N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE known for elderberries.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A plant species in the genus SAMBUCUS, known for the elderberry fruit. The plant is also a source of Sambucus nigra lectins and ribosome-inactivating protein.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A plant genus in the family CAPRIFOLIACEAE. The common name derives from its traditional use for menstrual cramps. It is a source of viburnine, valerianic acid, vibsanin, and ursolic acid. Note that true cranberry is VACCINIUM MACROCARPON.
A plant genus in the family APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) that is used in SPICES and is a source of anethole.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used in SPICES.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining cyclohexane rings but with a different configuration from the ARTEMISININS.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
A subclass of iridoid compounds that include a glycoside moiety, usually found at the C-1 position.
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long, often branched chains of repeating monosaccharide units joined together by glycosidic bonds, which serve as energy storage molecules (e.g., glycogen), structural components (e.g., cellulose), and molecular recognition sites in various biological systems.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.
A plant genus of the family VALERIANACEAE, order Dipsacales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. It is best known for the sedative use and valepotriate content of the roots. It is sometimes called Garden Heliotrope but is unrelated to true Heliotrope (HELIOTROPIUM).
A system of therapeutics founded by Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), based on the Law of Similars where "like cures like". Diseases are treated by highly diluted substances that cause, in healthy persons, symptoms like those of the disease to be treated.
Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.

A new lignan glycoside from the leaves of Sambucus sieboldiana (Miq.) Blume ex. Graebn. (1/28)

A new lignan glycoside, (-)-massoniresinol 4'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (4), was isolated, together with six known ones (1-3, 5-7), from the leaves of Sambucus sieboldiana. Their structures were established on the basis of chemical and spectral data.  (+info)

Absorption and metabolism of anthocyanins in elderly women after consumption of elderberry or blueberry. (2/28)

The absorption and metabolism of anthocyanins (ACN) in humans was studied in four elderly women given 12 g elderberry extract (EBX) (720 mg total ACN), and six elderly women given 189 g lowbush blueberry (BB) (690 mg total ACN). The two major ACN in EBX, cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-sambubioside, as well as four metabolites: 1) peonidin 3-glucoside, 2) peonidin 3-sambubioside, 3) peonidin monoglucuronide, and 4) cyanidin-3-glucoside monoglucuronide were identified in urine within 4 h of consumption using HPLC-MS/MS with diode-array detector detection and retention time. Total EBX ACN excretion was 554 +/- 90 microg (mean +/- SD, n = 4) (0.077% of intake/4 h, wt/wt). In 5 of 6 women fed BB, urine samples contained ACN, which were identified as the original forms based upon comparisons to the BB food sample, which contained 24 ACN, 22 of which were identified by HPLC-MS/MS. Reasonable correlations between BB and urine proportions of the different ACN were obtained except for ACN arabinosides. Total urinary excretion during the first 6 h was 23.2 +/- 10.9 microg (mean +/- SD, n = 5) (0.004% of intake/6 h, wt/wt). Plasma ACN levels were below detection limits using 2 mL plasma in women that consumed BB. This study demonstrates for the first time that in vivo methylation of cyanidin to peonidin and glucuronide conjugate formation occurs after people consume ACN and demonstrates the low absorption and excretion of ACN compared with other flavonoids.  (+info)

Scanning transmission X-ray, laser scanning, and transmission electron microscopy mapping of the exopolymeric matrix of microbial biofilms. (3/28)

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) were used to map the distribution of macromolecular subcomponents (e.g., polysaccharides, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids) of biofilm cells and matrix. The biofilms were developed from river water supplemented with methanol, and although they comprised a complex microbial community, the biofilms were dominated by heterotrophic bacteria. TEM provided the highest-resolution structural imaging, CLSM provided detailed compositional information when used in conjunction with molecular probes, and STXM provided compositional mapping of macromolecule distributions without the addition of probes. By examining exactly the same region of a sample with combinations of these techniques (STXM with CLSM and STXM with TEM), we demonstrate that this combination of multimicroscopy analysis can be used to create a detailed correlative map of biofilm structure and composition. We are using these correlative techniques to improve our understanding of the biochemical basis for biofilm organization and to assist studies intended to investigate and optimize biofilms for environmental remediation applications.  (+info)

Characterization and cDNA cloning of monomeric lectins that correspond to the B-Chain of a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein from the bark of Japanese elderberry (Sambucus sieboldiana). (4/28)

Two monomeric lectins, SSA-b-3 and SSA-b-4, were purified from the bark tissue of Japanese elderberry, Sambucus sieboldiana. SDS-PAGE of the purified lectins showed the presence of single bands of 35 and 33 kDa for SSA-b-3 and SSA-b-4, respectively, irrespective of the presence of reducing agent. MS analysis as well as gel filtration of these lectins indicated that they exist mostly as monomeric lectins. Analysis of the N-terminal amino acid sequences of SSA-b-3 and SSA-b-4 yielded an identical sequence, indicating their close structural relationship. Four cDNA clones with extensive homology were obtained from the bark cDNA library and indicated to encode SSA-b-3 or SSA-b-4 from the comparison with the N-terminal sequences of these lectins. These clones were classified into two groups, three for SSA-b-3 and one for SSA-b-4, based on the predicted isoelectric points. The amino acid sequences of the encoded polypeptides were almost identical with the B-chain of a type 2 ribosome-inactivating protein from the same bark tissue, sieboldin-b, except for the absence of a small peptide containing a cystein residue, which is critical for the heteromeric dimerization with an A-subunit. Carbohydrate binding specificity and biological activity of these lectins are also reported.  (+info)

Aglycones and sugar moieties alter anthocyanin absorption and metabolism after berry consumption in weanling pigs. (5/28)

To investigate the absorption and metabolism of anthocyanins (ACNs) with different aglycones and sugar moieties, weanling pigs (11.4 +/- 3.8 kg) were fed, in a single meal, a freeze-dried powder of chokeberry, black currant, or elderberry at a single dose of 229, 140, or 228 mumol total ACN/kg body weight (BW), respectively. These berries provided ACNs with differences in aglycone as well as some unique differences in the sugar moieties. The relative proportions of the different metabolites depended upon concentrations, quantities consumed, and types of glycoside of ACNs in the berry. Delphinidin ACNs were not metabolized to any measurable extent. Cyanidin ACNs were metabolized via methylation and glucuronidation as well as by formation of both derivatives on the same ACN molecule. ACNs with either a di- or trisaccharide attached to them were excreted in the urine primarily as the intact form. Over 80% of the ACN compounds containing rutinose or sambubiose, which were excreted in the urine from black currant, elderberry, or Marion blackberry, were excreted as the intact molecule. The limited metabolism of these ACNs that did occur was via methylation. ACN monoglycosides other than the glucoside were metabolized via methylation and/or glucuronide formation. The monoglucuronide that formed represented a small proportion of the metabolites relative to the methylated or the mixed methylated and glucuronide forms of ACNs. The data clearly demonstrate that the aglycone and the sugar moieties can alter the apparent absorption and metabolism of ACNs.  (+info)

Direct vasoactive and vasoprotective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts. (6/28)

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in the impairment of nitric oxide-mediated vascular functions and overall pathogenesis associated with cardiovascular disease. Plant pigment anthocyanins are exceptionally potent oxygen radical scavengers that produce beneficial effects in diseases outside the cardiovascular system. We examined for the first time the potential coronary vasoactive and vasoprotective properties of three anthocyanin enhanced extracts prepared from chokeberry (Ck), bilberry (B), or elderberry (E). Coronary arterial rings were isolated from 64 pigs and incubated in sterile tissue culture media overnight for use in one of four separate in vitro isometric force recording studies. Ck and B, but not E, produced dose- and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. (%maximal relaxation at 5 mg total anthocyanins per liter: Ck = 68 +/- 11, B = 59 +/- 10). Coronary vascular tone, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation to A23187, and vasorelaxation to DEA NONOate were not affected by exposure of rings to any extract at 0.05 mg total anthocyanins per liter for 5 or 30 min. Ck extract at 0.05 mg total anthocyanins per liter showed the greatest protection against loss of A23187 relaxation following exposure to ROS from pyrogallol (Ck, % maximal relaxation and -logED50 to A23187, respectively, means +/- SE: Ck alone, 93 +/- 5%, 7.91 +/- 0.1; pyrogallol alone, 76 +/- 7%, 7.46 +/- 0.06; pyrogallol + Ck, 98 +/- 1%, 7.82 +/- 0.06; control: 99 +/- 1%, 7.86 +/- 0.07; P < 0.05 control vs. pyrogallol alone). Neither the extracts nor pyrogallol affected responses to DEA NONOate. Thus anthocyanin-enhanced extracts produce endothelium-dependent relaxation in porcine coronary arteries. Extract concentrations too low to directly alter coronary vascular tone protect coronary arteries from ROS without altering vasorelaxation to endogenous or exogenous NO. These results suggest that such extracts could have significant beneficial effects in vascular disease.  (+info)

A new eudesmane derivative and a new fatty acid ester from Sambucus williamsii. (7/28)

1,4,13-Trihydroxy-eudesm-11(12)-ene, a new eudesmane derivative (3), (9E)-8,11,12-trihydroxyoctadecenoic acid methyl ester, a new fatty acid ester (2) and tianshic acid (1) were obtained from the stems of Sambucus williamsii. Their structures were elucidated by physiochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis. Both compounds 1 and 2 showed stimulating effects on alkaline phosphatase activity of the osteoblastic UMR106 cell about 1.5 fold at 30 mumol/l while they had no effects on cell proliferation.  (+info)

Gitksan medicinal plants--cultural choice and efficacy. (8/28)

BACKGROUND: The use of plants for healing by any cultural group is integrally related to local concepts of the nature of disease, the nature of plants, and the world view of the culture. The physical and chemical properties of the plants themselves also bear on their selection by people for medicines, as does the array of plants available for people to choose from. I examine use of medicinal plants from a "biobehavioral" perspective to illuminate cultural selection of plants used for medicine by the Gitksan of northwestern British Columbia, Canada. METHODS: Consultant consensus, "intercultural consensus", independent use of the same plants by other cultural groups, and phytochemistry and bioassay results from the literature, were employed in analysis of probable empirical efficacy of plant uses. RESULTS: 70% of 37 Gitksan medicinal plants were used similarly by other cultures where direct diffusion is not known to have occurred; eleven plants, including the eight most frequently mentioned medicinal plants, also show active phytochemicals or bioassays indicating probable physiologically based therapeutic effects. CONCLUSION: Analysis of intercultural consensus revealed that the majority of cultures in the British Columbia region within the plant ranges use the same plants, or closely related species, in similar ways. The rigor of this analysis is effected by the lack of consistent data on all taxa of interest for all cultures within the region.  (+info)

Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a type of protein that can inhibit the function of ribosomes, which are the cellular structures responsible for protein synthesis. Ribosomes are made up of two subunits, and RIPs work by depurinating a specific adenine residue in the sarcin-ricin loop of the large rRNA subunit, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis and ultimately, cell death.

RIPs can be found in various organisms, including plants, bacteria, and fungi. Some RIPs have N-glycosidase activity, while others have both N-glycosidase and RNA N-hydroxylase activities. Based on their structure and mechanism of action, RIPs are classified into two types: type 1 and type 2.

Type 1 RIPs consist of a single polypeptide chain with N-glycosidase activity, while type 2 RIPs consist of two chains - an A chain with N-glycosidase activity and a B chain that acts as a lectin, facilitating the entry of the A chain into the cell.

RIPs have been studied for their potential use in cancer therapy due to their ability to inhibit protein synthesis in cancer cells. However, their toxicity to normal cells limits their therapeutic use. Therefore, researchers are exploring ways to modify RIPs to increase their specificity towards cancer cells while minimizing their toxicity to normal cells.

Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are a class of toxic proteins that inhibit protein synthesis in cells by modifying ribosomal RNA. They can be found in various plants, animals, and bacteria. Type 2 RIPs are characterized by their structure, which consists of two separate polypeptide chains: an A chain with N-glycosidase activity that removes an adenine residue from a specific site on the 28S rRNA, and a B chain that facilitates the binding of the A chain to the ribosome. The B chain is a lectin domain that allows for specific recognition and binding to glycoconjugates on the cell surface, leading to internalization of the RIP into the cell. Type 2 RIPs are known for their ability to inhibit protein synthesis in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, making them potential candidates for use in cancer therapy and other medical applications.

Plant lectins are proteins or glycoproteins that are abundantly found in various plant parts such as seeds, leaves, stems, and roots. They have the ability to bind specifically to carbohydrate structures present on cell membranes, known as glycoconjugates. This binding property of lectins is reversible and non-catalytic, meaning it does not involve any enzymatic activity.

Lectins play several roles in plants, including defense against predators, pathogens, and herbivores. They can agglutinate red blood cells, stimulate the immune system, and have been implicated in various biological processes such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Some lectins also exhibit mitogenic activity, which means they can stimulate the proliferation of certain types of cells.

In the medical field, plant lectins have gained attention due to their potential therapeutic applications. For instance, some lectins have been shown to possess anti-cancer properties and are being investigated as potential cancer treatments. However, it is important to note that some lectins can be toxic or allergenic to humans and animals, so they must be used with caution.

"Sambucus" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Adoxaceae, commonly known as elder or elderberry. While "Sambucus" itself is not a medical term, certain species of this plant, particularly "Sambucus nigra," have been used in traditional medicine for their potential health benefits. The berries and flowers of elderberry are rich in vitamins and antioxidants, and they have been traditionally used to treat colds, flu, and other respiratory infections. However, it is important to note that the raw berries and leaves of elderberry contain a substance called sambunigrin, which can be toxic if consumed in large quantities or improperly prepared. Therefore, it is recommended to consume only properly cooked or processed elderberry products under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Lectins are a type of proteins that bind specifically to carbohydrates and have been found in various plant and animal sources. They play important roles in biological recognition events, such as cell-cell adhesion, and can also be involved in the immune response. Some lectins can agglutinate certain types of cells or precipitate glycoproteins, while others may have a more direct effect on cellular processes. In some cases, lectins from plants can cause adverse effects in humans if ingested, such as digestive discomfort or allergic reactions.

"Sambucus nigra" is the medical term for elderberry, which is a plant commonly used in complementary and alternative medicine. The fruit, leaves, and flowers of this shrub are used to make various remedies. Elderberry is believed to have several potential health benefits, including boosting the immune system, reducing inflammation, and providing antioxidants. However, it's important to note that more research is needed to confirm these effects and to establish safe and effective dosages. Additionally, some parts of the elderberry plant, particularly the seeds and stems, contain substances that can be toxic if not properly prepared, so it's recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before using elderberry products.

N-Acetylneuraminic Acid (Neu5Ac) is an organic compound that belongs to the family of sialic acids. It is a common terminal sugar found on many glycoproteins and glycolipids on the surface of animal cells. Neu5Ac plays crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and intercellular interactions. It is also involved in the protection against pathogens by serving as a barrier to prevent their attachment to host cells. Additionally, Neu5Ac has been implicated in several disease conditions, such as cancer and inflammation, due to its altered expression and metabolism.

N-Glycosyl hydrolases (or N-glycanases) are a class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond between an N-glycosyl group and an aglycon, which is typically another part of a larger molecule such as a protein or lipid. N-Glycosyl groups refer to carbohydrate moieties attached to an nitrogen atom, usually in the side chain of an amino acid such as asparagine (Asn) in proteins.

N-Glycosyl hydrolases play important roles in various biological processes, including the degradation and processing of glycoproteins, the modification of glycolipids, and the breakdown of complex carbohydrates. These enzymes are widely distributed in nature and have been found in many organisms, from bacteria to humans.

The classification and nomenclature of N-Glycosyl hydrolases are based on the type of glycosidic bond they cleave and the stereochemistry of the reaction they catalyze. They are grouped into different families in the Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZy) database, which provides a comprehensive resource for the study of carbohydrate-active enzymes.

It is worth noting that N-Glycosyl hydrolases can have both beneficial and detrimental effects on human health. For example, they are involved in the normal turnover and degradation of glycoproteins in the body, but they can also contribute to the pathogenesis of certain diseases, such as lysosomal storage disorders, where mutations in N-Glycosyl hydrolases lead to the accumulation of undigested glycoconjugates and cellular damage.

"Viburnum" is not a medical term, but a genus of shrubs and small trees that belong to the Adoxaceae family. These plants are commonly known as "viburnums," and they have various uses in horticulture due to their attractive flowers, fruits, and foliage.

While there may be some medicinal uses for certain species of Viburnum, it is not a term that would typically appear in a medical context or definition. If you're looking for information about the medicinal properties of specific plants within the Viburnum genus, I would recommend consulting a reliable source on herbal medicine or speaking with a healthcare professional who has expertise in this area.

"Pimpinella" is a term that refers to a genus of plants in the family Apiaceae, also known as the carrot or parsley family. The most common species in this genus is Pimpinella anisum, which is known as anise or aniseed. This herb is native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia, and its seeds are used as a spice and medicinal plant.

Aniseed has been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including treating digestive disorders such as bloating, gas, and indigestion. It contains a compound called anethole, which has been found to have antispasmodic, carminative, and analgesic properties. However, it's important to note that while aniseed may have some health benefits, it should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice or treatment.

Therefore, "Pimpinella" is not a medical term per se but rather a botanical name for a genus of plants with potential medicinal uses.

Sialyltransferases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in the biosynthesis of sialic acids, which are a type of sugar molecule found on the surface of many cell types. These enzymes catalyze the transfer of sialic acid from a donor molecule (usually CMP-sialic acid) to an acceptor molecule, such as a glycoprotein or glycolipid.

The addition of sialic acids to these molecules can affect their function and properties, including their recognition by other cells and their susceptibility to degradation. Sialyltransferases are involved in various biological processes, including cell-cell recognition, inflammation, and cancer metastasis.

There are several different types of sialyltransferases, each with specific substrate preferences and functions. For example, some sialyltransferases add sialic acids to the ends of N-linked glycans, while others add them to O-linked glycans or glycolipids.

Abnormalities in sialyltransferase activity have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, inflammatory disorders, and neurological conditions. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of these enzymes is an important area of research with potential implications for disease diagnosis and treatment.

Sialic acids are a family of nine-carbon sugars that are commonly found on the outermost surface of many cell types, particularly on the glycoconjugates of mucins in various secretions and on the glycoproteins and glycolipids of cell membranes. They play important roles in a variety of biological processes, including cell recognition, immune response, and viral and bacterial infectivity. Sialic acids can exist in different forms, with N-acetylneuraminic acid being the most common one in humans.

"Foeniculum" is the genus name for a plant species that includes fennel. In a medical context, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is known for its seeds and essential oil, which have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes such as improving digestion, reducing bloating, and alleviating menstrual discomfort. The seeds and oil contain several compounds with potential therapeutic effects, including anethole, fenchone, and estragole. However, it's important to note that the use of fennel in modern medicine is not well-studied, and more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy.

Eudesmane is a subclass of sesquiterpenes, which are organic compounds consisting of three isoprene units and having the molecular formula C15H24. Sesquiterpenes are derived from farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) in the mevalonate pathway and are biosynthesized through a series of enzymatic reactions.

Eudesmane sesquiterpenes are characterized by a unique carbon skeleton with a cyclohexane ring fused to a bicyclic system consisting of a cyclopentane and a cyclobutane ring. They can be found in various plants, fungi, and insects, and some eudesmane derivatives have been shown to possess biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties.

Eudesmane sesquiterpenes can exist in different forms, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters, depending on the functional groups attached to the carbon skeleton. Some examples of eudesmane sesquiterpenes include α-eudesmol, β-eudesmol, and eudesma-1,4-diene.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Bark" is not a term with a specific medical definition. In general, the bark refers to the outermost covering of a tree or other plant, which serves as protection and provides a barrier against external threats. It is composed of layers including the inner bark (phloem), which transports nutrients throughout the plant, and the outer bark (periderm), which is made up of dead cells that form a protective layer.

While some plants or plant parts do have medicinal properties and are used in various forms of traditional or alternative medicine, "Plant Bark" by itself does not have any specific medical connotations. If you're referring to a specific type of plant bark with potential medicinal uses, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate response.

Iridoid glycosides are a type of naturally occurring compounds that are found in various plants, including the Lamiaceae (mint) family and the Plantaginaceae (plantain) family. These compounds consist of an iridoid moiety, which is a cyclic molecule derived from the terpene iridodial, linked to a sugar group. Iridoid glycosides have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and analgesic effects. Some examples of plants that contain iridoid glycosides include gardenia, olive, and valerian. It is important to note that while some iridoid glycosides have been found to have medicinal benefits, others may be toxic in high concentrations, so it is essential to use them under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Fetuins are a group of proteins that are produced by the liver and found in circulation in the blood. The most well-known fetuin, fetuin-A, is a 64 kDa glycoprotein that is synthesized in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream. Fetuin-A plays a role in several physiological processes, including inhibition of tissue calcification, regulation of insulin sensitivity, and modulation of immune responses.

Fetuin-B is another member of the fetuin family that shares some structural similarities with fetuin-A but has distinct functions. Fetuin-B is also produced by the liver and secreted into the bloodstream, where it plays a role in regulating lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity.

It's worth noting that while both fetuins have been studied for their roles in various physiological processes, there is still much to be learned about their functions and regulation.

Hemagglutination is a medical term that refers to the agglutination or clumping together of red blood cells (RBCs) in the presence of an agglutinin, which is typically a protein or a polysaccharide found on the surface of certain viruses, bacteria, or incompatible blood types.

In simpler terms, hemagglutination occurs when the agglutinin binds to specific antigens on the surface of RBCs, causing them to clump together and form visible clumps or aggregates. This reaction is often used in diagnostic tests to identify the presence of certain viruses or bacteria, such as influenza or HIV, by mixing a sample of blood or other bodily fluid with a known agglutinin and observing whether hemagglutination occurs.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays are also commonly used to measure the titer or concentration of antibodies in a serum sample, by adding serial dilutions of the serum to a fixed amount of agglutinin and observing the highest dilution that still prevents hemagglutination. This can help determine whether a person has been previously exposed to a particular pathogen and has developed immunity to it.

Acetylgalactosamine (also known as N-acetyl-D-galactosamine or GalNAc) is a type of sugar molecule called a hexosamine that is commonly found in glycoproteins and proteoglycans, which are complex carbohydrates that are attached to proteins and lipids. It plays an important role in various biological processes, including cell-cell recognition, signal transduction, and protein folding.

In the context of medical research and biochemistry, Acetylgalactosamine is often used as a building block for synthesizing glycoconjugates, which are molecules that consist of a carbohydrate attached to a protein or lipid. These molecules play important roles in many biological processes, including cell-cell recognition, signaling, and immune response.

Acetylgalactosamine is also used as a target for enzymes called glycosyltransferases, which add sugar molecules to proteins and lipids. In particular, Acetylgalactosamine is the acceptor substrate for a class of glycosyltransferases known as galactosyltransferases, which add galactose molecules to Acetylgalactosamine-containing structures.

Defects in the metabolism of Acetylgalactosamine have been linked to various genetic disorders, including Schindler disease and Kanzaki disease, which are characterized by neurological symptoms and abnormal accumulation of glycoproteins in various tissues.

A "carbohydrate sequence" refers to the specific arrangement or order of monosaccharides (simple sugars) that make up a carbohydrate molecule, such as a polysaccharide or an oligosaccharide. Carbohydrates are often composed of repeating units of monosaccharides, and the sequence in which these units are arranged can have important implications for the function and properties of the carbohydrate.

For example, in glycoproteins (proteins that contain carbohydrate chains), the specific carbohydrate sequence can affect how the protein is processed and targeted within the cell, as well as its stability and activity. Similarly, in complex carbohydrates like starch or cellulose, the sequence of glucose units can determine whether the molecule is branched or unbranched, which can have implications for its digestibility and other properties.

Therefore, understanding the carbohydrate sequence is an important aspect of studying carbohydrate structure and function in biology and medicine.

Glycoconjugates are a type of complex molecule that form when a carbohydrate (sugar) becomes chemically linked to a protein or lipid (fat) molecule. This linkage, known as a glycosidic bond, results in the formation of a new molecule that combines the properties and functions of both the carbohydrate and the protein or lipid component.

Glycoconjugates can be classified into several categories based on the type of linkage and the nature of the components involved. For example, glycoproteins are glycoconjugates that consist of a protein backbone with one or more carbohydrate chains attached to it. Similarly, glycolipids are molecules that contain a lipid anchor linked to one or more carbohydrate residues.

Glycoconjugates play important roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, signaling, and communication. They are also involved in the immune response, inflammation, and the development of certain diseases such as cancer and infectious disorders. As a result, understanding the structure and function of glycoconjugates is an active area of research in biochemistry, cell biology, and medical science.

Angiosperms, also known as flowering plants, are a group of plants that produce seeds enclosed within an ovary. The term "angiosperm" comes from the Greek words "angeion," meaning "case" or "capsule," and "sperma," meaning "seed." This group includes the majority of plant species, with over 300,000 known species.

Angiosperms are characterized by their reproductive structures, which consist of flowers. The flower contains male and female reproductive organs, including stamens (which produce pollen) and carpels (which contain the ovules). After fertilization, the ovule develops into a seed, while the ovary matures into a fruit, which provides protection and nutrition for the developing embryo.

Angiosperms are further divided into two main groups: monocots and eudicots. Monocots have one cotyledon or embryonic leaf, while eudicots have two. Examples of monocots include grasses, lilies, and orchids, while examples of eudicots include roses, sunflowers, and legumes.

Angiosperms are ecologically and economically important, providing food, shelter, and other resources for many organisms, including humans. They have evolved a wide range of adaptations to different environments, from the desert to the ocean floor, making them one of the most diverse and successful groups of plants on Earth.

Galactose is a simple sugar or monosaccharide that is a constituent of lactose, the disaccharide found in milk and dairy products. It's structurally similar to glucose but with a different chemical structure, and it plays a crucial role in various biological processes.

Galactose can be metabolized in the body through the action of enzymes such as galactokinase, galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, and UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase. Inherited deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to metabolic disorders like galactosemia, which can cause serious health issues if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

In summary, Galactose is a simple sugar that plays an essential role in lactose metabolism and other biological processes.

"Plant proteins" refer to the proteins that are derived from plant sources. These can include proteins from legumes such as beans, lentils, and peas, as well as proteins from grains like wheat, rice, and corn. Other sources of plant proteins include nuts, seeds, and vegetables.

Plant proteins are made up of individual amino acids, which are the building blocks of protein. While animal-based proteins typically contain all of the essential amino acids that the body needs to function properly, many plant-based proteins may be lacking in one or more of these essential amino acids. However, by consuming a variety of plant-based foods throughout the day, it is possible to get all of the essential amino acids that the body needs from plant sources alone.

Plant proteins are often lower in calories and saturated fat than animal proteins, making them a popular choice for those following a vegetarian or vegan diet, as well as those looking to maintain a healthy weight or reduce their risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer. Additionally, plant proteins have been shown to have a number of health benefits, including improving gut health, reducing inflammation, and supporting muscle growth and repair.

Glycosylation is the enzymatic process of adding a sugar group, or glycan, to a protein, lipid, or other organic molecule. This post-translational modification plays a crucial role in modulating various biological functions, such as protein stability, trafficking, and ligand binding. The structure and composition of the attached glycans can significantly influence the functional properties of the modified molecule, contributing to cell-cell recognition, signal transduction, and immune response regulation. Abnormal glycosylation patterns have been implicated in several disease states, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Carbohydrates are a major nutrient class consisting of organic compounds that primarily contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are classified as saccharides, which include monosaccharides (simple sugars), disaccharides (double sugars), oligosaccharides (short-chain sugars), and polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates).

Monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of a single sugar molecule that cannot be broken down further by hydrolysis. Disaccharides, like sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar), are formed from two monosaccharide units joined together.

Oligosaccharides contain a small number of monosaccharide units, typically less than 20, while polysaccharides consist of long chains of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides can be further classified into starch (found in plants), glycogen (found in animals), and non-starchy polysaccharides like cellulose, chitin, and pectin.

Carbohydrates play a crucial role in providing energy to the body, with glucose being the primary source of energy for most cells. They also serve as structural components in plants (cellulose) and animals (chitin), participate in various metabolic processes, and contribute to the taste, texture, and preservation of foods.

Carbohydrate metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used for energy or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This process involves several enzymes and chemical reactions that convert carbohydrates from food into glucose, fructose, or galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body.

The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism by controlling the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Insulin is released from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are high, such as after a meal, and promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Glucagon, on the other hand, is released when blood sugar levels are low and signals the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can result from genetic defects or acquired conditions that affect the enzymes or hormones involved in this process. Examples include diabetes, hypoglycemia, and galactosemia. Proper management of these disorders typically involves dietary modifications, medication, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Medicinal plants are defined as those plants that contain naturally occurring chemical compounds which can be used for therapeutic purposes, either directly or indirectly. These plants have been used for centuries in various traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda, Chinese medicine, and Native American medicine, to prevent or treat various health conditions.

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes, and saponins, among others. These compounds have been found to possess various pharmacological properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

Medicinal plants can be used in various forms, including whole plant material, extracts, essential oils, and isolated compounds. They can be administered through different routes, such as oral, topical, or respiratory, depending on the desired therapeutic effect.

It is important to note that while medicinal plants have been used safely and effectively for centuries, they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional. Some medicinal plants can interact with prescription medications or have adverse effects if used inappropriately.

Neuraminidase is an enzyme that occurs on the surface of influenza viruses. It plays a crucial role in the life cycle of the virus by helping it to infect host cells and to spread from cell to cell within the body. Neuraminidase works by cleaving sialic acid residues from glycoproteins, allowing the virus to detach from infected cells and to move through mucus and other bodily fluids. This enzyme is a major target of antiviral drugs used to treat influenza, such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza). Inhibiting the activity of neuraminidase can help to prevent the spread of the virus within the body and reduce the severity of symptoms.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates consisting of long chains of monosaccharide units (simple sugars) bonded together by glycosidic linkages. They can be classified based on the type of monosaccharides and the nature of the bonds that connect them.

Polysaccharides have various functions in living organisms. For example, starch and glycogen serve as energy storage molecules in plants and animals, respectively. Cellulose provides structural support in plants, while chitin is a key component of fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons.

Some polysaccharides also have important roles in the human body, such as being part of the extracellular matrix (e.g., hyaluronic acid) or acting as blood group antigens (e.g., ABO blood group substances).

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Affinity chromatography is a type of chromatography technique used in biochemistry and molecular biology to separate and purify proteins based on their biological characteristics, such as their ability to bind specifically to certain ligands or molecules. This method utilizes a stationary phase that is coated with a specific ligand (e.g., an antibody, antigen, receptor, or enzyme) that selectively interacts with the target protein in a sample.

The process typically involves the following steps:

1. Preparation of the affinity chromatography column: The stationary phase, usually a solid matrix such as agarose beads or magnetic beads, is modified by covalently attaching the ligand to its surface.
2. Application of the sample: The protein mixture is applied to the top of the affinity chromatography column, allowing it to flow through the stationary phase under gravity or pressure.
3. Binding and washing: As the sample flows through the column, the target protein selectively binds to the ligand on the stationary phase, while other proteins and impurities pass through. The column is then washed with a suitable buffer to remove any unbound proteins and contaminants.
4. Elution of the bound protein: The target protein can be eluted from the column using various methods, such as changing the pH, ionic strength, or polarity of the buffer, or by introducing a competitive ligand that displaces the bound protein.
5. Collection and analysis: The eluted protein fraction is collected and analyzed for purity and identity, often through techniques like SDS-PAGE or mass spectrometry.

Affinity chromatography is a powerful tool in biochemistry and molecular biology due to its high selectivity and specificity, enabling the efficient isolation of target proteins from complex mixtures. However, it requires careful consideration of the binding affinity between the ligand and the protein, as well as optimization of the elution conditions to minimize potential damage or denaturation of the purified protein.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

"Materia Medica" is a term that comes from the Latin language, where "materia" means "substance" or "material," and "medica" refers to "medical." In a medical context, Materia Medica historically refers to a collection of detailed descriptions of substances that are used for medicinal purposes.

It is essentially a comprehensive reference book that describes the properties, actions, uses, dosages, potential side effects, and contraindications of various drugs or medicinal agents. The information in a Materia Medica is typically based on historical use, experimental pharmacological data, clinical trials, and other scientific research.

Modern Materia Medica has evolved to become more specialized, with separate references for different types of medicinal substances, such as botanical (herbal) medicine, homeopathic remedies, or conventional pharmaceuticals. These resources are often used by healthcare professionals, including physicians, pharmacists, and nurses, to guide their prescribing decisions and ensure the safe and effective use of medications for their patients.

Valerian is not a medical term, but rather the name of a plant (Valeriana officinalis) that has been used in herbal medicine. The root of this plant contains several chemical compounds, including valerenic acid and other volatile oils, which are believed to have sedative and anxiolytic effects.

In medical terms, Valerian is sometimes referred to as a "herbal supplement" or "botanical extract" used for the treatment of sleep disorders, anxiety, and stress. It's important to note that while some studies suggest that Valerian may help with these conditions, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and safety. As with any medication or supplement, it should be taken under the guidance of a healthcare provider.

Homeopathy is a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) system, developed in the late 18th century by Samuel Hahnemann, based on the principle of "like cures like." This concept suggests that a substance that causes symptoms in a healthy person can be used in very dilute quantities to treat similar symptoms in illness. The dilutions are so extreme that no molecules of the original substance remain, leading to significant controversy and skepticism over any potential therapeutic effect. Homeopathic remedies are typically made from plants, minerals, or animals, and are often highly individualized for each patient based on their specific symptoms, mental and emotional state, and overall constitution. Despite its widespread use, homeopathy lacks robust scientific evidence supporting its efficacy beyond placebo effects, and it is not considered a mainstream medical practice in most countries.

I must apologize, but "Gardening" is not a term that has a medical definition. Gardening is an activity that involves the cultivation and care of plants, typically in a garden or other outdoor space. It may include tasks such as planting, watering, weeding, pruning, and harvesting. While gardening can have physical and mental health benefits, it is not a medical term or concept.

South America Sambucus canadensis - eastern North America Sambucus cerulea - western North America Sambucus ebulus - central ... western North America Sambucus microbotrys - southwest North America Sambucus nigra - Europe and North America Sambucus ... western North America Sambucus sibirica - eastern Asia Sambucus sieboldiana - Japan and Korea Sambucus simpsonii - southeastern ... south eastern Australia Sambucus javanica - southeastern Asia Sambucus lanceolata - Madeira Island Sambucus latipinna - Korea, ...
"Sambucus nigra ssp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli". ITIS Report. ITIS. Retrieved 13 July 2020. "Sambucus canadensis". Germplasm ... "Sambucus canadensis L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 6 June 2020. The Complete Guide to ... Sambucus canadensis, the American black elderberry, Canada elderberry, or common elderberry, is a species of elderberry native ... 11:170-98 "Sambucus canadensis". Plants for a Future. Niering, William A.; Olmstead, Nancy C. (1985) [1979]. The Audubon ...
"Sambucus australasica". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 9 October 2020. Harden, Gwen J. "Sambucus australasica". Royal ... Sambucus australasica is a shrub or small tree that typically grows to a height of 4 m (13 ft) and has glabrous stems, leaves ... Sambucus australasica is widespread in coastal districts of Queensland and New South Wales and inland to Rylstone and Tamworth ... Sambucus australasica, commonly known as yellow elderberry, native elderberry or native elder, is a species of flowering plant ...
Data related to Sambucus ebulus at Wikispecies Grieve, 'A Modern Herbal' (1931) "Sambucus ebulus". Plants for a Future. ... Dwarf elder (Sambucus ebulus L) is one of the best known medicinal herbs since ancient times. In view of its benefits as a ... Sambucus ebulus, also known as danewort, dane weed, danesblood, dwarf elder or European dwarf elder, walewort, dwarf elderberry ... Sambucus ebulus in the CalPhotos photo database, University of California, Berkeley (Wikipedia articles needing page number ...
1826 "Plant Name Details for Sambucus javanica". IPNI. Retrieved 10 May 2011. "Sambucus javanica". Germplasm Resources ... Sambucus javanica, the Chinese elder, is a species of elderberry in the family Viburnaceae native to subtropical and tropical ... "Sambucus javanica". Flora of China. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO & Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA. ... "Sambucus javanica (CAPRIFOLIACEAE)". Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Retrieved 10 May 2011. v t e ( ...
... 'Lemon Lace' Proven Winners.com: Sambucus racemosa Lemony Lace Fine Gardening Magazine: Sambucus racemosa ... Sambucus racemosa subsp. sibirica - red elder, native to Siberia. Sambucus racemosa subsp. sieboldiana - Japanese red elder The ... "Sambucus racemosa var. racemosa". Calflora. Berkeley, California: The Calflora Database. USDA, NRCS (n.d.). "Sambucus racemosa ... Sambucus racemosa subsp. kamtschatica - red elder, native to Northeastern Asia. Sambucus racemosa var. melanocarpa - Rocky ...
... is a species of tree in the family Adoxaceae. It is native to Central America and South America. Trees up to ... Sambucus peruviana is found from Costa Rica and Panama down the Andes south to northwestern Argentina between 2800 and 3900 m ... "Sambucus peruviana Kunth". Plants of the World Online. Accessed 29 April 2022. [1] Grandtner, M. M.; Chevrette, Julien (2013). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sambucus peruviana. v t e (CS1 Spanish-language sources (es), Articles with short ...
... , the American red elder, is a species of elder (Sambucus) native to eastern North America. The inflorescence is ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sambucus racemosa. "Sambucus pubens". The Plant List. Michaux (1803). Flora Borealis- ... Sambucus, Flora of Canada, Flora of Northern America, All stub articles, Dipsacales stubs). ...
Jeanes, Jeff A. "Sambucus gaudichaudiana". Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria. Retrieved 10 October 2020. Harden, Gwen J. "Sambucus ... Sambucus gaudichaudiana is a shrub that typically grows to a height of 1-2 m (3 ft 3 in - 6 ft 7 in) from a perennial rootstock ... Sambucus gaudichaudiana, commonly known as white elderberry, is a species of flowering plant in the family Adoxaceae and is ... Sambucus gaudichaudiana was first formally described in 1830 by de Candolle in his book Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni ...
... is a species of shrub or small tree in the family Adoxaceae. It is endemic to the Canary Islands and is ... "Sambucus palmensis". www.floradecanarias.com (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-10-23. Hamilton, Lawrence S.; Juvik, James O.; ... Sambucus, Flora of the Canary Islands, Flora of Spain, Plants described in 1828, All stub articles, Dipsacales stubs). ...
A few examples of such species include Sambucus canadensis (American elder), Sambucus cerulea (blue elderberry), and Sambucus ... Sambucus velutina, the velvet elder, is a relatively large, deciduous shrub that is endemic to the Southwestern region of the ... Sambucus velutina is exclusively found in the Southwestern portion of the United States, yet multiple other genetically similar ... Sambucus, Flora of California, Flora of Nevada, Flora without expected TNC conservation status). ...
... is a bacterium from the genus of Glycomyces which has been isolated from the stem of the tree Sambucus ... Gu, Q; Zheng, W; Huang, Y (September 2007). "Glycomyces sambucus sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from the stem of ... Sambucus adnata Wall". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 57 (Pt 9): 1995-8. doi:10.1099/ijs. ...
"Sambucus nigra L." Plants of the World Online. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 10 February 2022. "Sambucus nigra". Online ... "Sambucus nigra f. laciniata / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 2021-03-06. "RHS Plantfinder - Sambucus nigra 'Eva'". ... "Sambucus nigra". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. "Plants profile for Sambucus nigra L. (black elderberry)". Natural ... "Sambucus mexicana". Calflora. Retrieved 2012-07-16. "Sambucus nigra ssp. caerulea". Calflora. Retrieved 2012-07-16. Harrison, ...
... or Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea, with the common names blue elderberry and blue elder, is a coarse textured ... "Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea (blue elderberry)". CalFlora Database. "[description] of Sambucus cerulea subsp. caerulea". Jepson ... Sambucus cerulea is a large, deciduous shrub, which can grow to be 9 metres (30 feet) in height and 6 m (20 ft) in width. It ... The genus name comes from the Greek word sambuce, an ancient wind instrument, in reference to the removal of pith from the ...
Sambucus canadensis L. = Sambucus nigra L. subsp. canadensis (L.) Bolli Sambucus mexicana auct. non C.Presl ex DC. = Sambucus ... cerulea (Raf.) A.E.Murray = Sambucus cerulea Raf. = Sambucus nigra L. subsp. cerulea (Raf.) Bolli Sambucus mexicana C.Presl ex ... 2013 Sambucus mexicana C.Presl ex DC. subsp. cerulea (Raf.) A.E.Murray USDA-NRCS PLANTS profile for Sambucus nigra L. ssp. ... Sambucus mexicana may refer to the following North American black or blue elderberry species: Sambucus mexicana C.Presl ex DC ...
... is a species of tree in the family Adoxaceae. It is native to South America. Sambucus australis ranges from ... "Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl.". Plants of the World Online. Accessed 29 April 2022. [1] (CS1 Portuguese-language sources ... Sambucus, Trees of Argentina, Trees of Uruguay, Trees of Brazil, Trees of Paraguay). ...
"Sambucus sieboldiana PFAF Plant Database". www.pfaf.org. Retrieved 2017-12-29. Sambucus racemosa ssp. sieboldiana (in Japanese ... Sambucus williamsii, was once included in Sambucus sieboldiana but is now classified as a separate species. Members of this ... Sambucus sieboldiana, commonly called the Japanese red elder, is a deciduous shrub in the moschatel family (Adoxaceae). It is ... Sambucus racemosa ssp. sieboldiana (in Japanese), Flora of Mikawa Ohwi, Jisaburo (1965). Flora of Japan. Smithsonian ...
... Banks ex Lowe, Trans. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 4: 31 1831. Beech, E. (2017). "Sambucus lanceolata". IUCN Red ... Sambucus lanceolata is a species of elderberry endemic to Madeira Island in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The common name in ... Sambucus, Flora of Madeira, Endemic flora of Madeira, Plants described in 1831). ...
... is a subspecies of Sambucus racemosa, with the common names European red elder and Pacific ... racemosa Jepson eFlora: Sambucus racemosa var. racemosa Media related to Sambucus racemosa at Wikimedia Commons v t e (Articles ... ITIS Standard Report Page: Sambucus racemosa ssp. racemosa Sambucus racemosa subsp. racemosa is an autonym, formed when one or ... It was originally described and published (as Sambucus racemosa) in Species Plantarum 1:270. 1753. "Sambucus racemosa subsp. ...
... is a comune (municipality) in the Metropolitan City of Rome in the Italian region of Latium, located about 35 ...
... is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Cuneo in the Italian region Piedmont, located about 100 kilometres (62 mi ... As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 92 and an area of 46.8 square kilometres (18.1 sq mi). Sambuco borders the ...
As stated, H. sambuci occurs in North Europe mostly on Sambucus nigra, but there is a much bigger spectrum of substrates in ... H. sambuci consists of a complex of species. Similar species with capitate cystidia; thin-walled hyphae and exactly the same ... Hyphodontia sambuci, or elder whitewash, is a basidiomycete fungal pathogen on deadwood, especially elder. It is resupinate, ...
The dam of Sambuco on the Maggia River was completed in 1956. Its maximum height is 130 m and length 363 m. Media related to ... Lago del Sambuco is a reservoir above Fusio, in the municipality of Lavizzara, Ticino, Switzerland. Its surface area is 1.11 ... Lago del Sambuco at Wikimedia Commons List of lakes of Switzerland List of mountain lakes of Switzerland v t e (Articles with ...
"Sambucus nigra". Retrieved 11 July 2012. BBC GoodFood Recipe Retrieved 2011-06-23. (Use dmy dates from September 2022, Articles ... Sambucus nigra L.). Historically, the cordial was popular in Northwestern Europe where it has a Victorian heritage. However, ...
"Sambucus nigra". Retrieved 2012-07-11. Fiona Danks; Jo Schofield (2005). Nature's playground: activities, crafts and games to ... It is made from elderflowers, the flowers of the European elderberry, Sambucus nigra, which are also used to make elderflower ...
"Sambucus ebulus". MaltaWildPlants.com. Retrieved 2022-01-04. Mifsud, Stephen. "Sambucus nigra". MaltaWildPlants.com. Retrieved ...
Sambucus spp.), serviceberries (Amelanchier spp.), and wild and cultivated cherries (Prunus spp.). They have been observed ...
Danewort - Sambucus ebulus. The dwarf elder. Also, daneweed. Dragonwort - An Artemisia, or Polygonum bistorta. Dropwort - ... Elderwort - Sambucus ebulus. European Pillwort - Pilularia globulifera. Peppergrass. Felonwort - Solanum dulcamara. Felonwood ...
Ransanus, Petrus; Sambucus, Johannes (1558). Epitome rerum Ungaricarum (in Latin). Vienna: Hofhalter. Ransanus, Petrus; Kulcsár ... Ransanus, Petrus; Sambucus, Johannes (1558). Epitome rerum Ungaricarum (in Latin). Vienna: Hofhalter. ...
"Elderberry (Sambucus Species)". The Poison Plant Patch. Nova Scotia Museum. Archived from the original on 6 November 2014. ...
South America Sambucus canadensis - eastern North America Sambucus cerulea - western North America Sambucus ebulus - central ... western North America Sambucus microbotrys - southwest North America Sambucus nigra - Europe and North America Sambucus ... western North America Sambucus sibirica - eastern Asia Sambucus sieboldiana - Japan and Korea Sambucus simpsonii - southeastern ... south eastern Australia Sambucus javanica - southeastern Asia Sambucus lanceolata - Madeira Island Sambucus latipinna - Korea, ...
... in 4X-30X, 2C-30C, 1M-10M from $6.59 in pills, pellets, tablets, liquids and ointments by Boiron & Homeodel ... Buy Sambucus Nigra (Pink Elder, Sambucus). Sambucus Nigra materia medica. Sambucus Nigra is available in all the potencies, ... For uses of Sambucus Nigra see the main Sambucus Nigra page for materia medica from Boericke, Boger, Clarke, Hering, T.F. Allen ... Sambucus Nigra is available from Canada in the following:. Boiron Pellets from $8.29 in : 4X, 6X, 8X, 12X, 30X, 2C, 3C, 4C, 6C ...
... cerulea Raf. Blue Elderberry *Sambucus nigra ssp. cerulea (Raf.) Bolli *Sambucus cerulea; [FPN], 452 *Sambucus cerulea ... Sambucus racemosa L. European Red Elder Terttuselja Druvfläder Red-berried Elder Terttuheisi *Sambucus racemosa; [RK], 339; [SK ... Sambucus nigra L. European Black Elder Mustaselja Mustaheisi Elder *Sambucus nigra, Bilder ur Nordens Flora (in Swedish) [ ... Foodplant as Sambucus canadensis for Thyridopteryx ephemeraeformis. * ...
Pictures and description of Sambucus caerulea, Blue Elderberry. ... Fruit of Sambucus caerulea is edible.. Communities for Sambucus ... Sambucus caerulea tolerates seasonal flooding.. Sambucus caerulea is great for a bird garden.. Foliage of Sambucus caerulea has ... Sambucus caerulea, Blue Elderberry is native from Alberta to Mexico. It is very similar to Sambucus mexicana but needs more ... The best way to tell if you have one or the other is that Sambucus caerulea grows from 4000 up to 10000 and Sambucus mexicana ...
Sambucus mexicana is a deciduous Shrub growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). It is in flower from May to June. The species is ... Sambucus latipinna. Shrub. 0.0. - LMH. SN. M. 1. 0. Sambucus melanocarpa. Black Elder, Rocky Mountain elder. Shrub. 4.0. 5-9 ... Sambucus gaudichaudiana. White Elderberry. Shrub. 3.0. - LMH. SN. M. 2. 0. Sambucus javanica. Chinese Elder. Shrub. 0.0. - LMH ... Sambucus mexicana is a Synonym of Sambucus nigra L. ssp. canadensis (L.) R. Bolli American black elderberry ...
Sambucus Gummies. Quality Immune Support from Nature*. Delicious gummies, bursting with benefits. Sambucus Gummies with black ... Sambucus Gummies. Quality Immune Support from Nature*. Delicious gummies, bursting with benefits. Sambucus Gummies with black ... Sambucus Gummies Directions and/or Dosage. Adults and children 4 years of age and older, chew 2 gummies daily. Instruct child ... Sambucus Gummies Directions and/or Dosage. Adults and children 4 years of age and older, chew 2 gummies daily. Instruct child ...
Tak e zapome te na pon kud nudn , v udyp tomn k ov esk ho venkova a nechte se p en st do sv ta jm nem SAMBUCUS s mno stv m ...
Shop Puritans Pride Elderberry Supplements and Sambucus Supplements today! ... Elder is also known as Sambucus, a plant that is trending in holistic health and is a popular herbal supplement. Elderberry has ... Elderberry Sambucus 1250 mg is sold as a rapid release softgel providing 266 mg of Elderberry Juice Concentrate, equivalent to ... elderberry sambucus and elderberry combination formulas. Shop your choice of product form of elderberry supplements. Elderberry ...
Sambucus Flu Care Elderberry Syrup (4 fl oz) at Ralphs. Find quality health products to add to your Shopping List or order ... Natures Way® Sambucus Flu Care Elderberry Syrup. 4.5(. 2. )View All Reviews ... Active Ingredients : Aconitum napellus , Eucalyptus Globulus , Sambucus nigra , Bryonia , Eupatorium Perfoliatum , Gelsemium ...
Deciduous, upright shrub that is stoloniferous and grows to 12 tall and wide. Leaves are pinnate, to 12 long, consisting of 9+ lanceolate to elliptic,
Elder (Sambucus nigra) Haschberg quantity. Add to cart. SKU: PL-0426 Categories: Elderberries, Plants, Top Fruit Tag: Top Fruit ...
Sambucus nigra lectin, isolated from elderberry bark, binds preferentially to sialic acid attached to terminal galactose in α-2 ... Agarose bound Sambucus nigra lectin is prepared using our affinity-purified lectins. Sambucus nigra lectin, isolated from ... Home / Products / Glycobiology / Lectins & Glycobiology Reagents / Lectins / Sialic Acid / Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) / ...
Homeopathic Sambucus Nigra - EXTREMITIES, LIMBS indications, uses & symptoms by T.F. Allen ... Sambucus Nigra - Extremities, Limbs symptoms - T.F. Allen Pink Elder, Sambucus, Samb.. ... Sambucus Nigra- main page Below are the main rubriks (i.e strongest indications or symptoms) of Sambucus Nigra in traditional ... Have you ever used Sambucus Nigra? Yes No. Filter Sambucus Nigra extremities, limbs symptoms:. ...
Habit: Sambucus nigra Madonna grows to be a medium sized, rounded shrub. *Height: eventually up to 2.5 - 3 m (8 - 10 ft) / or ... Sambucus nigra Black Lace £17.06 £18.95 (Cut-leaved Black Elder ) A splendid hardy shrub with lovely finely divided, purple- ... The best foliage colour is seen on fresh growth and Sambucus nigra Madonna is best when pruned back hard every one or two ... Black Elder) A superb cultivar, Sambucus nigra Black Beauty has rich purple-black foliage and flattened umbels (clusters) of ...
Buy Organic Sambucus Cold & Flu Care Syrup online from a reputable online Canadian pharmacy ... Buy Organic Sambucus Cold & Flu Care Syrup Online No prescription is required for this item. ... Organic European elder (Sambucus nigra subsp. nigra, fruit) (8.3:1, 0.83 g QCE) standardized to 14% anthocyanins per 100 mg. ... Fight cold and flu symptoms with the Organic Sambucus Cold & Flu Care Syrup. Made with real elderberries, this delicious syrup ...
Sambucus nigra f. alba, Sambucus nigra f. aurea, Sambucus nigra f. laciniata, Sambucus nigra f. pendula, Sambucus nigrum, ... Sambucus Nigra, L.. T. F. Allen:. Sambucus nigra, Linn.. Natural order, Caprifoliace .. Common names, Elder; (G.), Flieder, ... Sambucus Nigra, L.. J. H. Clarke:. Sambucus nigra (Linn.). Elder. N. O. Caprifoliace . Tincture of fresh leaves and flowers.. ... Sambucus Nigra, L.. Synonyms and common names:. Black Elder, Bore Tree, Bour Tree, Bourtree, Common Elder, Elder, Elder Rind, ...
Buy Sambucus BLACK LACE - Buy Elderberry Shrubs Online. Garden Crossings Online Garden Center offers a large selection of ... Elderberry) BLACK LACE® Sambucus is perhaps the coolest plant on the market! This new Sambucus looks more like a Japanese maple ... BLACK LACE® Sambucus nigra Eva PP15,575. Common Name: Elderberry. Plant Type: Shrub. Brand: PROVEN WINNERS® COLORCHOICE® ... BLACK LACE® Sambucus - PWCC - 8" Jumbo Pot. Ships in Spring by Zone ...
Natures Way Sambucus Elderberry Gummies for Kids - Immune Support - Vitamin C & Zinc -- 60 Gummies * Shop all Natures Way ... Black Elder (Sambucus nigra L.) Extract (berry) standardized to Bioactives® from 1.6 g of premium cultivar elderberies per ... Natures Way Sambucus Elderberry Gummies for Kids - Immune Support - Vitamin C & Zinc -- 60 Gummies ... Natures Way Sambucus Elderberry Gummies for Kids - Immune Support - Vitamin C & Zinc Description ...
Black elder or Black lace (Sambucus nigra) anthotype by Tracy Piper-Wright. August 30, 2023. August 15, 2023. ...
Sambucus nigra L.) have been traditionally used as a winter remedy for immune support Premium ElderberriesMade with our unique ... For centuries the dark berries of European black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) have been traditionally used as a winter remedy for ...
Attention: The Sambuco dam is home to flock of Common House Martin. In order not to disturb this protected specie, at the end ... The climbing routes of the Sambuco dam allow you to earn tecnical skills and gain experience in a controlled atmosphere. ... The 102 m high Sambuco dam, is the perfect place to train concentration, coordination and resistance. ...
Sambucus™ Sleep + Immune Gummies (30 ct) at Food 4 Less. Find quality health products to add to your Shopping List or order ... Sleep and immune health are important for your day to day life, so reach for Sambucus Sleep + Immune Gummies to get some rest ... Natures Way® Sambucus Sleep + Immune Support Gummies with Melatonin for occasional sleeplessness, and vitamin C and zinc for ...
Sambucus ebulus f. laciniata Deborensis A very rare, superlative form of this widespread Continental European herbaceous ...
Improve your day-to-day wellness with Natures Way Sambucus Elderberry - Organic Elderberry Syrup 4 fl oz Liq from Swanson ... Natures Way® offers Sambucus nigra L. in USDA Certified Organic Sambucus® Elderberry - Organic Elderberry Syrup for ... Natures Way® offers Sambucus nigra L. in USDA Certified Organic Sambucus® Elderberry - Organic Elderberry Syrup for ... Sambucus nigra L.) Extract standardized to anthocyanins from 3,200 mg of premium cultivar elderberries per teaspoon ...
For centuries the dark berries of European black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) have been traditionally used as a winter remedy for ...
Elderberry bushes are best propagated via cutting. Use softwood cuttings for the purpose of rooting. Each cutting should be about a ½ foot in length.. From there, remove the bottom leaves, and either root it in water or in soil. If you root in water, place the cutting in a glass jar filled partially with water.. The cutting should sit in the water and not be fully submerged. Sit the jar in a sunny windowsill and wait approximately four weeks for the cutting to form roots.. If youre going to root the cutting in soil, you can skip straight to these next steps after dipping it in rooting hormone.. Fill a container with well-draining potting mix and ensure the planter drains adequately as well. From there, place the cutting (either dipped in rooting hormone or what you rooted in water) in the soil.. Keep the soil evenly damp and wrap it in a plastic bag to create a greenhouse effect. The cutting should be kept in a warm growing location with bright, indirect light. Over the next several months, ...
Sambucus Daily Gummies 45 Sambucus Gummies. $24.99. - available on subscription from $22.49. / month Add to cart ... Sambucus Mega Gummies 7X 30 pack. $34.99. - available on subscription from $31.49. / month Add to cart ...
Shop Sambucus 8 OZ By Natures Answer Online at HerbsPro. ... HerbsPro offers best Sambucus 8 OZ By Natures Answer that are ... Online Shop for SAMBUCUS by Natures Answer with Huge Discount, Buy Cold and Flu for Vitamins & Supplements at Herbspro Online ...
Registration is now open. Together in proud partnership with the NAMA-affiliated Asheville Mushroom Club (AMC), Blue Ridge Mycological Society (BRMS), Mushroom Club of Georgia (MCG ...
  • Nature's Way® offers Sambucus nigra L . in USDA Certified Organic Sambucus® Elderberry - Organic Elderberry Syrup for traditional immune support. (swansonvitamins.com)
  • Science meets age-old tradition with Nature's Way® Sambucus black elderberry extract, a standardised, Bio-Certified extract, with proven bioavailability and activity within the body for optimal effectiveness. (hibiscushealthshop.co.nz)
  • Stock your first aid cabinet with Nature's Way® Sambucus so you and your family will be well prepared for this year's seasonal ills and chills. (hibiscushealthshop.co.nz)
  • Nature's Way Sambucus Organic Elderbe. (nutrifitstore.com)
  • Elder is also known as Sambucus, a plant that is trending in holistic health and is a popular herbal supplement. (puritan.com)
  • We now report our seminal findings on the major constituents including terpenes identified in native, historically significant herbal medicinal plant Elder (Sambucus nigra L.) flower and elder berry in particular and their concomitant strong antimicrobial effects exhibited on various nosocomial pathogens notably upon methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA, recognised globally as a clinically significant pathogen, associated with skin and soft tissue infections. (researchgate.net)
  • Organic European elder (Sambucus nigra subsp. (northwestpharmacy.com)
  • These aphids are predators of pink apple aphids and black elder aphids (Aphis sambuci). (eurekamag.com)
  • This is Sambucus species or American Elder with leaves having a white margin. (efloraofindia.com)
  • Sambucus Gummies with black elderberry extract combine zinc, 100% of the recommended Daily Value of vitamin C and 150% of the recommended Daily Value of vitamin D to support your immune system all year long. (naturesway.com)
  • Sambucus elderberry gummies, syrups, lozenges, and more are a deliciously beneficial way to care for yourself each day. (naturesway.com)
  • Bursting with berry flavor, Sambucus Gummies are gelatin-free, gluten-free, and contain no artificial colors. (naturesway.com)
  • Sleep and immune health are important for your day to day life, so reach for Sambucus Sleep + Immune Gummies to get some rest and feel your best. (food4less.com)
  • Fight cold and flu symptoms with the Organic Sambucus Cold & Flu Care Syrup. (northwestpharmacy.com)
  • Sambucus Organic Elderberry Syrup is made with elderberry extract standardized to anthocyanins, which provide antioxidant support. (nutrifitstore.com)
  • Sambucus canadensis L. (funet.fi)
  • Sambucus canadensis f. atroflavula House in Bull. (kew.org)
  • Sambucus canadensis f. aurea (J.F.Cowell ex L.H.Bailey) Rehder in Bibliogr. (kew.org)
  • Sambucus canadensis f. delicatissima Schwer. (kew.org)
  • Sambucus canadensis f. maxima (Hesse) Schwer. (kew.org)
  • Sambucus canadensis f. rubra E.J.Palmer & Steyerm. (kew.org)
  • Extracción de Antioxidantes de las Bayas del Sauco (Sambucus nigra L. subsp. (edu.pe)
  • Antioxidant extraction from elderberries (Sambucus nigra L. subsp. (edu.pe)
  • Sambucus caerulea , Blue Elderberry is native from Alberta to Mexico. (laspilitas.com)
  • Sambucus mexicana is a deciduous Shrub growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). (pfaf.org)
  • Sambucus nigra 'Madonna' grows to be a medium sized, rounded shrub. (bluebellnursery.com)
  • In August 1983, a group of 25 people in Monterey County, California, became ill after ingesting elderberry juice pressed from fresh, uncooked Sambucus mexicana berries, leaves, and stems. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is very similar to Sambucus mexicana but needs more water and better soil. (laspilitas.com)
  • Sambucus mexicana on the other hand grows in areas of little or no snow (or like our area that snow melts off after a day or two). (laspilitas.com)
  • The best way to tell if you have one or the other is that Sambucus caerulea grows from 4000' up to 10000' and Sambucus mexicana 4500' down. (laspilitas.com)
  • Sambucus mexicana - C.Presl. (pfaf.org)
  • Sambucus mexicana is a Synonym of Sambucus nigra L. ssp. (pfaf.org)
  • Ethanolic extracts of Sambucus nigra L. blooms and fruits have been shown to inhibit 13 pathogens, including Staphylococcus sp. (researchgate.net)
  • Fig. 1 illustrates the growth inhibition zones of Salmonella from Sambucus nigra L. extracts. (researchgate.net)
  • [10] In this study, the aqueous extracts from Sambucus nigra L. demonstrated a notable inhibition of Salmonella (7 mm). (researchgate.net)
  • Materials and methods: We studied the physicochemical properties of aqueous extracts of leaves (fresh) and flowers (fresh and dry) of Sambucus nigra L collected from the Rhodope region of Bulgaria. (researchgate.net)
  • Although the cooked berries (pulp and skin) of most species of Sambucus are edible, the uncooked berries and other parts of plants from this genus are poisonous. (wikipedia.org)
  • Foliage of Sambucus caerulea has color green and is deciduous. (laspilitas.com)
  • Ornamental varieties of Sambucus are grown in gardens for their showy flowers, fruits and lacy foliage which support habitat for wildlife. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phytotherapic product assessed in the present study contains fruits of Pimpinella anisum L. (green anises), fruits of Foeniculum vulgare Miller (fennel), flowers of Sambucus nigra L. (sabugueiro), and flowers of Cassia augustifolia (senna plant). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The best foliage colour is seen on fresh growth and Sambucus nigra 'Madonna' is best when pruned back hard every one or two years to encourage this. (bluebellnursery.com)
  • For uses of Sambucus Nigra see the main Sambucus Nigra page for materia medica from Boericke, Boger, Clarke, Hering, T.F. Allen, Boenninghausen and our reversed & reworded Kent repertory. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • Sambucus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Adoxaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Elderberry) BLACK LACE® Sambucus is perhaps the coolest plant on the market! (gardencrossings.com)
  • I think the European plant is Sambucus nigra , with usually five leaflets. (efloraofindia.com)
  • Sambucus fruit is rich in anthocyanidins that combine to give elderberry juice an intense blue-purple coloration that turns reddish on dilution with water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Key Sun Kids Sambucus Black Elderberry + Acerola lozenges are a delicious way to help the normal functioning of the immune system. (keysun.com.au)
  • The samples from Sambucus nigra L were analyzed to determine their total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). (researchgate.net)
  • Conclusions: The highest content of bioactive components was obtained from dried blossoms of Sambucus nigra L. for infusions with a total contact time of 30 minutes and for decoctions at a contact time of 45 minutes. (researchgate.net)
  • The seeds of Sambucus callicarpa are reported to be poisonous and may cause vomiting or diarrhea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Below are the main rubriks (i.e strongest indications or symptoms) of Sambucus Nigra in traditional homeopathic usage , not approved by the FDA. (abchomeopathy.com)
  • Results: The infusions of fresh blossoms and fresh leaves of Sambucus nigra L had the highest antioxidant activity at the total contact time of 30 minutes (82.7 mmol TE/100 ml) and 35 minutes (36.5 mmol TE/100 ml), respectively. (researchgate.net)
  • Elderberry Sambucus 1250 mg is sold as a rapid release softgel providing 266 mg of Elderberry Juice Concentrate, equivalent to 1250 mg of Elderberry per serving. (puritan.com)
  • Introduction: In folk medicine, dried white flowers of Sambucus nigra L. are used to make infusions, decoctions, and juices. (researchgate.net)
  • Aim: The present article aims to study and compare the antioxidant activity of aqueous solutions of leaves and flowers of Sambucus nigra L obtained at different exposure times and assess the antibacterial activity of these solutions against Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella NCTC 6017, Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 11994, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25093. (researchgate.net)
  • The phenol-richest infusions were those made from dried flowers of Sambucus nigra L after a 30-minute contact time (86.7 mg GAE/ml). (researchgate.net)
  • The 102 m high Sambuco dam, is the perfect place to train concentration, coordination and resistance. (ticino.ch)