anionic dyes of a known electrophoretic mobility are usually included in the sample buffer. A very common tracking dye is ...
The blood sample is typically in the form of a thick smear and stained with Giemsa stain. Testing the blood serum for ... The blood is typically examined as a smear after being stained with Giemsa stain. Testing the blood for antibodies against the ... This may be difficult, as in most parts of the world, microfilariae only circulate in the blood at night. For this reason, the ... Using a combination of treatments better reduces the number of microfilariae in blood. Avoiding mosquito bites, such as by ...
Indeed this technique is used for pipetting heterogeneous samples, such as blood or serum. hands-free pipette robot, 2012 ... The standard forward pipetting technique is used to dispense and mix a sample or reagent into another liquid When prerinsing ... Research aspirating DNA sample from microtube Set of air displacement pipettes (Gilson and Eppendorf) Forward pipetting into 24 ... tip is not possible and the full sample must be dispensed for correct analysis, the following alternative of forward pipetting ...
The size of the tissue samples and maximal ischemia times, as well as clotting times for the blood samples, are regulated by ... Tumor tissue and blood serum from breast cancer patients are stored in these tanks. More than 7200 women have consented to the ... The database includes information about e.g. the number of samples, ischemia/clotting times of the samples before freezing, age ... the breast cancer patient is informed about the option to store her tissue a blood serum at PATH. In the case of her informed ...
For biochemistry samples, blood is usually centrifuged and serum is separated. If the serum needs to go on more than one ... and blood films as well as many other specialised tests. Coagulation requires citrated blood samples to analyze blood clotting ... They test the serum for chemicals present in blood. These include a wide array of substances, such as lipids, blood sugar, ... or Blood bank determines blood groups, and performs compatibility testing on donor blood and recipients. It also prepares blood ...
Blood serum is often used for enzyme assay testing because it can be sampled inexpensively. Testing with other tissue types may ...
In case of suspicion of systemic disease the level of serum tryptase in the blood can be of help. If the base level of s- ... A small skin sample (biopsy) may help confirm the diagnosis.[citation needed]. ... doi:10.1182/blood-2016-03-643544. PMID 27069254.. *^ Hermine O, Lortholary O, Leventhal PS, et al. (2008). Soyer HP, ed. "Case- ... Researchers also think mast cells may have a role in the growth of blood vessels (angiogenesis). No one with too few or no mast ...
A biobank is a repository that stores biological samples like DNA, tissue, blood, and blood serum. Biobank Central aims to ...
Viral culture or blood serum testing for antibodies may also be used for the confirmation of infection. It is believed that the ... Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of samples collected through nasopharyngeal swab is the most commonly used ...
Serum is the yellow watery part of blood that is left after blood has been allowed to clot and all blood cells have been ... The type of test required dictates what type of sample is used. A large medical laboratory will accept samples for up to about ... Plasma is in essence the same as serum, but is obtained by centrifuging the blood without clotting. Plasma is obtained by ... Function Tests Creatinine Blood urea nitrogen Liver Function Tests Total protein (serum) Albumin Globulins A/G ratio (albumin- ...
Hence, early diagnostic efforts include testing a serum or blood sample serologically with a panel of different strains. Kidney ... Elevations of serum potassium are common and if the potassium level gets too high special measures must be taken. Serum ... Diagnosis is typically by looking for antibodies against the bacterium or finding its DNA in the blood. Efforts to prevent the ... In dogs, penicillin is most commonly used to end the leptospiremic phase (infection of the blood), and doxycycline is used to ...
For PCR based on blood samples, the addition of bovine serum albumin reduces the effect of some inhibitors on PCR. PCR ... Inhibitors may be present in the original sample, such as blood, fabrics, tissues and soil but may also be added as a result of ... Of course, if any part of the inhibition occurring in the sample-derived reaction mixture is sequence-specific, then this ... For example, in forensics, swab-transfer of blood on fabric or saliva on food, may prevent or reduce contamination with ...
Vandal Savage needs Adeline's blood to develop an immortality serum, and he slits her throat in order to get a sample. As it ...
... serum and dried blood spots. These different blood sample preparations were analyzed using three antibody array platforms: ... plasma or serum samples and many other sample types. One main focus in antibody array based profiling studies is biomarker ... "Protein expression profiling by antibody array analysis with use of dried blood spot samples on filter paper". Journal of ... "Protein expression profiling by antibody array analysis with use of dried blood spot samples on filter paper". Journal of ...
For the test to occur a healthcare provider must draw a sample of blood from the patient. It is preferred that blood is drawn ... Elevated levels of chloride in the blood can be tested simply by requesting a serum chloride test. A doctor would request this ... a decrease in blood pH and bicarbonate levels, as well as an increase in blood chloride levels. Instead those with ... The sample will then be sent to a laboratory and results will be provided to the patient's physician. As mentioned earlier a ...
Blood separates into cells and proteins (RBC,WBC, platelets, etc.) and serum. DNA preparation is another common application for ... Samples can be exposed to a maximum of 20 times Earth gravity. With its four arms and six freely swing out gondolas it is ... The blood waste is then removed and another buffer is added and spun inside the centrifuge again. Once the blood waste is ... Haematocrit centrifuges are used to measure the volume percentage of red blood cells in whole blood. Gas centrifuges, including ...
... highly dynamic sample such as human blood serum. However, the methods of utilizing targeted mass spectrometry are still at a ... With minor modification, this approach can used in analyzing any other simple or complex samples. In addition to the advantage ...
Hence, early diagnostic efforts include testing a serum or blood sample serologically with a panel of different strains. ... Elevations of serum potassium are common and if the potassium level gets too high special measures must be taken. Serum ... Kidney function tests (blood urea nitrogen and creatinine) as well as blood tests for liver functions are performed. The latter ... Testing blood for antibodies against the bacterium or its DNA[8]. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, enteric fever, rickettsiosis ...
Although their anemia is multifactorial, repeated blood sampling and reduced erythropoiesis with extremely low serum levels of ... Blood sampling done for laboratory testing can easily remove enough blood to produce anemia. Obladen, Sachsenweger and Stahnke ... 60 ml/kg blood loss), and group 3(ventilated support for respiratory distress syndrome, 67 ml/kg blood loss). Infants were ... but reduction of blood loss is most important.[citation needed] For extremely low birth weight infants, laboratory blood ...
The blood cells are separated from the serum using centrifugation and are then placed in distilled water, which causes them to ... To test a sample for endotoxins, it is mixed with lysate and water; endotoxins are present if coagulation occurs. There are ... Therefore, unless the sample is water, some components of the solution may interfere with the LAL test such that the recovery ... Fred Bang reported in 1956 that gram-negative bacteria, even if killed, will cause the blood of the horseshoe crab to turn into ...
Blood type can be determined by using antibodies that bind to the A or B blood group antigens in a sample of blood. For example ... which means the blood is type O. In blood grouping, the patient's serum is tested against RBCs of known blood groups and also ... In this way the patient's blood group is confirmed from both RBCs and serum. A direct Coombs test is also done on the patient's ... if antibodies that bind the A blood group are added and agglutination occurs, the blood is either type A or type AB. To ...
... levels do not generally exceed 16.7 mmol/L (300 mg/dL). Blood sugar CSF/serum glucose ratio "MedlinePlus Medical ... can lead to an increased CSF glucose since the blood that enters the collected CSF sample contains higher levels of glucose. ... The glucose level in CSF is proportional to the blood glucose level and corresponds to 60-70% of the concentration in blood. ... However, elevated blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia) result in elevated CSF glucose levels as the CSF glucose level is ...
The detection of an enzyme not known to be normally present in a sample of body fluid (e.g. blood serum, CSF, synovial fluid, ... In contrast to the other techniques where samples are assayed individually, samples to be analysed by zymoblot are spotted on ... Samples to be analysed by zymoblot require no dialysis (a process that may take days) as washing blots in Tris-buffered saline ... When different samples are compared on the same blot, the reaction should be stopped sometime during the linear part of the ...
1. A method for detecting a paternally inherited nucleic acid of fetal origin performed on a maternal serum or plasma sample ... but had traveled from the fetal blood into the maternal blood through the placenta. The paternal DNA in the mother's plasma had ... amplifying a paternally inherited nucleic acid from the serum or plasma sample and. detecting the presence of a paternally ... maternal plasma or serum. The application and adaptation of known techniques in this inventive way to a newly-discovered sample ...
Full blood samples were stable only a few days and only in upright position to prevent major contamination of serum with ... Blood samples were collected in the mornings at the beginning and thereafter every two or three days. Serum was separated and ... Autoptic blood samples showed regular results with postmortal intervals up to two days). ... With a drinking period of 3 hours, the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) did not exceed 0.5o/oo, whereas within one hour a BAC ...
Spiked serum and blood samples were analysed with this new immunoassay and the results obtained were compared with the values ... Optimized glucuronide hydrolysis for the detection of psilocin in human urine samples. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed ...
Because the serum estrogen level in cord blood samples is much higher than typical clinical samples, the measurements were ... Laboratory Assay Reproducibility of Serum Estrogens in Umbilical Cord Blood Samples. Atsuko Shibata, Marion M. Lee and Paul B. ... Laboratory Assay Reproducibility of Serum Estrogens in Umbilical Cord Blood Samples. Atsuko Shibata, Marion M. Lee and Paul B. ... Laboratory Assay Reproducibility of Serum Estrogens in Umbilical Cord Blood Samples. Atsuko Shibata, Marion M. Lee and Paul B. ...
... for a total of 235 serum and 235 DBS samples. The serology was positive in 31/235 (13%) serum samples, and in 27/235 (11%) DBS ... for a total of 235 serum and 235 DBS samples. The serology was positive in 31/235 (13%) serum samples, and in 27/235 (11%) DBS ... Each participant gave consent to the collection of both serum and DBS specimens. DBS absorbed on filter papers were analyzed ... Each participant gave consent to the collection of both serum and DBS specimens. DBS absorbed on filter papers were analyzed ...
Klont, F, Horvatovich, P, Ten Hacken, NHT & Bischoff, R 2020, Cigarette smoking prior to blood sampling acutely affects serum ... Cigarette smoking prior to blood sampling acutely affects serum levels of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease biomarker ... Cigarette smoking prior to blood sampling acutely affects serum levels of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease biomarker ... Cigarette smoking prior to blood sampling acutely affects serum levels of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease biomarker ...
Correlation of omega-3 levels in serum phospholipid from 2053 human blood samples with key fatty acid ratios.. Holub BJ1, ... Correlation of omega-3 levels in serum phospholipid from 2053 human blood samples with key fatty acid ratios ... Correlation of omega-3 levels in serum phospholipid from 2053 human blood samples with key fatty acid ratios ... Correlation of omega-3 levels in serum phospholipid from 2053 human blood samples with key fatty acid ratios ...
... obtained by separating out the red blood cells (seen in the vacutainers, at back) from blood plasma. The serum samples are to ... Rack of blood specimen tubes in a haematology laboratory. In the fore- ground are yellow serum samples, ... Keywords: aids, aids antibodies test, aids research, aids test, blood, blood product, blood sample, blood samples, blood serum ... Blood and serum samples. Rack of blood specimen tubes in a haematology laboratory. In the fore- ground are yellow serum samples ...
Download detailed protocols and guides for different applications. Get the latest catalogs and brochures from our partners and learn where you can meet us in person at conferences. Learn more about our products in our blog and use online tools to... learn more ...
Total RNA Purification Kit for cultured animal cells, tissue samples, blood, plasma, serum, saliva, bacteria, yeast, fungi, ... small tissue samples, blood, serum/plasma, bacteria, yeast and fungi. The kit purifies all sizes of RNA, from large mRNA and ... For large serum and plasma input amounts (1 ml - 5ml) please use the Plasma/Serum Circulating RNA Purification Kit (see link ... Blood (Hamster, 100 uL) 5 ug HeLa (1 x 10e6) 15 ug CHO (1 x 10e6) 11 ug Yeast (1 x 10e8) 30 ug E coli (1 x 10e9) 43 ug ...
Study Population and Blood Samples. Blood samples (n = 2053) were obtained from free-living subjects (both genders) from across ... including blood sampling being permitted in the fasted or postprandial state). Following collection of the blood samples by ... JP performed all the serum phospholipid fatty acid analyses on the blood samples. All authors have read and approved the final ... Correlation of omega-3 levels in serum phospholipid from 2053 human blood samples with key fatty acid ratios. ...
Eligible Sample. Blood Lead and Cadmium, and Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin, RBC folate, Serum folate, Vitamin B12, Homocysteine, ... LB2FOL - Folate, serum (ng/mL). Variable Name: LB2FOL. SAS Label: Folate, serum (ng/mL). English Text: Folate, serum (ng/mL). ... LB2FOLSI - Folate, serum (nmol/L). Variable Name: LB2FOLSI. SAS Label: Folate, serum (nmol/L). English Text: Folate, serum ( ... Human blood (patient or study) samples, bovine blood quality control pools, and aqueous standards are diluted with a matrix ...
Blood, serum, and urine samples from NHANES. Biomonitoring measurements for CDCs National Report on Human Exposure to ... Adequate blood or urine samples were available.. *Incremental analytical costs to perform the biomonitoring analysis for the ... Serum cotinine and hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide are measured in the entire NHANES sample for participants ... The Report and Updated Tables present descriptive statistics on the blood, serum, or urine levels for each environmental ...
Sujet: Blood and serum samples were collected for measurements of serum calcium Jeu 18 Jan - 5:14. ... Campagne] Blood bowl. » Quoi de neuf la rentr e...une petite coupe de Blood bowl ?. » Vendredi 17 avril : Blood Bowl 7. » Du ... improving microcirculation and increasing the blood flow velocity. Its beneficial effects on blood vessel dilation and ... Thus, Sal B functions as a vasodilator, maintains red blood cell deformability and increases the function of the hematopoietic ...
... preparing and shipping testing samples to be tested for anthrax. ... 1. Collecting Blood for Serum. *Collect 10 mL of blood ... An acute serum sample for lethal factor (LF) toxin testing can be collected from 0 to 18 days after suspected exposure or the ... Only ship a portion of the 5mL serum specimen to CDC; retain one or more frozen aliquots as a "backup sample" in case the ... Before you centrifuge the tube to separate the serum, allow the Vacutainer™-drawn blood to sit at room temperature for at least ...
... and clinical studies related to all aspects of blood transfusion. ... Journal of Blood Transfusion is a peer-reviewed, Open Access ... Sample Handling. Blood samples were taken before the hemodialysis session. 5 mL of venous blood was collected into plain tubes ... value: 0.04); (c) serum ferritin and serum iron: the graph shows a weak association between serum ferritin and serum iron ( ... The collected blood samples were then centrifuged (5000 rev/min for 10 minutes) and sera stored at −80°C pending analysis. ...
... which is the liquid portion of your blood. A serum blood test uses a sample of your blood to test for various diseases and ... Your blood is made up of blood cells and serum (plasma), ... A serum blood test uses a sample of your blood to test for ... Collect your blood sample. If youre using a home blood test kit, youll most likely have to collect your sample by pricking ... Your blood is made up of blood cells and serum (plasma), which is the liquid portion of your blood. ...
This normally requires a doctor taking a blood sample for subsequent analysis in a laboratory equipped with the Chip. ... Dried blood samples provide just as much information as fresh serum. The main finding is as follows: The dried blood samples ... A doctor must first establish whether the test is necessary and then take the blood sample properly and send it on. And this ... At the same time, say the Vienna researchers, it is possible to use the dried blood samples and antibodies obtained from them ...
A serum albumin test measures the amount of this protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood. ... Having a tourniquet on for a long time when giving a blood sample ... A serum albumin test measures the amount of this protein in the ... Decreased blood albumin may occur when your body does not get or absorb enough nutrients, such as with:. *After weight-loss ... Albumin - serum, urine, and 24-hour urine. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ed ...
Biospecimen Retention: Samples Without DNA. Blood serum sample. Enrollment:. 0. Study Start Date:. January 2013. ... These will be a blood sample measuring a specific hormone (BNP) and enzyme (Troponin), a nuclear scan to assess nerve ... This results in heart muscle working harder to open the valve so blood can circulate around the body. The muscle adapts to the ... In patients with aortic stenosis the valve through which blood is pumped out of the main heart chamber is narrowed. ...
Microarray based analysis of serum proteins in dried blood spot samples on filter paper. Research output: Contribution to ... HomeResearch Outputs Microarray based analysis of serum proteins in dried blood s... ...
The official blood (serum or plasma) sample. and urine samples may contain the following drug substances,. only the following ... The official blood (serum or plasma) sample. and urine samples may contain the following drug substances, their metabolites or ... "Sample", when used in the context of being removed from or collected from a horse, means any amount of urine, saliva, blood, or ... "Sample", when used in the context of being removed from or collected from a horse, means any amount of urine, saliva, blood, or ...
Biological Sample Collection. 2.3.1. Blood and Serum Samples. Venous blood samples were collected by venipuncture at community ... Whole blood samples were collected from participants, and THg was measured using ICP-MS. ANA and sAuAb in serum were modeled ... Serum samples were diluted 1 : 200 and incubated on the plate for 2 hours at room temperature with gentle shaking. Each sample ... Experimental Use of Collected Biological Samples. 2.4.1. Biomonitoring. The EDTA-containing whole blood samples were ...
Biospecimen Retention: Samples Without DNA. Blood sample (serum, plasma) Eligibility Criteria. Go to Study Description Study ... J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2017 Dec;37(12):3671-3682. doi: 10.1177/0271678X16671964. Epub 2016 Oct 14. ...
Whole blood was found to be the superior sample matrix in terms of sample reproducibility. Thus, whole blood samples should be ... The CV for serum and plasma was 14% and 39%, respectively. Two alternative methods applied to serum samples did not demonstrate ... Determination of HCQ for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can be performed in whole blood (WB), serum, and plasma. Direct ... and compare the suitability of the three sample matrices. A method for the determination of HCQ in human blood using LC-HRMS ...
Blood samples were obtained from 922 volunteer blood donors from 18 to 65 years of age at the Hemoacre blood center in 2010- ... Serum cadmium levels in a sample of blood donors in the Western Amazon, Brazil, 2010-2011 / Niveis sericos de cadmio em uma ... Serum cadmium levels in a sample of blood donors in the Western Amazon, Brazil, 2010-2011 ... A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the distribution of serum cadmium (Cd) levels in blood donors in Rio Branco ...
  • The magnitude of measurement error found in this study would increase the sample size required for detecting a difference between two populations for total estradiol and SHBG by 25 and 3%, respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ETS exposure will also be assessed for examinees through the measurement of serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine. (cdc.gov)
  • Data tables in the Report and Updated Tables specify age groups and sample sizes for each exposure measurement. (cdc.gov)
  • The performance of the developed method for HCQ measurement in serum was further evaluated by comparison with two previously reported extraction methods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A LC-HRMS method for the measurement of HCQ in human blood was developed and validated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At enrollment into the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) 11A trial, a dose-ranging trial of enoxaparin for unstable angina and NQMI, serum was obtained for CRP measurement and rapid cTnT assay. (onlinejacc.org)
  • Hence, we have developed a simple, cost effective, and label-free electrochemical immunoassay for the measurement of CRP in a drop of serum sample using an immunosensor strip made up of a screen printed carbon electrode (SPE) modified with anti-CRP functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). (mdpi.com)
  • We describe a method for the determination of HCQ in human blood using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) and compare the suitability of the three sample matrices. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The reproducibility of the method, in the three matrices, was evaluated using quality control samples and repeated preparations and measurements of patient samples. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This chapter focuses on sample preparation procedures for pesticide analysis of food commodities, biological and environmental matrices. (intechopen.com)
  • Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods are used to analyze for azoles, carbamates, organophosphorus pesticides, pyrethroids, phenylureas, strobilurin fungicides, and other pesticides in a diverse range of sample matrices including food commodities, biological and environmental matrices. (intechopen.com)
  • Highly specific and sensitive detection of BVDV types 1-3, 100% detection of young PI calves, and positive extraction/amplification controls that help ensure reliable results for all sample matrices. (thermofisher.com)
  • A simple, validated, and easily automated workflow helps minimize sample handling and cross-contamination to deliver a fast, cost-effective BVDV detection method for all matrices (blood, serum, ear notches, milk). (thermofisher.com)
  • Saves solvent - Easy-to-use - Highly efficient EXtrelut® NT sorbents and columns are specially developed for sample preparation of aqueous matrices. (environmental-expert.com)
  • A New Benchmark in TN and TS Analysis of Organic Sample Matrices. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Rack of blood specimen tubes in a haematology laboratory. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Serology testing will only be conducted in paired serum samples submitted at the same time, including an acute (≤7 days after symptom onset) and a convalescent-phase (14-35 days after symptom onset) specimen. (cdc.gov)
  • Note: For field collections where serum separation is not possible within 60 minutes of collection, store the specimen at 4°C using cold packs, and ship to a laboratory with centrifugation capabilities as soon as possible (ideally less than 24 hours). (cdc.gov)
  • Use the kit's test strip or sample tube to collect your specimen. (wikihow.com)
  • Sample", when used in the context of being removed from or collected from a horse, means any amount of urine, saliva, blood, or other acceptable specimen derived from a horse. (in.gov)
  • The following is a detailed breakdown of the responsibilities of each unit: Microbiology receives almost any clinical specimen, including swabs, feces, urine, blood, sputum, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, as well as possible infected tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • This research was conducted to explore the relationships between the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid and key fatty acid ratios including potential cut-offs for risk factor assessment with respect to coronary heart disease and fatal ischemic heart disease. (nih.gov)
  • Blood samples (n = 2053) were obtained from free-living subjects in North America and processed for determining the levels of total fatty acids in serum phospholipid as omega-3 fatty acids including EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5 n-3) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6 n-3) by combined thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatographic analyses. (nih.gov)
  • Strong inverse correlations between the summed total of omega-3 fatty acids in serum phospholipid and all four ratios (omega-6:omega-3 (n-6:n-3), AA:EPA, AA:DHA, and AA:(EPA+DHA)) were found with the most potent correlation being with the omega-6:omega-3 ratio (R(2) = 0.96). (nih.gov)
  • Strong inverse correlations between the levels of omega-3 fatty acids in serum (or plasma) phospholipid and omega-6: omega-3 ratios are apparent based on this large database of 2053 samples. (nih.gov)
  • We examined serum and erythrocyte lead and manganese levels in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Flagship Study of Ageing (AIBL), which contains over 1000 registrants including over 200 cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 100 mildly cognitively impaired (MCI) individuals. (rsc.org)
  • Although lead and manganese have neurotoxic effects and may be involved in AD pathology, our results showed that neither metal in serum nor erythrocytes are suitable biomarkers in our cohort. (rsc.org)
  • The reports of elevated blood PCBs in young children support the conclusion that exposures to PCBs have not ceased. (cdc.gov)
  • The higher proportion of detections of PCBs in the blood of older persons suggests that PCB exposures were more widespread in the past. (cdc.gov)
  • Also use these analyses to help determine the need for exposure investigations (in coordination with the development of any studies of health effects) and to describe the size and geographic spread of the population with elevated blood PCBs. (cdc.gov)
  • PCBs are measured in blood samples obtained from individual survey participants. (epa.gov)
  • In 2001-2004, the median level of PCBs in blood serum among women ages 16 to 49 years (the sum of PCBs 118, 138, 153 and 180) was 30 ng/g lipid. (epa.gov)
  • Let them know collecting a blood sample is a quick, routine part of medical care, and that it'll be over in just two or three minutes. (wikihow.com)
  • Since we are able to detect virtually all solid tumors at stage 1 during routine blood testing, this cost-effective technology used together with the already established cancer technologies has the potential of saving half the lives of those diagnosed with cancer during the next decade," Bossmann said. (k-state.edu)
  • Before you centrifuge the tube to separate the serum, allow the Vacutainer™-drawn blood to sit at room temperature for at least 30 minutes, but no longer than 60 minutes. (cdc.gov)
  • Trained professionals can administer a professional serum test by drawing blood from a straight, visible vein in the forearm, then using a centrifuge to separate the serum. (wikihow.com)
  • Biological samples submitted to the VMTH Clinical Diagnostic Laboratories may be used for VMTH teaching and research purposes consistent with the mission of the University. (ucdavis.edu)
  • 1) The use of clenbuterol shall be permitted under the following conditions: Not to exceed twenty-five (25) picograms per milliliter of clenbuterol (or its metabolites) in serum or plasma. (in.gov)
  • 2) The use of firocoxib shall be permitted under the following conditions: Not to exceed forty (40) nanograms per milliliter of firocoxib (or its metabolites) in serum or plasma. (in.gov)
  • 3) The use of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) shall be permitted under the following conditions: Not to exceed ten (10) micrograms per milliliter of DMSO (or its metabolites) in serum or plasma which allows for topical administration of DMSO in accordance with section 1.5 of this rule. (in.gov)
  • Cord blood was collected from a total of 25 female babies(15 Caucasian and 10 Chinese-American) from full-term deliveries at two study sites between March and December 1997. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Any color development in the sample spots indicates the presence of Dirofilaria immitis antigen, A. phagocytophilum antibody, A. platys antibody, B. burgdorferi antibody, E. canis antibody, or E. ewingii antibody in the sample. (drugs.com)
  • Any color development in the sample spots indicates the presence of FIV antibody, FeLV antigen or heartworm antigen in the sample. (drugs.com)
  • The cats shall be considered suitable for use if all swabs are negative for virus isolation and if all serums are negative for calicivirus antibody at the 1:2 final dilution in a 50 percent plaque reduction test or other SN test of equal sensitivity. (cornell.edu)
  • This immune evasion mechanism imposes limitations on antibody-based vaccination and convalescent serum therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Sample collection for serology testing is non-lethal and can detect antibody reactivity long after the virus itself is cleared, allowing for broad pond/farm surveillance. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Centrifuge serum according to manufacturers' instructions for the tube in use. (cdc.gov)
  • We performed neutralization tests with sera from experimentally infected mice and from LASV-convalescent human patients. (nih.gov)
  • Blood metals are measured in participants aged 1 year and older. (cdc.gov)
  • Serum cotinine and hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide are measured in the entire NHANES sample for participants ages 3 years and older. (cdc.gov)
  • Most urine chemicals are measured in a representative one-third subsample, but a full sample is used for participants ages 3-5 years. (cdc.gov)
  • Participants in this follow-up investigation were involved in previous blood dioxin sampling projects. (cdc.gov)
  • Blood dioxin results from the 22 participants were compared to multiple population-based reference groups. (cdc.gov)
  • This follow-up exposure investigation also included environmental sampling at participants' residences to better determine whether elevated sources of dioxin were present in and around their homes. (cdc.gov)
  • Potential exposure to environmental dioxin sources was evaluated using limited sampling of soil in participants' yards, indoor house dust, private well water, homegrown fruits and vegetables, and locally caught fish. (cdc.gov)
  • 6. Test carrier of claim 1, wherein said reagent layer comprises reagent impregnated absorbent fibers or a reagent impregnated film soluble in a sample liquid. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. Test carrier of claim 1, wherein said reagent layer is positioned in said test carrier fixed onto said carrier layer and away from said sample application zone. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention is concerned with a test carrier for the analytical determination of a component of a liquid sample, especially of a body fluid, comprising a carrier layer, which is partly covered by a liquid-absorbing layer which contains a sample application zone and a transport zone, and a reagent layer which is in contact with the liquid-absorbing layer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The control band serves as an indication of proper sample addition and migration plus reagent (anti-human IgG dye conjugate) control. (mpbio.com)
  • Each reagent rotor contains a diluent and all the profiles necessary to perform a complete multi-chemistry blood analysis. (abaxis.com)
  • A control solution packet for calibrating a bodily fluid sampling device includes a container, a control solution pressurized within the container, and a membrane for covering and sealing the container. (google.com)
  • The control solution can be pressurized before or during calibration so as to ensure the appropriate amount of control solution is delivered to the bodily fluid sampling device. (google.com)
  • The membrane is permeable by a piercing device of the bodily fluid sampling device and seals around the piercing device during calibration. (google.com)
  • wherein the porous material is compressible to pressurize the control solution and dispense the control solution to the bodily fluid sampling device when the porous material is compressed. (google.com)
  • the container has at least a portion that is permeable by a piercing member of the bodily fluid sampling device. (google.com)
  • 7 . The apparatus of claim 3 , wherein the dispensing portion has a contact edge and a portion of the porous material extends above the contact edge to control the amount of the control fluid delivered to the bodily fluid sampling device. (google.com)
  • reading a value for the sample of the control fluid in the test area with the bodily fluid sampling device. (google.com)
  • the placing the bodily fluid sampling device in contact with the container includes pressing the bodily fluid sampling device against the porous material. (google.com)
  • Subsampling is needed to ensure an adequate quantity of sample for analysis and the mass spectrometry analytical methods. (cdc.gov)
  • Two alternative methods applied to serum samples did not demonstrate improved precision. (biomedcentral.com)
  • QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) methods or QuEChERS methods with modifications to allow wetting of the dry sample matrix, buffering, changing extraction solvent from acetonitrile to ethyl acetate are examined. (intechopen.com)
  • In additional, different samples tend to require different processing approaches using current methods. (rsc.org)
  • Sampling and analytical methods are not adequately described for all of the data. (cdc.gov)
  • The serology was positive in 31/235 (13%) serum samples, and in 27/235 (11%) DBS: 4 samples resulted discordant (positive at standard serology). (frontiersin.org)
  • Common obstacles to the use of serology in surveys conducted in the field are due to storage (mostly lack of controlled systems that guarantee the maintenance of the samples within a given temperature range) and transport of the serum samples, particularly for studies in remote areas of the world. (frontiersin.org)
  • They'll send the sample to the lab, where it'll be exposed to reactants that detect the appropriate substances. (wikihow.com)
  • Currently, serum can be tested for more than 100 allergens at once, ranging from apple to pollen, from grasses, food allergens and bee stings right through to various essentially harmless substances in the environment, such as house dust. (news-medical.net)
  • In a low percentage of samples (0.027% as reported), interfering substances in the patient's blood can cause all spots on the device to react as positive. (drugs.com)
  • The enzymatic method segment is expected to grow at the highest CAGR during the forecast period owing to the advantages offered by this method such as high accuracy and specificity, low sample volume, and lack of interfering substances. (marketresearch.com)
  • These will be a blood sample measuring a specific hormone (BNP) and enzyme (Troponin), a nuclear scan to assess nerve activation, an MRI identifying scarring and an exercise echocardiogram that measures heart muscle response and pressure changes across the valve. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Beginning in 2011, the blood mercury species methyl mercury and ethyl mercury were added. (cdc.gov)