Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Combined Modality Therapy
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Ultrasound, High-Intensity Focused, Transrectal
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived
Drug Administration Schedule
Stem Cell Transplantation
Operative Blood Salvage
Drug Resistance, Viral
Bone Marrow Transplantation
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Viral
HIV Protease Inhibitors
Drug Resistance, Neoplasm
Drug Therapy, Combination
Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
Blood Transfusion, Autologous
CD4 Lymphocyte Count
Clinical Trials as Topic
Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute
Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Second-line treatment for primary central nervous system lymphoma. (1/1778)Failure after first-line treatment was reported in 35-60% of immunocompetent patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). There are currently no reports focusing on salvage therapy. This review analyses prognostic factors and the efficacy of salvage therapy by focusing on data from papers reporting results of first-line treatment in 355 cases. The study group consisted of 173 patients presenting treatment failure. The interval between failure and death (TTD) was compared for age at relapse (< or =60 vs. >60 years), type of failure (relapse vs. progression), time to relapse (< or =12 vs. >12 months) and salvage treatment (yes vs no). Median TTD was similar in younger and older patients (P = 0.09). Relapsed patients had a longer TTD than patients with progressive disease (P = 0.002). Early relapse led to a shorter TTD than late relapse (P = 0.005). Median TTD was 14 months for patients who underwent salvage therapy and 2 months for untreated cases (P<0.00001). A multivariate analysis showed an independent prognostic role for salvage therapy and time to relapse. Age and type of failure had no predictive value. Salvage therapy significantly improves outcome and, possibly, quality of life. As many different treatments were used conclusions cannot be made regarding an optimal treatment schedule. (+info)
ESHAP as salvage therapy for refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Taiwan experience. (2/1778)BACKGROUND: The ESHAP regimen, a combination of the chemotherapeutic drugs etoposide, methylprednisolone (solumedrol), high-dose cytarabine (ara-C) and cisplatin, has been shown to be active against refractory non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in therapeutic trials. We were interested in determining whether this regimen would be effective and tolerable for Chinese patients. METHODS: Thirty-two patients with refractory/relapsed non-Hodgkins lymphoma (23 intermediate-grade and nine high-grade) were enrolled in this study. Etoposide was administered at a dose of 40 mg/m2/day as a 1 h intravenous infusion from day 1 to day 4, solumedrol 500 mg/day was given as a 15 min intravenous infusion from day 1 to day 5, ara-C 2 g/m2 was given as a 2 h intravenous infusion on day 5 and cisplatin was given at a dose of 25 mg/m2/day as a continuous infusion from day 1 to day 4. Clinical efficacy and toxicity were assessed on the basis of the WHO criteria. RESULTS: Ten patients (31.3%, 95% Cl 15.2-47.4%) attained complete remission (CR) and seven had partial remission (PR). The overall response rate was 53.1% (95% Cl 35.8-70.4%). In eight of the 10 CR patients, the remission lasted for more than 8 months. The remaining two patients had CR of 5 and 6 months. The median duration of CR was 12.2 months (range 5-22 months). Myelosuppression with subsequent infections was the major toxicity. Severe leukopenia (WBC < 1000/microliter) lasted for an average of 12 days and thrombocytopenia (< 25,000/microliter) 18 days. One patient (3.1%) died of neutropenia-associated sepsis within 4 weeks after treatment. Non-myeloid toxicities included alopecia in 66% (28% grade 2, 22% grade 3), stomatitis in 72% (25% grade 2, 28% grade 3, 13% grade 4), hepatotoxicity in 9% (3% grade 2), renal toxicity in 13% (6% grade 2, 3% grade 3) and infection in 56% (18% grade 2, 25% grade 3, 13% grade 4). The majority of the responders relapsed within 2 years after ESHAP treatment. Median survival for all patients was 8.6 months. CONCLUSIONS: ESHAP is an active and tolerable regimen in Chinese patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma, but the duration of remission is brief and without significant impact on survival. (+info)
Early harvest and late transplantation as an effective therapeutic strategy in multiple myeloma. (3/1778)Transplantation after high-dose chemotherapy prolongs survival in patients with multiple myeloma compared with standard therapy. It is unclear whether the optimal timing of transplantation is immediately after induction chemotherapy or whether stem cells may be cryopreserved for transplantation at subsequent progression or relapse. In this study, stem cells were collected within 6 months of diagnosis, followed by transplantation only at progression of myeloma. One hundred and eighteen patients with multiple myeloma had stem cells collected and cryopreserved. Eleven had transplants early in the disease after they demonstrated failure to respond to primary therapy. The remaining 107 were eligible for transplants when there was evidence of progressive disease. Of the 118 patients, 67 had transplants, nine died of progressive disease before transplantation, and 42 remain alive in plateau phase. The median survival of the group is 58.5 months; 67 are alive. Serum beta2-microglobulin, bone marrow labeling index (S phase), and hemoglobin level predicted overall survival (P < 0.006, P < 0.001, and P < 0.01, respectively). We conclude that early cryopreservation of blood stem cells followed by transplantation at progression is a feasible approach to therapy in patients with myeloma. The underlying biology of the disease has a greater impact on survival than the timing of transplantation. A prospective randomized trial is required to answer definitively the question of the optimal timing of blood cell transplantation. (+info)
High-dose therapy with autologous or allogeneic transplantation as salvage therapy for small cleaved cell lymphoma of follicular center cell origin. (4/1778)Between 1985 and 1996, 51 patients with relapsed or refractory small cleaved cell lymphoma (SCCL) received high-dose chemotherapy +/- TBI in conjunction with autologous (ABMT) (36 patients) or allogeneic transplantation (15 patients). Patients were eligible for ABMT if the bone marrow biopsy done prior to the planned transplant did not reveal microscopic involvement with SCCL. Patients receiving ABMT had a median age of 48 years, had received a median of 2.5 chemotherapy regimens prior to transplantation, and were transplanted a median of 35.5 months from diagnosis. Among patients receiving ABMT, 5 year actuarial survival was 56+/-11%. Median survival was 126+ months, and median survival from diagnosis was 191 months. Univariate and multivariate analysis identified sensitive disease as the best predictor of a favorable response. Five-year actuarial survival was 66+/-12% for patients with sensitive disease at the time of transplant as compared to 29+/-17% for patients with resistant disease, P = 0.015. Median survival in patients with sensitive disease at the time of ABMT was 126+ months. By univariate analysis, survival was significantly better for patients receiving ABMT as compared to patients receiving allogeneic transplants. Median survival following allogeneic transplantation was 5 months; 5 year actuarial survival was 15+/-13%. In a multivariate analysis, which considered autologous vs allogeneic transplantation, sensitive vs resistant disease, <3 vs > or = 3 prior treatments, and prior bone marrow involvement, allogeneic transplantation was significantly associated with poor survival. Treatment-related mortality occurred in eight of 15 patients receiving allogeneic transplantation and limited the effectiveness of this therapy. High-dose therapy in conjunction with ABMT is effective therapy for patients with SCCL whose disease is sensitive to chemotherapy and whose marrows are microscopically free of disease. Because of possible selection bias, it has not been proven that this approach increases survival in these patients. Treatment-related mortality limits the effectiveness of allogeneic transplantation in SCCL. (+info)
Autologous transplantation of chemotherapy-purged PBSC collections from high-risk leukemia patients: a pilot study. (5/1778)We have recently demonstrated that the combination of the alkylating agent nitrogen mustard (NM) and etoposide (VP-16) is capable of eliminating, ex vivo, leukemic cells contaminating PBSC collections and this is associated with a significant recovery of primitive and committed hematopoietic progenitor cells. Based on these data a pilot study on autologous transplantation of NM/VP-16 purged PBSC for high-risk leukemic patients was recently initiated. Twelve patients (seven females and five males) with a median age of 46 years (range 18-57) have been treated. Two patients had acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) resistant to conventional induction treatment, four patients had secondary AML in I complete remission (CR), one patient was in II CR after failing a previous autologous BM transplantation, while two additional AML individuals were in I CR achieved after three or more cycles of induction treatment. Two patients with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in I CR and one patient with mantle cell lymphoma and leukemic dissemination were also included. Eight patients showed karyotypic abnormalities associated with a poor clinical outcome. The mobilizing regimens included cytosine arabinoside and mitoxantrone with (n = 6) or without fludarabine (n = 3) followed by subcutaneous administration of G-CSF (5 microg/kg/day until the completion of PBSC collection) and G-CSF alone (n = 3) (15 microg/kg/day). A median of two aphereses (range 1-3) allowed the collection of 7.2 x 10(8) TNC/kg (range 3.4-11.5), 5 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg (range 2.1-15.3) and 9.2 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg (0.3-236). PBSC were treated with a constant dose of 20 microg of VP-16/ml and a median individual-adjusted dose (survival < or = 5% of steady-state BM CFU-GM) of NM of 0.7 microg/ml (range 0.25-1.25). Eleven patients were reinfused after busulfan (16 mg/kg) and Cy (120 mg/kg) conditioning with a median residual dose of 0.3 x 10(4) CFU-GM/kg (0-11.5). The median time to neutrophil engraftment (>0.5 x 10(9)/l) for evaluable patients was 25 days (range 12-59); the median time to platelet transfusion independence (>20 and >50 x 10(9)/l) was 40 days (18-95) and 69 days (29-235), respectively. Hospital discharge occurred at a median of 25 days (18-58) after stem cell reinfusion. Four individuals are alive in CR (n = 3) or with residual nodal disease (n = 1 lymphoma patient) with a follow-up of 32, 26, 3 and 14 months, respectively. Seven patients died due to disease progression or relapse (n = 5) or extrahematological transplant toxicity (n = 2). Our data suggest that pharmacological purging of leukapheresis collections of leukemic patients at high-risk of relapse is feasible and ex vivo treated cells reconstitute autologous hematopoiesis. (+info)
Feasibility of immunotherapy of relapsed leukemia with ex vivo-generated cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for hematopoietic system-restricted minor histocompatibility antigens. (6/1778)Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a common treatment of hematologic malignancies. Recurrence of the underlying malignancy is a major cause of treatment failure. Donor-derived cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for patients' minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags) play an important role in both graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) reactivities. mHags HA-1 and HA-2 induce HLA-A*0201-restricted CTLs in vivo and are exclusively expressed on hematopoietic cells, including leukemic cells and leukemic precursors, but not on fibroblasts, keratinocytes, or liver cells. The chemical nature of the mHags HA-1 and HA-2 is known. We investigated the feasibility of ex vivo generation of mHag HA-1- and HA-2-specific CTLs from unprimed mHag HA-1- and/or HA-2-negative healthy blood donors. HA-1 and HA-2 synthetic peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) were used as antigen-presenting cells (APC) to stimulate autologous unprimed CD8(+) T cells. The ex vivo-generated HA-1- and HA-2-specific CTLs efficiently lyse leukemic cells derived from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) patients. No lytic reactivity was detected against nonhematopoietic cells. Sufficient numbers of the CTLs can be obtained for the adoptive immunotherapy purposes. In conclusion, we present a feasible, novel therapy for the treatment for relapsed leukemia after BMT with a low risk of GVHD. (+info)
Treatment of multiple myeloma. (7/1778)BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Multiple myeloma (MM) accounts for about 10% of all hematologic malignancies. The standard treatment with intermittent courses of melphalan and prednisone (MP) was introduced more than 30 years ago and, since then there has been little improvement in event-free and overall survival (EFS & OS). The aim of this article is to review: 1) the role of initial chemotherapy (ChT), maintenance treatment with alpha-interferon and salvage ChT, 2) the results of high-dose therapy (HDT) followed by allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT and auto-SCT), and 3) the most important supportive measures. EVIDENCE AND INFORMATION SOURCES: The authors of this review have been actively working and contributing with original investigations on the treatment of MM during the last 15 years. In addition, the most relevant articles and recent abstracts published in journals covered by the Science Citation Index and Medline are also reviewed. STATE OF THE ART AND PERSPECTIVES: The importance of avoiding ChT in asymptomatic patients (smoldering MM) is emphasized. The criteria and patterns of response are reviewed. MP is still the standard initial ChT with a response rate of 50-60% and an OS of 2-3 years. Combination ChT usually increases the response rate but does not significantly influence survival when compared with MP. Exposure to melphalan should be avoided in patients in whom HDT followed by auto-SCT is planned, in order to not preclude the stem cell collection. The median response duration to initial ChT is 18 months. Interferon maintenance usually prolongs response duration but in most studies does not significantly influence survival (a large meta-analysis by the Myeloma Trialists' Collaborative Group in Oxford is being finished). In alkylating-resistant patients, the best rescue regimens are VBAD or VAD. In patients already resistant to VBAD or VAD and in those in whom these treatments are not feasible we recommend a conservative approach with alternate day prednisone and pulse cyclophosphamide. While HDT followed by autotransplantation is not recommended for patients with resistant relapse, patients with primary refractory disease seem to benefit from early myeloablative therapy. Although results from large randomized trials are still pending in order to establish whether early HDT intensification followed by auto-SCT is superior to continuing standard ChT in responding patients, the favorable experience with autotransplantation of the French Myeloma Intergroup supports this approach. However, although the complete response rate is higher with intensive therapy, the median duration of response is relatively short (median, 16 to 36 months), with no survival plateau. There are several ongoing trials comparing conventional ChT with HDT/autoSCT in order to identify the patients who are likely to benefit from one or another approach. With allo-SCT there is a transplant-related mortality ranging from 30 to 50% and also a high relapse rate in patients achieving CR. However, 10 to 20% of patients undergoing allo-SCT are long-term survivors (> 5 years) with no evidence of disease and, consequently, probably cured. The use of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) in order to speed the engraftment and also the use of partially T-cell depleted PBSC which can decrease the incidence of graft-versus-host disease are promising approaches. In the setting of allo-SCT, donor lymphocyte infusion is an encouraging strategy in order to treat or prevent relapses. Finally, important supportive measures such as the treatment of anemia with erythropoietin, the management of renal failure and the use of bisphosphonates are reviewed. (+info)
Costs of high-dose salvage therapy and blood stem cell transplantation for resistant-relapsed malignant lymphomas in a southern Italian hospital. (8/1778)BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Analysis of costs of high technological procedures such as peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) autotransplantation in lymphomas are generally finalized at disclosing whether the improvement of survival in a subset of patients is cost effective and whether the cost of the procedure could be reduced. With the aim of revealing a possibility of reducing costs with respect to conditions of safety, we present our experience with PBSC autotransplantation in a particularly poor prognosis subset of patients with lymphoma. DESIGN AND METHODS: The expenses are analyzed for groups of cost and main resources necessary at unitary cost are considered separately. Groups of cost include various phases of the PBSC autotransplantation such as preparative procedures, execution of myeloablative therapy, reinfusion of CD34 cells, supportive therapy after reinfusion until discharge of the patient, general support for the management of patient. All costs are calculated according to 1997 prices and salaries and reported in dollars. The analysis was conducted on 21 patients with lymphoma resistant to other therapies treated by myeloablative therapy and PBSC autotransplantation in an hematologic unit in an open ward; the assistance was provided by staff not exclusively dedicated to bone marrow transplant procedures, with some help from a family member. RESULTS: The PBSC procedure, including all phases, costs from $17,761.9 to $18,259.9 depending on the type of myeloablative therapy employed; the mean cost was $18,092.6. The preparative phase with mobilization of CD34 cells, cryopreservation and reinfusion costed $3,538.7 (19.6% of the total cost); a major cost of this phase was cryopreservation and CD34 manipulation ($857.1). The second phase with myeloablative therapy and reinfusion of CD34 cells had a mean cost of $2,785.9 (15.4% of the total cost); a major cost of this phase was the hospitalization ($1,119.8). The third phase of patient's support after treatment had a total cost of $7,649 (42.3% of the cost of the total procedure) with the major cost being due to hospitalization ($2,571) calculated on a mean of 15 days after the reinfusion of CD-34. The last group of costs, including management support, accounted for $4,119 (22.7%) with a major cost being amortization of the structure ($1,600). The general cost for nurse's assistance to the patient was $1,355.1 (7.5%). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: A procedure of PBSC autotransplantation in resistant lymphoma is affordable without the strict precautions generally given in intensive care units. This provides a substantial reduction of expenses because of the low number of specifically trained staff members and the generally low cost of the necessary supplies. Before, however, proposing PBSC autotransplantation in most patients with resistant lymphoma, an evaluation of whether costs could be further reduced and whether the procedure has a cost benefit impact is needed. (+info)
Hodgkin Disease can spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system, and it can affect people of all ages, although it is most common in young adults and teenagers. The symptoms of Hodgkin Disease can vary depending on the stage of the disease, but they may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, fatigue, weight loss, and itching.
There are several types of Hodgkin Disease, including:
* Classical Hodgkin Disease: This is the most common type of Hodgkin Disease and is characterized by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells.
* Nodular Lymphocytic predominant Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by the presence of nodules in the lymph nodes.
* Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Disease: This type of Hodgkin Disease is characterized by a mixture of Reed-Sternberg cells and other immune cells.
Hodgkin Disease is usually diagnosed with a biopsy, which involves removing a sample of tissue from the affected lymph node or other area and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells. Treatment for Hodgkin Disease typically involves chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. In some cases, bone marrow or stem cell transplantation may be necessary.
The prognosis for Hodgkin Disease is generally good, especially if the disease is detected and treated early. According to the American Cancer Society, the 5-year survival rate for people with Hodgkin Disease is about 85%. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.
Hodgkin Disease is a rare form of cancer that affects the immune system. It is most commonly diagnosed in young adults and is usually treatable with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. However, the disease can sometimes recur after treatment, and the long-term effects of treatment can include infertility, heart problems, and an increased risk of secondary cancers.
Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.
In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.
This definition of 'Neoplasm Recurrence, Local' is from the Healthcare Professionals edition of the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, copyright © 2007 by Merriam-Webster, Inc.
Germinomas are rare and account for only about 1% to 3% of all germ cell tumors. They are more common in children and young adults, and the median age at diagnosis is around 10 to 20 years. These tumors tend to grow slowly and may not cause any symptoms in their early stages.
The signs and symptoms of germinoma can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor. In general, they may include:
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
* Swelling or lump in the abdomen
* Vaginal bleeding or discharge in females
* Painful urination or scrotal swelling in males
* Fatigue or fever
If a germinoma is suspected, imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, or ultrasound may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis. A biopsy may also be performed to examine the tumor cells under a microscope.
Treatment for germinoma typically involves surgery to remove the tumor and any affected tissues. In some cases, chemotherapy or radiation therapy may be recommended to ensure that all cancerous cells are eliminated. The prognosis for germinoma is generally good, with a five-year survival rate of around 90% for children and young adults. However, the tumor can recur in some cases, so follow-up care is important.
In summary, germinoma is a rare type of tumor that originates from germ cells in the reproductive system. It can be benign or malignant and tends to grow slowly, causing abdominal pain, swelling, or other symptoms. Treatment typically involves surgery and may include chemotherapy or radiation therapy, with a good prognosis for most patients.
There are several subtypes of NHL, including:
1. B-cell lymphomas (such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma)
2. T-cell lymphomas (such as peripheral T-cell lymphoma and mycosis fungoides)
3. Natural killer cell lymphomas (such as nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma)
4. Histiocyte-rich B-cell lymphoma
5. Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma
6. Mantle cell lymphoma
7. Waldenström macroglobulinemia
8. Lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma
9. Myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPN) related lymphoma
These subtypes can be further divided into other categories based on the specific characteristics of the cancer cells.
Symptoms of NHL can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include:
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Abdominal pain
* Swollen spleen
Treatment for NHL typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and in some cases, targeted therapy or immunotherapy. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of NHL, the stage of the cancer, and other individual factors.
Overall, NHL is a complex and diverse group of cancers that require specialized care from a team of medical professionals, including hematologists, oncologists, radiation therapists, and other support staff. With advances in technology and treatment options, many people with NHL can achieve long-term remission or a cure.
The term anticipatory vomiting is used to describe the phenomenon where an individual experiences nausea and vomiting before undergoing a medical procedure, taking medication, or experiencing certain types of stimuli. The exact cause of anticipatory vomiting is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to the activation of the brain's fear and anxiety centers.
Anticipatory vomiting can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Previous negative experiences: Individuals who have experienced negative events or procedures in the past may anticipate similar experiences in the future and exhibit symptoms of anticipatory vomiting.
2. Fear and anxiety: The anticipation of a potentially unpleasant experience can cause individuals to feel anxious and fearful, which can lead to nausea and vomiting.
3. Conditioning: Classical conditioning, a psychological phenomenon where an individual learns to associate certain stimuli with negative outcomes, can contribute to the development of anticipatory vomiting.
4. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as migraines or motion sickness, can trigger anticipatory vomiting.
5. Medications: Some medications can cause nausea and vomiting as a side effect, which can lead to anticipatory vomiting in individuals who anticipate taking these medications.
The diagnosis of anticipatory vomiting typically involves a comprehensive medical history and physical examination to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for anticipatory vomiting may include:
1. Anti-anxiety medication: Medications such as benzodiazepines or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can help reduce anxiety and alleviate symptoms of anticipatory vomiting.
2. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT): CBT can help individuals identify and change negative thought patterns and behaviors that contribute to anticipatory vomiting.
3. Relaxation techniques: Techniques such as deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, and mindfulness meditation can help individuals manage anxiety and reduce the likelihood of anticipatory vomiting.
4. Desensitization therapy: This type of therapy involves gradually exposing individuals to the feared situation or stimulus in a controlled and safe environment to help them become desensitized to their fears.
5. Avoiding triggers: Identifying and avoiding triggers for anticipatory vomiting, such as certain situations or medications, can help manage symptoms.
In summary, anticipatory vomiting is a condition where individuals experience nausea and vomiting in anticipation of a potentially unpleasant experience. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including psychological and medical conditions, and treated with a combination of medications, therapy, and lifestyle changes.
The symptoms of aspergillosis depend on the location and severity of the infection. In the lungs, it may cause coughing, fever, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. In the sinuses, it can cause headaches, facial pain, and nasal congestion. In the brain, it can cause seizures, confusion, and weakness.
Aspergillosis is typically diagnosed through a combination of imaging tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans, along with a biopsy to confirm the presence of Aspergillus fungi.
Treatment of aspergillosis depends on the severity and location of the infection. In mild cases, treatment may involve antifungal medications and supportive care such as oxygen therapy and pain management. In severe cases, treatment may require hospitalization and intravenous antifungal medications.
Preventive measures for aspergillosis include avoiding exposure to dusty or damp environments, managing chronic conditions such as asthma and COPD, and taking antifungal medications as prescribed.
Aspergillosis can be a serious condition, especially in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with cancer, HIV/AIDS, or taking immunosuppressive drugs. In severe cases, aspergillosis can lead to life-threatening complications such as respiratory failure, sepsis, and organ damage.
In conclusion, aspergillosis is a common fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, and it can be serious and potentially life-threatening, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Multiple myeloma is the second most common type of hematologic cancer after non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, accounting for approximately 1% of all cancer deaths worldwide. It is more common in older adults, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
The exact cause of multiple myeloma is not known, but it is believed to be linked to genetic mutations that occur in the plasma cells. There are several risk factors that have been associated with an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma, including:
1. Family history: Having a family history of multiple myeloma or other plasma cell disorders increases the risk of developing the disease.
2. Age: The risk of developing multiple myeloma increases with age, with most patients being diagnosed over the age of 65.
3. Race: African Americans are at higher risk of developing multiple myeloma than other races.
4. Obesity: Being overweight or obese may increase the risk of developing multiple myeloma.
5. Exposure to certain chemicals: Exposure to certain chemicals such as pesticides, solvents, and heavy metals has been linked to an increased risk of developing multiple myeloma.
The symptoms of multiple myeloma can vary depending on the severity of the disease and the organs affected. Common symptoms include:
1. Bone pain: Pain in the bones, particularly in the spine, ribs, or long bones, is a common symptom of multiple myeloma.
2. Fatigue: Feeling tired or weak is another common symptom of the disease.
3. Infections: Patients with multiple myeloma may be more susceptible to infections due to the impaired functioning of their immune system.
4. Bone fractures: Weakened bones can lead to an increased risk of fractures, particularly in the spine, hips, or ribs.
5. Kidney problems: Multiple myeloma can cause damage to the kidneys, leading to problems such as kidney failure or proteinuria (excess protein in the urine).
6. Anemia: A low red blood cell count can cause anemia, which can lead to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath.
7. Increased calcium levels: High levels of calcium in the blood can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, and confusion.
8. Neurological problems: Multiple myeloma can cause neurological problems such as headaches, numbness or tingling in the arms and legs, and difficulty with coordination and balance.
The diagnosis of multiple myeloma typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. These may include:
1. Complete blood count (CBC): A CBC can help identify abnormalities in the numbers and characteristics of different types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the blood, including immunoglobulins (antibodies) and abnormal proteins produced by myeloma cells.
3. Urine protein electrophoresis (UPEP): This test measures the levels of different proteins in the urine.
4. Immunofixation: This test is used to identify the type of antibody produced by myeloma cells and to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms.
5. Bone marrow biopsy: A bone marrow biopsy involves removing a sample of tissue from the bone marrow for examination under a microscope. This can help confirm the diagnosis of multiple myeloma and determine the extent of the disease.
6. Imaging tests: Imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans may be used to assess the extent of bone damage or other complications of multiple myeloma.
7. Genetic testing: Genetic testing may be used to identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with multiple myeloma and to monitor the response of the disease to treatment.
It's important to note that not all patients with MGUS or smoldering myeloma will develop multiple myeloma, and some patients with multiple myeloma may not have any symptoms at all. However, if you are experiencing any of the symptoms listed above or have a family history of multiple myeloma, it's important to talk to your doctor about your risk and any tests that may be appropriate for you.
1. Zygomycosis is a rare and opportunistic fungal infection caused by members of the order Ophiostomatales, which primarily affects the skin and subcutaneous tissues, but can also disseminate to other organs and cause severe systemic disease.
2. Zygomycosis is a type of deep mycosis that is characterized by the presence of broad, flat pseudohyphae and/or thick-walled spherules in the infected tissue, typically seen on histopathological examination.
3. Zygomycosis is an invasive fungal infection that can affect various parts of the body, including the skin, soft tissues, bones, and organs, and is often associated with underlying conditions such as diabetes, immunodeficiency, or malignancy.
4. Zygomycosis is a rare and aggressive fungal infection that can cause significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated, and early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent progression of the disease.
Testicular neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the testicles, which are located inside the scrotum. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Testicular neoplasms can affect men of all ages, but they are more common in younger men between the ages of 20 and 35.
Types of Testicular Neoplasms:
There are several types of testicular neoplasms, including:
1. Seminoma: This is a type of malignant tumor that develops from immature cells in the testicles. It is the most common type of testicular cancer and tends to grow slowly.
2. Non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT): These are malignant tumors that develop from immature cells in the testicles, but they do not have the characteristic features of seminoma. They can be either heterologous (containing different types of cells) or homologous (containing only one type of cell).
3. Leydig cell tumors: These are rare malignant tumors that develop in the Leydig cells, which produce testosterone in the testicles.
4. Sertoli cell tumors: These are rare malignant tumors that develop in the Sertoli cells, which support the development of sperm in the testicles.
5. Testicular metastasectomy: This is a procedure to remove cancer that has spread to the testicles from another part of the body, such as the lungs or liver.
Causes and Risk Factors:
The exact cause of testicular neoplasms is not known, but there are several risk factors that have been linked to an increased risk of developing these tumors. These include:
1. Undescended testicles (cryptorchidism): This condition occurs when the testicles do not descend into the scrotum during fetal development.
2. Family history: Men with a family history of testicular cancer are at an increased risk of developing these tumors.
3. Previous radiation exposure: Men who have had radiation therapy to the pelvic area, especially during childhood or adolescence, have an increased risk of developing testicular neoplasms.
4. Genetic mutations: Certain genetic mutations, such as those associated with familial testicular cancer syndrome, can increase the risk of developing testicular neoplasms.
5. Infertility: Men who are infertile may have an increased risk of developing testicular cancer.
The symptoms of testicular neoplasms can vary depending on the type and location of the tumor. Some common symptoms include:
1. A lump or swelling in the testicle
2. Pain or discomfort in the testicle or scrotum
3. Enlargement of the testicle
4. Abnormality in the size or shape of the testicle
5. Pain during ejaculation
6. Difficulty urinating or painful urination
7. Breast tenderness or enlargement
8. Lower back pain
10. Weight loss
The diagnosis of testicular neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy.
1. Physical examination: A doctor will perform a thorough physical examination of the testicles, including checking for any abnormalities in size, shape, or tenderness.
2. Imaging studies: Imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scans, or MRI may be used to help identify the location and extent of the tumor.
3. Biopsy: A biopsy is a procedure in which a small sample of tissue is removed from the testicle and examined under a microscope for cancer cells.
4. Blood tests: Blood tests may be performed to check for elevated levels of certain substances that can indicate the presence of cancer.
The treatment of testicular neoplasms depends on the type, location, and stage of the tumor. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: Surgery is often the first line of treatment for testicular neoplasms. The goal of surgery is to remove the tumor and any affected tissue.
2. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with surgery or radiation therapy to treat more advanced cancers.
3. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells. It may be used in combination with surgery or chemotherapy.
4. Surveillance: Surveillance is a close monitoring of the patient's condition, including regular check-ups and imaging studies, to detect any recurrences of the tumor.
The prognosis for testicular neoplasms depends on the type, location, and stage of the tumor. In general, the earlier the cancer is detected and treated, the better the prognosis. Some common types of testicular neoplasms have a good prognosis, while others are more aggressive and may have a poorer prognosis if not treated promptly.
Some complications of testicular neoplasms include:
1. Recurrence: The cancer can recur in the testicle or spread to other parts of the body.
2. Spread to other parts of the body: Testicular cancer can spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs, liver, or brain.
3. Infertility: Some treatments for testicular cancer, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, can cause infertility.
4. Hormone imbalance: Some types of testicular cancer can disrupt hormone levels, leading to symptoms such as breast enlargement or low sex drive.
5. Chronic pain: Some men may experience chronic pain in the testicle or scrotum after treatment for testicular cancer.
There are no specific lifestyle changes that can prevent testicular neoplasms, but some general healthy habits can help reduce the risk of developing these types of tumors. These include:
1. Maintaining a healthy weight and diet
2. Getting regular exercise
3. Limiting alcohol consumption
4. Avoiding smoking and recreational drugs
5. Protecting the testicles from injury or trauma
There is no standard screening test for testicular neoplasms, but men can perform a self-exam to check for any abnormalities in their testicles. This involves gently feeling the testicles for any lumps or unusual texture. Men with a family history of testicular cancer should talk to their doctor about whether they should start screening earlier and more frequently.
The treatment of testicular neoplasms depends on the type, stage, and location of the tumor. Some common treatments include:
1. Surgery: This involves removing the affected testicle or tumor.
2. Chemotherapy: This involves using drugs to kill cancer cells.
3. Radiation therapy: This involves using high-energy rays to kill cancer cells.
4. Hormone therapy: This involves taking medications to alter hormone levels and slow the growth of cancer cells.
5. Clinical trials: These involve testing new treatments or combination of treatments for testicular neoplasms.
The prognosis for testicular neoplasms varies depending on the type, stage, and location of the tumor. In general, the earlier the cancer is detected and treated, the better the prognosis. For example, seminoma has a high cure rate with current treatments, while non-seminomatous germ cell tumors have a lower cure rate but can still be effectively treated. Lymphoma and metastatic testicular cancer have a poorer prognosis and require aggressive treatment.
There are no specific lifestyle changes that can prevent testicular neoplasms, but some risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption can be reduced to lower the risk of developing these tumors. Maintaining a healthy diet, regular exercise, and avoiding exposure to harmful chemicals can also help improve overall health and well-being.
Testicular neoplasms can have several complications, including:
1. Infertility: Some treatments for testicular cancer, such as surgery or chemotherapy, can cause infertility.
2. Pain: Testicular cancer can cause pain in the scrotum, groin, or abdomen.
3. Swelling: Testicular cancer can cause swelling in the scrotum or groin.
4. Hormonal imbalance: Some testicular tumors can produce hormones that can cause an imbalance in the body's hormone levels.
5. Recurrence: Testicular cancer can recur after treatment, and regular follow-up is necessary to detect any signs of recurrence early.
6. Late effects of treatment: Some treatments for testicular cancer, such as chemotherapy, can have long-term effects on the body, including infertility, heart problems, and bone marrow suppression.
7. Metastasis: Testicular cancer can spread to other parts of the body, including the lungs, liver, and bones, which can be life-threatening.
There is no specific prevention for testicular neoplasms, but some risk factors such as undescended testes, family history, and exposure to certain chemicals can be reduced to lower the risk of developing these tumors. Regular self-examination and early detection are crucial in improving outcomes for patients with testicular cancer.
Testicular neoplasms are a rare but potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment. Early detection through regular self-examination and follow-up can improve outcomes, while awareness of risk factors and symptoms is essential in reducing the burden of this disease. A multidisciplinary approach involving urologists, radiologists, pathologists, and oncologists is necessary for optimal management of patients with testicular neoplasms.
DLBCL is characterized by the rapid growth of malignant B cells in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. These cells can also spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. The disease is often aggressive and can progress quickly without treatment.
The symptoms of DLBCL vary depending on the location and extent of the disease, but they may include:
* Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, underarm, or groin
* Night sweats
* Weight loss
* Abdominal pain or discomfort
The diagnosis of DLBCL is based on a combination of physical examination findings, imaging studies (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsy results. Treatment typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and in some cases, immunotherapy or targeted therapy. The prognosis for DLBCL has improved significantly over the past few decades, with overall survival rates ranging from 60% to 80%, depending on the stage and other factors.
Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:
1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.
Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:
1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.
Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.
Examples of neoplasms, germ cell and embryonal include:
1. Testicular cancer: This type of cancer develops in the cells of the testes and is most common in young men between the ages of 20 and 35.
2. Ovarian cancer: This type of cancer develops in the cells of the ovaries and is most common in older women.
3. Embryonal carcinoma: This type of cancer develops in the cells that form the embryo during fetal development. It is rare and tends to affect children and young adults.
4. Teratocarcinoma: This type of cancer develops in the cells that form the placenta during pregnancy. It is rare and tends to affect women who have abnormal pregnancies.
Neoplasms, germ cell and embryonal are typically treated with surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, depending on the location and severity of the cancer. The prognosis for these types of cancers is generally good if they are detected early and treated appropriately. However, if they are not diagnosed and treated promptly, they can spread to other parts of the body and be more difficult to treat.
There are several types of ischemia, including:
1. Myocardial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the heart muscle, which can lead to chest pain or a heart attack.
2. Cerebral ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the brain, which can lead to stroke or cognitive impairment.
3. Peripheral arterial ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the legs and arms.
4. Renal ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the kidneys.
5. Hepatic ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the liver.
Ischemia can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including electrocardiograms (ECGs), stress tests, and imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans. Treatment for ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical interventions.
Pre-B ALL is characterized by the abnormal growth of immature white blood cells called B lymphocytes. These cells are produced in the bone marrow and are normally present in the blood. In Pre-B ALL, the abnormal B cells accumulate in the bone marrow, blood, and other organs, crowding out normal cells and causing a variety of symptoms.
The symptoms of Pre-B ALL can vary depending on the individual patient, but may include:
* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Frequent infections
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Enlarged liver or spleen
* Bone pain
* Confusion or seizures (in severe cases)
Pre-B ALL is most commonly diagnosed in children, but it can also occur in adults. Treatment typically involves a combination of chemotherapy and sometimes bone marrow transplantation. The prognosis for Pre-B ALL is generally good, especially in children, with a high survival rate if treated promptly and effectively. However, the cancer can be more difficult to treat in adults, and the prognosis may be less favorable.
Overall, Pre-B ALL is a rare and aggressive form of leukemia that requires prompt and specialized treatment to improve outcomes for patients.
Source: National Cancer Institute (www.cancer.gov)
The above definition is given by the National Cancer Institute, which is an authoritative source of information on cancer and lymphoma. It provides a concise overview of follicular lymphoma, including its characteristics, diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis. The definition includes key terms such as "slow-growing," "B cells," "lymph nodes," and "five-year survival rate," which are important to understand when discussing this type of cancer.
Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.
Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.
In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.
There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:
1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)
The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
8. Weight loss
If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:
1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)
HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.
Prevention methods for HIV infection include:
1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.
It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.
White blood cells are an important part of the immune system, and they help to fight off infections and diseases. A low number of white blood cells can make a person more susceptible to infections and other health problems.
There are several different types of leukopenia, including:
* Severe congenital neutropenia: This is a rare genetic disorder that causes a severe decrease in the number of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell.
* Chronic granulomatous disease: This is a genetic disorder that affects the production of white blood cells and can cause recurring infections.
* Autoimmune disorders: These are conditions where the immune system mistakenly attacks its own cells, including white blood cells. Examples include lupus and rheumatoid arthritis.
* Bone marrow failure: This is a condition where the bone marrow does not produce enough white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets.
Symptoms of leukopenia can include recurring infections, fever, fatigue, and weight loss. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include antibiotics, immunoglobulin replacement therapy, or bone marrow transplantation.
The prognosis for mantle-cell lymphoma is generally poor, with a five-year survival rate of approximately 40%. Treatment options include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and autologous stem-cell transplantation. The disease often recurs after initial therapy, and subsequent treatments may be less effective.
Mantle-cell lymphoma can be difficult to distinguish from other types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, such as follicular lymphoma or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, and a correct diagnosis is important for determining appropriate treatment.
Slide: Mantle Cell Lymphoma (Image courtesy of Nephron/Wikimedia Commons)
Symptoms of neutropenia may include recurring infections, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. The diagnosis is typically made through a blood test that measures the number of neutrophils in the blood.
Treatment options for neutropenia depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, supportive care to manage symptoms, and in severe cases, bone marrow transplantation or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy to increase neutrophil production.
Types of Infection:
1. Bacterial Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful bacteria in the body. Examples include pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections.
2. Viral Infections: These are caused by the presence of harmful viruses in the body. Examples include the common cold, flu, and HIV/AIDS.
3. Fungal Infections: These are caused by the presence of fungi in the body. Examples include athlete's foot, ringworm, and candidiasis.
4. Parasitic Infections: These are caused by the presence of parasites in the body. Examples include malaria, giardiasis, and toxoplasmosis.
Symptoms of Infection:
4. Muscle aches
5. Skin rashes or lesions
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Sore throat
Treatment of Infection:
1. Antibiotics: These are used to treat bacterial infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of bacteria.
2. Antiviral medications: These are used to treat viral infections and work by interfering with the replication of viruses.
3. Fungicides: These are used to treat fungal infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of fungi.
4. Anti-parasitic medications: These are used to treat parasitic infections and work by killing or stopping the growth of parasites.
5. Supportive care: This includes fluids, nutritional supplements, and pain management to help the body recover from the infection.
Prevention of Infection:
1. Hand washing: Regular hand washing is one of the most effective ways to prevent the spread of infection.
2. Vaccination: Getting vaccinated against specific infections can help prevent them.
3. Safe sex practices: Using condoms and other safe sex practices can help prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections.
4. Food safety: Properly storing and preparing food can help prevent the spread of foodborne illnesses.
5. Infection control measures: Healthcare providers use infection control measures such as wearing gloves, masks, and gowns to prevent the spread of infections in healthcare settings.
AML is a fast-growing and aggressive form of leukemia that can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream. It is most commonly seen in adults over the age of 60, but it can also occur in children.
There are several subtypes of AML, including:
1. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of a specific genetic abnormality called the PML-RARA fusion gene. It is usually responsive to treatment with chemotherapy and has a good prognosis.
2. Acute myeloid leukemia, not otherwise specified (NOS): This is the most common subtype of AML and does not have any specific genetic abnormalities. It can be more difficult to treat and has a poorer prognosis than other subtypes.
3. Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML): This is a subtype of AML that is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called monocytes in the blood and bone marrow. It can progress slowly over time and may require ongoing treatment.
4. Juvenile myeloid leukemia (JMML): This is a rare subtype of AML that occurs in children under the age of 18. It is characterized by the presence of too many immature white blood cells called blasts in the blood and bone marrow.
The symptoms of AML can vary depending on the subtype and the severity of the disease, but they may include:
* Shortness of breath
* Pale skin
* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Swollen lymph nodes, liver, or spleen
* Bone pain
* Confusion or seizures
AML is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
1. Complete blood count (CBC): This test measures the number and types of cells in the blood, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.
2. Bone marrow biopsy: This test involves removing a small sample of bone marrow tissue from the hipbone or breastbone to examine under a microscope for signs of leukemia cells.
3. Genetic testing: This test can help identify specific genetic abnormalities that are associated with AML.
4. Immunophenotyping: This test uses antibodies to identify the surface proteins on leukemia cells, which can help diagnose the subtype of AML.
5. Cytogenetics: This test involves staining the bone marrow cells with dyes to look for specific changes in the chromosomes that are associated with AML.
Treatment for AML typically involves a combination of chemotherapy, targeted therapy, and in some cases, bone marrow transplantation. The specific treatment plan will depend on the subtype of AML, the patient's age and overall health, and other factors. Some common treatments for AML include:
1. Chemotherapy: This involves using drugs to kill cancer cells. The most commonly used chemotherapy drugs for AML are cytarabine (Ara-C) and anthracyclines such as daunorubicin (DaunoXome) and idarubicin (Idamycin).
2. Targeted therapy: This involves using drugs that specifically target the genetic abnormalities that are causing the cancer. Examples of targeted therapies used for AML include midostaurin (Rydapt) and gilteritinib (Xospata).
3. Bone marrow transplantation: This involves replacing the diseased bone marrow with healthy bone marrow from a donor. This is typically done after high-dose chemotherapy to destroy the cancer cells.
4. Supportive care: This includes treatments to manage symptoms and side effects of the disease and its treatment, such as anemia, infection, and bleeding. Examples of supportive care for AML include blood transfusions, antibiotics, and platelet transfusions.
5. Clinical trials: These are research studies that involve testing new treatments for AML. Participating in a clinical trial may give patients access to innovative therapies that are not yet widely available.
It's important to note that the treatment plan for AML is highly individualized, and the specific treatments used will depend on the patient's age, overall health, and other factors. Patients should work closely with their healthcare team to determine the best course of treatment for their specific needs.
Benign ovarian neoplasms include:
1. Serous cystadenoma: A fluid-filled sac that develops on the surface of the ovary.
2. Mucinous cystadenoma: A tumor that is filled with mucin, a type of protein.
3. Endometrioid tumors: Tumors that are similar to endometrial tissue (the lining of the uterus).
4. Theca cell tumors: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary called theca cells.
Malignant ovarian neoplasms include:
1. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC): The most common type of ovarian cancer, which arises from the surface epithelium of the ovary.
2. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that develop from germ cells, which are the cells that give rise to eggs.
3. Stromal sarcomas: Tumors that develop in the supportive tissue of the ovary.
Ovarian neoplasms can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, and abdominal swelling. They can also be detected through pelvic examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound and CT scan, and biopsy. Treatment options for ovarian neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the tumor, and may include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.
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NIH Clinical Center Search the Studies: Study Number, Study Title
- Defining the index lesion for potential salvage partial or hemi-gland ablation after radiation therapy for localized prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
- Does salvage radiation therapy change the biology of recurrent prostate cancer based on PSA doubling times? (elsevierpure.com)
- Objective: To investigate whether salvage radiation therapy (SRT) may promote prostate cancer (PCa) transformation to more aggressive phenotypes. (elsevierpure.com)
- Dive into the research topics of 'Does salvage radiation therapy change the biology of recurrent prostate cancer based on PSA doubling times? (elsevierpure.com)
- Brachytherapy candidates with a significant risk of extraprostatic extension should be treated with supplemental intensity-modulated radiation therapy. (medscape.com)
- Interest in brachytherapy waned in the early 1980s because of these results, the advent of more advanced external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) equipment, and the development of the nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy. (medscape.com)
- Along with radical prostatectomy , cryotherapy , and EBRT (also referred to as intensity-modulated radiation therapy [ IMRT ]), interstitial brachytherapy is a potentially curative treatment for localized prostate cancer. (medscape.com)
- This is a dose-escalation study that will assess the safety and determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of mibefradil dihydrochloride, a partially selective T-type calcium channel blocker, combined with hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) in subjects with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Radiation therapy (RT) consists of 5 fractions of 600 centigray (cGy) each, delivered over 2 consecutive weeks for a total dose of 3,000 cGy, using stereotactic, intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- This will be given concurrently with hypofractionated radiation therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. (nih.gov)
- In this review, we will discuss the most recent published evidence on salvage intravesical therapy with an emphasis on a more in-depth report of our therapeutic strategy with sequential gemcitabine and docetaxel intravesical therapy for this treatment-refractory population. (urotoday.com)
- Rates of successful treatment (complete cure and partial response) were 79% in 19 subjects with zygomycosis refractory to standard therapy and 80% in 5 subjects with intolerance to standard therapy. (qxmd.com)
- Salvage therapy for castration-refractory prostate cancer resistant to docetaxel]. (bvsalud.org)
- 17. R-ESHAP as salvage therapy for patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: the influence of prior exposure to rituximab on outcome. (nih.gov)
- 32. Cisplatin and ifosfamide with either vinblastine or etoposide as salvage therapy for refractory or relapsing germ cell tumor patients: the Institut Gustave Roussy experience. (nih.gov)
- These results suggest ECMO may be an important salvage therapy for individuals with refractory asthma exacerbations with respiratory failure. (chestnet.org)
- liso-cel), a CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy, for the treatment of adult patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), high grade B-cell lymphoma (HGBCL), primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) and follicular lymphoma grade 3B (FL3B), who relapsed within 12 months from completion of, or are refractory to, first-line chemoimmunotherapy. (yahoo.com)
- With Breyanzi, people in Europe living with relapsed or refractory DLBCL now have a differentiated CAR T cell therapy option earlier in the treatment paradigm that provides long-term clinical benefit,' said Anne Kerber, senior vice president, head of Cell Therapy Development, Bristol Myers Squibb. (yahoo.com)
- In DLBCL, the most common form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, up to 40% of patients have disease that is refractory to or relapses following initial therapy. (yahoo.com)
- 28. [Results of chemotherapy and salvage surgery for advanced testicular cancer]. (nih.gov)
- 38. Early salvage therapy for germ cell cancer using high dose chemotherapy with autologous bone marrow support. (nih.gov)
- The standard therapy for these patients consists of intensive salvage immunochemotherapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and HSCT for those whose disease responds to the salvage therapy and are eligible for transplant. (yahoo.com)
- Patients with high-grade muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) receive intravesical therapy with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as the well-established standard-of-care. (urotoday.com)
- However, even with prompt induction of intravesical therapy, approximately 40 % of patients will recur within 2 years. (urotoday.com)
- For patients who fail BCG, options include radical cystectomy, repeat BCG therapy, or alternative intravesical salvage therapy. (urotoday.com)
- This report provides the results from the first 24 patients with active zygomycosis who were enrolled in two open-label, nonrandomized, multicentered compassionate trials that evaluated oral posaconazole as salvage therapy for invasive fungal infections. (qxmd.com)
- Posaconazole appears promising as an oral therapy for zygomycosis in patients who receive required surgery and control their underlying illness. (qxmd.com)
- Among 45 patients with CRPC treated with docetaxel (70-75 mg/m2) every 3 to 4 weeks at Hamamatsu University Hospital from January 2004 to July 2012, 19 patients underwent salvage treatments . (bvsalud.org)
- The reasons why 14 patients moved to salvage treatments after DTX were progressive disease in 12 patients and adverse events in 2. (bvsalud.org)
- All salvage treatments without grade 4 toxicities described in this study may be acceptable in the patients with CRPC progressing after docetaxel although the effect would be limited. (bvsalud.org)
- The best management strategy for HIV patients who fail to respond to first-line therapy for Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia is currently unclear. (nih.gov)
- The researchers performed a single-center retrospective analysis of RRMM patients who received any BCMA CAR-T therapy between January 2017 and June 2022, including patients treated in clinical trials and those who received standard-of-care idecabtagene vicleucel or ciltacabtagene autoleucel. (ucsf.edu)
- Despite achieving a deep hematologic response after therapy, systemic light-chain amyloidosis (AL) patients may not attain an organ response, possibly due to a persistent plasma cell clone below the detection threshold of traditional serological methods. (ucsf.edu)
- 16. High rate of long-term survival for high-risk lymphoma patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as consolidation or salvage therapy. (nih.gov)
- Patients were stratified by investigational site and primary therapy. (urologytimes.com)
- It is unclear if inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy can reduce all-cause mortality in patients or subgroups of patients with COPD. (chestnet.org)
- They found that ICSs, particularly when included as triple therapy, were associated with a reduction in all-cause mortality among patients with COPD (OR 0.73). (chestnet.org)
- This marks the approval of our third indication in Europe for our CAR T cell therapy portfolio, underscoring our continued drive to deliver the promise of cell therapy with curative potential for more patients. (yahoo.com)
- With Breyanzi, the majority (73.9%) of patients achieved a CR compared to less than half (43.5%) of those who were treated with standard therapy. (yahoo.com)
- Patients resistant to a cisplatin-based combination may receive VAC or paclitaxel/gemcitabine or gemcitabine/oxaliplatin as salvage therapy. (medscape.com)
- A 73.2% of patients benefited from targeted therapy. (who.int)
- The mean total costs of drugs was $22 256 in patients with standard therapy alone whereas the cost increased to $80 396 after the addition of targeted therapy. (who.int)
- This study is the first to show the clinical effectiveness and costs of targeted therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. (who.int)
- Salvage partial gland ablation (sPGA) has been proposed to treat some localized radiorecurrent prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
- There has been a lot of conversation about the role of and the use of multi-parametric MRIs in the initial diagnostic stages of prostate cancer, but little is known about its potential clinical application in the use of early salvage radiotherapy after failed radical prostatectomy. (malecare.org)
- It would be of great advantage to us if we were able to improve the early detection of responders to salvage external beam radiotherapy (RT) after failed radical prostatectomy (RP). (malecare.org)
- Subgroup analysis of those who had PD after BCMA CAR-T was performed to assess overall survival (OS) from time of PD and types of salvage regimens utilized including ORR and treatment duration for subsequent line therapies. (ucsf.edu)
- The median age and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level at starting salvage treatments was 71 years (range 45 to 79) and 241.1 ng/mL (range 3.06 to 1,643.0), respectively. (bvsalud.org)
- All pts relapsed after a median of 2 (range 1-4) prior therapies and all (100%) pts received prior anthracycline. (confex.com)
- Results of the primary analysis, with a median follow-up of 17.5 months were consistent with the interim analysis, with median EFS not reached for Breyanzi (95% CI: 9.5-NR) vs. 2.4 months for standard therapy (95% CI: 2.2-4.9). (yahoo.com)
Diffuse large B-1
- 8. High-dose therapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for follicular lymphoma undergoing transformation to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (nih.gov)
- Starting with our Asthma content area, controlled studies showing the outcomes of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as salvage therapy for asthma exacerbations with respiratory failure have not been performed. (chestnet.org)
- It is essential to direct efforts in patient-caregiver education to allow early recognition and management of all diabetic foot problems and to build integrated pathways of care that facilitate timely access to limb salvage procedures. (japmaonline.org)
- BM with evidence of persistent leukemia 5-10% blasts post induction/salvage therapy. (nih.gov)
- At that time, therapy was interrupted due to the worsening of neutropenia. (biomedcentral.com)
- To evaluate the ability of MRI and prostate biopsy characteristics to identify an index lesion suitable for sPGA and validate this selection using detailed tumor maps created from whole-mount slides from salvage radical prostatectomy (sRP) specimens. (nih.gov)
- Larger, prospective studies are required to evaluate both the role of MRI and clinical criteria in guiding focal salvage therapy and the effectiveness of this modality for radiorecurrent prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
- For metastatic colorectal cancer a series of novel therapies has emerged during the last decade but their use in routine clinical practice and their costs are not well documented. (who.int)
- Salvage treatments include DTX (30 mg/m2) + cisplatin (CDDP) (70 mg/m2)/ carboplatin (Area under the curve = 4), etoposide + CDDP, paclitaxel + CDDP, cyclophosphamide , S-l, tegaful- uracil . (bvsalud.org)
- Finally, they can lead to early detection of recurrence, and timely implementation of salvage therapy. (roswellpark.org)
- In this issue, Chen and colleagues report the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine if inhaled therapy containing ICSs reduces all-cause mortality. (chestnet.org)
- What must be developed is a type of "salvage therapy" that has the potential to reverse, or at least dramatically lessen, the aggressive natural history of silicosis that develops over relatively short time periods. (cdc.gov)
- Limb salvage efforts may include aggressive therapy such as revascularization procedures and advanced wound-healing modalities. (japmaonline.org)
- That was likely confounding the results given that we now have more effective salvage therapies. (ecancer.org)
- In this issue we feature the first part of the lecture by Heiko Schöder, MD, MBA, Chief of the Molecular Imaging and Therapy Service in the Department of Radiology at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and professor of radiology at Weill Cornell Medical College (both in New York, NY), who spoke on oncology and therapy topics at the meeting. (snmjournals.org)
- Standard therapy to control graft rejection generally involves a combination of corticosteroids, a calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine or tacrolimus), and an antiproliferative agent. (medscape.com)
- Targeted therapy associated to standard therapy is highly prevalent in Lebanon in metastatic disease and the associated medical cost substantial. (who.int)
- The objective of this study was to describe the efficacy of zidovudine as modern day salvage antiretroviral therapy. (nih.gov)
- Liver transplantation has become accepted therapy for several causes of irreversible liver disease. (medscape.com)
- Application and success of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has continued to grow, and liver transplantation has become accepted therapy for several causes of irreversible liver disease. (medscape.com)
- Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) still represents a crucial concern in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) and the use of antiviral therapy are limited by side effects and the selection of viral mutations conferring antiviral drug resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
- This may indicate a general trend, part of the growing interest in nuclear medicine therapies that will be reflected in this lecture. (snmjournals.org)