Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Salts: Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Rats, Inbred Dahl: Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.Potassium, Dietary: Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.ParaguayFood Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Diet Records: Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.Diet Surveys: Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Juxtaglomerular Apparatus: A complex of cells consisting of juxtaglomerular cells, extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells, the macula densa of the distal convoluted tubule, and granular epithelial peripolar cells. Juxtaglomerular cells are modified SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS found in the walls of afferent glomerular arterioles and sometimes the efferent arterioles. Extraglomerular mesangium lacis cells are located in the angle between the afferent and efferent glomerular arterioles. Granular epithelial peripolar cells are located at the angle of reflection of the parietal to visceral angle of the renal corpuscle.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.JapanNutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Prehypertension: Blood pressure levels that are between normotension and hypertension. Individuals with prehypertension are at a higher risk for developing cardiovascular diseases. Generally, prehypertension is defined as SYSTOLIC PRESSURE of 131-139 mm Hg and/or DIASTOLIC PRESSURE of 81-89 when the optimal is 120/80 mm Hg. For diabetics and other metabolism diseases the prehypertension is around 110-129/70-79 mm Hg.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Salt Gland: A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)Kallikrein-Kinin System: A system of metabolic interactions by products produced in the distal nephron of the KIDNEY. These products include KALLIKREIN; KININS; KININASE I; KININASE II; and ENKEPHALINASE. This system participates in the control of renal functions. It interacts with the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN-ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM to regulate BLOOD PRESSURE, generation of PROSTAGLANDINS, release of VASOPRESSINS, and WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Receptors, Mineralocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind MINERALOCORTICOIDS and mediate their cellular effects. The receptor with its bound ligand acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of specific segments of DNA.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.CreatinineLife Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Desoxycorticosterone: A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Population: The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Salt-Tolerance: The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Spironolactone: A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in fetal tissues. Many effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor such as VASODILATION and sodium loss are the opposite of that of the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Angiotensinogen: An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory: Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Receptor, Endothelin B: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Recommended Dietary Allowances: The amounts of various substances in the diet recommended by governmental guidelines as needed to sustain healthy life.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Captopril: A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.Mice, 129 Strain: Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Receptor, Endothelin A: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Receptors, Endothelin: Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Hyperphagia: Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Cyclic GMP: Guanosine cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to the sugar moiety in both the 3'- and 5'-positions. It is a cellular regulatory agent and has been described as a second messenger. Its levels increase in response to a variety of hormones, including acetylcholine, insulin, and oxytocin and it has been found to activate specific protein kinases. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Limit the intake of simple sugars to less than 10% of calorie (below 5% of calories or 25 grams may be even better) Limit salt ... Limit salt intake. Choose more fresh foods, instead of processed ones. Drink alcohol in moderation. Doing so has health ... and salt, with minimal intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, legumes, and whole grains." An unhealthy diet is a major risk factor ... sodium from all sources and ensure that salt is iodized. Less than 5 grams of salt per day can reduce the risk of ...
Aging, acculturation, salt intake, and hypertension. Hypertension. 1997; 29:171-176. James Howe. A people who would not kneel: ... Does flavanol intake influence mortality from nitric oxide-dependent processes? Ischemic heart disease, stroke, diabetes ...
Extended bedrest Inadequate fluid and salt intake. OI is "notoriously difficult to diagnose." As a result, many patients have ... Using postural maneuvers and pressure garments Treating co-existing medical conditions Increasing fluid and salt intake ...
Increased salt intake results in increased salt excretion. Lowered environmental temperature eventually starts chills and ... Insufficient fluid intake, or excessive urine output or both, are the usual causes. Delta cell A type of cell in the pancreas ... It can be caused too much iron intake (the normal body conserves iron very well, and has few routes for discarded excess iron ... For instance, adequate fiber intake seems to have an effect on vascular health. The mechanisms by which these effects happen ...
"The Effect of Salt & Sugar on Dehydrated Cells". Retrieved 12 December 2017. Murray, Robert; Stofan, John (2001). "Ch. 8: ... It occurs when free water loss exceeds free water intake, usually due to exercise, disease, or high environmental temperature. ... Coyle Edward F (2004). "Fluid and fuel intake during exercise". Journal of Sports Sciences. 22 (1): 39-55. doi:10.1080/ ... Dehydration occurs when water intake is not enough to replace free water lost due to normal physiologic processes, including ...
... resulting in profound effects on the retention of salt and water; they also influence intake of salt and water. The renal ...
Carter, Helen (2004-09-13). "Food watchdog launches drive to cut salt intake , Society". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2009- ... She gained credit from "salt victims" who had suffered strokes supporting her work to make large companies reduce salt. ... Johnson campaigned to cut salt levels, setting targets to significantly reduce salt in foods in order to improve cardiovascular ... "Firms urged to cut salt in food". BBC. BBC News. 6 May 2004. Retrieved 2009-02-04. Nutrition and health is one aspect of ...
"Reduced salt intake critical, American Heart Association says". AHA Blog. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 24 November 2014. Official ... In March 2014, another meta-analysis was published in the journal which found that reduced salt consumption and increased salt ... In 2011, a meta-analysis published in the journal found no strong evidence that reducing salt consumption decreased all-cause ... The study proved controversial because it found that the level of salt consumption associated with the best health outcomes was ...
Mickleborough TD (April 2010). "Salt Intake, Asthma, and Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction: A Review". The Physician and ... Salt Intake, Asthma, and Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction: A Review. ...
increased salt intake also can increase body fluid volume as well as increasing urine sodium excretion, which further increases ... Initial therapy: hydration, increasing salt intake, and forced diuresis. hydration is needed because many patients are ... after rehydration, a loop diuretic such as furosemide can be given to permit continued large volume intravenous salt and water ...
High dietary intakes of saturated fat, trans-fats and salt, and low intake of fruits, vegetables and fish are linked to ... Another review of dietary salt concluded that there is strong evidence that high dietary salt intake increases blood pressure ... Moderate evidence was found that high salt intake increases cardiovascular mortality; and some evidence was found for an ... Bochud, M; Marques-Vidal, P; Burnier, M; Paccaud, F (2012). "Dietary Salt Intake and Cardiovascular Disease: Summarizing the ...
"Salt intake and iodine status of women in Samoa". ResearchGate. 25 (1). doi:10.6133/apjcn.2016.25.1.09. ISSN 1440-6047. Li, Mu ... Thailand has identified iodine deficiency and has implemented programs to have iodized salt (universal salt iodization) within ... which is insufficient to ensure an adequate daily iodine intake. Papua New Guinea has had a universal salt iodization strategy ... 9 (9). "Iodised salt". Wikipedia. 2017-01-10. MA, Land; Webster, J.L.; G, Ma; M, Li; S, Asi Faletoese SU'A; M, Ieremia; S, ...
McKay, Betsy (22 March 2010). "PepsiCo Develops 'Designer Salt' to Chip Away at Sodium Intake". Wall Street Journal. Archived ... sea salt and cracked black pepper, sea salt and chardonnay wine vinegar, sea salt and cider vinegar, spicy and aromatic curry, ... Walkers make a similar product (using the Smiths brand) called "Chipsticks" which are sold in ready-salted and salt and vinegar ... The three main flavors are ready salted, cheese and onion, and salt and vinegar; however, other examples are prawn cocktail ( ...
... how salt intake is regulated, and (d) how dietary calcium influences salt intake. Recently, he has been investigating calcium ... Tordoff, MG (1996). "The importance of calcium in the control of salt intake". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 20: 89-99 ... Tordoff, MG; Alleva, AM (1990). "Effect of drinking soda sweetened with aspartame or high-fructose corn syrup on food intake ... doi:10.1016/0149-7634(95)00051-f. Tordoff, MG (2001). "Calcium: taste, intake and appetite". Physiological Reviews. 81: 1567- ...
High salt intake raises the blood pressure in salt sensitive individuals; lack of exercise, obesity, and depression can play a ... Lifestyle changes include weight loss, decreased salt intake, physical exercise, and a healthy diet. If lifestyle changes are ... One review suggests that sugar may play an important role in hypertension and salt is just an innocent bystander. Events in ... Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt in the diet, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol use. The ...
Increasing salt intake, by adding salt to food, taking salt tablets, or drinking sports drinks and other electrolyte solutions ... Salt intake is not appropriate for people with high blood pressure. Combining these techniques with gradual physical training ... In some cases, when increasing oral fluids and salt intake is not enough, intravenous saline or the drug desmopressin is used ... POTS can also be secondary to gastrointestinal disorders that are associated with low fluid intake due to nausea or fluid loss ...
Bedrest and salt intake have not been found to be useful for either treatment or prevention. Pre-eclampsia affects 2-8% of ... Further, there is no evidence that changing salt intake has an effect. Supplementation with antioxidants such as vitamin C, D ... Duley L, Henderson-Smart D, Meher S (Oct 19, 2005). "Altered dietary salt for preventing pre-eclampsia, and its complications ... Recommendations for prevention include: aspirin in those at high risk, calcium supplementation in areas with low intake, and ...
... (sodium salt)". Cayman Chemical. Cayman Chemical Company. 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2015. Kahler A, Zimmermann M, ... Langhans W (1999). "Suppression of hepatic fatty acid oxidation and food intake in men". Nutrition. 15 (11-12): 819-28. doi: ...
... this also minimized intake of water, salt and low flying birds. Both takeoff and landing were assisted with large span-length ... The nose of the aircraft mounted two turbofan engines with the intakes on top of the nose and the exhaust along the side of the ...
If blood pressure is very low, the salt intake should be increased. Drugs that can lead to vasoconstriction should be avoided. ... With dietary measures such as salt intake and sometimes with low-dose steroids a drop in blood pressure - especially during ...
Salt iodization is the recommended strategy for ensuring adequate human iodine intake. To iodize salt, potassium iodate is ... In India, Tata Salt Plus, priced at an economical rate of Rs 20 per kg, is an iodine plus iron fortified salt, developed by the ... Double-fortified salt (DFS) is a public health tool for delivering nutritional iron. DFS is fortified with both iodine and iron ... By 2008, it was estimated that 72 per cent of households in developing countries were consuming iodized salt and the number of ...
Diet: Dietary changes such as reducing intake of sodium (salt) may help. For some people, reducing alcohol, caffeine, and/or ...
... and salt fluoridation in the rest of Switzerland (around 83% of domestic salt sold had fluoride added). However it became ... Fluoride's effects depend on the total daily intake of fluoride from all sources. Drinking water is typically the largest ... Fluoridated salt is available. Croatia does not fluoridate its water. Here are the test results for levels of various water ... Fluoridated salt is available in France, and 3% of the population uses naturally fluoridated water, but the water is not ...
Today, the American society is trying to reduce salt intake; however, if necessary many acclaimed chefs still suggest the ... Therefore, the slaves could have been operating the salt ponds. Early salt production was labor-intensive. Generally the lower ... there were salt ponds on Duck Key and later Charles Howe obtained controlling interest in the salt works in Key West in 1843, ... salt was absolutely necessary for prolonged food preservation, processing and shipment. It is believed that salt production was ...
Salt levels should be monitored as to prevent excessive intake and salt poisoning. Other things that can be monitored and ... Dietary supplements can be given to increase salt levels which has been shown to be effective. ... low salt or low iron diets) or access to the feed. Tail biting even happens out of pure boredom. Stressful situations, boredom ... feed intake, leanness and other production traits. Some of those factors are genetics, breed, gender. The victim pigs of tail ...
... and some for limiting the intake of sugary drinks.[76] There is an association between higher intake of sugar-sweetened fruit ... increased retention of salt and water by the kidneys, and inappropriate regulation of metabolism by the central nervous system. ... and with a macronutrient intake tailed to the individual, to distribute calories and carbohydrates throughout the day.[58][96] ... Other recommendations include emphasizing intake of fruits, vegetables, reduced saturated fat and low-fat dairy products, ...
... simply using iodised salt. This doesnt mean adding more salt to food - just adding iodine to the salt already being used. ... Australians iodine intake is currently half what it was five years ago, but most are unaware that a problem exists. Iodine ... Five years ago health authorities asked bakers to use salt that had been mixed with iodine (iodised salt) in their bread, which ... Next time youre at the supermarket, buy some iodised salt and dont be afraid to have a little each day.. You and your family ...
Iodine may leach out of iodized salt during washing or cooking. Therefore, it has been suggested to add iodized salt on cooked ... For this reason, it is important for pregnant and lactating women, as well as children, to have sufficient iodine intake.. B. ... To avoid iodine deficiency in the United States, table salt is enriched with iodine ("iodized" salt), and iodine is added to ... To avoid iodine deficiency in the United States, table salt is enriched with iodine ("iodized" salt), and iodine is added to ...
... of sodium intake are much higher than current US recommendations. ... New research supports findings that sodium intake is regulated ... Can Too Much Salt Damage Blood Vessels? Yes Excessive salt intake can damage blood vessels, as well as raising the risk of ... Too much salt could increase diabetes risk A high sodium intake (usually from salt) can significantly increase the risk of type ... "Sodium intake will not be changed by altering the salt content of food products or other public-policy attempts to limit sodium ...
The debate over the dangers of a high-salt diet, particularly for older Americans, is nothing new. But, that doesnt mean you ... Sea salt and kosher salt are lower in sodium than table salt. ... Next: Does everyone benefit by reducing his or her salt intake ... The more people can lower their daily salt intake, the more their blood pressure will fall, which is a good thing, the second ... The governments 2010 dietary guidelines for Americans recommend limiting total salt intake from all sources to 1,500 mg a day ...
The question, say Francesco Cappuccio and colleagues, is not whether to reduce salt intake but how to do so. With the upcoming ... Evidence from a very wide variety of studies shows a consistent direct relation between salt intake and blood pressure. A 4.6 g ... Population based interventions indicate that when salt intake is reduced, blood pressure in the community falls. An … ... 5 The blood pressure lowering effect of reducing salt intake is effective in men and women, in all ethnic groups, in all age ...
Although sodium can be consumed in nonchloride forms ([ie, baking soda] and monosodium glutamate [MSG]), salt provides ... table salt), is a major component of our food supply. ... Altered dietary salt intake for preventing and treating ... Salt intake, salt restriction, and primary (essential) hypertension. Author. Lawrence J Appel, MD, MPH. Lawrence J Appel, MD, ... Unravelling the links between calcium excretion, salt intake, hypertension, kidney stones and bone metabolism. J Nephrol 2000; ...
British researchers have found that children with a low-salt diet tend to drink fewer sugary soft drinks and may therefore be ... Salt intake is known to increase the amount a person drinks, but this is the first study to show a link between salt intake and ... Lead author Dr Feng He, a cardiovascular research fellow at St Georges, commented: Not only would reducing salt intake lower ... This means that if the salt content of a typical childs diet is reduced by half, the child will generally drink two fewer ...
The mean dietary salt intake (salt equivalents) was ∼6 g/d, and fluid intake was ∼1440 g/d (Table 1). Salt intake increased ... when reducing dietary salt intake.16 In children on relatively high salt intakes, experiencing a drive for fluid where there is ... Each additional 1 g/d of salt was associated with a 30 g/d greater intake of SSB, and salt intake alone accounted for 11% of ... with each additional 1 g/d of salt being associated with a 92 g/d greater intake of total fluid, and salt intake alone ...
A more accurate test measurement showed a direct link between high salt intake and increased risk of death from cardiovascular ... researchers in a new study say more accurate measurements of salt intake confirms that high salt intake can kill you.. By Allen ... Better estimate of intake more firmly links salt, death. While too much salt has long been known to be bad for health, ... Researchers found a new more accurate test shows a direct link between high salt intake from foods and increased risk of death ...
Evidence is insufficient to conclude that lowering daily sodium intake below 2,300 mg per day either harms or improves ... Current Guidance for Salt Intake Varies. The federal governments current Dietary Guidelines for Americans call for no more ... The committee wasnt tasked with a safe range of daily salt intake and didnt make any statements regarding what those should ... The American Heart Association, in Dallas, Texas, said the IOM report wont affect its position on salt intake. ...
New research indicates that reducing sodium intake may provide kidney and heart benefits for patients with chronic kidney ... "Reducing salt intake may help protect kidney patients heart and kidney health." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 21 Nov ... 2016, November 21). "Reducing salt intake may help protect kidney patients heart and kidney health." Medical News Today. ... Reducing salt intake may help protect kidney patients heart and kidney health. ...
If youre trying to break up with salt, I know what youre asking yourself now... how, oh how, will food ever taste good again ... Salt swaps: 7 seasonings to help you cut your salt intake Updated: April 12, 2017 - 8:01 AM EDT * ... Last week I shared tips to help you break up with salt. But I know what youre asking yourself now... how, oh how, will food ...
Dietary Salt Intake, Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, and Obesity Risk. Carley A. Grimes, Lynn J. Riddell, Karen J. ... Dietary Salt Intake, Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, and Obesity Risk Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Dietary Salt Intake, Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption, and Obesity Risk. Carley A. Grimes, Lynn J. Riddell, Karen J. ... Salt intake (g/d), mean (SD)c. 6.3 (2.6). 6.5 (2.6). 5.8 (2.4). ,0.001. ...
... i notice before my period when my palps are the worse i crave salt...because ive a... ... I read that your chances of experiencing pots could be due to a low salt intake..and svt and pots are quite similar... ... Low salt intake causes svt and pots. I read that your chances of experiencing pots could be due to a low salt intake..and svt ... because ive always limit my salt intake before cause i heard it was bad...so im trying to eat more salt and seeing if that ...
A study by an international research team led by Professor Markus Kleinewietfeld shows that high salt intake inhibits tumor ... Salt impacts experimental tumor models. High salt intake is a known risk factor for high blood pressure and cardiovascular ... have now investigated the impact of high salt intake on tumor growth in mice. They found that a high salt diet inhibited tumor ... However, since high salt intake is suspected to be a risk factor for gastric cancer in humans, the findings of this study and ...
Parents salt intake was slashed through the intervention of their children in a joint UK and China study funded by the Medical ... High salt intakes may boost the risk of obesity in both adults and children, claims new research. ... High salt intake may boost obesity risk 02-Sep-2015. By Michael Stones ... New cancer scare over salt 23-Jul-2012. By John Wood Food producers insist they are doing all they can to reduce salt levels in ...
High salt intake causes 2.3 million deaths per year * Soy for salt: Study reveals long term acceptance of soy sauce ... Jungbunzlauer set sights on salt reduction with new ingredients launch * UK salt intake: Consumption falling, but still some ... Less salt please!. Industry efforts in salt reduction appear to be on trend with the health challenges of an ageing population ... reduced salt intake in food and increasing public awareness on diet and physical activity. ...
Salt intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of prospective studies BMJ 2009; 339 :b4567 ... Salt intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of prospective studies. BMJ 2009; 339 doi: https://doi.org/ ... Salt intake, stroke,.... *Salt intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of prospective studies ...
Too much salt intake could lead to stomach cancer, kidney stones or osteoporosis. In... ... The symptoms of too much salt intake include water retention, dehydration and hypertension, reports SF Gate. ... The symptoms of too much salt intake include water retention, dehydration and hypertension, reports SF Gate. Too much salt ... Too much salt intake over a long period of time can lead to hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, due to the body ...
The researchers calculated that cutting salt consumption to recommended levels worldwide might save almost 3 million lives a ... People who eat high levels of salt have a higher risk of stroke, and possibly heart problems, according to new research. ... year, although this would mean persuading whole populations to halve their salt consumption, which isnt likely to be easy. ... Now, researchers have looked at lots of smaller studies on salt intake to get a better picture of the health effects. They ...
Advice on salt intake in the US is getting more specific - a reduced risk of chronic disease.. ... For example, it said theres no longer enough evidence that people who are 51 and older need less salt than other adults. ... Now, the report says the upper intake level will indicate the threshold for potential toxicity, or when a nutrient causes an ... Previously, the recommended limit was based on an upper intake level, a threshold experts use to indicate a variety of ...
Will consumers now be demanding less salt from industry to protect themselves from coronavirus? ... Related tags: Salt, Salt content, Immune system, COVID Will consumers now be demanding less salt from industry to protect ... and that no studies on salt and COVID-19 had been done. He was also pessimistic that the results would alter salt intake in ... The only major exception is the skin: It functions as a salt reservoir of the body. This is why the additional intake of sodium ...
Ongoing research shows salt increases the number of a specific type of immune cells associated with autoimmune diseases (like ... Why would salt intake have an effect on MS symptoms? Salt increases the number of a specific type of immune cells associated ... QualityHealth Home > Multiple Sclerosis Health Center > Salt Intake May Worsen Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms ... should limit their salt intake to no more than 1,500 mg. a day. (The Guidelines also estimate that Americans ages 2 years and ...
... too little salt may be problematic for some people, so you may want to recon... ... If its so easy to eat salt, how bad can it really be? Well, tons of experts claim lowering your sodium intake should be good ... So, maybe instead of striving for a very low sodium intake, counting your salt milligrams, and possibly giving yourself a heart ... That isnt a lot of salt! It actually works out to about a single teaspoon of table salt, which goes quickly, even if you dont ...
Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases. Physiol Rev. 2005; 85: 679 ... Elliott P, Brown I. Sodium intakes around the world. Presented at: WHO Forum and Technical Meeting on Reducing Salt Intake in ... mean sodium intake is ≈180 mmol/d (10.5 g/d salt) in men and 140 mmol/d (8 g/d salt) in women. In contrast, in preliterate ... Change in Salt Intake Affects Blood Pressure of Chimpanzees. Paul Elliott, Lesley L. Walker, Mark P. Little, John R. Blair-West ...
  • But a study led by scientists at UC-Davis lends credence to a recent finding that sodium intake is controlled by networks in the brain, not by the salt we consume. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Americans get nearly 80 percent of the salt they consume from processed and restaurant food, not from the salt they add when they're cooking at home. (aarp.org)
  • i know too that when u consume a lot of water you need to increase your salt intake too. (medhelp.org)
  • For example, infections with certain skin parasites in laboratory animals heal significantly faster if these consume a high-salt diet: the macrophages, which are immune cells that attack, eat and digest parasites, are particularly active in the presence of salt. (foodnavigator.com)
  • But since the disease may take a more aggressive toll on patients who consume too much, it s probably wise to check the sodium levels in any processed foods before you buy them, and cut back on added salt at the table and in cooking. (qualityhealth.com)
  • The Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 recommends that most Americans consume no more than 2,300 mg. of salt a day. (qualityhealth.com)
  • The Guidelines also estimate that Americans ages 2 years and up consume significantly more salt than recommended an average of 3,400 mg. a day. (qualityhealth.com)
  • The McMaster study also notes that the only people who need to lower their sodium intake are folks who already have hypertension and who also already consume tons of salt on the regular (5 or 6g per day) -- and even then, they say that too-low sodium intake isn't really ideal. (thrillist.com)
  • Mente explains, "If you limit your intake of processed foods and consume plenty of fruits and vegetables and natural/unprocessed foods, you don't need to worry about sodium at all. (thrillist.com)
  • Most of the salt we consume is in processed foods - bread has lots of salt, as do cereal and cakes, cheese and meat, and, of course, snack foods. (time.com)
  • Moms with children who'd started on starchy foods before they were 6 months old were more likely than the other group to report that their kids liked to consume plain salt by licking it off, for example. (time.com)
  • Many people consume far more salt than they realize, with negative results for their blood pressure and general cardiovascular health. (who.int)
  • The NHS recommends you consume no more than 6g of salt per day. (express.co.uk)
  • Now, there is evidence to suggest that the type of salt a person consumes is more important than the amount they consume. (naturalsociety.com)
  • Though the total quantity of salt one may consume in a day is around 6-8 gms, you should consider the salt intake through natural foods like fruits and vegetables, packed foods, processed foods etc, while calculating the total intake. (hubpages.com)
  • The report set general recommendations for water intake based on detailed national data, which showed that women who appear to be adequately hydrated consume an average of approximately 2.7 liters (91 ounces) of total water -- from all beverages and foods -- each day, and men average approximately 3.7 liters (125 ounces) daily. (nationalacademies.org)
  • Older individuals, African Americans, and people with chronic diseases including hypertension, diabetes, and kidney disease are especially sensitive to the blood pressure-raising effects of salt and should consume less than the UL. (nationalacademies.org)
  • More than 95 percent of American men and 90 percent of Canadian men ages 31 to 50, and 75 percent of American women and 50 percent of Canadian women in this age range regularly consume salt in excess of the UL. (nationalacademies.org)
  • However, most American women 31 to 50 years old consume no more than half of the recommended amount of potassium, and men's intake is only moderately higher. (nationalacademies.org)
  • When you consume too much salt, your body retains fluid to dilute the excess sodium. (sfgate.com)
  • Graham MacGregor, professor of cardiovascular medicine at Queen Mary, who led the study, said that the "modest reduction" in salt intake was equivalent to halving the amount of salt we consume each day. (bellenews.com)
  • South Africans consume up to 2 - 3 times the recommended daily allowance of salt of 5 grams per day, according to the Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa published in July 2015. (pps.co.za)
  • The causes of nocturia have generally been chalked up to anxiety, infections, and other medical issues, such as overactive bladder syndrome and enlargement of the prostate, but researchers now say that consuming excess salt could be the culprit. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Angelone, who previously chaired the nutrition committee for the American Heart Association's San Francisco chapter, said that excess salt is harmful to the cardiovascular system in two ways. (fox2now.com)
  • But even if you are not sensitive to sodium and are generally healthy, you may still be putting your health at risk by consuming excess salt. (fox2now.com)
  • The first thing we might experience with excess salt is bloating, an unusual uncomfortable pressure in the stomach, along with bellyache. (negroschronicle.com)
  • This study is the first to indicate that excess salt intake may be one of the environmental factors driving the increased incidence of autoimmune diseases. (bio-medicine.org)
  • We should also note here that processed food, potato wafers, salty snacks, processed meat, canned food contain excess salt, consuming of which is bad for health. (hubpages.com)
  • The study identifies that this practice of making highly salted traditional foods continues. (who.int)
  • Although stratification by study area, with varied salt intake and gastric cancer incidence, attenuated the observed clear associations with salt and salted foods, the frequency categories of highly salted foods such as salted fish roe and salted fish preserves were strongly associated with the risk in both sexes. (nih.gov)
  • Even innocuous-seeming foods like bread and breakfast cereals can contain large amounts of salt. (deccanherald.com)
  • Watch out for large amounts of salt in foods like bread, breakfast cereals, and ready meals. (deccanherald.com)
  • The health pressure group Consensus Action on Salt and Health (CASH) found in 2012 that unnecessary amounts of salt were being added to cheese. (express.co.uk)
  • Making homemade gravies or sauces as opposed to shop bought ones, which are saturated with large amounts of salt is also encouraged. (onlineclinic.co.uk)
  • On average, halloumi (2.71±0.34 g/100 g) and imported blue cheese (2.71±0.83 g/100 g) contained the highest amounts of salt and cottage cheese (0.55±0.14 g/100 g) contained the lowest amount of salt. (bmj.com)
  • The easiest way to reduce one's intake of salt is to reduce the intake of processed foods as they contain significant amounts of salt, for both flavouring and preservative purposes, she says. (pps.co.za)
  • It actually works out to about a single teaspoon of table salt , which goes quickly, even if you don't think you eat tons of salty foods and you rarely use the salt shaker. (thrillist.com)
  • Babies who had already begun eating starchy, sodium-packed morsels like Cheerios and bread in the interim showed a preference for both salty solutions, while babies who had stuck to baby food and low-salt foods like fruits and vegetables did not, according to the research, which was published this week in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition . (time.com)
  • Besides, high salt intake or preference for salty food is discussed to be positive associated with stomach cancer, and according to recent studies probably also obesity risk. (springer.com)
  • Some salty tasting foods obviously contain a high amount of salt, but it can be hidden in a surprising number. (express.co.uk)
  • Upping your intake of potassium after a salty meal also helps push out some of the excess sodium to reduce the bloat and bring your body back in balance. (sfgate.com)
  • The remarkable thing about salt-and probably the reason we crave it so-is that it does so much more than just make foods taste salty. (discovergoodnutrition.com)
  • For systolic pressure, estimates were −12.7 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, −16.9 to −8.5, adjusted) per 100 mmol/d lower sodium in Gabon and −10.9 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, −18.9 to −2.9, unadjusted) and −5.7 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, −12.2 to 0.7, adjusted) for sodium intake lower by 122 mmol/d in Bastrop. (ahajournals.org)
  • One gram of salt intake was calculated as equal to 17.1 mmol sodium excretions. (doctortipster.com)
  • In one study campaign, 90 mmol KHCO(3)/d were supplemented to counteract NaCl-induced LGMA, whereas the other campaign served as a control with only high NaCl intake. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers found their method showed a direct linear relationship between increased sodium intake and increased risk of death. (upi.com)
  • After a period of eight years, the researchers found that while the risk of heart disease was same across the three groups, the number of deaths due to heart disease was the highest among those who consumed the least amount of salt while those who ate highest amount of salt had the lowest rate of death. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers found no evidence that salt intakes of around 4 grams a day were any more beneficial than the advised maximum of 6 grams a day. (wur.nl)
  • But a study led by David McCarron and published in the American Journal of Hypertension found that humans have a specific range of sodium intake each day, which lies between 2,600 and 4,800 mg. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • He notes that his team's new study now defines the normal range of salt intake for humans, showing that the past guidelines have been "well below human needs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Salt intake is known to increase the amount a person drinks, but this is the first study to show a link between salt intake and sugar-sweetened beverages. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • While too much salt has long been known to be bad for health, researchers in a new study say more accurate measurements of salt intake confirms that high salt intake can kill you. (upi.com)
  • A study by an international research team led by Professor Markus Kleinewietfeld (VIB-UHasselt) shows that high salt intake inhibits tumor growth in mice. (news-medical.net)
  • Parents' salt intake was slashed through the intervention of their children in a joint UK and China study funded by the Medical Research Council. (foodmanufacture.co.uk)
  • Hafler and his team are currently conducting a study of the effects of dietary salt on the immune systems of patients newly diagnosed with MS, as well as on healthy individuals. (qualityhealth.com)
  • A recent study out of McMaster University suggests that maybe it's time to rethink those recommendations about salt. (thrillist.com)
  • Tomohiro and his fellow researchers conducted a study involving 321 Japanese men and women who had high salt intake and trouble sleeping due to nighttime urination. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Over the study period, 223 participants were able to lower their salt intake by 2.7 grams per day. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • A new animal study from Europe has drawn an association between pregnant mothers' sodium intake and their newborn's kidney development. (innovations-report.com)
  • This study sheds light on the issue of salt intake during pregnancy and draws attention to the possible consequences of consuming too much or too little salt during pregnancy and the impact it may have on the kidney development of an offspring. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cutting down on the salt intake may provide benefits for the heart and kidney of patients suffering from chronic kidney disease, a new study revealed. (medindia.net)
  • The LowSALT CKD study represents the first blinded randomized controlled trial comparing a high vs low salt intake in people with CKD. (medindia.net)
  • The results of this pilot study suggest the efficacy of planning strategies to help hypertensive women reduce their salt intake. (hindawi.com)
  • Everyone expects sodium intake will continue to go up," study leader Professor Bernard Rosner, from Harvard Medical School, said. (huffingtonpost.co.uk)
  • Feeding babies cereal, bread and crackers, which are high in sodium, may trigger a yearning for salt that lasts a lifetime, according to a new study that examined when and why people start hankering for the taste of salt. (time.com)
  • The small study is far from the last word on children's sodium intake. (time.com)
  • The aim of this study is to assess the benefits of using low-salt and healthy eating educational programme, designed specifically for Bangladeshi kidney patients, compared to the usual die. (bioportfolio.com)
  • our results suggest that they might be able to reduce that bloating, without compromising on healthy fiber, by lowering their sodium intake," says study senior author Noel Mueller, PhD, MPH, an assistant professor in the Department of Epidemiology at the Bloomberg School. (jhsph.edu)
  • The study, conducted by scientists at Brigham and Women's Hospital, used multiple measurements to determine just how salt might affect cardiovascular health. (naturalsociety.com)
  • At day 4 of study, endothelial phosphorylated Smad2 (S465/467) increased and phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) levels decreased in the high-salt-treated rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • This study primarily tests the hypothesis that higher dietary salt intake will be associated with a higher frequency of pathogenic Th17 cells and impaired function of protective regulatory T cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If a relationship between dietary salt intake and immune function is observed, this study will also test: a) whether this relationship is unique to MS subjects or whether it is also present in healthy controls, and b) whether healthier immune function can be restored by restricting dietary salt intake. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • International study: Excess dietary salt may drive the development of autoimmun. (bio-medicine.org)
  • In addition, because Americans and Canadians get the majority of their salt -- 77 percent, according to one study -- from prepared and processed foods, research should be done to help food processors develop alternative technologies that can reduce the amount of salt added during processing without impairing taste, shelf-life, or product qualities at an affordable cost. (nationalacademies.org)
  • In the current study, we examined the associations of SES with dietary salt intake and health outcomes in general Japanese workers (2,266) who participated in this Japanese occupational cohort. (mdpi.com)
  • This is one of the few studies to explore the interaction of ACE genotype and salt intake on hypertension and is also the first such study in Chinese Kazakhs. (bmj.com)
  • In marked contrast to the steady to rising salt intake in the US, many of the other countries in the Health Affairs study have taken far more aggressive steps to reduce the salt content added to processed foods. (foodandhealth.com)
  • This study evaluated the relationship of salt intake and the development of heart failure . (doctortipster.com)
  • This study used 24 hour sodium extraction, which is deliberated the gold standard for salt intake assessment at individual level. (doctortipster.com)
  • A separate study on salt intake, led by researchers at the Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Queen Mary, University of London, analyzed the results of 34 previous trials involving more than 3,000 people. (bellenews.com)
  • DASH-sodium is the sequel to the DASH study, as salt was not a factor originally. (bmj.com)
  • Changes in Dietary Fat Intake and Projections for Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in Sweden: A Simulation StudY. (imace.org)
  • When people in Kazakhstan fail to follow dietary health recommendations, notably those related to salt intake, it contributes to rising levels of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cancer. (who.int)
  • Thus, the committee concluded that the evidence on direct health outcomes does not support recommendations to lower sodium intake within these subgroups to, or even below, 1,500 mg per day. (medpagetoday.com)
  • There are no studies that actually demonstrate that lower sodium intake, when applied to a huge population filled with all kinds of health profiles, lowers mortality or incidence of heart problems. (thrillist.com)
  • The energy-intense nature of hepatic and extrahepatic urea osmolyte production for renal water conservation requires reprioritization of energy and substrate metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle, resulting in hepatic ketogenesis and glucocorticoid-driven muscle catabolism, which are prevented by increasing food intake. (jci.org)
  • Thus, it controls the amount of food intake. (hubpages.com)