Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type III: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I: A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in NERVE TISSUE.Nitrogen Oxides: Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Salt Gland: A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)omega-N-Methylarginine: A competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Amino Acid Oxidoreductases: A class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions of amino acids.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)S-Nitroso-N-Acetylpenicillamine: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Nitroso CompoundsPenicillamine: 3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ferrosoferric Oxide: Iron (II,III) oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Ferric Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.Molsidomine: A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.S-Nitrosoglutathione: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.CitrullineAluminum Oxide: An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)S-Nitrosothiols: A group of organic sulfur-containing nitrites, alkyl thionitrites. S-Nitrosothiols include compounds such as S-NITROSO-N-ACETYLPENICILLAMINE and S-NITROSOGLUTATHIONE.Salt-Tolerant Plants: Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Biopterin: A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Magnetite Nanoparticles: Synthesized magnetic particles under 100 nanometers possessing many biomedical applications including DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and CONTRAST AGENTS. The particles are usually coated with a variety of polymeric compounds.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.NADPH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.1.IndazolesGuanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.OxadiazolesPeroxynitrous Acid: A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.4-Hydroxyaminoquinoline-1-oxide: A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a reduction product of 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE. It binds with nucleic acids and inactivates both bacteria and bacteriophage.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Exhalation: The act of BREATHING out.Mice, Inbred C57BLOxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Triazenes: Compounds with three contiguous nitrogen atoms in linear format, H2N-N=NH, and hydrocarbyl derivatives.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.HydrazinesReactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Tetrazolium Salts: Quaternary salts derived from tetrazoles. They are used in tests to distinguish between reducing sugars and simple aldehydes, for detection of dehydrogenase in tissues, cells, and bacteria, for determination of corticosteroids, and in color photography. (From Mall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed, p455)Taurodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.Graphite: An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Arginase: A ureahydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of arginine or canavanine to yield L-ornithine (ORNITHINE) and urea. Deficiency of this enzyme causes HYPERARGININEMIA. EC 3.5.3.1.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cyclic N-Oxides: Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.AmidinesEndothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Rats, Inbred Dahl: Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Desoxycorticosterone: A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.Manganese Compounds: Inorganic chemicals that contain manganese as an integral part of the molecule.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.QuinoxalinesAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.DiethylaminesSolubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Cerium: An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Ce, atomic number 58, and atomic weight 140.12. Cerium is a malleable metal used in industrial applications.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.Reactive Nitrogen Species: Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.Glycocholic Acid: The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.Nitroquinolines: Quinolines substituted in any position by one or more nitro groups.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor (MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic adjuvants.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Tin Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tin as an integral part of the molecule.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Microcirculation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Chromium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chromium as an integral part of the molecule.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Here it is presumably formed from nitrous oxide (itself formed by autoxidation of nitric oxide) and methanol. Methyl nitrite is ... With inorganic bases it forms explosive salts. It forms explosive mixtures with air. It is used as a rocket propellant, a ... an oxidizing agent and a heat-sensitive explosive; its sensitivity increases in presence of metal oxides. ...
The saturation of the activated carbon with iodine - improves the capture of mercury; saturation of metal salts - improves the ... These materials (activated carbon, aluminium oxide etc.) have a large specific surface area and can absorb gases. Typically, ... For example, the authors describe the ability of copper salts to form complex compounds with ammonia. Creating strong links ... capture of ammonia; saturation metal oxides - improves capture acid gases. The ability of some harmful gases to react ...
These salts serve as initiators for polymerization of acrylates and styrene. At one time, peroxyborates were used in detergents ... One example is bis(trimethylsilyl) peroxide (Me3SiOOSiMe3). Phosphorus oxides form a number of peroxides, e.g. "P2O6". Harald ... These salts have been largely replaced by peroxycarbonates. Many peroxides are not commercially valuable but are of academic ...
The best known and largest iron oxide deposit in Afghanistan is located at Hajigak in Bamyan Province. The deposit itself ... Nimroz Province: Godzareh (Gaudi Zireh) lithium salts. Nuristan Province: Nuristan pegmatites and gemstones. Panjshir Province ... Bamyan Province: Hajigak Mine (iron oxide). Daykundi Province: tin and tungsten Farah Province in the west: copper, lithium; ... salt, sulfur, talc, and zinc, among many other minerals. Gemstones include high-quality emerald, lapis lazuli, red garnet and ...
Metatitanic acid (H 2TiO 3), Orthotitanic acid (H 4TiO 4). It is described as a white salt-like powder under "TiO3·2.16H2O." ... Ehrlich, P. (1963). "Titanium(IV) Oxide Hydrate TiO2·nH2O". In Brauer, G. Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry. 1 (2nd ... Leonard Dobbin, Hugh Marshall (1904). Salts and their reactions: A class-book of practical chemistry. University of Edinburgh. ...
Most are prepared from salts of perrhenate and related binary oxides. The halides, e.g., ReCl5 are also useful precursors as ... A noteworthy feature of organorhenium chemistry is the coexistence of oxide and organic ligands in the same coordination sphere ... W. A. Herrmann and F. E. Kuhn (1997). "Organorhenium Oxides". Acc. Chem. Res. 30 (4): 169-180. doi:10.1021/ar9601398. Schmidt, ... Notable derivatives include the electron-precise oxide (C5Me5)ReO3 and (C5H5)2Re2(CO)4. Rhenium forms a variety of alkyl and ...
... (synonyms: 1,3-oxazolium-5-oxide; 1,3-oxazolium-5-olate; anhydro-5-hydroxy-1,3-oxazolium hydroxide; 5-hydroxy-1,3- ... oxazolium hydroxide, inner salt; oxido-oxazolium) is a mesoionic heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound. The first preparation ...
Salts and oxides. See also: Category:Sodium compounds.. Structure of sodium chloride, showing octahedral coordination around Na ... Direct precipitation of sodium salts from aqueous solutions is rare because sodium salts typically have a high affinity for ... and rock salt (NaCl). Many salts of sodium are highly water-soluble: sodium ions have been leached by the action of water from ... Table Salt Conversion. Traditionaloven.com. Retrieved on 11 November 2015. *^ a b "Use the Nutrition Facts Label to Reduce Your ...
The general reaction of oxide removal is: Metal oxide + Acid → Salt + Water Salts are ionic in nature and can cause problems ... for example, tin-lead solder attaches very well to copper, but poorly to the various oxides of copper, which form quickly at ... Salts of mineral acids with amines are also used as aggressive activators. Aggressive fluxes typically facilitate corrosion, ... The surface of the tin-based solder is coated predominantly with tin oxides; even in alloys the surface layer tends to become ...
Professional inks may be made from iron oxides (rust), metal salts, plastics. Homemade or traditional tattoo inks may be made ... Metal oxides used include ferrocyanide and ferricyanide (yellow, red, green, blue). Organic chemicals used include azo- ...
1990). Physical properties of superconducting oxides and radical cation salts (DPhil thesis). University of Oxford. OCLC ...
Many molybdenum oxides are used as heterogeneous catalysts, e.g. for oxidations. Molybdic acid and its salts are used to make ... The salts of molybdic acid are called molybdates. They arise by adding base to solutions of molybdic acid. ...
He called the oxide of the soluble salt lanthana. It took him three more years to separate the lanthana further into didymia ... In 1803 they obtained a white oxide and called it ceria. Martin Heinrich Klaproth independently discovered the same oxide and ... The price of dysprosium oxide was 994 USD/kg in 2011, but dropped to 265 USD/kg by 2014. On August 29, 2014, the WTO ruled that ... The research team found a mud layer 2 to 4 meters beneath the seabed with concentrations of up to 0.66% rare-earth oxides. A ...
Furoxan Furoxan may be formed by dimerization of nitrile oxides Olofson, R. A.; Michelman, J. S. (1965). "Furazan*,1,2". The ... Like many other furazans, diaminofurazan forms stable complexes with copper(II) salts. ...
De Groot, A.P; Feron, V.J; Til, H.P (1973). "Short-term toxicity studies on some salts and oxides of tin in rats". Food and ... Cases of poisoning from tin metal, its oxides, and its salts are "almost unknown"; on the other hand certain organotin ...
Other oxides include Re2O5, ReO2, and Re2O3. The sulfides are ReS2 and Re2S7. Perrhenate salts can be converted to ... Rhenium(VII) oxide and perrhenic acid readily dissolve in water; they are leached from flue dusts and gasses and extracted by ... Soluble salts, such as the rhenium halides or perrhenates, could be hazardous due to elements other than rhenium or due to ... The perrhenate had an LD50 value of 2800 mg/kg after seven days (this is very low toxicity, similar to that of table salt) and ...
... and are considered relatives of phosphine oxides. They also are derived from phosphonium salts, but by deprotonation not ... Phosphine oxides (designation δ3λ3) have the general structure R3P=O with formal oxidation state V. Phosphine oxides form ... The P=O bond is very polar with a dipole moment of 4.51 D for triphenylphosphine oxide. Compounds related to phosphine oxides ... Phosphines are easily oxidized to the corresponding phosphine oxides, whereas amine oxides are less readily generated. In part ...
This product is present in many commercial table salts as well as dried milk, egg mixes, sugar products, flours and spices. In ... "Fertilizer compositions containing alkylene oxide adduct anticaking agents". Google.com. Retrieved 2010-06-17. "Talc ... Calcium silicate (CaSiO3), a commonly used anti-caking agent, added to e.g. table salt, absorbs both water and oil. Anticaking ... Ferrocyanides are used for table salt. The following anticaking agents are listed in order by their number in the Codex ...
Such charge-transfer salts are sometimes called Bechgaard salts. TCNE hydrolyzes in moist air to give hydrogen cyanide and ... Collective Volume, 4, p. 877 Linn, W. J. (1973). "Tetracyanoethylene Oxide". Organic Syntheses. ; Collective Volume, 5, p. 1007 ... Thus, treatment of TCNE with iodide salts gives the radical anion: C2(CN)4 + I− → [C2(CN)4]− + ​1⁄2 I2 Because of its planarity ...
... is a weak acid, forming hydroperoxide or peroxide salts with many metals. It also converts metal oxides into ... An acid-base adduct with triphenylphosphine oxide is a useful "carrier" for H 2O 2 in some reactions. The peroxide anion is a ... Hydrogen peroxide can be mixed with baking soda and salt to make a home-made toothpaste. Hydrogen peroxide may be used to treat ... The bleaching effect of peroxides and their salts on natural dyes became known around that time, but early attempts of ...
Cases of poisoning from tin metal, its oxides, and its salts are almost unknown. On the other hand, certain organotin compounds ... Tributyltin oxide is used as a wood preservative. Tributyltin was used as additive for ship paint to prevent growth of marine ... A protective oxide (passivation) layer prevents further oxidation, the same that forms on pewter and other tin alloys. Tin acts ... The oxides of indium and tin are electrically conductive and transparent, and are used to make transparent electrically ...
Not only chlorides were used; beryllium, aluminium and silicon were obtained from the salts and oxides of these elements. In ... This is the second most common cause of kidney stones, the first being uric acid and its ammonium salt. There are several ... For instance, when Marcet discovered a new constituent of kidney stones, xanthic oxide, he sent it to Prout for analysis. Prout ... and excessive inorganic salts causing sediment on which the stone could nucleate. In 1842, Bird became the first to describe ...
The theory held that all molecules are salts composed of basic and acidic oxides. The compound potassium sulphate for example ... Berzelius based his theory on investigations he conducted in collaboration with Wilhelm Hisinger on certain salts with the ... was viewed as a salt of K2O and SO3. ...
They are either conventional salts or are Ln(III) "electride"-like salts. The simple salts include YbI2, EuI2, and SmI2. The ... Glass containing holmium oxide and holmium oxide solutions (usually in perchloric acid) have sharp optical absorption peaks in ... Europium and ytterbium form salt-like monoxides, EuO and YbO, which have a rock salt structure. EuO is ferromagnetic at low ... Europium and ytterbium form salt like compounds with Eu2+ and Yb2+, for example the salt like dihydrides. Both europium and ...
Examples are Krogmann's salt and Magnus's green salt. Inorganic polymers are formed, like organic polymers, by: Step-growth ... Phosphorus-oxygen and boron-oxide polymers include the polyphosphates and polyborates. Inorganic polymers also include ...
Inhibits urinary nitrous oxide production and may inhibit nitric oxide production.. *Renal abnormalities, sterile leukocyturia ... The pills are created from sulfate salts and are sold in dosages of 100, 200, 333, and 400 mg of indinavir. It is normally used ... C at which it starts to emit toxic vapors such as nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. ... Each capsule contains sulfate salt in addition to anhydrous lactose and magnesium stearate. The capsule shell is made of ...
Magnesium Oxide 400gThis product contains 100% light grade magnesium oxide. Light Grade: Mo ... Redmond Rock Natural Salt Mineral Lick Four Seasons AP 12x Tincture 1 gallon (special order) ... Magox - Magnesium Oxide 400g. This product contains 100% light grade magnesium oxide.. Light Grade: More digestible due to ... Magnesium oxide has become the pure supplement of choice for horses with the following issues: ...
... whether corrosion attack has occurred as a result of stainless steel interactions with salt containing plutonium oxides. To ... Salt containing plutonium oxide materials are treated, packaged and stored within nested, stainless steel containers based on ... Salt containing plutonium oxide materials are treated, packaged and stored within nested, stainless steel containers based on ... Salt containing plutonium oxide materials are treated, packaged and stored within nested, stainless steel containers based on ...
... may include any metal salts or oxides that are not included or defined in ... Other Metal Salts & Oxides Select the material / item to buy or sell :. -- Select a Material --. Alumina. Aluminum Salts. ... When listing Other Metal Salts & Oxides please state clearly the type of metal, quality and the form of the material. ... WANTED : Tin Salts - LW1230628 Shipping Pt. / Location: INDIA, AHMADABAD GUJARAT Stannous sulfate . White yellow colour powder ...
Main Menu , , Exchange Index , Metal Salts & Oxides Index Metal Salts & Oxides Exchange. ...
... sodium salt , C9H6NNaOS , CID 152073 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, ...
Dietary salt increases endothelial nitric oxide synthase and TGF-beta1 in rat aortic endothelium.. Ying WZ1, Sanders PW. ... The amount of NaCl in the diet plays an important role in modulating nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in vivo. In the glomerulus, ... We hypothesized that dietary NaCl intake regulated expression of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) and ...
... Qin, Bo ... ITO is indium oxide combined with 10 percent tin oxide and this represent ... The electrochemical behaviour of indium and tin oxides was studied in molten LiCl- ... The direct de-oxidation of indium and tin oxides were investigated by using ...
Ethylene Oxide, Ethylene Oxide Derivatives, Propylene Oxide and Propylene Oxide Derivatives, with production facilities in ... About INEOS Oxide INEOS Oxide produces a comprehensive range of specialty and intermediate chemicals principally derived from ... INEOS Home News Group News INEOS Oxide expansion of Salt End site ... Graham Beesley, CEO INEOS Oxide adds, "We are the largest producer of EtAC in Europe and we are about to get a lot bigger. ...
Phosphinecarboxylic acid, dihydroxy-, oxide, trisodium salt*Phosphonoformic acid, trisodium salt*Triapten*Trisodium ... Phosphinecarboxylic acid, dihydroxy-, oxide, trisodium salt. Identifications. *CAS Number: 63585-09-1*Synonyms/Related:*A 29622 ... Dihydroxyphosphinecarboxylic acid oxide trisodium salt*DRG-0017*EHB 776*EHB-776*Foscarnet sodico [Spanish]*Foscarnet sodique [ ... Chemical Database - Phosphinecarboxylic acid, dihydroxy-, oxide, trisodium salt. EnvironmentalChemistry.com. 1995 - 2018. ...
Indium Corporation specializes in indium salt (ITO) used as transparent conductor material in flat panel displays, touch ... Top Indium Salts Technical Documents. *. Indium Oxide (Type A and B) (Presentation) ... The most common indium salt in use today is indium tin oxide (ITO), which dominates the market for transparent conductor ... Indium Salts Technical Documents. Whitepapers. Request This Document. Availability of Indium and Gallium (English). Authors: ...
2-Mercaptopyridine-N-oxide, sodium salt monohydrate, 98%, ACROS Organics™ 25g; Glass bottle ...
A series of Fe-Co oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by a continuous hydrothermal method using iron nitrate and ammonium ... Crystallinity depends on choice of iron salt precursor in the continuous hydrothermal synthesis of Fe-Co oxide nanoparticles ... Crystallinity depends on choice of iron salt precursor in the continuous hydrothermal synthesis of Fe-Co oxide nanoparticles J ... A series of Fe-Co oxide nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by a continuous hydrothermal method using iron nitrate and ammonium ...
Analyses of the results suggested preferential disposition of atoms around produced nanoparticles in the molten salt. Thermal ... CuO nanoparticles were produced in situ via the decomposition of copper sulphate pentahydrate in a KNO3-NaNO3 binary salt. ... technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt ... Seeding nanoparticles in molten salts has been shown recently as a promising way to improve their thermo-physical properties. ...
Here we find that a (Zn,Cu) hydroxy double salt (HDS) intermediate formed in situ from ZnO particles or thin films enables ... Facile Conversion of Hydroxy Double Salts to Metal-Organic Frameworks Using Metal Oxide Particles and Atomic Layer Deposition ... 2015). Facile Conversion of Hydroxy Double Salts to Metal-Organic Frameworks Using Metal Oxide Particles and Atomic Layer ... Here we find that a (Zn,Cu) hydroxy double salt (HDS) intermediate formed in situ from ZnO particles or thin films enables ...
The vacancy defects in these rock-salt-type structures clearly promote complete oxide-sulfide conversion. The conversion ... The sulfidation of colloidal rock-salt-type MO (M = Fe, Mn and Co) nanocrystals was performed in organic solvents using ... Sulfidation of rock-salt-type transition metal oxide. nanoparticles. as an example of a solid state reaction in colloidal ... Sulfidation of rock-salt-type transition metal oxide. nanoparticles. as an example of a solid state reaction in colloidal ...
Inicio , Portal Digitalde Begell , Plataforma de libros electrónicos Begell , Advances in Molten Salts , Studies of oxide ... Studies of oxide solubilities in molten KCl-LiCl at 700°C. V. L. Cherginets. Institute for Single Crystals of National Academy ... The increase of oxide solubilities and shift of the inflection point on calibration plot as compared with molten KCl-NaCl and ... The reversibility of a membrane oxygen electrode Pt(02)IZr02(Y203) vs O2- and oxide solubilities in molten KCl-LiCl eutectic ( ...
To mimic this, we combine removal of 5/6th of renal mass with nitric oxide (NO) depletion and a high salt diet. After arrival ... 5/6th Nephrectomy in Combination with High Salt Diet and Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition to Induce Chronic Kidney Disease in ... 5/6th Nephrectomy in Combination with High Salt Diet and Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition to Induce Chronic Kidney Disease in ... A high salt diet (6%), supplemented in ground chow (see time line Figure 1), is continued throughout the experiment. The reason ...
Graphene oxide/Al2O3 membrane with efficient salt rejection for water purification Xuebing Hu; Xuebing Hu ... To obtain efficient salt rejection in saline solution treatment, an asymmetric graphene oxide/Al2O3 membrane was prepared by a ... During the treatment of different aqueous salt solutions, the permeation flux and salt rejection of the membrane were ... Graphene oxide/Al2O3 membrane with efficient salt rejection for water purification. Water Supply 1 December 2018; 18 (6): 2162- ...
... 23.11.2016 ... The device is a tablet of the insulator (polystyrene) wrapped in cellulose, a plate of graphene oxide is placed on top, which ... Heating is mainly localized in the graphene oxide plate. As a result, the salinity of desalinated water is even below the ... The use of graphene oxide would provide effective energy absorption and will allow avoid heat loss during evaporation. ...
Zirconium Oxide ZrO2 Powder. *Send E-mail to us:[email protected] ... Erbium oxide Powder High purity. *Terbium oxide Powder Tb4O7 ...
Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and blend alkaline metal salts (equal number of cations of lithium perchlorate trihydrate and sodium ... Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy and ion conduction in poly(ethylene oxide)-blend salts-montmorillonite nanocomposite ...
Home , Begell Digital Portal , Begell eBook Platform , Advances in Molten Salts , Chemical and electrochemical behaviour of ... Thermodynamic calculations showed, that TiO2 is reduced to lower titanium oxides both by carbon anode and aluminium cathode, ... Chemical and electrochemical behaviour of titanium oxide and complexes in cryolite-alumina melts. ...
Transition Metal Oxides Rock Salt and Rutile: Metal-Metal Bonding Chemistry 754 Solid State Chemistry Lecture #25 May 27, 2003 ... Unformatted text preview: Transition Metal Oxides Rock Salt and Rutile: Metal-Metal Bonding Chemistry 754 Solid State Chemistry ... Solid State Chemistry c/a Ratio in Rutile-Type Oxides VO2 (T , 340K) Metallic V-V Even Spacing VO2 (T , 340K) Metallic V-V ... Solid State Chemistry 1 Rock Salt Crystal Structure M O y x Chemistry 754 - Solid State Chemistry Generic Octahedral MO Diagram ...
Graphene oxide dispersion CAS No: 7440-44-0 Thickness: 0.8-1.2nm purity: 99% Single layer ratio: 99% Solvent: Water, EtOH, NMP ... Product description for graphene oxide dispersion: Product name: ... High purity neodymium oxide pow. *High purity Gallium oxide ... Graphene oxide dispersion liquid graphite dispersant. *Send E-mail to us:[email protected] ... Application area for graphene oxide dispersion:. Adsorption, Separation, Catalysis, Solid Phase Extraction, Detection and ...
The different forms of zinc oxide nanomaterials were synthesized by using Zn(AC)2·2H2O and NaOH as reaction precursors and ... Zinc Oxide Nano-materials Synthesis,Structural Characterization,Optical and Catalytic Properties. WEI Gui-ming1,DU Ji-min2,RONG ... Wei Zhongqing; Ma Peihua;Xu Gang;Bao Jiqing;Zhu Geqing and Jing Yan (Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes,Chinese Academy of ... The different forms of zinc oxide nanomaterials were synthesized by using Zn(AC)2·2H2O and NaOH as reaction precursors and ...
  • The sulfidation intermediates, when the supply of sulfur was insufficient, had interesting structures, in which the metal oxide cores were surrounded by metal sulfide shells or had surfaces that were decorated with metal sulfide islands. (rsc.org)
  • 1. A cross-linked foam co prising at least one functionalized metal oxide nanoparticle material. (google.es)
  • 9. The article of claim 1 wherein the functionalized metal oxide is zince oxide. (google.es)
  • Using a simple solar cell and a photo anode made of a metal oxide, HZB and TU Delft scientists have successfully stored nearly five percent of solar energy chemically in the form of hydrogen. (phys.org)
  • The disclosure relates to cosmetic hair compositions containing metal-oxide layered pigments. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The disclosure also relates to compositions containing film-formers and stabilizers in combination with the metal-oxide layered pigments. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • c) at least one stabilizer and (d) at least one auxiliary ingredient wherein the metal-oxide layered pigment comprises at least two layers and wherein the at least film one film-former and at least one stabilizer are each added at a concentration of about 0.05 to about 15 weight % based on the weight of the composition. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • CuO, categorized into transition metal oxide group, is a p type, narrow bandgap semiconductor. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to some shared properties of metal oxide nanostructures, such as TiO 2 , ZnO, WO 3 , and SnO 2 , CuO nanostructures have other unique magnetic and super-hydrophobic [ 10 ] properties. (hindawi.com)
  • 1. A method of dissolving a metal oxide comprising contacting the metal oxide with a composition comprising a di- or polyphosphonic acid and sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate, each being present in sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of the metal oxide, the composition optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the metal oxide is an oxide of iron, an actinide or a lanthanide. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the metal oxide is an oxide of chromium, lead or manganese. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 1, wherein the metal oxide is a surface layer on a solid substrate. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 4, wherein the metal oxide is an iron oxide and the substrate solid substrate is iron or an iron-containing alloy. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The method of claim 4, wherein the metal oxide layer contains radioactive materials and the method is used for decontamination of the solid substrate by dissolving the metal oxide layer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We expect this model of the EOR to be valid for other organic electrolytes and other Li metal oxide surfaces, due to its simplicity, and the model leads to simple design principles for protective coatings. (dtu.dk)
  • We hypothesized that dietary NaCl intake regulated expression of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase (NOS3) and TGF-beta1 in the aorta. (nih.gov)
  • To obtain efficient salt rejection in saline solution treatment, an asymmetric graphene oxide/Al 2 O 3 membrane was prepared by a spin-coating process. (iwaponline.com)
  • According to microstructure measurement, the membrane has a multilayer structure and graphene oxide has been tightly coated on the surface of the Al 2 O 3 membrane interlayer homogeneously. (iwaponline.com)
  • The use of graphene oxide would provide effective energy absorption and will allow avoid heat loss during evaporation. (da-voda.com)
  • The device is a tablet of the insulator (polystyrene) wrapped in cellulose, a plate of graphene oxide is placed on top, which absorbs the sun rays. (da-voda.com)
  • Heating is mainly localized in the graphene oxide plate. (da-voda.com)
  • The prospect of such technology is of interest to both academic and industrial sectors in order to enhance the specific heat capacity of molten salt. (mdpi.com)
  • The reversibility of a membrane oxygen electrode Pt(02)IZr02(Y203) vs O 2- and oxide solubilities in molten KCl-LiCl eutectic (0.4:0.6) at 700°C has been studied by potenti-ometric method. (begellhouse.com)
  • Advances in Molten Slags, Fluxes, and Salts: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Molten Slags, Fluxes and Salts. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • The formation of molten salt phase under different roasting conditions and its effect on chromium recovery is studied by means of sample characterization and phase diagram analysis. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • We investigated the effect of the molten salt composition on the decarburization of white cast iron. (go.jp)
  • A specimen of white cast iron (φ8mm×8mm) containing 3.34 mass% carbon was immersed in a Na 2 O-SiO 2 molten salt at 1323 K for 24-72 h. (go.jp)
  • This surface layer was formed as a result of the reaction of carbon in white cast iron with free oxygen in the oxide molten salt. (go.jp)
  • However, no decarburized layer was observed on the specimen surface after the heat treatment in the Na 2 O-SiO 2 (38-62 mol%) molten salt. (go.jp)
  • It was found that white heart malleable cast iron could be prepared from white cast iron in Na 2 O-SiO 2 oxide molten salts, and the degree of decarburization depended on the composition of the molten salts. (go.jp)
  • All the salt shakers wear transfer t-shirts (ionic bonding). (mammothmemory.net)
  • We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations of a poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte material containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide salt for a wide temperature regime above and below the experimental crystallization temperature with and without N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ionic liquid (IL). (osti.gov)
  • The oxide anion (O 2− ) is the conjugate base of the hydroxide ion (OH − ) and is encountered in an ionic solid such as calcium oxide. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Although many anions are stable in aqueous solution, ionic oxides are not. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When an ionic oxide dissolves, each O 2− ion become protonated to form a hydroxide ion. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Ionic conductivity in relation to the morphology of lithium-doped high-molecular-weight polystyrene-block-polyethylene oxide (PS-b-PEO) diblock copolymer films was investigated as solid-state membranes for lithium-ion batteries. (saxslab.com)
  • The ionic conductivity was enhanced by amorphization of PEO and thereby the mobility of the PEO blocks increased upon increasing the salt-doping level. (saxslab.com)
  • NO induction was due to increased inducible nitric oxide synthase protein synthesis. (wiley.com)
  • Once expressed this inducible nitric oxide synthase (hereinafter "iNOS") generates NO continuously for long periods. (allindianpatents.com)
  • PCT Patent Application No. WO 95/25717 discloses certain amidino derivatives as being useful in inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Inflammatory disorders can lead to carcinogenesis through activation of "prosurvival genes," including cyclooxygenase-2 ( COX-2 ) and inducible nitric oxide synthase ( iNOS ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This study focused on changes in the wettability and viscosity of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and sodium alginate (SA), according to the variation in concentration and their impact on oil-contaminated soil remediation using biopolymer-decane displacement tests. (mdpi.com)
  • 7. The method of claim 1 wherein at least a portion of the medical device is formed of a polymer which includes the nitric oxide adduct, wherein the polymer is nylon, polyethylene perthalate or polytetrafluoroethylene. (google.com)
  • The tendency of the polyethylene (PEO) block to crystallize was highly suppressed by increasing both the salt-doping level and the temperature. (saxslab.com)
  • 12. The electron tube according to claim 6, wherein the activated silicon oxide is the decomposition product of a silicon organic salt. (google.com)
  • The fundamental natures of this solution, which involves its main ingredient and content, type of organic matter, thermal decomposition characteristics of salt, and relationship of boiling point and density with salt content, were examined in this paper. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Thermal decomposition of nitrous oxide (N2O) implies the need for a specially designed regenerative thermal oxidation system (RTO) with a higher combustion chamber temperature and a. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Here, density functional theory is applied to investigate the oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte component, ethylene carbonate (EC), on layered LixMO(2) oxide surfaces. (dtu.dk)
  • p. 1633 ) now show that, when alkali atoms are added, atomically dispersed Pt can be an active catalyst for the water-gas shift reaction at ∼100°C, even on simple oxides such as alumina and silica. (sciencemag.org)
  • For example, aluminum foil has a thin skin of aluminum oxide (alumina, Al 2 O 3 ) that protects the foil from further corrosion . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and blend alkaline metal salts (equal number of cations of lithium perchlorate trihydrate and sodium perchlorate monohydrate) complexations with montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclay filler up to 20 wt% concentration were synthesized by direct melt compounded hot-press technique at temperature 104°C under 3 tons pressure. (niscair.res.in)
  • Lithium-Salt-Containing High-Molecular-Weight, Metwalli et al. (saxslab.com)
  • This study explores the roles of exogenously applied nitric oxide, exogenously applied caffeic acid and salt stress on the ontioxidant system in cereal (exemplified by maize) and legume (using soybean as an example) plants together with their influence on membrane integrity and cell death. (uwc.ac.za)
  • Furthermore, this study investigates the effect of long-term exposure of soybean to exogenous caffeic acid (CA) and salt stress, on the basis of the established role of CA as an antioxidant and the involvement of antioxidant enzymes in plant salt stress responses. (uwc.ac.za)
  • Roussin's Black Salt is produced by the reaction of nitrous acid, potassium hydroxide, potassium sulfide, and iron(II) sulfate in aqueous solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, an oxide can behave as an acid or a base, under different conditions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Other oxides do not behave as either acid or base. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Dry-powdered and liquid acid salts are specifically formulated for removing rust, scale oxides, stains, and smut from a variety of metal surfaces. (epi.com)
  • Acid salts are also used to activate metal surfaces for further finishing. (epi.com)
  • Learn more about Acid Salts on our blog! (epi.com)
  • 1. A method for preventing adverse effects associated with the use of a medical device in a patient comprising introducing into said patient a medical device of which at least a portion includes a nitric oxide adduct, wherein said nitric oxide adduct comprises a sodium nitroprusside, a nitrosothiol, a nitrate, a nitrite or a nitrosated amino acid. (google.com)
  • This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different dietary supplementation levels of zinc oxide and of an organic acid blend on broiler performance, carcass traits, and serum parameters. (scielo.br)
  • Six treatments, consisting of diets containing two zinc oxide levels (0 and 0.01% of the diet) and three organic acid blend levels (0, 0.15, and 0.30%) were applied, with eight replicates of 50 birds each. (scielo.br)
  • The result of this experiment showed that the organic acid blend did not affect feed intake, but zinc oxide increased feed intake. (scielo.br)
  • No interactions were found between zinc oxide and the organic acid blend for none of the evaluated parameters. (scielo.br)
  • We concluded that zinc oxide and the evaluated organic acid blend improve broiler performance. (scielo.br)
  • A method of dissolving metal oxides using a mixture of a di- or polyphosphonic acid and a reductant wherein each is present in a sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of metal oxides and optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • It is a salt of aluminum and nitric acid existing normally as a crystalline hydrate. (spectrumchemical.com)
  • The amount of NaCl in the diet plays an important role in modulating nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in vivo. (nih.gov)
  • Compared with other oxides of transition metal such as Fe 2 O 3 , TiO 2 , and ZnO only few reports have described the synthesis strategies adopted for CuO nanostructures along with the introduction of their related applications. (hindawi.com)
  • Dibutyl tin oxide CAS: 818-08-6 Scale of Synthesis : Pilot Scale - 1KG TO 500KG Molecular Formula : (CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 ) 2 SnO Molecular Weight : 248.94. (tradeindia.com)
  • There are many other uses that require indium in a different form, such as indium sulfide, indium hydroxide, indium oxide, and others. (indium.com)
  • We show that magnetite forms through phase transformation from a highly disordered phosphate-rich ferric hydroxide phase, consistent with prokaryotic ferritins, via transient nanometric ferric (oxyhydr)oxide intermediates within the magnetosome organelle. (pnas.org)
  • The results show the permeation flux of the membrane is about 1.254 L·m −2 ·h −1 ·bar −1 and the salt rejection of the membrane reaches 28.66%, 39.24% and 43.52% for 0.01 mol·L −1 NaCl, Cu(NO 3 ) 2 and MgSO 4 , respectively. (iwaponline.com)
  • The results show that application of salt (NaCl) results in elevated levels of H₂O₂ and an increase in lipid peroxidation, consequently leading to increased cell death. (uwc.ac.za)
  • Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars , sodalite , and rock salt (NaCl). (wikipedia.org)
  • The sulfidation of colloidal rock-salt-type MO (M = Fe, Mn and Co) nanocrystals was performed in organic solvents using dissolved elemental sulfur at moderate temperatures. (rsc.org)
  • If sulfur ylides derived from optically active sulfonium and oxosulfonium salt precursors are used, then optically active ylides can be prepared and these can be used in asymmetric syntheses of chiral epoxides and other products. (britannica.com)
  • Sulfur dioxide , the principal oxide of sulfur, is emitted from volcanoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a premium-grade salt mixture which will blacken a wider range of steel alloys than any other process on the market. (epi.com)
  • 1. An electron tube comprising at least an electron-emitting cathode and a member with a surface within an evacuated envelope, wherein a porous layer consisting essentially of activated silicon oxide for controlling residual gases is formed on a part of said surface, said porous layer of activated silicon itself acting as an activator. (google.com)
  • At standard conditions, oxides may range from solids to gases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Magnesium oxide. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Hyperexol has magnesium oxide. (netwellness.org)
  • Hyperexol is a dietary supplement containing a proprietary blend of vitamins, minerals and herbs including about 200mg of magnesium oxide per tablet. (netwellness.org)
  • If taken as directed by the manufacturer, Hyperexol will deliver a daily dose of 800mg of magnesium oxide. (netwellness.org)
  • Your statement that only 4% of magnesium oxide is dissolved is incorrect, but may be based on a 2001 study by Firoz et al. (netwellness.org)
  • Based on urinary excretion data, the researchers found that only about 4% of the magnesium from magnesium oxide was absorbed. (netwellness.org)
  • The daily dose range of magnesium for the 4 studies in which magnesium oxide was used was between 12.4 and 24.7. (netwellness.org)
  • INEOS Oxide is a leading producer of solvents, speciality Chemicals, Ethylene Oxide, Ethylene Oxide Derivatives, Propylene Oxide and Propylene Oxide Derivatives, with production facilities in Antwerp Belgium, Koln Germany, Hull United Kingdom, Lavera France and Plaquemine Louisiana US. (ineos.com)
  • a hydroxyl (OH) group, with ethylene oxide or propylene oxide. (britannica.com)
  • During the condensation reaction, the ethylene oxide molecules form a chain which links to the hydroxyl group. (britannica.com)
  • INEOS Oxide produces a comprehensive range of specialty and intermediate chemicals principally derived from ethylene & propylene. (ineos.com)
  • Calcium oxide was mixed with water to give Ca(OH) 2 , which reacted slowly with CO 2 in the air to give CaCO 3 . (bartleby.com)