Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Magnesium Sulfate: A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)Magnesium Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Magnesium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Magnesium Hydroxide: An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It acts as an antacid with cathartic effects.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Magnesium Chloride: Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Salt Gland: A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Magnesium Silicates: A generic term for a variety of compounds that contain silicon, oxygen, and magnesium, and may contain hydrogen. Examples include TALC and some kinds of ASBESTOS.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Eclampsia: Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Tocolytic Agents: Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mineral Waters: Water naturally or artificially infused with mineral salts or gases.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Salt-Tolerant Plants: Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Tetany: A disorder characterized by muscle twitches, cramps, and carpopedal spasm, and when severe, laryngospasm and seizures. This condition is associated with unstable depolarization of axonal membranes, primarily in the peripheral nervous system. Tetany usually results from HYPOCALCEMIA or reduced serum levels of MAGNESIUM that may be associated with HYPERVENTILATION; HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; RICKETS; UREMIA; or other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1490)Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.TRPM Cation Channels: A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.CitratesDiet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Cathartics: Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Recommended Dietary Allowances: The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Potassium, Dietary: Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metals: Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Gitelman Syndrome: An inherited renal disorder characterized by defective NaCl reabsorption in the convoluted DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE leading to HYPOKALEMIA. In contrast with BARTTER SYNDROME, Gitelman syndrome includes hypomagnesemia and normocalcemic hypocalciuria, and is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Strontium: An element of the alkaline earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sr, atomic number 38, and atomic weight 87.62.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Phenolphthaleins: A family of 3,3-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)phthalides. They are used as CATHARTICS, indicators, and COLORING AGENTS.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Laxatives: Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Water-Electrolyte Imbalance: Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Organometallic Compounds: A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Diphosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid that contain two phosphate groups.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Antacids: Substances that counteract or neutralize acidity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Lubricants: Compounds that provide LUBRICATION between surfaces in order to reduce FRICTION.Metal Metabolism, Inborn ErrorsBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Taurodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic, also industrially as a fat emulsifier.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chelating Agents: Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Tailings ponds include substances of concern for the water quality that discharge to surface waters: • salts • elevated sodium ... chloride, sulphate • elevated total dissolved solids, pH, conductivity and alkalinity • lower calcium and magnesium (soft water ...
Metal salts e.g. Magnesium chloride, Zinc nitrate, Zinc chloride. Catalyst mixture e.g. magnesium chloride with added organic ... Iron, aluminum and copper salts may also contribute to the hardness, but their effects are much less. Using hard water in wet ... However, reduction in alkaline liquor produces the water-soluble alkali metal salt of the dye, which, in this leuco form, has ... water in textile processes is water hardness caused by the presence of soluble salts of metals including calcium and magnesium ...
1998) Formation of Carnallite Type Double Salts by Grinding Mixtures of Magnesium and Alkali Halides with the Same Anions. ... In carnallite, the water molecules enclose the magnesium ions. This prevents the magnesium and the chloride from interacting ... Soluble potassium salts are the main sources for fertilizer. This is because the potassium is difficult to separate from ... It is mined for both potassium and magnesium and occurs in the evaporite deposits of Carlsbad, New Mexico; the Paradox Basin in ...
Magnesium Chloride ~33%; Potassium Carbonate ~43%; Potassium Sulfate ~97%. Salt solutions will vary somewhat in humidity with ... A saturated table salt (Sodium Chloride) bath will eventually give a reading of approximately 75%. Other salts have other ... In these devices, water vapour is absorbed by a salt-impregnated paper strip attached to a metal coil, causing the coil to ... Typical materials are salts and conductive polymers. Resistive sensors are less sensitive than capacitive sensors - the change ...
Sulfur springs contained hydrogen sulfide gas (see also fumeroles). Salt (saline) springs contained salts of calcium, magnesium ... Lithia springs contained lithium salts. Chalybeate springs contained salts of iron. Alum springs contained alum. ... Salts, sulfur compounds, and gases are among the substances that can be dissolved in the spring water during its passage ... Sweet springs, those with no detectable sulfur or salt content Cohen, Stan (Revised 1981 edition), Springs of the Virginias: A ...
The calcium and magnesium salts do not dissolve in water; the sodium salt does. The rationale behind the extraction of alginate ... Alginate is present in the cell walls of brown algae, as the calcium, magnesium and sodium salts of alginic acid. To extract ... "Alginate" is usually the salts of alginic acid, but it can also refer to derivatives of alginic acid and alginic acid itself; ... To the sodium alginate from the initial extraction solution, a calcium salt is added. This causes calcium alginate to form with ...
The salts in the water (magnesium perchlorate, magnesium chlorate, sodium perchlorate,...) lower its freezing and melting point ...
The Epsom Salts Manufacturing Company was formed to mine the deposit. The materials mined were alum, magnesium sulfate, ... The easily accessible salts were depleted by the mid-1840s, but mining resumed during the Civil War. There is no report on any ... tract of land that would include Alum Cave and its salt deposits. Tennessee sold the tract of land to the three men on December ...
Treatment of HSH involves administration of high doses of magnesium salts. These salts may be taken orally or otherwise (e.g. ... Decreased intestinal magnesium reabsorption and the resulting decrease in serum magnesium levels is believed to cause lowered ... Parathyroid gland secretion of PTH can be altered by changes in serum magnesium levels. The decreased serum magnesium levels ... Increased intracellular magnesium concentrations also decrease current through TRPM6 channels. There are currently more than 30 ...
US 3726965, F. Andreasen & U. Neitzel, "Production of langbeinite from a potassium magnesium sulfate salt and magnesium sulfate ... In salt (NaCl) saturated brine, leonite can be deposited from magnesium and potassium sulfate mixtures as low as 25 °C. The 25 ... It is stable at pressures up to 10−7, above which a more hydrated salt exists. It should form up to 2% of the salts near the ... Butts, D.S. (June 1980). "Chemistry of Great Salt Lake Brines in Solar Ponds". In Wallace Gwynn, J. Great Salt Lake, a ...
These abrasives include calcium carbonate, silica gels, magnesium carbonates and phosphate salts. Fluoride is available in ... As this varnish rests on the tooth's surface, saliva dissolves the fluoride salt, which in turn allows fluoride ions to be ... The principle of fluoride varnish is to apply fluoride salt in a very high concentration (approximately 50,000 ppm) onto the ...
Stearates, aluminum, magnesium and zinc salts can lead to poorly soluble precipitates. Manufacturers also recommend to avoid ... the inclusion of iron and ferric salts, heavy metals, formaldehyde donors and PABA and PABA esters. The makers of Coppertone ...
It is a magnesium acid salt of phosphoric acid. It can be formed by reaction of stoichiometric quantities of magnesium oxide ... Magnesium phosphate relevant part of the German "Zusatzstoff-Zulassungsverordnung", the official German implementation of the ...
... is used to detect the presence of magnesium ions in salts. Formation of a white precipitate on the ... The salt exists in an anhydrous form, as well as mono- and dihydrates. The salt is obtained by partial neutralization of ... ammonium hydroxide and monosodium phosphate to an aqueous or dilute HCl solution of the salt indicates presence of magnesium ... The pH of such formulations is generally adjusted by mixtures of various sodium phosphates, such as this salt. The sodium ...
... the enzyme magnesium chelatase converts it into Mg-protoporphyrin IX. Protoporphyrin IX reacts with iron salts in air to give ...
A second magnesium ion is critical for ATP binding in the kinase domain. The presence of Mg2+ regulates kinase activity. Salts ... Saylor, P.; Wang, C.; Hirai, T.; Adams, J. (1998). "A second magnesium ion is critical for ATP binding in the kinase domain of ... The binding constant for Mg2+ is (9554). The binding of a divalent cation, almost always magnesium, strongly affects the ... Garfinkel, L.; Altschuld, R.; Garfinkel, D. (1986). "Magnesium in cardiac energy metabolism". J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 18 (10): ...
The Dead Sea contains a very high concentration of sodium, magnesium, and calcium salts. This combination makes the sea an ... Due to the salt in method cytoplasmic proteins are structured to fold in the presence of high ionic concentrations. As such ... Because of their ability to maintain homeostasis in spite of the salt around them, H. volcanii could be an important player in ... H. volcanii use a salt in method to maintain osmostasis, rather than the typical compatible solutes method seen in bacteria. ...
The metal is now mainly obtained by electrolysis of magnesium salts obtained from brine. Commercially, the chief use for the ... Magnesium is also the metallic ion at the center of chlorophyll, and is thus a common additive to fertilizers. Magnesium ... It is an abundant element that exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars, sodalite and rock salt. Many salts of sodium are ... Since magnesium is less dense than aluminium, these alloys are prized for their relative lightness and strength. Magnesium ions ...
Magnesium salts are added to oxygen delignification to help preserve the cellulose chains, but mechanism of this protection has ... Magnesium salts and sodium silicate are also added to improve bleaching with alkaline peroxide. Sodium dithionite (Na2S2O4), ... especially magnesium A variety of more exotic bleaching agents have been used on chemical pulps. They include peroxyacetic acid ...
... is a salt lake with a high magnesium content. It has one small river providing inflow, but no outflow, although ...
Many salts of nickel(II) are isomorphous with salts of magnesium due to the ionic radii of the cations being almost the same. ... Nickel thiosulfate NiS2O3 has the same structure as the magnesium salt. It has alternating layers of octahedral shaped nickel2+ ... Many double salts containing nickel with another cation are known. There are organic acid salts. Nickel can be part of a ... Nickel ions can act as a cation in salts with many acids, including common oxoacids Salts of the hexaaqua ion (Ni•6H2O2+) are ...
They are substituted by Grignard reagents to give magnesium salts and an extended alkyl compound. Where the rate-determining ... Haloalkanes undergo free-radical reactions with elemental magnesium to give alkylmagnesium compounds: Grignard reagents. ...
This allows for minerals, such as calcium or magnesium salts, to crystallize and form stones. Bladder stones vary in number, ... Calcium phosphate Magnesium phosphate Ammonium phosphate Ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite) Calcium hydroxyphosphate ( ... Minerals such as calcium and magnesium crystallize into the stones, which then can cause such symptoms as lower back or ... apatite) Uric acid and its salts (urates) Cystine Xanthine Indigotin (rare) Urostealith (rare) Sulfonamide (rare) Jackstone ...
The products can contain by-product salts, such as sodium/calcium/magnesium chloride or sulfate. Because of the explosion ... Aluminium chlorohydrate is a group of specific aluminium salts having the general formula AlnCl(3n-m)(OH)m. It is used in ... which makes it more effective at destabilizing and removing suspended materials than other aluminium salts such as aluminium ... of neutralization of the HCl results in minimal impact on treated water pH when compared to other aluminium and iron salts. ...
McKay E (1935). "Salt tolerance of Ruppia maritima in lakes of high magnesium sulfate concentration". Plant Physiology. 10: 425 ... Hot Lake is unusual among hypersaline lakes in that it is dominated by magnesium and sulfate as its major ions. Because of its ...
Each capsule contains sulfate salt in addition to anhydrous lactose and magnesium stearate. The capsule shell is made of ... The pills are created from sulfate salts and are sold in dosages of 100, 200, 333, and 400 mg of indinavir. It is normally used ...
Thus, have to rely on making a diagnosis for magnesium deficiency based on magnesium deficiency symptoms, not a blood test. ... There are blood tests that can be used to check the level of magnesium in body to evaluate if have magnesium deficiency; ... This is because the blood serum tests only give a reading of the level of magnesium in blood and only one percent of the ... Most types of essential vitamin deficiencies can be checked by a simple blood test, but evidence of a magnesium deficiency is ...
... calcium oxide in magnesium silicate, magnesium oxide in magnesium silicate, magnesium silicate pigment, analysis of, silicon ... Standard Test Methods for Analysis of Magnesium Silicate Pigment , ... D2448 Test Method for Water-Soluble Salts in Pigments by Measuring the Specific Resistance of the Leachate of the Pigment ... 3.1 These test methods may be used to confirm the stated SiO2, CaO, and MgO content of magnesium silicate for quality control. ...
2 OTC antacids may contain various salts, including magnesium (hydroxide,carbonate. The onset of symptom relief may occur 2 to ... Antacid Dosage Magnesium Hydroxide. August 23, 20190 Consult your healthcare professional before taking or discontinuing any ... If you are taking an antacid (aluminum/magnesium hydroxide, calcium carbonate),. How To Avoid Acid Reflux In The Morning Shop ... If you are taking an antacid (aluminum/magnesium hydroxide, calcium carbonate),. be sure to take each dose of antibiotic after ...
MAGNESIUM SALTS (mag NEE zee um sawlts) is a dietary supplement. It is used to treat or prevent low levels of magnesium in the ... Magnesium Salts oral solution. What is this medicine?. MAGNESIUM SALTS (mag NEE zee um sawlts) is a dietary supplement. It is ... an unusual or allergic reaction to magnesium, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives ... used to treat or prevent low levels of magnesium in the body. ... Magnesium Salicylate tablets. *Magnesium Salts capsules or ...
The activity of the magnesium peroxycarboxylate salts after dissolution is the same as that of the corresponding ... The present invention relates to solid magnesium peroxycarboxylate salts and detergent compositions containing them. These ... The level of magnesium from the magnesium salt and the amount of peroxycarboxylic acid utilized in such solution or suspension ... An aqueous suspension or solution of a magnesium salt in which the anion is the conjugate base of a weak acid having a pKa of ...
Himalayan pink sea salt isnt as healthy as you think it is ...
Epsom Salts) is available online with fast delivery from VioVet, the trusted supplier of veterinary medication, foods and ... Battles Magnesium Sulphate (also known as Epsom Salts) has a wide range of uses in the equine industry including to prevent ... Suitable for all-round veterinary use, this concentrated salt is a quality source of Magnesium also widely used as a laxative. ... Below are some recent questions weve received regarding Battles Magnesium Sulphate (Epsom Salts) for Horses, including answers ...
... in vitro studies of transport across porcine intestines of magnesium ions showed that magnesium salts administered in ... Since the typical form of magnesium salts are poorly and slowly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract we examined whether ... Conclusions The co-administration of micronized magnesium organic salts with opioids increased their synergetic analgesic ... Results Micronized form of magnesium lactate dihydrate or hydroaspartate but not chloride (15 mg of magnesium ions kg-1) ...
Magnesium sulfate is used as a laxative to relieve occasional constipation. Not all external uses for magnesium sulfate have ... Magnesium sulfate also increases water in the intestines. ... Magnesium is a naturally occurring mineral that is important ... To use magnesium sulfate as an epsom salt soak, dissolve in a large amount of water in a large bowl, a bucket, a foot tub, or a ... What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking magnesium sulfate?. Do not use magnesium sulfate as a laxative ...
... epsom salts): Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Epsom salts magnesium sulafte cream (epsom salts ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Epsom salts magnesium sulafte cream (epsom salts). ... Generic name: Epsom salts Epsom salts, also known as Magnesium Sulfate, is available as a transdermal cream used to stimulate ... What is Epsom salts magnesium sulafte cream?. Category: Supplements true ...
Some magnesium salts and a mixture of magnesium and calcium salts accelerate skin barrier recovery. ... Key words Magnesium salts Calcium salts Skin ¶barrier Received: 16 March 1999 / Received after revision: 17 June 1999 / ... All of the magnesium salts, except magnesium bis(dihydrogen phosphate), accelerated barrier repair. We next estimated the ... Abstract The effects of four different magnesium salts on the cutaneous barrier recovery rate after barrier disruption were ...
China magnesium salt manufacturer & factory list, find qualified Chinese magnesium salt manufacturers, suppliers, factories, ... Calcium Salt Manufacturers Organic Salt Manufacturers Pure Salt Manufacturers Sulphate Salt Manufacturers Sulfate Salt ... Phosphate Salt Manufacturers Copper Salt Manufacturers Crystal Salt Manufacturers Potassium Salt Manufacturers Acid Sodium Salt ... Magnesium Sulphate Epsom Salt Sulfuric Acid Magnesium Salt Sodium Nitrite Stpp 94% More ...
... a magnesium sulfate compound, is a popular home remedy most commonly used as a foot soak. Taken orally or rectally as an enema ... Epsom salt foot or body soaks are widely used as a way to relax muscles and relieve muscle tension. Since magnesium plays an ... Epsom salt, a magnesium sulfate compound, is a popular home remedy most commonly used as a foot soak. Taken orally or rectally ... Epsom salt is also sometimes used as an enema. Either route will cause some of this magnesium to be absorbed. The small ...
Find Complete Details about Magnesium Sulphate Heptahydrate,Chenmical Magnesium Sulphate,Cosmetic Magnesium,Epsom Salts from ... Chloride Supplier or Manufacturer-Lianyungang Rifeng Calcium & Magnesium Co., Ltd. ... We can OEM different chemical magnesium chloride product as different request.. If you are interesting in our products, please ... The raw materials were chosen from the salt lake which has 200 million years with less impurities and heavy metals. ...
Arsenic acid (H3AsO4), magnesium salt, manganese-doped Regulatory process names 1 Other identifiers 1 ...
... magnesium salt , C8Br4MgO4 , CID 106563 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents ...
Fura 2 magnesium-selective analog tetrapotassium salt for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS ...
Information on Registered Substances comes from registration dossiers which have been assigned a registration number. The assignment of a registration number does however not guarantee that the information in the dossier is correct or that the dossier is compliant with Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (the REACH Regulation). This information has not been reviewed or verified by the Agency or any other authority. The content is subject to change without prior notice ...
Silicic acid, lithium magnesium sodium salt. ↓Other names: Regulatory process names [2] Trade names [4] IUPAC names [4] ... Silicic acid, lithium magnesium sodium salt * Silicic acid, lithium magnesium sodium salt ...
... which contains a high concentration of magnesium to help soothe the mind and muscles. Space NK ... Harness the healing power of magnesium with REN Magnesium Booster Bath Salts, ... Harness the healing power of magnesium with REN Magnesium Booster Bath Salts, which contains a high concentration of magnesium ... body and complexion with REN Magnesium Booster Bath Salts, a bath product containing a high concentration of magnesium salts ...
Epsom salts) for wholesale prices. Magnesium Sulfate is available in powder form and graded: technical. ... Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom Salts). SKU: 81010. Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate- Beneficial and relaxing Magnesium Sulfate (Epsom ... Epsom Salts; Mg 5-Sulfat; Bitter salts; Epsomite. Cas #: 10034-99-8. H14MgO11S. 246.47. ... salts) at wholesale prices. Magnesium Sulfate is available in powder form and graded: technical. ...
I love bath salts, and magnesium salts in particular - I take a magnesium supplement (Ive run out) usually because Im a big ... REN Magnesium Booster Bath Salts. As you can see, theres also a Magnesium Spray at a decent concentrate (30%), again indicated ... REN Magnesium Booster Bath Salts. Theres not much that makes me happier than something to put in a bath. Its just so ... REN Magnesium Booster Bath Salts. Theyre lovely big, fat flakes as well - not that it makes any difference to performance but ...
Epsom is used to add sulfate and magnesium ions to brewing water. It is often used at half the levels of Gypsum. Free shipping ... https://www.morebeer.com/products/epsom-salt-magnesium-sulfate.html. *https://www.morebeer.com/products/epsom-salt-magnesium- ... 26 ppm Magnesium and adds 108 ppm to the hardness.. Promash is a useful utility to calculate water salts.. Epsom salt is also ... Epsom is used to add sulfate and magnesium ions to brewing water. It is often used at half the levels of Gypsum. 1 gram in 1 ...
Return to More about Magnesium (re: Epsom Salts Bath Newsletter).. Join in and write your own page! Its easy to do. How? ...
Sodium and Magnesium and Na/K-Pump Activity After the Administration of Potassium and Magnesium Salts." ... Na, K-Pump Activity After Potassium and Magnesium Salts.. *Dr. Packs Summary #393 ... Potassium-magnesium citrate supplementation worked best with increased erythrocyte potassium and magnesium, increased Na/K pump ... Group 2, which received chelated magnesium, had an increase in serum potassium, erythrocyte potassium, magnesium and sodium, ...
  • CHARLOTTE, N.C. , March 27, 2018 /PRNewswire/ -- One of America's leading natural beauty experts recommends Epsom salt recipes to help relieve stress, soothe sore muscles, improve sleep, fight colds, exfoliate skin and prepare for pedicures. (prnewswire.com)
  • The laxative action of magnesium is to relax and dilate the gallbladder, thereby facilitating the release of gallstones with the aid of the olive oil included in a liver and gallbladder cleanse. (livingclean.com)
  • The use of stable isotopes as labels is becoming an attractive tool for the study of magnesium behavior in humans. (osti.gov)
  • Apport des isotopes stables a l'etude de la pharmacocinetique de sels de magnesium} author = {Benech, H} abstractNote = {The use of stable isotopes as labels is becoming an attractive tool for the study of magnesium behavior in humans. (osti.gov)