A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA that causes mild PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Gram-negative rods widely distributed in LIZARDS and SNAKES, and implicated in enteric, bone (BONE DISEASES), and joint infections (JOINT DISEASES) in humans.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The penultimate step in the pathway of histidine biosynthesis. Oxidation of the alcohol group on the side chain gives the acid group forming histidine. Histidinol has also been used as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The family Erinaceidae, in the order INSECTIVORA. Most are true hedgehogs possessing a coat of spines and a very short tail. Those members of the family found in Southeast Asia (moonrats or gymnures) have normal body hair and a long tail.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 4,5-dihydro-4-oxo-5-imidazolepropanoate to urocanate and water. EC
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-serine and 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate to L-tryptophan and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein that also catalyzes the conversion of serine and indole into tryptophan and water and of indoleglycerol phosphate into indole and glyceraldehyde phosphate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by several Paratyphi serotypes of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. It is similar to TYPHOID FEVER but less severe.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of ethanolamine to acetaldehyde. EC
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in Asia, Africa, and southern Europe.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
One of the early purine analogs showing antineoplastic activity. It functions as an antimetabolite and is easily incorporated into ribonucleic acids.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
The expelling of bacteria from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (1/7066)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

Salmonella typhimurium and lipopolysaccharide stimulate extracellularly regulated kinase activation in macrophages by a mechanism involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phospholipase D as novel intermediates. (2/7066)

Activation of the extracellularly regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is part of the early biochemical events that follow lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of macrophages or their infection by virulent and attenuated Salmonella strains. Phagocytosis as well as the secretion of invasion-associated proteins is dispensable for ERK activation by the pathogen. Furthermore, the pathways used by Salmonella and LPS to stimulate ERK are identical, suggesting that kinase activation might be solely mediated by LPS. Both stimuli activate ERK by a mechanism involving herbimycin-dependent tyrosine kinase(s) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Phospholipase D activation and stimulation of protein kinase C appear to be intermediates in this novel pathway of MEK/ERK activation.  (+info)

Pathogenicity island 2 mutants of Salmonella typhimurium are efficient carriers for heterologous antigens and enable modulation of immune responses. (3/7066)

The potential use as vaccine delivery system of Salmonella typhimurium strains harboring defined mutations in the sseC (HH104) and sseD (MvP101) genes, which encode putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, was evaluated and compared with that of the well-characterized aroA mutant strain SL7207 by using beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) as a model antigen. When orally administered to immune-competent or gamma interferon-deficient (IFN-gamma-/-) BALB/c mice, both mutants were found to be highly attenuated (50% lethal dose, >10(9) bacteria). Both strains were also able to efficiently colonize and persist in Peyer's patches. Immunization with HH104 and MvP101 triggered beta-Gal-specific serum and mucosal antibody responses equivalent to or stronger than those observed in SL7207-immunized mice. Although immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) serum antibodies were dominant in all groups, IgG1 was also significantly increased in mice vaccinated with MvP101 and SL7207. Comparable beta-Gal-specific IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in intestinal lavages from mice immunized with the different strains. Antigen-specific CD4(+) T-helper cells were generated after vaccination with all vaccine prototypes; however, responses were significantly more efficient when HH104 and MvP101 were used (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma were produced by restimulated spleen cells from mice immunized with HH104 than from those vaccinated with the MvP101 or SL7207 derivatives (P +info)

Effect of transforming growth factor beta on experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice. (4/7066)

We have investigated the effect of the in vivo administration of recombinant transforming growth factor beta (rTGF-beta) on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in Salmonella typhimurium experimental infection in mice. The protective response elicited by macrophages was induced by rTGF-beta1 by 2 days after experimental infection, as demonstrated by an increased NO production, while the humoral protective effect began with cytokine mRNA expression 2 days after the challenge and continued after 5 days with cytokine release and lymphocyte activation. We demonstrated that all mice who received rTGF-beta1 survived 7 days after infection. The number of bacteria recovered in the spleens and in the livers of rTGF-beta1-treated mice 2 and 5 days after infection was significantly smaller than that found in the same organs after phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) inoculation. Furthermore, 2 and 5 days after infection, splenic macrophages from rTGF-beta1-treated mice showed a greater NO production than did those from PBS-treated mice. The effect of rTGF-beta1 on S. typhimurium infection in mice was correlated with the expression of cell costimulatory CD28 molecules. Five days after S. typhimurium infection, the percentage of CD28(+)-expressing T cells in splenic lymphocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice increased with respect to that from control mice. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) mRNA was present in a greater amount in spleen cells from rTGF-beta1-treated mice after 2 days, although the intensity of the band decreased 5 days after the challenge. A similar pattern was obtained with the mRNAs for interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, TGF-beta, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which showed greater expression in cells obtained from rTGF-beta1-treated and S. typhimurium-infected mice 2 days after challenge. The treatment with rTGF-beta1 induced an increase in IL-1alpha and IFN-gamma release in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures 5 days after the experimental infection with S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that 5 days after infection, the IFN-gamma titer was significantly greater in the sera of rTGF-beta-treated mice than in those of PBS-treated mice. Also, hsp60 showed greater expression 2 days after the challenge in splenocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice. The role played by proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines and by CD28 is discussed.  (+info)

Molecular basis for the enterocyte tropism exhibited by Salmonella typhimurium type 1 fimbriae. (5/7066)

Salmonella typhimurium exhibits a distinct tropism for mouse enterocytes that is linked to their expression of type 1 fimbriae. The distinct binding traits of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is also reflected in their binding to selected mannosylated proteins and in their ability to promote secondary bacterial aggregation on enterocyte surfaces. The determinant of binding in Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is a 35-kDa structurally distinct fimbrial subunit, FimHS, because inactivation of fimHS abolished binding activity in the resulting mutant without any apparent effect on fimbrial expression. Surprisingly, when expressed in the absence of other fimbrial components and as a translational fusion protein with MalE, FimHS failed to demonstrate any specific binding tropism and bound equally to all cells and mannosylated proteins tested. To determine if the binding specificity of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae was determined by the fimbrial shaft that is intimately associated with FimHS, we replaced the amino-terminal half of FimHS with the corresponding sequence from Escherichia coli FimH (FimHE) that contains the receptor binding domain of FimHE. The resulting hybrid fimbriae bearing FimHES on a Salmonella fimbrial shaft exhibited binding traits that resembled that of Salmonella rather than E. coli fimbriae. Apparently, the quaternary constraints imposed by the fimbrial shaft on the adhesin determine the distinct binding traits of S. typhimurium type 1 fimbriae.  (+info)

Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. (6/7066)

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

Peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activity of the FlgJ protein, essential for flagellar rod formation in Salmonella typhimurium. (7/7066)

Because the rod structure of the flagellar basal body crosses the inner membrane, the periplasmic space, and the outer membrane, its formation must involve hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan layer. So far, more than 10 genes have been shown to be required for rod formation in Salmonella typhimurium. Some of them encode the component proteins of the rod structure, and most of the remaining genes are believed to encode proteins involved in the export process of the component proteins. Although FlgJ has also been known to be involved in rod formation, its exact role has not been understood. Recently, it was suggested that the C-terminal half of the FlgJ protein has homology to the active center of some muramidase enzymes from gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we showed that the purified FlgJ protein from S. typhimurium has a peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activity and that this activity is localized in its C-terminal half. Through oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, we constructed flgJ mutants with amino acid substitutions in the putative active center of the muramidase. The resulting mutants produced FlgJ proteins with reduced enzymatic activity and showed poor motility. These results indicate that the muramidase activity of FlgJ is essential for flagellar formation. Immunoblotting analysis with the fractionated cell extracts revealed that FlgJ is exported to the periplasmic space, where the peptidoglycan layer is localized. On the basis of these results, we conclude that FlgJ is the flagellum-specific muramidase which hydrolyzes the peptidoglycan layer to assemble the rod structure in the periplasmic space.  (+info)

Molecular survey of the Salmonella phage typing system of Anderson. (8/7066)

Typing phages for Salmonella and the prophages of their typical propagation strains were analyzed at the DNA level. Most of them belong to the P22 branch of the lambdoid phages. Acquisition of new plating properties of the typing phages by propagation in particular strains can be due to different host specific modifications of the DNA or to recombination events with residing prophages which are reflected by changes in the respective DNA restriction patterns. It is concluded that the actually available set of typing phages is a historically unique combination of strains.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Unusual Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolate producing CMY-7, SHV-9 and OXA-30 β-lactamases. AU - Hanson, Nancy D.. AU - Moland, Ellen S.. AU - Hossain, Ashfaque. AU - Neville, Stephen A.. AU - Gosbell, Iain B.. AU - Thomson, Kenneth S.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - β-Lactam resistance in Salmonella isolates is increasing. This paper describes the combination of three different β-lactamases, OXA-30, SHV-9 and CMY-7, expressed by an isolate of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. This is the first report of an isolate of Salmonella having both an extended-spectrum β-lactamase and an AmpC β-lactamase.. AB - β-Lactam resistance in Salmonella isolates is increasing. This paper describes the combination of three different β-lactamases, OXA-30, SHV-9 and CMY-7, expressed by an isolate of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. This is the first report of an isolate of Salmonella having both an ...
Exit of salmonellae from the intestinal lumen involves invasion of intestinal epithelial cells, and this invasion relies upon the production of a type III secretory apparatus and protein effector molecules (including prgH and its cotranscribed genes) from SPI-1. These secreted effector molecules mediate changes in host epithelial cells, causing them to ruffle and engulf the bacterium. Our previous work showed that the transcription of prgH, which is part of an operon encoding members of the SPI-1-encoded secretion apparatus, is repressed in the presence of bile. Based on this preliminary observation, in this work, we show that the interaction of serovar Typhimurium with bile dramatically affects its invasive ability by downregulating the transcription of invasion gene regulators, which results in a marked decrease in the transcription of SPI-1 genes involved in epithelial cell entry.. A complex set of transcriptional activators interact to regulate serovar Typhimurium invasion of epithelial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Three-dimensional tissue assemblies. T2 - Novel models for the study of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium pathogenesis. AU - Nickerson, C. A.. AU - Goodwin, T. J.. AU - Terlonge, J.. AU - Ott, C. M.. AU - Buchanan, K. L.. AU - Uicker, W. C.. AU - Emami, K.. AU - LeBlanc, C. L.. AU - Ramamurthy, R.. AU - Clarke, M. S.. AU - Vanderburg, C. R.. AU - Hammond, T.. AU - Pierson, D. L.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The lack of readily available experimental systems has limited knowledge pertaining to the development of Salmonella-induced gastroenteritis and diarrheal disease in humans. We used a novel low-shear stress cell culture system developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in conjunction with cultivation of three-dimensional (3-D) aggregates of human intestinal tissue to study the infectivity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium for human intestinal epithelium. Immunohistochemical characterization and microscopic analysis of 3-D aggregates of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enterobacterial common antigen mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium establish a persistent infection and provide protection against subsequent lethal challenge. AU - Gilbreath, Jeremy J.. AU - Dodds, Jennifer Colvocoresses. AU - Rick, Paul D.. AU - Soloski, Mark J.. AU - Merrell, D. Scott. AU - Metcalf, Eleanor S.. PY - 2012/1. Y1 - 2012/1. N2 - Infection with Salmonella spp. is a significant source of disease globally. A substantial proportion of these infections are caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Here, we characterize the role of the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA), a surface glycolipid ubiquitous among enteric bacteria, in S. Typhimurium pathogenesis. Construction of a defined mutation in the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase gene, wecA, in two clinically relevant strains of S. Typhimurium, TML and SL1344, resulted in strains that were unable to produce ECA. Loss of ECA did not affect the gross cell surface ultrastructure, ...
Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 is essential for invasion of non-phagocytic cells, whereas SPI-2 is required for intracellular survival and proliferation in phagocytes. Some SPI-1 effectors, however, are induced upon invasion of both phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, suggesting that they may also be required post-invasion. In the present work, the presence was analysed of SipA, SopA, SopB, SopD and SopE2 effector proteins of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in vitro and in vivo during murine salmonellosis. Tagged (3×FLAG) strains of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium were inoculated intraperitoneally or intragastrically to BALB/c mice and recovered from the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of moribund mice. Tagged proteins were detected by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting with anti-FLAG antibodies. In vitro experiments showed that SPI-1 effector proteins SipA, SopA, SopB, SopD and SopE2 were secreted under SPI-1 conditions. Interestingly, it was found that S. enterica serovar Typhimurium
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can be internalized by immature dendritic cells (DCs). The interacting host and bacterial molecules initiating this process remain uncharacterized. The objective of this study was to investigate whether specific fimbriae are involved in the early step of binding and uptake of Salmonella by DCs. Type 1 fimbriated S. enterica serovar Typhimurium or recombinant Escherichia coli expressing the type 1 fimbriae showed a significantly greater ability to attach to murine bone-marrow-derived DCs than non-fimbriated bacteria. The FimH adhesin was required for efficient interactions with DCs, since fimbriated fimH mutants were impaired in both binding and internalization. Finally, the internalization involved a FimH-dependent process but did not require sipB, a gene essential for Salmonella-mediated invasion of mammalian epithelial cells. Collectively, these data suggest that the bacterial interaction of DCs through the type 1 fimbrial adhesin FimH is sufficient to target S.
Fosmidomycin is a time-dependent nanomolar inhibitor of methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) synthase, which is the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in the MEP pathway to isoprenoids. Importantly, fosmidomycin is one of only a few MEP pathway-specific inhibitors that exhibits antimicrobial activity. Most inhibitors identified to date only exhibit activity against isolated pathway enzymes. The MEP pathway is the sole route to isoprenoids in many bacteria, yet has no human homologs. The development of inhibitors of this pathway holds promise as novel antimicrobial agents. Similarly, analyses of the bacterial response toward MEP pathway inhibitors provides valuable information toward the understanding of how emergent resistance may ultimately develop to this class of antibiotics. We have examined the transcriptional response of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium LT2 to sub-inhibitory concentrations of fosmidomycin via cDNA microarray and RT-PCR. Within the regulated genes identified by
Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonise reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonise the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid
The immobilization of a whole microbial cell is an important process used in nanotechnology of biosensors and other related fields, especially the development of bio-hybrid materials based on live organisms and inorganic compounds. Here, we described an essay to develop a bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella Typhimurium cells and layered double hydroxides (LDH). The synthetic clays have a good capacity to be a host matrix for immobilization of live entity like bacteria. The incorporation of LDH in the nutritive broth shows the capacity of bacteria to grow under the inorganic conditions. The immobilization of bacteria onto the LDH Layer deposited on gold wafers was successfully done and the verification of the final material consistence was given by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis that shows the possibility of various covalent links that can be established between the polar functional group of the cell and the interlayer level in the LDH. The roughness of the surface ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RosE represses Std fimbrial expression in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. AU - Chessa, Daniela. AU - Winter, Maria G.. AU - Nuccio, Sean Paul. AU - Tükel, Çagla. AU - Baumler, Andreas J. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - The Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) genome contains a large repertoire of putative fimbrial operons that remain poorly characterized because they are not expressed in vitro. In this study, insertions that induced expression of the putative stdABCD fimbrial operon were identified from a random bank of transposon mutants by screening with immuno-magnetic particles for ligand expression (SIMPLE). Transposon insertions upstream of csgC and lrhA or within dam, setB and STM4463 (renamed rosE) resulted in expression of StdA and its assembly into fimbrial filaments on the cell surface. RosE is a novel negative regulator of Std fimbrial expression as indicated by its repression of a std::lacZ reporter construct and by binding of the ...
Bacterial fecal shedding by persistently infected hosts is the major source of new infection and disease for a number of bacterial pathogens. Yet, this pivotal phase of the pathogenesis of infection has been the most difficult phase to model experimentally. Infection of 129X1/SvJ (Nramp1+/+) mice with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium leads to a persistent infection (38). We show here that animals persistently infected with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium can transmit the infection to naïve animals housed in the same cage. However, there was considerable variability among mice in the ability to transmit bacteria to naïve animals. Also, we noted that the shedding levels varied significantly among individual donor mice and from those of exposed infected animals. We found that only a subset of infected mice, about 27%, shed high levels of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium in their feces (,108 CFU/g) and efficiently served as a reservoir to transmit the organisms to naïve individuals. We designated ...
1998) Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig ...
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS), particularly Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, is among the leading etiologic agents of bacterial enterocolitis globally and a well-characterized cause of invasive disease (iNTS) in sub-Saharan Africa. In contrast, S. Typhimurium is poorly defined in Southeast Asia, a known hot spot for zoonotic disease with a recently described burden of iNTS disease. Here, we aimed to add insight into the epidemiology and potential impact of zoonotic transfer and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in S. Typhimurium associated with iNTS and enterocolitis in Vietnam. We performed whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction on 85 human (enterocolitis, carriage, and iNTS) and 113 animal S. Typhimurium isolates isolated in Vietnam. We found limited evidence for the zoonotic transmission of S. Typhimurium. However, we describe a chain of events where a pandemic monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium (serovar I:4,[5],12:i:-sequence type 34 [ST34]) has been introduced into ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - FimY of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium functions as a DNA-binding protein and binds the fimZ promoter. AU - Wang, Ke Chuan. AU - Hsu, Yuan Hsun. AU - Huang, Yi Ning. AU - Lin, Jiunn Horng. AU - Yeh, Kuang Sheng. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium produces type 1 fimbriae with binding specificity to mannose residues. Elements involved in fimbrial structural biosynthesis, transport, and regulation are encoded by the fim gene cluster. FimZ, FimY, FimW, STM0551, and an arginine transfer RNA (fimU) were previously demonstrated to regulate fimbrial expression. The amino acid sequences of the C-terminal portion of FimY revealed similarity with those of LuxR-like proteins. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that FimY possessed DNA-binding capacity and bound a 605-bp DNA fragment spanning the intergenic region between fimY and fimZ, while a FimY protein harboring a double mutation in the C-terminal helix-turn-helix region containing a ...
BioAssay record AID 532763 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against Salmonella serovar Typhimurium SL1344 expressing ramA::aph mutant by broth dilution method in presence of chlorpromazine.
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) play a key role in regulating immune responses and controlling infection. However, the direct role of IECs in restricting pathogens remains incompletely understood. Here, we provide evidence that IL-22 primed intestinal organoids derived from healthy human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) to restrict Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 infection. A combination of transcriptomics, bacterial invasion assays, and imaging suggests that IL-22-induced antimicrobial activity is driven by increased phagolysosomal fusion in IL-22-pretreated cells. The antimicrobial phenotype was absent in hIPSCs derived from a patient harboring a homozygous mutation in the IL10RB gene that inactivates the IL-22 receptor but was restored by genetically complementing the IL10RB deficiency. This study highlights a mechanism through which the IL-22 pathway facilitates the human intestinal epithelium to control microbial infection.
article{3186904, abstract = {Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases. As Salmonella can form biofilms in which it is better protected against antimicrobial agents on a wide diversity of surfaces, it is of interest to explore ways to inhibit biofilm formation. Brominated furanones, originally extracted from the marine alga Delisea pulchra, are known to interfere with biofilm formation in several pathogens. In this study, we have synthesized a small focused library of brominated furanones and tested their activity against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium biofilm formation. We show that several furanones inhibit Salmonella biofilm formation at non-growth-inhibiting concentrations. The most interesting compounds are (Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)3- alkyl-2(5H)-furanones with chain lengths of two to six carbon atoms. A microarray study was performed to analyze the gene expression profiles of Salmonella in the presence of (Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)3- ...
The intestinal mucosa forms the first line of defense against infections mediated by enteric pathogens such as salmonellae. Here we exploited intestinal organoids (iHOs) generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) to explore the interaction of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with iHOs. Imaging and RNA sequencing were used to analyze these interactions, and clear changes in transcriptional signatures were detected, including altered patterns of cytokine expression after the exposure of iHOs to bacteria. S. Typhimurium microinjected into the lumen of iHOs was able to invade the epithelial barrier, with many bacteria residing within Salmonella-containing vacuoles. An S. Typhimurium invA mutant defective in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 invasion apparatus was less capable of invading the iHO epithelium. Hence, we provide evidence that hIPSC-derived organoids are a promising model of the intestinal epithelium for assessing interactions with enteric pathogens ...
Invasive Salmonella typhimurium induces dramatic cytoskeletal changes on the membrane surface of mammalian epithelial cells and RAW264.7 macrophages as part of its entry mechanism. Noninvasive S. typhimurium strains are unable to induce this membrane ruffling. Invasive S. typhimurium strains invade RAW264.7 macrophages in 2 h with 7- to 10-fold higher levels than noninvasive strains. Invasive S. typhimurium and Salmonella typhi, independent of their ability to replicate intracellularly, are cytotoxic to RAW264.7 macrophages and, to a greater degree, to murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Here, we show that the macrophage cytotoxicity mediated by invasive Salmonella is apoptosis, as shown by nuclear morphology, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and host cell DNA fragmentation. S. typhimurium that enter cells causing ruffles but are mutant for subsequent intracellular replication also initiate host cell apoptosis. Mutant S. typhimurium that are incapable of inducing host cell membrane ruffling fail ...
Invasive Salmonella typhimurium induces dramatic cytoskeletal changes on the membrane surface of mammalian epithelial cells and RAW264.7 macrophages as part of its entry mechanism. Noninvasive S. typhimurium strains are unable to induce this membrane ruffling. Invasive S. typhimurium strains invade RAW264.7 macrophages in 2 h with 7- to 10-fold higher levels than noninvasive strains. Invasive S. typhimurium and Salmonella typhi, independent of their ability to replicate intracellularly, are cytotoxic to RAW264.7 macrophages and, to a greater degree, to murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Here, we show that the macrophage cytotoxicity mediated by invasive Salmonella is apoptosis, as shown by nuclear morphology, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and host cell DNA fragmentation. S. typhimurium that enter cells causing ruffles but are mutant for subsequent intracellular replication also initiate host cell apoptosis. Mutant S. typhimurium that are incapable of inducing host cell membrane ruffling fail ...
Placental infection by Salmonella enterica typhimurium in a murine model : mechanisms of pathogenesis and role of inflammatory cell death
Whole-genome sequencing is rapidly replacing current molecular typing methods for surveillance purposes. Our study evaluates core-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis for outbreak detection and linking of sources of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and its monophasic variants during a 7-month surveillance period in Denmark. We reanalyzed and defined 8 previously characterized outbreaks from the phylogenetic relatedness of the isolates, epidemiologic data, and food traceback investigations. All outbreaks were identified, and we were able to exclude unrelated and include additional related human cases. We were furthermore able to link possible food and veterinary sources to the outbreaks. Isolates clustered according to sequence types (STs) 19, 34, and 36. Our study shows that core-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis is suitable for surveillance and outbreak investigation for Salmonella Typhimurium (ST19 and ST36), but whole genome-wide analysis may be required for the tight
Salmonella enterica causes systemic diseases (typhoid and paratyphoid fever), nontyphoidal septicemia (NTS), and gastroenteritis in humans and other animals worldwide. An important but underrecognized emerging infectious disease problem in sub-Saharan Africa is NTS in children and immunocompromised adults. A current goal is to identify Salmonella mutants that are not pathogenic in the absence of key components of the immune system such as might be found in immunocompromised hosts. Such attenuated strains have the potential to be used as live vaccines. We have used transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) to screen mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium for their ability to infect and grow in the tissues of wild-type and immunodeficient mice. This was to identify bacterial genes that might be deleted for the development of live attenuated vaccines that would be safer to use in situations and/or geographical areas where immunodeficiencies are prevalent. The relative ...
In order to deploy virulence factors at appropriate times and locations, microbes must rapidly sense and respond to various metabolite signals. Previously, we showed a transient elevation of the methionine-derived metabolite methylthioadenosine (MTA) concentration in serum during systemic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Here we explored the functional consequences of increased MTA concentrations on S Typhimurium virulence. We found that MTA, but not other related metabolites involved in polyamine synthesis and methionine salvage, reduced motility, host cell pyroptosis, and cellular invasion. Further, we developed a genetic model of increased bacterial endogenous MTA production by knocking out the master repressor of the methionine regulon, metJ Like MTA-treated S Typhimurium, the ΔmetJ mutant displayed reduced motility, host cell pyroptosis, and invasion. These phenotypic effects of MTA correlated with suppression of flagellar and Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) networks. S
Clonally derived bacterial populations exhibit significant genotypic and phenotypic diversity that contribute to fitness in rapidly changing environments. Here, we show that serial passage of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 (StLT2) in broth, or within a mouse host, results in selection of an evolved population that inhibits the growth of ancestral cells by direct contact. Cells within each evolved population gain the ability to express and deploy a cryptic orphan toxin encoded within the rearrangement hotspot (rhs) locus. The Rhs orphan toxin is encoded by a gene fragment located downstream of the main rhs gene in the ancestral strain StLT2. The Rhs orphan coding sequence is linked to an immunity gene, which encodes an immunity protein that specifically blocks Rhs orphan toxin activity. Expression of the Rhs orphan immunity protein protects ancestral cells from the evolved lineages, indicating that orphan toxin activity is responsible for the observed growth inhibition. Because ...
Salmonella can survive for long periods under extreme desiccation conditions. This stress tolerance poses a risk for food safety, but relatively little is known about the molecular and cellular regulation of this adaptation mechanism. To determine the genetic components involved in Salmonellas cellular response to desiccation, we performed a global transcriptomic analysis comparing S. enterica serovar Typhimurium cells equilibrated to low water activity (aw 0.11) and cells equilibrated to high water activity (aw 1.0). The analysis revealed that 719 genes were differentially regulated between the two conditions, of which 290 genes were up-regulated at aw 0.11. Most of these genes were involved in metabolic pathways, transporter regulation, DNA replication/repair, transcription and translation, and, more importantly, virulence genes. Among these, we decided to focus on the role of sopD and sseD. Deletion mutants were created and their ability to survive desiccation and exposure to aw 0.11 was compared to
Type 1 fimbriae are the most commonly found fimbrial appendages on the outer membrane of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. Previous investigations indicate that static broth culture favours S. Typhimurium to produce type 1 fimbriae, while non-fimbriate bacteria are obtained by growth on solid agar media. The phenotypic expression of type 1 fimbriae in S. Typhimurium is the result of the interaction and cooperation of several genes in the fim gene cluster. Other gene products that may also participate in the regulation of type 1 fimbrial expression remain uncharacterized. In the present study, transposon insertion mutagenesis was performed on S. Typhimurium to generate a library to screen for those mutants that would exhibit different type 1 fimbrial phenotypes than the parental strain. Eight-two mutants were obtained from 7,239 clones screened using the yeast agglutination test. Forty-four mutants produced type 1 fimbriae on both solid agar and static broth media, while none of the other 38
The comparison of the publicly available genomes of the virulent Salmonella serovar Typhimurium strains SL1344, 14028s, D23580 to that of the virulence attenuated isolate LT2 revealed the absence of a full sequence of bacteriophage ST64B in the latter. Four selected ST64B regions of unknown function (sb7-sb11, sb46, sb49-sb50, and sb54) were mapped by PCR in two strains collections; 1) 310 isolates of S. Typhimurium from human blood or stool samples and from food, animal and environmental reservoirs, and 2) 90 isolates belonging to other serovars. The region sb49-sb50 was found to be unique to S. Typhimurium and was strongly associated to strains isolated from blood samples (100% and 28.4% of the blood and non-blood isolates, respectively). The region was cloned into LT2 and knocked out in SL1344 and these strains were compared to wild type isogenic strains in in vitro assays used to predict virulence association. No difference in invasion of the Int407 human cell line was observed between the ...
a CIP, ciprofloxacin; CTZ, ceftriaxone; ND, not determined. CIP (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml), Salmonella isolates with ciprofloxacin MIC of ≥4 μg/ml; CTZ (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml), Salmonella isolates with ceftriaxone MIC of ≥4 μg/ml; CIP, CTZ (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml), Salmonella isolates with both ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone MICs of ≥4 μg/ml. ...
BACKGROUND: Salmonella infections cause gastrointestinal and systemic diseases worldwide and are the leading causes of food-borne illnesses in North America (1-4). Salmonella serotype typhimurium (ST), in particular, is increasingly becoming a major public health concern because of its ability to acquire multiple resistant genes (5,6).OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic, temporal and geographical distributions, and reported risk factors of nonoutbreak cases of ST reported to a surveillance system in Ontario.METHODOLOGY: Descriptive analyses were performed on data on salmonellosiscases reported in Ontario between 1990 and 1998. Direct age- and sex-standardized rates were computed, and temporal trend analyses were performed using simple linear regression and a general additive model with alocally weighted regression (LOESS) smoother.RESULTS: The mean annual rates of infections with all Salmonella serotypes and with ST were 27 cases per 100,000 persons and 3.7 cases per 100,000 persons, ...
A paper published in Lancet Infectious Diseases (behind a paywall) by researchers from the Institut Pasteur and the French National Reference Centre for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella generated much buzz online among those interested in antimicrobial resistance. They had studied 288 historical (1911-1969) isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium - a zoonotic bacterium that is one of the most common causes of non-typhoidal Salmonella…
Salmonella typhimurium. Coloured transmission electron micrograph of Salmonella typhimurium bacteria dividing. The orange areas in the centre of the cells are the sites of the genetic material. This rod-shaped, Gram-negative species is a pathogen of many animals and is the commonest cause of food poisoning (Salmonellosis) in humans. It produces enterotoxins which act on the small intestine. Infection occurs when these bacteria contaminate food such as meat, milk and eggs. Symptoms of food poisoning include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. The infection is usually controllable and is rarely fatal. Magnification x34,300 at 6x7cm size. - Stock Image B220/0830
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiple fimbrial adhesins are required for full virulence of Salmonella typhimurium in mice. AU - Van Der Velden, Adrianus W M. AU - Baumler, Andreas J. AU - Tsolis, Renee M. AU - Heffron, Fred. PY - 1998/6. Y1 - 1998/6. N2 - Adhesion is an important initial step during bacterial colonization of the intestinal mucosa. However, mutations in the Salmonella typhimurium fimbrial operons lpf, pef, fim only moderately alter mouse virulence. The respective adhesins may thus play only a minor role during infection or S. typhimurium may encode alternative virulence factors that can functionally compensate for their loss. To address this question, we constructed mutations in all four known fimbrial operons of S. typhimurium: fim, lpf, pef, and agf. A mutation in the agfB gene resulted in a threefold increase in the oral 50% lethal dose (LD50) of S. typhimurium for mice. In contrast, an S. typhimurium strain carrying mutations in all four fimbrial operons (quadruple mutant) had a 26-fold ...
DNA in intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium relaxes during growth in the acidified (pH 4-5) macrophage vacuole and DNA relaxation correlates…
Member of the two-component regulatory system PhoP/PhoQ which regulates the expression of genes involved in virulence, adaptation to acidic and low Mg(2+) environments and resistance to host defense antimicrobial peptides. Essential for intramacrophage survival of S.typhimurium. In low periplasmic Mg(2+), PhoQ phosphorylates PhoP, resulting in the expression of PhoP-activated genes (PAG) and repression of PhoP-repressed genes (PRG). In high periplasmic Mg(2+), PhoQ dephosphorylates phospho-PhoP, resulting in the repression of PAG and may lead to expression of some PRG. Essential for transcription of spiC inside macrophages by controlling the expression of the two-component regulatory system SsrB/SpiR (SsrA) and Pir at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels respectively. Promotes expression of the two-component regulatory system PmrA/PmrB via activation of pmrD gene. Is required to attenuate bacterial growth within fibroblast cells and to enhance bacterial resistance to bile in intestinal cells.
HilA activates the expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium invasion genes. To learn more about regulation of hilA, we isolated Tn5 mutants exhibiting reduced hilA and/or invasion gene expression. In addition to expected mutations, we identified Tn5 insertions in pstS, fadD, flhD, flhC, and fliA. Analysis of the pstS mutant indicates that hilA and invasion genes are repressed by the response regulator PhoB in the absence of the Pst high-affinity inorganic phosphate uptake system. This system is required for negative control of the PhoR-PhoB two-component regulatory system, suggesting that hilA expression may be repressed by PhoRPhoB under low extracellular inorganic phosphate conditions. FadD is required for uptake and degradation of long-chain fatty acids, and our analysis of the fadD mutant indicates that hilA is regulated by a FadDdependent, FadR-independent mechanism. Thus, fatty acid derivatives may act as intracellular signals to regulate hilA expression. flhDC and fliA encode
Involvement of ISCR3 and ISCR1 with the Salmonella genomic island 1 genetic element.SGI1 is a genetic element of approximately 43 kb (15). It has been associated mainly with MDR isolates of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT104 that are resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. This pathogen emerged in the last decade as a global animal and human health problem (15). Outbreaks of MDR S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 have occurred in poultry, beef, and pigs and their food products, as well as in dairy products and salad ingredients. MDR salmonellae are very common in the United Kingdom and increasingly prevalent in many other countries (15).. Since its initial discovery in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104, SGI1 has also been found in other S. enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types, i.e., DT120, DT12, DT1, and U302, and in other serovars such as Agona, Paratyphi B, Albany, Meleagridis, Newport, Emek, Cerro, Derby, Dusseldorf, ...
Spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is increasingly reported worldwide. The presence of a pattern of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphe
Herbicides are frequently released into both rural and urban environments. Commercial herbicide formulations induce adaptive changes in the way bacteria respond to antibiotics. Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli were exposed to common co-formulants of formulations, and S. enterica sv. Typhimurium was exposed to active ingredients dicamba, 2,4-D and glyphosate to determine what ingredients of the commercial formulations caused this effect. Co-formulants Tween80 and carboxymethyl cellulose induced changes in response, but the pattern of the responses differed from the active ingredients, and effect sizes were smaller. A commercial wetting agent did not affect antibiotic responses. Active ingredients induced changes in antibiotic responses similar to those caused by complete formulations. This occurred at or below recommended application concentrations. Targeted deletion of efflux pump genes largely neutralized the adaptive response in the cases of increased survival in antibiotics,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Discovery of Salmonella virulence factors translocated via outer membrane vesicles to murine macrophages. AU - Yoon, Hyunjin. AU - Ansong, Charles. AU - Adkins, Joshua N.. AU - Heffron, Fred. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, an intracellular pathogen and leading cause of food-borne illness, encodes a plethora of virulence effectors. Salmonella virulence factors are translocated into host cells and manipulate host cellular activities, providing a more hospitable environment for bacterial proliferation. In this study, we report a new set of virulence factors that is translocated into the host cytoplasm via bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMV). PagK (or PagK1), PagJ, and STM2585A (or PagK2) are small proteins composed of ~70 amino acids and have high sequence homology to each other (,85% identity). Salmonella lacking all three homologues was attenuated for virulence in a mouse infection model, suggesting at least partial functional ...
Massis, LM et al. Anti-flagellin antibody responses elicited in mice orally immunized with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Sept 2008, vol.103, no.6, p.606-610. ISSN 0074- ...
Role of outer membrane lipopolysaccharides in the protection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from desiccation damage ...
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium U288 has firmly established itself within the United Kingdom pig production industry. The prevalence of this highly pathogenic multidrug-resistant serovar at such a critical point in the food chain is therefore of great concern. To enhance our understanding of this microorganism, whole-genome and plasmid sequencing was performed.. ...
Runkel, S (2014) Endogenous production and detoxification of a potent cytotoxin, nitric oxide, in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Doctoral thesis, University of East Anglia. ...
The health risks posed by Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium through the consumption of raw vegetables and vegetarian burger patties necessitates the needs for the optimization of analytical approach for their detection and enumeration in the raw vegetables, which served as potential vehicles for transmission of these pathogenic microorganisms. We sought to establish a rapid, economic and sensitive method to detect and determine the load of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium using the most probable numbers (MPN) in combination with the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR). From the naturally contaminated one hundred and seventy five samples tested (n = 175), the overall prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 28%, Salmonella Enteritidis was 20% and Salmonella Typhimurium was 14.3%, respectively. The MPN-MPCR is a quantitative method to determine the density of cell concentration of Salmonella in all the samples (Salmonella spp. ranged from
Vaccination with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lacking DNA adenine methyltransferase confers cross-protective immunity against multiple Salmonella serotypes. The mechanistic basis is thought to be associated with the de-repression of genes that are tightly regulated when transiting from one microenvironment to another. This de-repression provides a potential means for the production of a more highly expressed and stable antigenic repertoire capable of inducing cross-protective immune responses. To identify genes encoding proteins that may contribute to cross-protective immunity, we used a Salmonella Typhimurium DNA adenine methyltransferase mutant strain (UK-1 dam mutant) derived from the parental UK-1 strain, and assessed the transcriptional profile of the UK-1 dam mutant and UK-1 strain grown under conditions that simulate the intestinal or endosomal microenvironments encountered during the infective process. As expected, the transcriptional profile of the UK-1 dam mutant identified a set
In Denmark, as part of the national laboratory-based surveillance system of human enteric infections, all Salmonella Typhimurium isolates are currently subtyped by using phage typing, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We evaluated the value of real-time typing that uses multiple-locus-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) to detect possible outbreaks. Because only a few subtypes identified by PFGE and phage typing account for most infections, we included MLVA typing in the routine surveillance in a 2-year period beginning December 2003. The 1,019 typed isolates were separated into 148 PFGE types and 373 MLVA types. Several possible outbreaks were detected and confirmed. MLVA was particularly valuable for discriminating within the most common phage types. MLVA was superior to PFGE for both surveillance and outbreak investigations of S. Typhimurium.
National Salmonella Centre (Vet), Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, India.. The effect of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium, a zoonotic serovar, on mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) cultivar Pant Mung-3 plants was studied. Inoculation of mung bean seeds with Salmonella Typhimurium (7.2 x 10(5) CFU/ml) reduced sprouting rate (P , 0.07). This effect was more pronounced at higher levels of contamination. In the soil inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (7.2 x 10(6) CFU/g), germination was retarded and the number of defective sprouts was also significantly higher (P , 0.002). Salmonella Typhimurium grew inside germinating seeds and plant tissues and persisted in seedlings, adult plants, and harvested seedlings dried and stored at room temperature (30 degrees C) up to 45 days. Phaseolus aureus plants grown in sterile soil was resistant to Salmonella Typhimurium infection at 15 days of age and cleared Salmonella from all the aerial parts within 3 h of ...
Becoming antibiotic resistant is often associated with fitness costs for the resistant bacteria. This is seen as a loss of competitiveness against the antibiotic-sensitive wild-type in an antibiotic-free environment. In this study, the physiological alterations associated with fitness cost of antibiotic resistance in vitro (in the laboratory medium), and in vivo (in a mouse infection model), are identified in the model system of fusidic acid resistant (FusR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.. FusR mutants have mutations in fusA, the gene that encodes translation elongation factor G (EF-G). FusR EF-G has a slow rate of regeneration of active EF-G·GTP off the ribosome, resulting in a slow rate of protein synthesis. The low fitness of FusR mutants in vitro, and in vivo, can be explained in part by a slow rate of protein synthesis and resulting slow growth. However, some FusR mutants with normal rates of protein synthesis still suffer from reduced fitness in vivo. We observed that FusR ...
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in ...
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage P22 ATCC ® 19585-B1™ Designation: P22 TypeStrain=False Application: Emerging infectious disease research
Salmonella is the second most frequent cause of foodborne illness in Canada and pork is one of sources for human salmonellosis. Salmonella has also the potential to cause clinical disease in pigs. Salmonella is commonly found on Ontario swine farms. Thus control strategies should be implemented. Vaccination appears to be one of the most promising approaches. In Canada, there is currently available a live Salmonella Choleraesuis vaccine for use in pigs and a live Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine for use in poultry. However, the course of immune responses induced by the above vaccines in 11 pigs is not well studied. The objective of this proposal is to evaluate and compare the immune responses produced by these two Salmonella vaccines in pigs. This research can provide a better understanding of pig immune responses against Salmonella attenuated vaccines and will help to develop new vaccines for controlling Salmonella on Ontario swine farms.. ...
Background: S. Typhi, a human-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar, causes a systemic intracellular infection in humans (typhoid fever). In comparison, S. Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in humans, but causes a systemic typhoidal illness in mice. The PhoP regulon is a well studied two component (PhoP/Q) coordinately regulated network of genes whose expression is required for intracellular survival of S. enterica. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), we examined the protein expression profiles of three sequenced S. enterica strains: S. Typhimurium LT2, S. Typhi CT18, and S. Typhi Ty2 in PhoP-inducing and non-inducing conditions in vitro and compared these results to profiles of \(phoP^−/Q^−\) mutants derived from S. Typhimurium LT2 and S. Typhi Ty2. Our analysis identified 53 proteins in S. Typhimurium LT2 and 56 proteins in S. Typhi that were regulated in a PhoP-dependent manner. As expected, many proteins ...
Abstract: Poultry industry usually exposing birds to a variety of actions and stressors includs fasting for gastrointestinal emptying before transportation and where birds are often exposed to high environmental temperature during the summer months. These environmental stressors may have influences on bird performance and susceptibility to pathogens such as Salmonella enteritidis by altering the intestinal micrbiota and changes in the gut integrity. Approach: This research was conducted to show that acute stressors in the poultry production can induce changes in the normal intestinal microbiota and epithelium structure and execratory functions, which may cause an increase in the opportunities of attachment of Salmonella enteritidis. Results: Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of 24 h feed withdrawal with 24 h exposure to high temperature (30°C) on intestinal characteristics of broilers. Attachment of Salmonella enteritidis to ileal tissue was determined using an in vitro ...
humans, resulting in Being zoonotic, Salmonella enterica subsp. Salmonella pullorum 5. at 37°C and allowed to grow for 18 to 24 hours The LPS is made up of an O-antigen, a polysaccharide core, and lipid A, which connects it to the outer membrane. greater amounts of atmospheric oxygen, and in Remove garments that may have become soiled or contaminated and place them in a double red plastic bag. This pathogen is infamously Immunology, Infection, Rosenberger, C., Scott, Once this is Disease/Infection bluish-green with black centres, indicating that typhimurium, an aerobic bacteria, to to the spleen and liver where it causes Gram-negative Salmonella typhimurium that are produced as a result of engulfment include being lactose negative, citrate Salmonella is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacilli which move with the use of its peritrichous flagella.The genus Salmonella can be divided into two species (S. enterica and S. bongori), based on their phenotypic profile.The genus Salmonella is a ...
Part of the ABC transporter complex MalEFGK involved in maltose/maltodextrin import. Responsible for energy coupling to the transport system.
We compared antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtypes of 1,028 human and 716 animal Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates from Minnesota from 1997 to 2003. Overall, 29% of human isolates were multidrug resistant. Predominant phenotypes included resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline (ACSSuT or AKSSuT). Most human multidrug-resistant isolates belonged to PFGE clonal group A, characterized by ACSSuT resistance (64%), or clonal group B, characterized by AKSSuT resistance (19%). Most animal isolates were from cattle (n = 358) or swine (n = 251). Eighty-one percent were multidrug resistant; of these, 54% were at least resistance phenotype ACSSuT, and 43% were at least AKSSuT. More than 80% of multidrug-resistant isolates had a clonal group A or B subtype. Resistance to ceftriaxone and nalidixic acid increased, primarily among clonal group A/ACSSuT isolates. Clonal group B/AKSSuT ...
Effect of Low Dose γ-Irradiation on the Fate and Cell Envelope of Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Typhimurium - ${\gamma}$-irradiation;cell envelop damage;antibiotic resistance;Bacillus cereus;Escherichia coli;Salmonella Typhimurium;
Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT104, resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol/florfenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline, has disseminated worldwide. The resistance genes reside on the 43-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1), which is transferable. Drug-resistant variants of SGI1 have been identified in numerous serotypes. Strains harboring SGI1 may be more virulent and have a tendency to rapidly disseminate.
Many dogs and cats naturally carry Salmonella (mostly Salmonella typhimurium) in their digestive tracts. The report states that studies have found a 1-15% prevalence of Salmonella in the faeces of healthy dogs, and 1-18% in healthy cats.. According to the report, Salmonella is the most common food-borne bacteria. Around 1.4 million people in the U.S. contract Salmonella infections each year. About 1,000 of these die. About half of all Salmonella infections are from restaurants; and are often traced to infected, but asymptomatic, food handlers. Many of us have Salmonella infections and feel no ill effects. Meat, poultry, eggs, milk, fruits and vegetables can be contaminated with Salmonella. Processed foods can be easily infected in a contaminated plant. Recent food recalls for Salmonella have involved nuts, chocolate bars, peppers, and peanut butter. SALMONELLA INFECTION DOES NOT ALWAYS CAUSE ILL-HEALTH. MANY CARRIERS OF SALMONELLA SHOW NO SYMPTOMS OF DISEASE. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficacy of Salmonella typhimurium A1-R versus chemotherapy on a pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX). AU - Hiroshima, Yukihiko. AU - Zhao, Ming. AU - Maawy, Ali. AU - Zhang, Yong. AU - Katz, Matthew H.G.. AU - Fleming, Jason B.. AU - Uehara, Fuminari. AU - Miwa, Shinji. AU - Yano, Shuya. AU - Momiyama, Masashi. AU - Suetsugu, Atsushi. AU - Chishima, Takashi. AU - Tanaka, Kuniya. AU - Bouvet, Michael. AU - Endo, Itaru. AU - Hoffman, Robert M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R) on pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX). The PDOX model was originally established from a pancreatic cancer patient in SCID-NOD mice. The pancreatic cancer PDOX was subsequently transplanted by surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI) in transgenic nude red fluorescent protein (RFP) mice in ...
The GeneChip Porcine Genome Array was used to identify the transcriptional response upon either Salmonella typhimurium (ST) or Salmonella choleraesuis (SC) infection in two porcine epithelial cell lines (IPEC-J2, from jejunum and IPI-2I, from ileum) during 2 and 4 hours post infection. The objectives in this study were first, to identify the different response between the epithelial cell lines from different gut regions; second, to study how the Salmonella serotypes used could elicit a different host response; and third, to determine the effect of the time-points on the differentially gene expression. Overall design: Epithelial cells were seeded into 6-well tissue culture plates and grown to confluence in 5% CO2 at 37ºC. Monolayers were infected for 1 h. with Salmonella typhimurium or Salmonella choleraesuis serotypes (MOI 1:10) or incubated with media alone (Control cells). Extracellular bacteria were removed, and cultures were further incubated during 2 and 4 h. in the presence of 50 µg/ml of the
Although, haemolysis was also observed on blood agar prepared with whole blood, clarity of zone was more evident on blood agar made from washed erythrocytes. The local public health department confirmed the organism to be Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica â ¦ Representative dataare given in figure 4. The Salmonella are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli, motile, nonâ capsulated, non-sporing organism.Salmonella currently comprises of about 2,500 serotypes or species. microorganisms Article Validating Thermal Lethality to Salmonella enterica in Chicken Blood by Simulated Commercial Rendering Caleb Wong de la Rosa 1, Kourtney A. Daniels 2, Rosana G. â ¦ Severe pediatric malaria is an important risk factor for developing disseminated infections with nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS). Incubate plates 24 ± 2 h at 35°C. Clear zone haemolysis was best observed on blood agar â ¦ Adaptation of the Endogenous Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi clyA-Encoded Hemolysin for ... ...
We report the genome sequence of a monophasic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium strain (TW-Stm6) isolated in Australia that is similar to epidemic multidrug-resistant strains from Europe and elsewhere. This strain carries additional antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance genes on a large (275-kb) IncHI2 plasmid ...
Non-typhoidal Salmonella is an important bacterial pathogen causing worldwide morbidity and mortality. Early interactions between Salmonella Typhimurium and intestinal epithelium have been demonstrated in animal models, but little is known in humans. After HEp-2 cell infection and extraction of genomic DNA using 1,440 transposon mutants of Salmonella Typhimurium, Transposon Directed Insertion-site Sequencing (TraDIS) identified 6 novel Salmonella virulence genomic loci responsible for adhesion/invasion (intergenic sucD-cydA, glyA, yqiC, wzxE, and rfaI) and intracellular replication (speG). The aims of this project were to a) create the single-gene mutants by site-directed mutagenesis, b) characterize the discovered genes by testing the created mutants in the established in vitro human epithelial cells (e.g. HEp-2 cells, polarized Caco-2 cells, and LS174T cells) and polarized human intestinal ex vivo organ culture models to study Salmonella virulence (bacterial adhesion, invasion, and ...
Salmonella infections remain a big problem worldwide, causing enteric fever by Salmonella Typhi (or Paratyphi) or self-limiting gastroenteritis by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) in healthy individuals. NTS may become invasive and cause septicemia in elderly or immuno-compromised individuals, leading to high mortality and morbidity. No vaccines are currently available for preventing NTS infection in human. As these invasive NTS are restricted to several O-antigen serogroups including B1, D1, C1 and C2, O-antigen polysaccharide is believed to be a good target for vaccine development. In this study, a strategy of O-serotype conversion was investigated to develop live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccines against the major serovars of NTS infections. The immunodominant O4 serotype of S. Typhimurium was converted into O9, O7 and O8 serotypes through unmarked chromosomal deletion-insertion mutations. O-serotype conversion was confirmed by LPS silver staining and western blotting. All O-serotype conversion
1.Cheng, S., et al., Bacterial microcompartments: their properties and paradoxes. Bioessays, 2008. 30(11-12): p. 1084-95. 2.Yeates, T.O., et al., Protein-based organelles in bacteria: carboxysomes and related microcompartments. Nat Rev Microbiol, 2008. 6(9): p. 681-91. 3.Shively, J.M., Inclusion bodies of prokaryotes. Annu Rev Microbiol, 1974. 28(0): p. 167-87. 4.Chen, P., D.I. Andersson, and J.R. Roth, The control region of the pdu/cob regulon in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol, 1994. 176(17): p. 5474-82. 5.Havemann, G.D., E.M. Sampson, and T.A. Bobik, PduA is a shell protein of polyhedral organelles involved in coenzyme B(12)-dependent degradation of 1,2-propanediol in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium LT2. J Bacteriol, 2002. 184(5): p. 1253-61. 6.Brinsmade, S.R., T. Paldon, and J.C. Escalante-Semerena, Minimal functions and physiological conditions required for growth of salmonella enterica on ethanolamine in the absence of the metabolosome. J Bacteriol, 2005. 187(23): p. 8039-46. ...
In Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Southern Brazil, a clonal group of Salmonella Enteritidis has been identified as the main cause of foodborne diseases, in the last years. Given that, the objective of this study was to evaluate the survival in simulated gastric fluid (FGS) and the intestinal invasion ability of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE86) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST99) submitted or not to acid adaptation. The microorganisms were grown in culture media and culture media supplemented with glucose, aiming to promote acid adaptation. After that, approximately 9log of SE86 (Isolated from a foodborne outbreak) and ST99 (not involved with foodborne outbreaks), acid-adapted or not adapted, were exposed to FGS with pH 1.5, and inoculated in adult male Wistar rats. Germ-free mice were also inoculated but with approximately 2 log, and the animals were observed during 21 days, at aseptic conditions. Animal feces and portions of the gastrointestinal tract were examined by microbiological analysis, and ...
The extensive medical and agricultural use and misuse of antibiotics during the last 70 years has caused an enrichment of resistant pathogenic bacteria that now severely threatens our capacity to efficiently treat bacterial infections. While is has been known for a long time that high concentrations of antibiotics can select for resistant mutants, less is known about the lower limit at which antibiotics can be selective and enrich for resistant bacteria.. In this thesis we investigated the role of low concentrations of antibiotics and heavy metals in the enrichment and evolution of antibiotic resistance. Selection was studied using Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 with different resistance mutations, different chromosomal resistance genes as well as large conjugative multidrug resistance plasmids. Using very sensitive competition experiments, we showed that antibiotic and heavy metal levels more than several hundred-fold below the minimal inhibitory concentration ...
Deficiency of a modified nucleoside in tRNA often mediates suppression of +1 frameshift mutations. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain TR970 (hisC3737), which requires histidine for growth, a potential +1 frameshifting site, CCC-CAA-UAA, exists within the frameshifting window created by insertion of a C in the hisC gene. This site may be suppressed by peptidyl-tRNAProcmo5UGG (cmo(5)U is uridine-5-oxyacetic acid), making a frameshift when decoding the near-cognate codon CCC, provided that a pause occurs by, e.g., a slow entry of the tRNAGlnmnm5s2UUG (mnm(5)s(2)U is 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine) to the CAA codon located in the A site. We selected mutants of strain TR970 that were able to grow without histidine, and one such mutant (iscS51) was shown to have an amino acid substitution in the L-cysteine desulfurase IscS. Moreover, the levels of all five thiolated nucleosides 2-thiocytidine, mnm(5)s(2)U, 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine, 4-thiouridine, and ...
The flagellar systems of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica exhibit a significant level of genetic and functional synteny. Both systems are controlled by the flagellar specific master regulator FlhD4C2. Since the early days of genetic analyses of flagellar systems it has been known that E. coli flhDC can complement a ∆flhDC mutant in S. enterica. The genomic revolution has identified how genetic changes to transcription factors and/or DNA binding sites can impact the phenotypic outcome across related species. We were therefore interested in asking: using modern tools to interrogate flagellar gene expression and assembly, what would the impact be of replacing the flhDC coding sequences in S. enterica for the E. coli genes at the flhDC S. entercia chromosomal locus? We show that even though all strains created are motile, flagellar gene expression is measurably lower when flhDCEC are present. These changes can be attributed to the impact of FlhD4C2 DNA recognition and the protein-protein ...
Phylogenetic diversity of the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica inferred from genome-wide reference-free SNP characters ...
The first priority in case of a Salmonella contamination it to trace the source as soon as possible. To facilitate an efficient search it is good to know that different sources of Salmonella contamination are often associated with distinct Salmonella serotypes. Therefore, it is essential in any Salmonella reduction program to know which serotype is the culprit. The traditional Kauffmann-White method for confirming and serotyping Salmonella takes at least several days to obtain an end result. Also, up to 10 - 15% of cases yield inconclusive results. This is why Check-Points developed Check & Trace Salmonella, which overcomes these hurdles. It provides a rapid Salmonella confirmation and serotyping method based on DNA technology for routine use in any laboratory. With a single test - which can be performed in one day - it confirms the presence of Salmonella and identifies the serotype. If you suspect a Salmonella contamination in your poultry farm, Check & Trace Salmonella is the fastest and most ...
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Salmonella caused by an infectious agent (pathogen) that is called Salmonella enteriditis. The bacteria is larger than a virus; but, is visible with a microscope. It is a microscopic living creature that passes from the feces of people or animals to others. It has been causing illnesses for over 100 years. It infects the cell, multiples within it then bursts the cell. Special effect protein factors are required for salmonella intestinal invasion and the induction of fluid secretion and inflammatory responses. Salmonella is most common in birds, mainly poultry. Newborn calves are also susceptible to the bacteria. The feces from the dam could get in the mouth of the calf after being born. Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella enteric are which causes human disease. Salmonellosis spreads to people by ingestion of Salmonella bacteria that is from contaminated food. Salmonella is worldwide and can contaminate almost any food type, but outbreaks of the disease have highly involved raw eggs, raw meat, ...
1. Taylor J, McCoy JH. Salmonella and Arizonae infections and intoxications. In Riemann, H (ed.) Foodborne Infections and Intoxications. Academic Press:New York, New York. 1969;3-72.. 2. Bean NH, Griffin PM. Foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States 1973-1987: pathogens, vehicles and trends. J Food Prot. 1990; 53:804-817.. 3. Lammerding AM, Garcia MM, Mann ED, Robinson Y, Dorward WJ, Truscott RB, Tittiger F. 1988. Prevalence of Salmonella and thermophilic Campylobacter in fresh pork, beef, veal and poultry in Canada. J Food Prot. 1988; 51:47-52.. 4. Buchwald DS, Blaser MJ. A review of human salmonellosis. II. Duration of excretion following infection and nontyphi Salmonella. Rev Infect Dis. 1984; 6:345-356.. 5. Kotova AL, Kondratskaya SA, Yasutis IM. 1988. Salmonella carrier state and biological characteristics of the infectious agent. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1988; 32:71-78.. 6. Wood RL, Pospischil A, Rose R. 1989. Distribution of persistent Salmonella typhimurium infection in ...
For several years, the resistance of Salmonella enterica to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins has been increasingly reported, as has the diversity of β-lactamases involved in this resistance. Using a chronological approach, we can assume that the extended-spectrum β-lactamases observed between 1985 and 1990 concerned SHV and TEM derivatives (1, 9) whereas those described since 1990 concerned not only new class A β-lactamases, such as CTX-M type and PER enzymes (2, 4, 15), but also plasmid-mediated class C β-lactamases, namely DHA-1 (8) and CMY-2 (7, 13). Fortunately, all these plasmid-mediated class A and class C β-lactamases do not confer imipenem (IMI) resistance to the isolates. However, as presented in this paper, the association of different mechanisms of resistance led to IMI resistance in one of the two multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Wien which were recently found in Tunis.. The two isolates (SW468 and SW1107) came from the blood of two neonates ...
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Muenchen ATCC ® BAA-1676D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Muenchen strain MZ1478 TypeStrain=False Application:
Many environmental signals are known to stimulate or repress expression of the Salmonella invasion regulon (for a review see Lucas and Lee, 2000). These signals are transduced by an unknown mechanism to HilA, which then directly activates invF (Lostroh et al., 2000). In this study, we examined the role of InvF and SicA in the regulation of a specific subset of invasion genes encoding secreted effector proteins and their cognate chaperones. A consensus sequence, the InvF binding site, was identified in three chromosomally unlinked invasion loci. The sicA promoter controls the expression of the sicAsip/sspBCDA and, most likely, the sicPsptP genes. Sip/SspB and C have been shown to be required for the translocation of several other proteins, including SigD, SopE, and SptP (Wood et al., 1996; Collazo and Galán, 1997; Galyov et al., 1997; Fu and Galán, 1998b). SipB has been assigned several functions from effector translocator to stimulator of bacterial induced apoptosis (Kaniga et al., 1995b; ...
Abstract Aims: The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of continuous ohmic heating for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in ...
Salmonella are ubiquitous enteric bacteria, responsible for thousands of deaths world-wide.. In this book, the authors present current research in the study of the classification, genetics and disease outbreak cases relating to salmonella.. Topics include the pre- and post-harvest intervention strategies for controlling salmonella contamination in broiler production; salmonella enterica survival to biocides and antibiotics; salmonella new-port contamination in produce; genome comparisons of salmonella; salmonella in sub-Antarctica and Antarctica; and hazard of salmonella in the intact shell egg. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumor targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R in combination with gemcitabine (GEM) regresses partially GEM-resistant pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse models. AU - Kawaguchi, Kei. AU - Miyake, Kentaro. AU - Zhao, Ming. AU - Kiyuna, Tasuku. AU - Igarashi, Kentaro. AU - Miyake, Masuyo. AU - Higuchi, Takashi. AU - Oshiro, Hiromichi. AU - Bouvet, Michael. AU - Unno, Michiaki. AU - Hoffman, Robert M.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2018, © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.. PY - 2018/8/18. Y1 - 2018/8/18. N2 - Gemcitabine (GEM) is first-line therapy for pancreatic cancer but has limited efficacy in most cases. Nanoparticle-albumin bound (nab)-paclitaxel is becoming first-line therapy for pancreatic cancer, but also has limited efficacy for pancreatic cancer. Our goal was to improve the treatment outcome in patient-like models of pancreatic cancer. We previously established patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) ...
Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104 is a major strain of Salmonella linked with food-borne illness and a significant concern to the beef industry. DT104 strains are often multiply drug-resistant and are easily spread in the close parameters of beef cattle ranches. A toxin found on the genome of DT104 strains, called artAB, has homology to other well characterized bacterial toxins. The goal of this study is to find an efficient way of genotyping and identifying the artAB toxin in bovine Salmonella isolates. The primary method used is Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPCR), which allows for simultaneous PCR of multiple genes. We obtained four sets of primers to identify Salmonella species, phage type and artAB. In separate trials using 8 agricultural Salmonella samples we have found that the MPCR program is effective and will work for continued genotyping. ArtAB has thus far been found in 3 of 8 samples and correlates well with DT104. This work will help to define the importance of artAB in bovine
The aim of this research was to evaluate the risk of inoculated Salmonella persisting on the outside of the shell of hens eggs. Hens eggs were surface inoculated with a cocktail of Salmonella strains and stored for up to 54 days at 4, 10 and 20 °C and at 80 and 90% relative humidity. Salmonella survival showed an irregular pattern, with extremes of high recovery and no recovery. However, salmonellae were always recovered after resuscitation. Monte Carlo simulation of different scenarios using relevant assumptions indicated that the distribution of surviving Salmonella was skewed towards low numbers, suggesting higher chances of Salmonella persisting on the eggs in low numbers (,104 cfu egg−1). Although numbers were low, the research demonstrated the ability of salmonellae to survive on the shells of eggs following contamination and this clearly has safety implications for handling of eggs in the food industry and the domestic environment. ...
Infections and inflammation can lead to cachexia and wasting of skeletal muscle and fat tissue by as yet poorly understood mechanisms. We observed that gut colonization of mice by a strain of Escherichia coli prevents wasting triggered by infections or physical damage to the intestine. During intestinal infection with the pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium or pneumonic infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, the presence of this E. coli did not alter changes in host metabolism, caloric uptake, or inflammation but instead sustained signaling of the insulin-like growth factor 1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway in skeletal muscle, which is required for prevention of muscle wasting. This effect was dependent on engagement of the NLRC4 inflammasome. Therefore, this commensal promotes tolerance to diverse diseases. ...
Salmonella ser. Typhimurium , 6.9 at 61.5 °C (142.7 °F)[46]. (A log10 reduction between 6 and 7 means that 1 bacterium out of 1 ... it also kills the harmful bacteria Salmonella, Listeria, Yersinia, Campylobacter, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli ...
... the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium; the virus bacteriophage T4, an RNA virus and humans. In such studies, numerous mutations ...
... the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium; the virus bacteriophage T4, an RNA virus, and humans. The intermolecular forces likely ...
... the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium; and the virus bacteriophage T4. In several such studies, numerous mutations defective in ...
Reinigung und Eigenschaften der L-Histidinolphosphat-2-Oxoglutarat-Aminotransferase (EC 2. 6. 1. 9.) aus Salmonella typhimurium ...
isolated the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) homologue. Later it would be shown by Smith and Maguire ... Tao T, Snavely MD, Farr SG, Maguire ME (May 1995). "Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: mgtA encodes a P-type ATPase ... Snavely MD, Miller CG, Maguire ME (Jan 1991). "The mgtB Mg2+ transport locus of Salmonella typhimurium encodes a P-type ATPase ... Gibson MM, Bagga DA, Miller CG, Maguire ME (Nov 1991). "Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: the influence of new ...
"Shikimate kinase isoenzymes in Salmonella typhimurium". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 243 (3): 676-7. PMID 4866525. ...
In 1890 he isolated Salmonella typhimurium. In 1893, he was involved in research into the flour moth, "scourge of the flour ...
Eisenstark, A. (1965). "Mutagen-induced hybridization of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 X Escherichia coli K12 Hfr". Proceedings of ... strains of Salmonella typhimurium; the discovery that bacteriophage can transfer plasmid genes as well as chromosomal genes; ... Wormser, Gary P.; Janda, J. Michael (2008). "Review of Salmonella Methods and Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology, edited ... Schatten, H.; Eisenstark, A. (22 August 2007). Schatten, Heide; Eisenstark, Abraham (eds.). Salmonella: Methods and Protocols. ...
... has mutagenic effects on Salmonella typhimurium. The maximum safe concentration of dichloroacetylene in air ...
Luginbuhl GH, Hofler JG, Decedue CJ, Burns RO (October 1974). "Biodegradative L-threonine deaminase of Salmonella typhimurium ...
Salmonella typhimurium propanediol diffusion facilitator (gene pduF). Yeast FPS1, a glycerol uptake/efflux facilitator protein ...
Active site between two monomers of glutamine synthetase from Salmonella typhimurium. Cation binding sites are yellow and ... "Feedback inhibition of fully unadenylylated glutamine synthetase from Salmonella typhimurium by glycine, alanine, and serine". ...
Arena F, Ciliberto G, Ciampi S, Cortese R (1978). "Purification of pseudouridylate synthetase I from Salmonella typhimurium". ...
Typing of Salmonella typhimurium by means of bacteriophage. The Bacteriological Hygienical Department of the Royal Veterinary ...
The CorA transport system is the primary Mg2+ influx system of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. CorA is ubiquitous ... October 1998). "The CorA Mg2+ transport protein of Salmonella typhimurium. Mutagenesis of conserved residues in the third ... "The CorA Mg2+ transport protein of Salmonella typhimurium. Mutagenesis of conserved residues in the third membrane domain ...
It is primarily found in Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Enterobactin is the ... Pollack JR, Neilands JB (March 1970). "Enterobactin, an iron transport compound from Salmonella typhimurium". Biochemical and ...
The plasmid is a natural plasmid from Salmonella typhimurium. In the early 1970s, Herbert Boyer and Stanley Norman Cohen ...
Wang JY, Koshland DE (1982). "The reversible phosphorylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase of Salmonella typhimurium". Arch. ...
Yourno J, Ino I (1968). "Purification and crystallization of histidinol dehydrogenase from Salmonella typhimurium LT-2". J. ... Loper JC (1968). "Histidinol dehydrogenase from Salmonella typhimurium Crystallization and composition studies". J. Biol. Chem ...
Stolowich NJ, Iida K, Scott AI (1992). "Expression of 9 Salmonella typhimurium enzymes for cobinamide synthesis. Identification ...
Stolowich NJ, Iida K, Scott AI (1992). "Expression of 9 Salmonella typhimurium enzymes for cobinamide synthesis. Identification ... biosynthetic genes of Salmonella typhimurium". J. Bacteriol. 175 (11): 3303-16. doi:10.1128/jb.175.11.3303-3316.1993. PMC ...
Gupta SD, Wu HC, Rick PD (August 1997). "A Salmonella typhimurium genetic locus which confers copper tolerance on copper- ... 5) suppressors of copper sensitivity (TC# 5.A.1.5.1; copper tolerance proteins) of Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae ...
Wang JY, Koshland DE (October 1, 1982). "The reversible phosphorylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase of Salmonella typhimurium ...
... "sRNAs and the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium". RNA Biology. 9 (4): 437-45. doi:10.4161/rna.20480. PMC ... Polymyxin envelope stress assays such as this have been used for the study of small RNA (sRNA) responses in Salmonella enterica ...
P. Chen, D. I. Andersson & J. R. Roth (September 1994). "The control region of the pdu/cob regulon in Salmonella typhimurium". ... R. M. Jeter (May 1990). "Cobalamin-dependent 1,2-propanediol utilization by Salmonella typhimurium". Journal of General ... I. Stojiljkovic, A. J. Baumler & F. Heffron (March 1995). "Ethanolamine utilization in Salmonella typhimurium: nucleotide ... "Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Colonizing the Lumen of the Chicken Intestine Grows Slowly and Upregulates a Unique Set ...
Kohlhaw G, Leary TR, Umbarger HE (1969). "Alpha-isopropylmalate synthase from Salmonella typhimurium Purification and ...
Purification and properties of component I from Salmonella typhimurium". Biochemistry. 7 (10): 3566-73. doi:10.1021/bi00850a034 ...
"Prevention of Salmonella typhimurium colonization of broilers with D-mannose". Poultry science. 68 (10): 1357-60. doi:10.3382/ ... "Inhibition by mannose of in vitro colonization of chicken small intestine by Salmonella typhimurium". Poultry science. 68 (10 ... "Effect of Carbohydrates on Salmonella typhimurium Colonization in Broiler Chickens". Avian Diseases. 33 (3): 531-4. doi:10.2307 ... to inhibit salmonella infections. Different studies showed that salmonella can bind via type-1-fimbriae (finger-like ...
"Lipid A modifications in polymyxin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium: PMRA-dependent 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, and ... "Purification and characterization of the L-Ara4N transferase protein ArnT from Salmonella typhimurium". Protein Expression and ... "Accumulation of a polyisoprene-linked amino sugar in polymyxin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli: ... "Identification of a functionally important loop in Salmonella typhimurium ArnT". Biochemistry. 49 (1): 29-35. doi:10.1021/ ...
... resistance system in Salmonella typhimurium: no evidence for direct acting mutagenesis by 15-oxosteviol, a possible metabolite ...
Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica (serovar Typhimurium) has also been described as a cause of bacillary dysentery,[ ...
"Residence time and food contact time effects on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from tile, wood and carpet: testing the five ... "Residence time and food contact time effects on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from tile, wood and carpet: testing the five ... A more thorough study in 2006 using salmonella on wood, tiles, and nylon carpet, found that the bacteria were able to thrive ...
January 1980). "Genetic control of susceptibility to Salmonella typhimurium in mice: Role of the LPS gene". Journal of ...
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ATCC 14028) as seen with a microscope at 1000 fold magnification and following Gram ...
Decameric structure of AhpC, a bacterial 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin from Salmonella typhimurium.[141] ...
A 2006 Space Shuttle experiment found that Salmonella typhimurium, a bacterium that can cause food poisoning, became more ...
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ATCC 14028) tulad ng nakikita sa pamamagitan ng isang mikroskopyo na pinalaki ng 1000 ... Ang pinaka-karaniwang mga organismo ay ang: Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, at Salmonella.[70] ... Salmonella typhi,[56] at Giardia na uri.[23] Sa mga may Giardia o Entamoeba histolytica na uri, ang paggamot gamit ang ... Salmonella,Shigella, at Campylobacter.[16] Kung ang pagkain ay nakontamina ng bakterya at nanatili sa temperatura ng silid ng ...
Salmonella typhimurium. *Protozoa *Giardia lamblia. *Eimeria vrste. *Histomonas meleagridis. Medicinska upotreba[уреди]. Ovaj ...
"Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: genetic characterization and cloning of three magnesium transport loci". Journal ...
... lalo na sa mga hindi tipikal na serotypes Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella choleraesuis and ... Osteomyelitis na ang pinakakaraniwang sanhi ng sickle cell disease angSalmonella ( ... Salmonella paratyphi B) na sinundan ngStaphylococcus aureus at Gram-negative enteric bacilli na marahil ay dahil ang ...
... in Australia using such vectors as Salmonella typhimurium, vaccinia, and canine herpesvirus, but no reduction in fertility has ...
... are caused by Salmonella enterica Typhimurium or Salmonella enterica Enteritidis. A new form of Salmonella Typhimurium (ST313) ... Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhimurium, but can be abbreviated to Salmonella Typhimurium. Further ... Initially, each Salmonella "species" was named according to clinical considerations,[39] for example Salmonella typhi-murium ( ... The two species of Salmonella are Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. S. enterica is the type species and is further ...
"A novel transcriptional regulation mechanism in the flagellar regulon of Salmonella typhimurium: an antisigma factor inhibits ... Anti-sigma factors have been found in a number of bacteria, including Escherichia coli and Salmonella, and in the T4 ...
Salmonella typhimurium. *Protozoa *Giardia lamblia. *Eimeria vrste. *Histomonas meleagridis. Medicinska upotreba[uredi - уреди ...
... integron-borne multiple-antibiotic resistance carried by IncFI and IncL/M plasmids in Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium ...
"Composition of Herba Pogostemonis water extract and protection of infected mice against Salmonella typhimurium-induced liver ...
"Isolation and Characterization of Proline Peptidase Mutants of Salmonella typhimurium". Journal of Bacteriology. 120 (1): 364- ...
2-Phenylbenzimidazol in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102 and HaCaT Keratinocytes". International Journal of Environmental Research ...
Genetic control of susceptibility to Salmonella typhimurium in mice: role of the LPS gene»։ Journal of Immunology 124 (1): 20-4 ...
... comparou especificamente a fitness global das cepas resistentes a anibióticos de Escherichia coli e Salmonella typhimurium coas ... Salmonella e E. coli[editar , editar a fonte]. As infección por Escherichia coli e Salmonella adoita ser o resultado do consumo ...
Salmonella typhimurium) নামৰ বেক্টেৰিয়াৰ প্লাজমিডত সুমুৱাই দিছিল। এইদৰে ৰূপান্তৰিত প্লাজমিডবোৰ পিছত E. coli বেক্টেৰিয়াৰ দেহত ...
Phage typing of Salmonella Typhimurium - is it still a useful tool for surveillance and outbreak investigation?. ...
"Genetic control of susceptibility to Salmonella typhimurium in mice: role of the LPS gene". Journal of Immunology. 124 (1): 20- ...
This has not been the case in other countries, however, where Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium infections due ... 2007). "Large outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 135 infections associated with the consumption of products ... only 2.3 million are contaminated with Salmonella-equivalent to just one in every 30,000 eggs-thus showing Salmonella infection ... Salmonella is killed instantly at 71 °C (160 °F), but also is killed from 54.5 °C (130.1 °F), if held at that temperature for ...
"Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium Infection Causing Mortality in Eurasian Tree Sparrows (Passer montanus) in Hokkaido" ( ... and mass deaths due to Salmonella infection have been noted in Japan.[67] Avian malaria parasites have been found in the blood ...
A 2006 Space Shuttle experiment found that Salmonella typhimurium, a bacterium that can cause food poisoning, became more ...
Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium Infections Linked to Hedgehogs ... Human Salmonella Typhimurium Infections Linked to Live Poultry in Backyard Flocks, 2013plus icon *Advice to Consumers ... Human Salmonella Typhimurium Infections Linked to Laboratory Exposure, 2017plus icon *Advice to Students & Employees in ... Human Salmonella Typhimurium Infections Linked to Frozen Feeder Rodents, 2014plus icon *Advice to Pet Owners ...
Hedgehogs connected to the outbreak of Salmonella There has been a Salmonella outbreak across states in the United States and ... Simple solution to prevent Salmonella from affecting eggs Salmonella is a key cause of foodborne gastroenteritis around the ... CDC warning on Salmonella infections in humans from backyard poultry CDC and other U.S health services are investigating eight ... Scientists develop machine-learning approach to identify source of Salmonella A team of scientists led by researchers at the ...
Virulence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella typhimurium. Johanna Björkman, Diarmaid Hughes, and Dan I. Andersson ... Intracellular cyclic AMP concentration is decreased in Salmonella typhimurium fur mutants. Núria Busquets, Ignacio Badiola, ... Escape from growth restriction in small colony variants of Salmonella typhimurium by gene amplification and mutation ... Vaccination of mice with live recombinant Salmonella typhimurium aroA against H. pylori: parameters associated with ...
Salmonella typhimurium invasion induces apoptosis in infected macrophages. D M Monack, B Raupach, A E Hromockyj, and S Falkow ... Salmonella typhimurium invasion induces apoptosis in infected macrophages Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Invasive S. typhimurium and Salmonella typhi, independent of their ability to replicate intracellularly, are cytotoxic to ... Invasive Salmonella typhimurium induces dramatic cytoskeletal changes on the membrane surface of mammalian epithelial cells and ...
Global regulation by CsrA in Salmonella typhimurium.. Lawhon SD1, Frye JG, Suyemoto M, Porwollik S, McClelland M, Altier C. ... CsrA is a regulator of invasion genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. To investigate the wider role of CsrA in gene ... The genes of two metabolic pathways likely to be used by Salmonella in the intestinal milieu also showed reduced expression: ... As expected, we found that expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) invasion genes was greatly reduced in the ...
Since August 2019, the outbreak, caused by Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Anatum, has affected three European Union ... An Australian university has been awarded a grant to improve the effectiveness of a Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine in poultry. ... Queensland Health is investigating Salmonella Typhimurium infections predominantly among young children that had contact with ... Flinders University scientists developed a shell egg decontamination method that removed Salmonella Typhimurium from the ...
Under several sets of conditions, all of which seem to perturb purine metabolism, Salmonella typhimurium releases a variety of ... These results raise the possibility that Salmonella typhimurium harbors cryptic phages that are subject to a novel system of ... A Novel P22 Prophage in Salmonella typhimurium. Diana M. Downs and John R. Roth ... A Novel P22 Prophage in Salmonella typhimurium. Diana M. Downs and John R. Roth ...
... an outbreak of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium was detected. It sickened…. Continue Reading Several ill in Danish Salmonella ... Eighty-two cases of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium have been confirmed, with symptom onsets between Aug. 28…. Continue ... Authorities in Sweden are investigating a national outbreak of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium which has affected almost 40 ... Salmonella outbreak was first linked to tomatoes in Sweden. By Joe Whitworth on November 27, 2019. ...
Salmonella typhimuriummeningitis in infancy is very uncommon and does not respond to usual duration of empirical antibiotic ... Totan M. Neonatal Salmonella typhimurium meningitis. Indian J Pediatr. 2001;68:1079-80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Salmonella typhimurium meningitis during the neonatal period. Ugeskr Laeger. 1990;152:1456-7.PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Salmonella typhimurium meningitis in infancy is very uncommon and does not respond to usual duration of empirical antibiotic ...
enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage P22 ATCC ® 19585-B1™ Designation: P22 TypeStrain=False Application: Emerging ... Formerly Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage Transducing phage for Salmonella Groups ... Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (ex Kauffmann and Edwards) Le Minor and Popoff serovar Typhimurium (ATCC® 19585™) Add to ... Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage P22 (ATCC® 19585-B1™) Strain Designations: P22 [PLT-22(22 ...
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is the most common Salmonella serovar isolated from humans in Australia. The most ... Temperate phages in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium: implications for epidemiology.. Mmolawa PT1, Willmore R, Thomas CJ ... S. Typhimurium DT 9 was converted to DT 64 and DT 135 was converted to DT 16. S. Typhimurium DT 41 was also converted to DT 29 ... Crude phage lysate induced from S. Typhimurium DT 64 was capable of phage type conversion. ...
Salmonella typhimurium outbreak sickens 388 Jan 07, 2009 - 8 comments Tags: salmonella. , outbreak. , diarrhea. , stool. Ill ... Peanut Butter Product Recall (Salmonella Typhimurium Outbreak): Note: This list includes food products subject to recall in ... Since September 2008, 388 across 42 states have become sick with Salmonella typhimurium and 18% (around 70 folks) have had to ... I got Salmonella in April of 2008, and became mighty ill. I was stunned at the number of hours health professionals spent with ...
Salmonella Typhimurium is a major diarrheal pathogen and associated with invasive nontyphoid Salmonella (iNTS) disease in ... Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection in the United States. S. Typhimurium is capable of ... Dopamine Is a Siderophore-Like Iron Chelator That Promotes Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Virulence in Mice Here we ... Lack of AcrB Efflux Function Confers Loss of Virulence on Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Antibiotic resistance is a ...
Oxygen regulation in Salmonella typhimurium.. K L Strauch, J B Lenk, B L Gamble, C G Miller ... Oxygen regulation in Salmonella typhimurium. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ...
We have isolated pseudorevertants of S. typhimurium apeA mutations that have regained the ability t … ... Mutations at the apeA locus in Salmonella typhimurium lead to loss of a soluble enzyme (protease I) that hydrolyzes the ... Mutations affecting a regulated, membrane-associated esterase in Salmonella typhimurium LT2 Mol Gen Genet. 1994 Jun 15;243(6): ... Mutations at the apeA locus in Salmonella typhimurium lead to loss of a soluble enzyme ("protease I") that hydrolyzes the ...
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: hpt. EC: ... Crystal Structure of the HPRT from Salmonella Typhimurium at 2.3 A Resolution. Lee, C.C., Focia, P.J., Spraggon, G., Eakin, A.E ... Crystal Structure of the HPRT from Salmonella typhimurium. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1J7J/pdb ...
... Curr Biol. 2000 Nov 30;10(23):1543-5. doi: 10.1016/s0960-9822 ... We report here that the enterobacterium Salmonella typhimurium, generally considered to be a highly adapted pathogen with a ...
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: TRPA/TRPB/TRPC. EC: ... Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: TRPA/TRPB/TRPC. EC: ... Three-Dimensional Structure of the Tryptophan Synthase Alpha 2 Beta 2 Multienzyme Complex from Salmonella Typhimurium. Hyde, C. ... We report refined crystal structures of the tryptophan synthase alpha2beta2 complex from Salmonella typhimurium in the presence ...
Typhimurium (SIHUMI-AS) compared to SIHUMI mice with S. Typhimurium only (SIHUMI-S). The number of mucin filled goblet cells ... Typhimurium was investigated. Presence of A. muciniphila in S. Typhimurium-infected SIHUMI mice caused significantly increased ... In addition, loss of cecal mucin sulphation was observed in SIHUMI mice containing both A. muciniphila and S. Typhimurium ... how the presence of a mucin degrading commensal bacterium affects the severity of an intestinal Salmonella enterica Typhimurium ...
We found that the basolateral media of model epithelia that had been apically infected with Salmonella typhimurium for a short ... S. typhimurium. . (. a. ) Model epithelia were basolaterally exposed to indicated concentration of LPS, flagellin, or TNF-α. IL ... S. typhimurium. or indicated mutant strain. Nonadherent bacteria were removed by washing three times with HBSS. IL-8 secretion ... In support of this finding, flagellin-deficient S. typhimurium mutants did not secrete detectable levels of PIF (i.e., a ...
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Browse our Salmonella typhimurium Antibodies all backed by our Guarantee+. ... Salmonella typhimurium Antibodies. We offer Salmonella typhimurium Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA. ... Our Salmonella typhimurium Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Bacteria. Use the list below to choose the ... Each Salmonella typhimurium Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support ...
In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella ... In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella ... At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. ... At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. ...
... Nov 5, 2006 - 4:24:00 AM , Reviewed by: Priya Saxena ... including Salmonella-related illness, from fresh produce.. Tomatoes have been linked to 7 salmonella outbreaks since 1990.. ... which found consuming tomatoes in restaurants as the cause of illnesses in the Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak. To date, 21 ... Salmonella can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, frail or elderly people, and others with ...
Four European Salmonella Typhimurium datasets collected to develop WGS-based source attribution methods. Access & Citations. * ...
... salmonella typhimurium include Quantification of Cytosolic vs. Vacuolar Salmonella in Primary Macrophages by Differential ... Isolation of Salmonella typhimurium-containing Phagosomes from Macrophages, Come to the Light Side: In Vivo Monitoring of ... A Protocol to Infect Caenorhabditis elegans with Salmonella typhimurium, DNBS/TNBS Colitis Models: Providing Insights Into ... Chronic Salmonella Infection Induced Intestinal Fibrosis, Induced Differentiation of M Cell-like Cells in Human Stem Cell- ...
Cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthetic genes of Salmonella typhimurium. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthetic genes of Salmonella typhimurium.. R M Jeter, J R Roth ... The enteric bacterium Salmonella typhimurium synthesizes cobalamin (vitamin B12) de novo only under anaerobic growth conditions ... typhimurium genetic map. These genes are located at 41 map units and near the his operon. No essential genes lie between the ...
  • Targeted cancer immunotherapy with engineered Salmonella typhimurium secreting heterologous bacterial flagellin [abstract]. (aacrjournals.org)
  • ABSTRACT: Control of within-herd transmission of Salmonella is important for reducing the prevalence of this organism on pig farms and for preventing Salmonella-contamination of pork. (scirp.org)
  • article{3186904, abstract = {Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases. (ugent.be)
  • More information about Salmonella , and steps people can take to reduce their risk of infection, can be found on the CDC Salmonella Web Page . (cdc.gov)
  • One death associated with Salmonella infection was reported in Washington. (cdc.gov)
  • The ability of Salmonella to promote apoptosis may be important for the initiation of infection, bacterial survival, and escape of the host immune response. (pnas.org)
  • Researchers have described the first outbreak of Salmonella in Sweden that had small tomatoes as the likely source of infection. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of bacterial food-borne infection in the United States. (asm.org)
  • Kiehl W . Outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium DT204b infection in Germany. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonize the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post-infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Egg shell contamination was higher in S . Typhimurium + S . Mbandaka infected group (7.2% S . Typhimurium, 14.1% S . Mbandaka) compared to birds infected with S . Typhimurium (5.66%) however, co-infection had no significant impact on egg contamination by S . Typhimurium. (frontiersin.org)
  • The findings of current study demonstrated intermittent but persistent fecal shedding of Salmonella after oral infection for up to 15 weeks p.i. (frontiersin.org)
  • Further, egg shell contamination, with lack of internal egg content contamination and the low frequency of reproductive organ infection suggested that horizontal infection through contaminated feces is the main route of egg contamination with S . Typhimurium in laying hens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Salmonella infection is a major global public health problem, which has caused food-borne illnesses in many countries. (frontiersin.org)
  • S. Typhimurium is one of the predominant serotypes in many developed and developing countries, and the global outbreak of food-borne diseases due to infection by S . Typhimurium is impressive. (frontiersin.org)
  • Symptoms of Salmonella infection begin anywhere from 6 to 72 hours after a person ingests Salmonella bacteria and typically last 3 to 7 days, though in some cases can last longer and be potentially fatal. (marlerclark.com)
  • Any person who believes they have contracted a Salmonella infection should consult a doctor immediately. (marlerclark.com)
  • If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with a Salmonella infection you should call your local health department to help ensure a larger outbreak does not take place. (marlerclark.com)
  • If you or a family member became ill with a Salmonella infection and you're interested in pursuing a legal claim, you can contact a Marler Clark Salmonella lawyer for a free case evaluation. (marlerclark.com)
  • In relation to diarrhoeal disease, non-typhoidal Salmonella can exploit the gut mucosal inflammatory response that accompanies infection in immunocompetent individuals to gain a selective advantage over the resident gut microbiota in the inflamed gut lumen. (kenyon.edu)
  • Common modes of infection for Salmonella Typhimurium are by food-borne transmission including processed foods such as chocolate and jalapeño peppers [1] . (kenyon.edu)
  • The researchers found that compared with cases of recent Salmonella infection with strains other than the outbreak strain, the outbreak cases were more often associated with exposure to frogs, most often African dwarf frogs. (empr.com)
  • The results of current in-silico study showed the potential involvement of S. typhimurium infection with alteration in normal functioning of host cell which act as possible factor to connect with the growth and development of colon cancer. (dovepress.com)
  • These findings add a new dimension to interkingdom signaling and provide novel clues to explain the increased susceptibility of a stressed host to Salmonella infection. (medworm.com)
  • Fermentable fiber reduces recovery time and improves intestinal function in piglets following Salmonella typhimurium infection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • S. typhimurium infection produced diarrhea in controls and MCEL groups, but not in the SPS and FOS groups. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Because fermentable fiber enhances intestinal function and reduces the severity of S. typhimurium infection-associated symptoms, it may be a cost-effective way in which to reduce the severity of pathogenic infection-associated symptoms in infants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The type three secreted effector SipC regulates the trafficking of PERP during Salmonella infection. (umassmed.edu)
  • Salmonella infection induces recruitment of Caspase-8 to the inflammasome to modulate IL-1ß production. (umassmed.edu)
  • On 1 May 2012 the Communicable Disease Control (CDC) section of the ACT Health Protection Service was alerted to a higher than expected number of laboratory diagnoses of Salmonella infection. (health.gov.au)
  • Cases were identified either via routine public health investigation of any laboratory-confirmed Salmonella infection or via interrogation of contacts listed on the caf 's booking list for 25 April 2012. (health.gov.au)
  • Background: S. Typhi, a human-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar, causes a systemic intracellular infection in humans (typhoid fever). (harvard.edu)
  • Among the 20 commonly used amino acids, S. Typhimurium specifically responded to ʟ-arginine with an increase in c-di-GMP, suggesting that ʟ-arginine may serve as a signal during S. Typhimurium infection. (sciencemag.org)
  • Baicalin protects mice against Salmonella typhimurium infection via the modulation of both bacterial virulence and host response. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The ArcAB two-component regulatory system promotes resistance to reactive oxygen species and systemic infection by Salmonella Typhimurium. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an intracellular bacterium that overcomes host immune system barriers for successful infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Type I interferons differentially modulate maternal host immunity to infection by Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium during pregnancy. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Stool and blood samples from patients with a non-typhoid Salmonella infection will be collected during an observation period of six months and analyzed for changes in the microbiota divers. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether CVD 1902 (a live, attenuated, oral vaccine) is safe and effective in the prevention of Salmonella enterica serovar paratyphi A infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Bafilomycin inhibition of vacuolar acidification from the onset of infection significantly decreased the survival of S. typhimurium in macrophages. (asm.org)
  • Due to previously observed association in hospital admissions for IBD and hospital admissions for bacterial infections, this study explored whether initial and repeated GI infection with Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (ST) accelerated onset of IBD. (empr.com)
  • The study found that even months after cessation of Salmonella infection, inflammation persisted. (empr.com)
  • Salmonella infection was found to increase endogenous neuraminidase (Neu) activity among enterocytes by a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) dependent mechanism. (empr.com)
  • We also show that S. typhimurium infection of cultured intestinal epithelial cells results in the activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases ERK, JNK, and p38. (jimmunol.org)
  • Collaborative epidemiologic, laboratory, and traceback findings linked this outbreak of human Salmonella infections to contact with pet hedgehogs purchased from multiple sources in different states. (cdc.gov)
  • However, contact with hedgehogs continues to be a source of human Salmonella infections. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC collaborated with public health and agriculture officials in many states and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Animal Care, to investigate an outbreak of human Salmonella Typhimurium infections linked to contact with pet hedgehogs purchased from multiple sources in different states. (cdc.gov)
  • Scientists have identified a single genetic change in Salmonella that is playing a key role in the devastating epidemic of bloodstream infections currently killing around 400,000 people each year in sub-Saharan Africa. (news-medical.net)
  • The number of Salmonella and Campylobacter infections remained stable this past year according to data from Health Protection Scotland. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • More than half of Salmonella infections in Ireland last year were associated with international travel, according to a recent report. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Antimicrobial-resistant nontyphoidal Salmonella is associated with excess bloodstream infections and hospitalizations. (springer.com)
  • Foodborne gastric infections due to Salmonella enterica are of major concern worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
  • In 2010, S . Typhimurium was the most commonly notified Salmonella serotype accounting for 5241 (44%) cases of all Salmonella notified infections in Australia ( OzFoodNet Working Group, 2012 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Salmonella can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, frail or elderly people, and others with weakened immune systems. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Alvseike O , Leegaard T , Aavitsland P , Lassen J . Tendances évolutives des infections à Salmonella Typhimurium multirésistante en Norvège. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • La plupart des infections à S. Typhimurium multirésistantes contractées en Norvège étaient dues au lysotype DT104. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • At least 15 victims of the outbreak have been confirmed ill with Salmonella Typhimurium infections, with eight from Kane County, four from DuPage County, one from Chicago, one from DeKalb County, and one from Minnesota. (marlerclark.com)
  • It is a Non-Typhoidal Salmonella serotype that causes diarrhea and paediatric blood stream infections (bacteremia). (kenyon.edu)
  • We suggest these results may provide an explanation for relapse infections resulting from persistent Salmonella infections, and suggest a possible means of targeting antibacterials against intracellular pathogens. (hu-berlin.de)
  • HealthDay News) - An outbreak of primarily pediatric Salmonella Typhimurium infections in the United States has been traced to aquatic African dwarf frogs kept as pets, according to a study published online March 11 in Pediatrics . (empr.com)
  • Shauna L. Mettee Zarecki, RN, MPH, from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, and colleagues investigated the source of an outbreak of 376 cases of human Salmonella Typhimurium infections occurring primarily among children from 44 states from 2008-2011, which resulted in 56 hospitalizations but no deaths. (empr.com)
  • This is the first reported outbreak of human Salmonella infections associated with African dwarf frogs, particularly among young children," Zarecki and colleagues conclude. (empr.com)
  • Infections of Salmonella typhimurium ( S. typhimurium ) are major threats to health, threats include diarrhoea, fever, acute intestinal inflammation, and cancer. (dovepress.com)
  • Several gene expression-associated proteins of S. typhimurium have been predicted to target the host nucleus during intracellular infections. (dovepress.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is collaborating with public health officials in many states and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) to investigate a multistate outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Epidemiologic and traceback investigations conducted by officials in local, state, and federal public health, agriculture, and regulatory agencies indicate that ground beef produced by Jouni Meats, Inc. and Gab Halal Foods are likely sources of this outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The results from this study refute several hypotheses on the evolution of DT104 and suggest that WGS may be useful in monitoring emerging clones and devising strategies for prevention of Salmonella infections. (asm.org)
  • On 8 January 2009 , the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of the United States (US) reported an ongoing multistate outbreak of human infections due to Salmonella serotype Typhimurium. (gov.hk)
  • 1. Repeated gastrointestinal infections in mice, in this case Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (ST), caused intestinal tissue inflammation which escalated with repeated infections. (empr.com)
  • The study found persistent inflammation after months of cessation of additional Salmonella infections. (empr.com)
  • Overall, IAP augmentation or Neu inhibition may represent novel candidate therapies that can be used for the treatment of colitis induced by Salmonella infections. (empr.com)
  • In PulseNet, the national subtyping network of public health and food regulatory agency laboratories coordinated by CDC, DNA "fingerprints" of Salmonella bacteria are obtained through diagnostic testing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, or PFGE, to identify cases of illness that were part of this outbreak. (cdc.gov)
  • Gulls are one of the main wild birds that act as reservoirs of Campylobacter and Salmonella, two most relevant intestinal antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing gastroenteritis in humans. (news-medical.net)
  • University of Liverpool scientists have exploited the combined power of genomics and epidemiology to understand how a type of Salmonella bacteria evolved to kill hundreds of thousands of immunocompromised people in Africa. (news-medical.net)
  • Scientists at the University of Liverpool have taken another step forward in understanding the bacteria that are causing a devastating Salmonella epidemic currently killing around 400,000 people each year in sub-Saharan Africa. (news-medical.net)
  • Our Salmonella typhimurium Antibodies can be used in a variety of model species: Bacteria. (novusbio.com)
  • Thus, the type III apparatus of S. typhimurium , and presumably other bacteria, exists as a supramolecular structure in the bacterial envelope. (sciencemag.org)
  • Coloured transmission electron micrograph of Salmonella typhimurium bacteria dividing. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Public health investigators are using DNA 'fingerprints' of Salmonella bacteria obtained through diagnostic testing with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, or PFGE, to identify cases of illness that may be part of this outbreak. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Salmonella typhimurium is a facultative anaerobic bacteria and can selectively grow in tumors following systemic administration. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Establishment of orthotopic metastatic mouse models of the major cancer types is described, as well as other useful models, for efficacy studies of S. typhimurium A1-R or other tumor-targeting bacteria, as well. (springer.com)
  • In human intestinal disease induced by Salmonella typhimurium, transepithelial migration of neutrophils (PMN) rapidly follows attachment of the bacteria to the epithelial apical membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Use of the n-formyl-peptide receptor antagonist N-t-BOC-1-methionyl-1-leucyl-1- phenylalanine (tBOC-MLP) indicated that the Salmonella-induced PMN transepithelial migration response was not attributable to the classical pathway by which bacteria induce directed migration of PMN. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, the PMN transmigration response required Salmonella adhesion to the epithelial apical membrane and subsequent reciprocal protein synthesis in both bacteria and epithelial cells. (rupress.org)
  • Thus, we conclude that Salmonella-containing phagosomes acidify soon after formation and hypothesize that an acidic environment is necessary for survival and replication of the bacteria within the macrophage. (asm.org)
  • Salmonellae are bacteria found in the intestinal tract of man and animals. (gov.hk)
  • In addition, some of the Salmonella serotypes need a very low dose to cause disease when ingested with fatty food such as ice-cream and chocolate, which protect the bacteria from the lethal effect of the acid in stomach. (gov.hk)
  • Salmonella enterica subsp. (atcc.org)
  • Being zoonotic, Salmonella enterica subsp. (kenyon.edu)
  • S JanSeries Type : Expression profiling by arrayOrganism : Salmonella enterica subsp. (medworm.com)
  • Expression profiling by array Salmonella enterica subsp. (medworm.com)
  • Molecular Characterization of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. (asm.org)
  • Noninvasive S. typhimurium strains are unable to induce this membrane ruffling. (pnas.org)
  • Invasive S. typhimurium strains invade RAW264.7 macrophages in 2 h with 7- to 10-fold higher levels than noninvasive strains. (pnas.org)
  • Salmonella typhimurium strains carrying mutations in any of 24 different flagellar genes ( 6 ) exhibited needle complexes in their envelopes, further demonstrating that these complexes are independent of flagella ( 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In contrast, needle structures were absent from S. typhimurium strains carrying mutations in invG , prgH , or prgK (Fig. 1 C) ( 7 ), which encode essential components of the invasion-associated type III secretion system ( 8 , 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • It is one of the few emerging invasive strains of Non-Typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) [2] . (kenyon.edu)
  • the disease differs from other strains of Salmonella . (kenyon.edu)
  • Overall, there has not been an in-depth study done into the epidemiology of either invasive or non-invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella strains [1] . (kenyon.edu)
  • The inducibility by the SOS response of the promoter constructs was tested in both E. coli and in the Ames test Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100 and TA104. (rti.org)
  • The fliBfljC strain overgrows a fliCfljBznuABC mutant strain, but the difference in gut colonization between these two strains is less striking than that between the wild type and the znuABC strains, suggesting that the downregulation of flagella contributes to the loss of virulence of Salmonella znuABC . (rsc.org)
  • DT104 was estimated to have emerged initially as antimicrobial susceptible in ∼1948 (95% credible interval [CI], 1934 to 1962) and later became MDR DT104 in ∼1972 (95% CI, 1972 to 1988) through horizontal transfer of the 13-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) MDR region into susceptible strains already containing SGI1. (asm.org)
  • Methodology/Principal Findings: Using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), we examined the protein expression profiles of three sequenced S. enterica strains: S. Typhimurium LT2, S. Typhi CT18, and S. Typhi Ty2 in PhoP-inducing and non-inducing conditions in vitro and compared these results to profiles of \(phoP^−/Q^−\) mutants derived from S. Typhimurium LT2 and S. Typhi Ty2. (harvard.edu)
  • Conclusions/Significance: This study is the first protein expression study of the PhoP virulence associated regulon using strains of Salmonella mutant in PhoP, has identified three Typhi-unique proteins (CdtB, HlyE and STY1499) that are not present in the genome of the wide host-range Typhimurium, and includes the first protein expression profiling of a live attenuated bacterial vaccine studied in humans (Ty800). (harvard.edu)
  • In this Phase I clinical study, three recombinant, avirulent Salmonella Typhi (RASV) strains each expressing the Streptococcus pneumoniae surface protein, PspA, will be compared as live bi. (bioportfolio.com)
  • in addition, other Salmonella strains were found in the plant but the strains have not been connected with any illnesses. (gov.hk)
  • Two Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains from different clonal origins, both producing an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (TEM-52), were isolated from a patient. (asm.org)
  • ESBLs are extremely rare among Salmonella strains, and so detection of these resistance genes among salmonellae is of significance. (asm.org)
  • Recently, Salmonella strains having positive double-disk synergy tests were isolated from a 1-year-old patient who had been transferred from a Yugoslavian hospital to Hungary for cardiac surgery. (asm.org)
  • Because ESBLs are rare in Salmonella, these strains attracted our interest. (asm.org)
  • Five nucleobase analogues with antiviral properties were tested for their mutagenic activity in his mutant strains TA 1535, TA 1537, TA 1538, TA98, and TA 100 of S. typhimurium by means of preincubation tests with and without metabolic activation by cell free fractions from mouse liver (S-9) and maize seedlings (S-14). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 6-Azauracil, 5-azauracil, and 5-azadihydro-1,3-diacetyluracil were without mutagenic activity in all Salmonella-strains used. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • However, in two unrelated S. typhimurium strains, spontaneous mutants were found forming rdar colonies independent of temperature. (ovid.com)
  • Salmonella Typhimurium is a major diarrheal pathogen and associated with invasive nontyphoid Salmonella (iNTS) disease in vulnerable populations. (asm.org)
  • We report here that the enterobacterium Salmonella typhimurium, generally considered to be a highly adapted pathogen with a narrow range of target hosts [6], is capable of infecting and killing C. elegans. (nih.gov)
  • The human pathogen Salmonella typhimurium encodes two type III secretion systems, although only one of them, located at centisome 63 of its chromosome, appears to be expressed in vitro ( 3 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, through the Sub-Saharan, invasive African Salmonella Typhimurium has been discovered among the most severe HIV victims as a human-to-human pathogen [2] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Invasive, African Salmonella Typhimurium does not typical cause disease in healthy individuals, but those that are immunocompromised due to other diseases (eg HIV) or just for lack of overall nutrition, are much more likely to be infected by the pathogen [4] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Interactions between the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium and the luminal surface of the intestine provoke an acute inflammatory response, mediated in part by epithelial cell secretion of the chemokine IL-8 and other proinflammatory molecules. (jci.org)
  • Nuclear targeting of S. typhimurium proteins can lead to competitive interactions between the host and pathogen proteins with similar cellular substrates, and it may have a possible involvement in colon cancer growth. (dovepress.com)
  • Acid adaptation of Salmonella typhimurium at a pH of 5.0 to 5.8 for one to two cell doublings resulted in marked sensitization of the pathogen to halogen-based sanitizers including chlorine (hypochlorous acid) and iodine. (asm.org)
  • How Salmonella became a pathogen. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a primary avian pathogen responsible for severe intestinal pathology in younger chickens and economic losses to poultry industry. (bioportfolio.com)
  • IFN-alpha receptor deficiency (IFNAR ) enhances immunity to Listeria monocytogenes (LM) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) in the non-pregnant state by inhibiting pathogen-induced immune. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The facultative intracellular pathogen, Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar typhimurium ( S. typhimurium ), ranges among the most prevalent agents of foodborne diseases. (jimmunol.org)
  • Colanic acid is a negatively charged polysaccharide capsule produced by Escherichia coli , Salmonella , and other gammaproteobacteria. (asm.org)
  • Salmonella typhimurium intercepts Escherichia coli signaling to enhance antibiotic tolerance. (umassmed.edu)
  • Oxidative stress responses in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. (asm.org)
  • Recent progress on the genetics and molecular biology of the cellular responses to oxidative stress, primarily in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, is summarized. (asm.org)
  • When expressed in Escherichia coli the gene directs the synthesis of an OmpA protein which is functionally and topologically indistinguishable from that made in S. typhimurium, thus indicating that export and membrane incorporation are very similar in the two organisms. (epfl.ch)
  • This study documents the first reported transmission of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT104) to premature fraternal twins via their mother's breast milk. (aappublications.org)
  • Antibiotic susceptibility tests coupled with PFGE patterns suggested that these Salmonella isolates were DT104. (aappublications.org)
  • Although MDR DT104 has declined during the last 5 years, the organism remains the most common MDR Salmonella in the United Kingdom and many other European countries ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (MDR DT104). (asm.org)
  • We used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and temporally structured sequence analysis within a Bayesian framework to reconstruct temporal and spatial phylogenetic trees and estimate the rates of mutation and divergence times of 315 S . Typhimurium DT104 isolates sampled from 1969 to 2012 from 21 countries on six continents. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, the demographic history of Danish MDR DT104 provided evidence for the success of the program to eradicate Salmonella from pig herds in Denmark from 1996 to 2000. (asm.org)
  • During the last 3 decades, S . Typhimurium phage type DT104 (DT104) emerged as the most important phage type and one of the best studied because of its rapid global dissemination ( 1 , 4 ). (asm.org)
  • The released phage possess an intact P22 immunity system because many can form standard immune lysogens after reinfection of Salmonella . (genetics.org)
  • Crude phage lysate induced from S. Typhimurium DT 64 was capable of phage type conversion. (nih.gov)
  • Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Typhimurium definitive phage type (DT) 104 with chromosomally encoded resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin/spectinomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines (ACSSpSuT) was first identified and characterized in the United Kingdom in the early 1990s ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • S . Typhimurium consists of a number of subtypes that classically have been divided by phage typing. (asm.org)
  • PCR amplification of antimicrobial resistance genes among four plasmids isolated from Salmonella serovar Typhimurium phage type DT193 isolates. (asm.org)
  • All 20 cases had faecal cultures positive for Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 135a (STm 135a). (health.gov.au)
  • The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonize reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well-described. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cross-reactivity was observed with Salmonella paratyphi B, but not S. paratyphi A or Salmonella enteritidis . (mdpi.com)
  • Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium through the consumption of raw vegetables and vegetarian burger patties necessitates the needs for the optimization of analytical approach for their detection and enumeration in the raw vegetables, which served as potential vehicles for transmission of these pathogenic microorganisms. (scirp.org)
  • Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium using the most probable numbers (MPN) in combination with the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR). (scirp.org)
  • was 28%, Salmonella Enteritidis was 20% and Salmonella Typhimurium was 14.3%, respectively. (scirp.org)
  • Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in Raw Salad Vegetables and Vegetarian Burger Patties," Food and Nutrition Sciences , Vol. 2 No. 10, 2011, pp. 1077-1081. (scirp.org)
  • Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium from Environmental Swabs of Poultry Houses," Letter Applied Microbiology, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1999, pp. 113-117. (scirp.org)
  • D. C. Rodrigue, R. V. Tauxe and B. Rowe, "International Increase of Salmonella Enteritidis. (scirp.org)
  • Y. B. Ngwai, C. Wambebe and Y. Adachi, "Survivability of Salmonella Typhimurium L1388 and Salmonella Enteritidis L1225 under Stressful Growth Condition," Online Journal of Health Allied Science, Vol. 6, 2007, p. 2. (scirp.org)
  • We describe a multiplex PCR for the rapid detection of Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Hadar, Heidelberg, and Typhimurium. (jove.com)
  • Locally, Salmonella Typhimurium, following Salmonella Enteritidis, is the second most commonly isolated serotype. (gov.hk)
  • As expected, we found that expression of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) invasion genes was greatly reduced in the csrA mutant, as were genes outside the island that encode proteins translocated into eukaryotic cells by the SPI-1 type III secretion apparatus. (nih.gov)
  • Influence of the Salmonella typhimurium pathogenicity island 2 type III secretion system on bacterial growth in the mouse. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Previously, growth in the presence of bile was shown to repress the transcription of prgH , a locus encoding components of the Salmonella pathogenicity island I (SPI-1) type III secretion system (TTSS) necessary for eukaryotic cell invasion. (asm.org)
  • Salmonellae use a contact-dependent TTSS for invasion, which is encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) at centisome 63 ( 17 , 21 ). (asm.org)
  • Brominated furanones inhibit biofilm formation by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium," APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY , vol. 74, no. 21, pp. 6639-6648, 2008. (ugent.be)
  • The genes of two metabolic pathways likely to be used by Salmonella in the intestinal milieu also showed reduced expression: the pdu operon for utilization of 1,2-propanediol and the eut operon for ethanolamine catabolism. (nih.gov)
  • These results show that csrA controls a number of gene classes in addition to those required for invasion, some of them unique to Salmonella, and suggests a co-ordinated bacterial response to conditions that exist at the site of bacterial invasion, the intestinal tract of a host animal. (nih.gov)
  • This study investigated whether soluble paracrine factors mediated Salmonella-induced IL-8 expression in polarized model intestinal epithelia. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, the ability of S. typhimurium mutants to induce IκB-α degradation, NF-κB translocation, and IL-8 transcription and secretion correlated precisely with their ability to induce an intracellular [Ca2+] increase in model intestinal epithelia, but not with their ability to invade these cells. (jci.org)
  • Nuclear extracts were derived from model intestinal epithelia maintained under control conditions or coincubated with wild-type S. typhimurium as described in Methods for the indicated times. (jci.org)
  • To test whether the FlaB-secreting ΔppGpp S. typhimurium has inhibitory effects on human metastatic cancer, we next implanted HCT116-luc2 tumors into the intestinal wall of BALB/c athymic nu-/nu- mice using a surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI) procedure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Salmonella typhimurium attachment to human intestinal epithelial monolayers: transcellular signalling to subepithelial neutrophils. (rupress.org)
  • In this report, we model those interactions in vitro, using polarized monolayers of the human intestinal epithelial cell, T84, isolated human PMN, and S. typhimurium. (rupress.org)
  • As enteric pathogens, the salmonellae have developed systems by which they can sense and adapt appropriately to deleterious intestinal components that include bile. (asm.org)
  • From these data, we propose a model whereby serovar Typhimurium uses bile as an environmental signal to repress its invasive capacity in the lumen of the intestine, but upon mucous layer penetration and association with intestinal epithelial cells, where the apparent bile concentration would be reduced, the system would become derepressed and invasion would be initiated. (asm.org)
  • Salmonella typhimurium can colonize the gut, invade intestinal tissues, and cause enterocolitis. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the gut, S. typhimurium interacts with the intestinal mucosa, invades the intestinal tissue, provokes severe inflammatory responses and induces diarrhea. (jimmunol.org)
  • Involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in the nuclear responses and cytokine production induced by Salmonella typhimurium in cultured intestinal epithelial cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • An important feature of S. typhimurium pathogenesis is the induction of a profound inflammatory response in the intestinal epithelium. (jimmunol.org)
  • Invasive S. typhimurium and Salmonella typhi, independent of their ability to replicate intracellularly, are cytotoxic to RAW264.7 macrophages and, to a greater degree, to murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. (pnas.org)
  • Our analysis identified 53 proteins in S. Typhimurium LT2 and 56 proteins in S. Typhi that were regulated in a PhoP-dependent manner. (harvard.edu)
  • As expected, many proteins identified in S. Typhi demonstrated concordant differential expression with a homologous protein in S. Typhimurium. (harvard.edu)
  • PhoPQ is also necessary for high level resistance to bile in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium ( 30 ). (asm.org)
  • A total of 26 persons infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium were reported from 12 states. (cdc.gov)
  • Several fecal samples from pet hedgehogs and environmental samples from areas where pet hedgehogs lived or were bathed in patient households yielded the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium. (cdc.gov)
  • A total of 16 individuals infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium have been reported from 5 states. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Preliminary results of antibiotic susceptibility testing indicate that this strain of Salmonella Typhimurium is susceptible to commonly prescribed antibiotics. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • We have developed a genetically-modified bacterial strain of Salmonella typhimurium, auxotrophic for leucine and arginine, which also expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP), termed S. typhimurium A1-R. S. typhimurium A1-R was found to be effective against metastatic human prostate, breast, and pancreatic cancer cell lines as well as osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and glioma cell lines in clinically-relevant nude mouse models. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In support of this finding, flagellin-deficient S. typhimurium mutants did not secrete detectable levels of PIF (i.e., a bioactivity that induced IL-8 secretion when placed basolaterally on model epithelia). (jci.org)
  • Comparative Studies of Mutations in Animal Isolates and Experimental In Vitro- and In Vivo-Selected Mutants of Salmonella spp. (asm.org)
  • Here we show that dopamine increases bacterial iron incorporation and promotes Salmonella Typhimurium growth both in vitro and in vivo . (asm.org)
  • PIF was not present in the media of model epithelia stimulated with other inducers of IL-8 secretion (TNF-α or carbachol) but was present in S. typhimurium supernatants, indicating PIF is of bacterial origin. (jci.org)
  • In the bacterial genome, these genes are located relatively closely to one another in groups known as Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands (SPIs). (kenyon.edu)
  • Zhao M, Yang M, Li X-M, Jiang P, Baranov E, Li S et al (2005) Tumor-targeting bacterial therapy with amino acid auxotrophs of GFP-expressing Salmonella typhimurium. (springer.com)
  • Some S. typhimurium A1-R-treated cancer cell lines became apoptotic and necrotic, and other cell lines burst after extensive intracellular bacterial growth. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases. (ugent.be)
  • Salmonella Typhimurium is one of the most dangerous foodborne pathogens and poses a significant threat to human health. (mdpi.com)
  • There is no conclusive data on whether the invasive or gastrointestinal forms of Salmonella Typhimurium are actually two different pathogens, or if their modes of transition, colonization, or incubation differ [1] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Like other intracellular pathogens, Salmonella replicates within this intracellular niche, despite its apparent isolation from both extra- and intracellular sources of nutrients. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Salmonella is one of the most common food-borne pathogens worldwide ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Salmonella species are facultative intracellular pathogens. (asm.org)
  • Enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. (asm.org)
  • A mutant of Salmonella strictly dependent upon peptides in growth media as a source of amino acids, showed intracellular growth similar to the wild-type strain in host cells, indicating intracellular access to peptides. (hu-berlin.de)
  • Analysis of host cells associated with the Spv-mediated increased intracellular growth rate of Salmonella typhimurium in mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Invasive Salmonella typhimurium induces dramatic cytoskeletal changes on the membrane surface of mammalian epithelial cells and RAW264.7 macrophages as part of its entry mechanism. (pnas.org)
  • In this report, we show that S. typhimurium induces host cell signal transduction pathways that lead to the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1, resulting in the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-8. (jimmunol.org)
  • The enteric bacterium Salmonella typhimurium synthesizes cobalamin (vitamin B12) de novo only under anaerobic growth conditions. (asm.org)
  • In the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium the biosynthetic genes for cobalamin are located in three separated regions of the genetic map. (springer.com)
  • The outbreak strain lacked the S . Typhimurium SSP and was negative by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for a 437-bp internal fragment of the Salmonella plasmid virulence ( spv ) C gene. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we transformed an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium ( S. typhimurium) with an Apoptin expressing plasmid into a human laryngeal carcinoma cell line. (medsci.org)
  • Plasmid-associated virulence of Salmonella typhimurium. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cloning and transposon insertion mutagenesis of virulence genes of the 100-kilobase plasmid of Salmonella typhimurium. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The Salmonella typhimurium virulence plasmid increases the growth rate of salmonellae in mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The virulence plasmid does not contribute to growth of Salmonella in cultured murine macrophages. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Central regulatory role for the RpoS sigma factor in expression of Salmonella dublin plasmid virulence genes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of plasmid-borne mcr-3.1 present in an MDR Salmonella enterica serovar Choleraesuis isolate from human. (medworm.com)
  • We aimed to analyze the antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance to cephalosporins, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates identified from patients with diarrhea in Shanghai. (frontiersin.org)
  • To investigate the wider role of CsrA in gene regulation, we compared the expression of Salmonella genes in a csrA mutant with those in the wild type using a DNA microarray. (nih.gov)
  • Salmonella typhimurium activates virulence gene transcription within acidified macrophage phagosomes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • A PhoP-repressed gene promotes Salmonella typhimurium invasion of epithelial cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Gene expression and antibody response in chicken against Salmonella Typhimurium challenge. (bioportfolio.com)
  • A microarray study was performed to analyze the gene expression profiles of Salmonella in the presence of (Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)3- ethyl-2(5H)-furanone. (ugent.be)
  • In this study, we are adding a further step to the protocol, which is dealing with the cell wall surface antigens, where Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 was used for such purposes. (hindawi.com)
  • To evaluate the antitumor activity of engineered S. typhimurium, C57BL/6 mice transplanted with MC38 tumors were injected intravenously (i.v.) with PBS, ΔppGpp S. typhimurium carrying an empty vector, or ΔppGpp S. typhimurium carrying pFlaB (+/− L-arabinose induction). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Zhao M, Yang M, Ma H, Li X, Tan X, Li S et al (2006) Targeted therapy with a Salmonella typhimurium leucine-arginine auxotroph cures orthotopic human breast tumors in nude mice. (springer.com)
  • Zhang Y, Zhang N, Zhao M, Hoffman RM (2015) Comparison of the selective targeting of Salmonella typhimurium A1-R and VNP20009 on the Lewis lung carcinoma in nude mice. (springer.com)
  • Matsumoto Y, Miwa S, Zhang Y, Zhao M, Yano S, Uehara F et al (2015) Intraperitoneal administration of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R inhibits disseminated human ovarian cancer and extends survival in nude mice. (springer.com)
  • Miwa S, Yano S, Zhang Y, Matsumoto Y, Uehara F, Yamamoto M et al (2014) Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R prevents experimental human breast cancer bone metastasis in nude mice. (springer.com)
  • Lipid A controls the robustness of intratumoral accumulation of attenuated Salmonella in mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • In comparison, S. Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in humans, but causes a systemic typhoidal illness in mice. (harvard.edu)
  • In the salmonellae, it is known that the two-component system PhoP-PhoQ (PhoPQ) regulates virulence phenotypes such as survival within macrophages and is necessary for disease in humans and mice ( 7 , 16 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • The relative tumor volume of S. typhimurium A1-R + trastuzumab-treated mice was smaller compared to trastuzumab alone (p = 0.007) and S. typhimurium A1-R alone (p = 0.039). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The Salmonella SPI-1 and the SPI-2 type III secretion systems (TTSS) contributed to inflammation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Besides many other virulence factors ( 4 ) S . typhimurium uses two type III secretion systems (TTSS) 4 ( 5 , 6 , 7 ), which allow delivery of so-called effector proteins into the cytoplasm of host cells to manipulate cell signaling and vesicular trafficking. (jimmunol.org)
  • Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid by infected hens were cultured independently for detection of Salmonella spp. (frontiersin.org)
  • The objective of this study was to develop a portable impedance immunosensing system for rapid and sensitive detection of S . Typhimurium in poultry. (mdpi.com)
  • For pure culture detection, the system had a linear relationship between the impedance change and the logarithmic value of S . Typhimurium cells ranging from 76 to 7.6 × 10 6 CFU (colony-forming unit) (50 μL) −1 . (mdpi.com)
  • The immunosensor also had a correlation coefficient of 0.98, and a high specificity for detection of S . Typhimurium cells with a limit of detection (LOD) of 10 2 CFU (50 μL) −1 . (mdpi.com)
  • To conclude, the portable impedance immunosensing system for detection of S . Typhimurium achieved an LOD that is comparable with commercial electrochemical impedance instruments. (mdpi.com)
  • We report here the development of electrochemical DNA hybridization biosensor for detection of Salmonella typhimurium. (omicsonline.org)
  • For the immunological detection of S. typhimurium , different pairs of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were tested in a sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format. (mdpi.com)
  • Simultaneous Detection of Salmonella spp. (scirp.org)
  • IUCr) Structure of the periplasmic copper-binding protein CueP from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. (iucr.org)
  • Here, we show that intracellular Salmonella acquire amino acids in the form of peptides by co-opting the host protein degradation pathway known as chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) involved in the transport of cytosolic proteins to the lysosome for degradation. (hu-berlin.de)
  • PERP, a host tetraspanning membrane protein, is required for Salmonella-induced inflammation. (umassmed.edu)
  • The S. typhimurium protein effectively substitutes for the E. coli polypeptide in F-dependent conjugation and in the uptake of certain colicins, although it cannot serve as the receptor for the OmpA-specific phages K3 and TuII. (epfl.ch)
  • Induction of these signaling pathways and the synthesis of IL-8 was strictly dependent on the function of the invasion-associated type III protein secretion system encoded by S. typhimurium. (jimmunol.org)
  • In November 2018, an outbreak of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium was detected. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Authorities in Sweden are investigating a national outbreak of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium which has affected almost 40 people. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Multiresistant Salmonella Serovar Typhimurium Monophasic in Wintering Red Kites ( Milvus milvus ) in Segovia, Central Spain," Journal of Raptor Research 49(3), 337-341, (1 September 2015). (bioone.org)
  • The type III secretion system of Salmonella typhimurium directs the translocation of proteins into host cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • We found that the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV) acquires the host cell proteins LAMP-2A and Hsc73, key components of CMA, but excludes lysosomal proteins such as LAMP-2B and LIMP-2. (hu-berlin.de)
  • The present study was designed to predict nuclear targeting of S. typhimurium proteins in the host cell through computational tools, including nuclear localization signal (NLS) mapper, Balanced Subcellular Localization predictor (BaCeILo), and Hum-mPLoc using next-generation sequencing data. (dovepress.com)
  • Our results suggested that S. typhimurium releases its proteins within compartments of the host cell, where they act as a component of the host cell proteome. (dovepress.com)
  • This study represents the first example of using two-color, superresolution imaging to analyze the secretion of Salmonella virulence factors as they are secreted from the SPI-2 type three secretion system. (asm.org)
  • We found that the basolateral media of model epithelia that had been apically infected with Salmonella typhimurium for a short period (10 minutes) could activate IL-8 secretion in virgin model epithelia, demonstrating that a proinflammatory factor (PIF) was indeed present. (jci.org)
  • Flagellin is a potent inducer of IL-8 secretion, does not drop transepithelial electrical resistance (TER), and is essential for IL-8 secretion induced by S. typhimurium . (jci.org)
  • The similarity between type III secretion components and the flagellar export machinery prompted us to investigate whether the S. typhimurium cell envelope contains structures similar to those involved in flagellar assembly. (sciencemag.org)
  • IL-8 secretion induced by both the prototypical proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α and S. typhimurium was NF-κB dependent. (jci.org)
  • However, NF-κB activation and IL-8 secretion induced by S. typhimurium, but not by TNF-α, was preceded by and required an increase in intracellular [Ca2+]. (jci.org)
  • Subsequent secretion of FlaB from colonizing Salmonellae resulted in phenotypic and functional activation of intratumoral macrophages with M1 phenotypes and a reciprocal reduction in M2-like suppressive activities. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The purpose of the Salmonella Typhimurium AAR is to identify and discuss the major strengths and areas for improvement during the outbreak response and, in doing so, inform CDC's decision- making during future outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • Salmonella is a key cause of foodborne gastroenteritis around the world, with most outbreaks linked to eggs, poultry meat, pork, beef, dairy, nuts and fresh produce. (news-medical.net)
  • A team of scientists led by researchers at the University of Georgia Center for Food Safety in Griffin has developed a machine-learning approach that could lead to quicker identification of the animal source of certain Salmonella outbreaks. (news-medical.net)
  • Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
  • This niche has been filled by S . Typhimurium, which is a leading cause of foodborne outbreaks linked to contaminated egg and egg related products ( OzFoodNet Working Group, 2009 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In light of recent outbreaks, FDA continues to emphasize consumer advice to reduce the risk of foodborne illness, including Salmonella-related illness, from fresh produce. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Tomatoes have been linked to 7 salmonella outbreaks since 1990. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Marler Clark is the nation's leading law firm representing victims of Salmonella outbreaks and other foodborne illnesses. (marlerclark.com)
  • This report illustrates an ongoing trend in Australia, where raw and minimally cooked egg-containing foods are identified as the responsible vehicles in a high proportion of foodborne Salmonella outbreaks. (health.gov.au)
  • 1 In south-east Australian jurisdictions (including the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Victoria), the most common agent causing such outbreaks has been Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STm). (health.gov.au)
  • The activation state of the macrophage plays a significant role in the response of macrophages to Salmonella invasion, perhaps indicating that the signal or receptor for initiating programmed cell death is upregulated in activated macrophages. (pnas.org)
  • Tumor colonization by engineered Salmonellae appeared to induce the infiltration of abundant immune cells such as monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils via the TLR4 signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Acidification of phagosomes containing Salmonella typhimurium in murine macrophages. (asm.org)
  • In this work, we investigated the importance of phagosomal pH in the ability of Salmonella typhimurium to survive and replicate within macrophages. (asm.org)
  • enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 is a rod-shaped, Gram-negative, flagellated facultative anaerobe that is mostly present in the mammalian GI tract [1] . (kenyon.edu)
  • Here, we show that loss of AcrB efflux function causes loss of virulence in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. (asm.org)
  • Each Salmonella typhimurium Antibody is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • While specific antibody for Salmonella is available on the market under the commercial names (of some kits) such as Febrile Antigen Kit (N.S. BIO-TEC), we used the described Kit to investigate the validity of the SLRP. (hindawi.com)
  • The antigen-antibody interaction (agglutination) results of both the SLRP and the animal experiments prove that we have correct STGs able to immunize the rats against viable Salmonella . (hindawi.com)
  • Then, biotin-labelled S . Typhimurium -antibody was immobilized onto the IDAM surface. (mdpi.com)
  • Samples were dropped on the surface of the IDAM and the S . Typhimurium cells in the samples were captured by the antibody on the IDAM. (mdpi.com)
  • A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. (jove.com)
  • All of the known cob genes (in branches I, II, and III) were transcribed in a counterclockwise direction relative to the S. typhimurium genetic map. (asm.org)
  • While this large genetic investment suggests an important physiological role for the cofactor, the four known B12-dependent functions do not appear to be essential for growth of wild type Salmonella under the laboratory conditions tested. (springer.com)
  • Genetic diversity between the two common pentaresistant MDR Salmonella serovar Typhimurium phenotypes based on AFLP fingerprinting. (asm.org)
  • At the beginning, CDC staff noted a group of cases in different states in the US caused by Salmonella Typhimurium with same genetic fingerprint. (gov.hk)
  • CsrA is a regulator of invasion genes in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. (nih.gov)
  • Cobalamin (vitamin B12) biosynthetic genes of Salmonella typhimurium. (asm.org)
  • 1989. Mutations affecting regulation of the cobinamide biosynthetic genes in Salmonella typhimurium. (springer.com)
  • Coexistence of these genes lead to the emergence of MDR and the transmission of them will pose great difficulties in S. Typhimurium treatments. (frontiersin.org)
  • In Salmonella , several genes have been identified to encode various virulence factors. (kenyon.edu)
  • Specific Salmonella serovars can be identified by targeting a multiplex PCR to genes and sequences unique to the O-antigen biosynthesis cluster and flagellin of a given serovar. (jove.com)
  • Here, we characterize the relatedness of the Salmonella isolates and the resistance genes for different resistance phenotypes. (asm.org)
  • Firstly, antimicrobial activity and mechanism of TO against Salmonella Typhimurium was assessed. (medworm.com)
  • As Salmonella can form biofilms in which it is better protected against antimicrobial agents on a wide diversity of surfaces, it is of interest to explore ways to inhibit biofilm formation. (ugent.be)
  • Identification of an essential virulence region on Salmonella plasmids. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Salmonella attorneys of Marler Clark have unmatched foodborne illness litigation experience. (marlerclark.com)
  • Salmonella typhimuriuim synthesizes cobalamin (vitamin B 12 ) de. (springer.com)
  • Mutations at the apeA locus in Salmonella typhimurium lead to loss of a soluble enzyme ("protease I") that hydrolyzes the chromogenic endoprotease substrate N-acetyl phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester. (nih.gov)
  • We have isolated pseudorevertants of S. typhimurium apeA mutations that have regained the ability to hydrolyze this compound. (nih.gov)
  • An Australian university has been awarded a grant to improve the effectiveness of a Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine in poultry. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • Virulence and vaccine potential of phoP mutans of Salmonella typhimurium. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Cells were incubated with basolateral TNF-α (10 ng/mL) or apical wild-type S. typhimurium , either with or without 1 hour pretreatment with 50 μM MG-132. (jci.org)
  • This study provides a basis for improved practical technologies to inactivate Salmonella and implies that acid pretreatment of food plant environments may increase the efficacy of halogen sanitizers. (asm.org)
  • Pretreatment of cells with the highly specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor SB 203580 prevented S. typhimurium-induced IL-8 production. (jimmunol.org)
  • Interestingly, pretreatment with furanones rendered Salmonella biofilms more susceptible to antibiotic treatment. (ugent.be)
  • Murine monoclonal antibodies to target Salmonella typhimurium flagellin and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were prepared and characterized. (mdpi.com)
  • We offer Salmonella typhimurium Antibodies for use in common research applications: ELISA. (novusbio.com)
  • Choose from our Salmonella typhimurium monoclonal antibodies. (novusbio.com)
  • The different antibodies for Salmonella are available in the market and correct STGs have a positive agglutination result upon their interaction with the antibodies. (hindawi.com)
  • Persistence of Salmonella species in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis following ceftriaxone therapy. (springer.com)
  • Five children needed hospital treatment in an Australian state as part of a Salmonella outbreak linked to backyard poultry. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • The external and internal egg contamination by Salmonella during poultry production is a complex issue, influenced by many variables. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study aims to fabricate cold plasma treated thyme essential oil (TO)/silk fibroin (SF) nanofibers to inhibit Salmonella Typhimurium in poultry meat. (medworm.com)
  • The role of the PhoP/PhoQ regulon in Salmonella virulence. (nii.ac.jp)