A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA that causes mild PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Gram-negative rods widely distributed in LIZARDS and SNAKES, and implicated in enteric, bone (BONE DISEASES), and joint infections (JOINT DISEASES) in humans.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
Cobamides are a class of compounds that function as cofactors in various enzymatic reactions, containing a corrin ring similar to vitamin B12, but with different substituents on the benzimidazole moiety, and can be found in certain bacteria and archaea.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.
Nitrosoguanidines are organic compounds containing a nitroso group (-NO) and a guanidine group (-R1R2N-CN-), known for their alkylating properties and potential use as therapeutic agents or carcinogenic substances, depending on the specific compound and context.
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The penultimate step in the pathway of histidine biosynthesis. Oxidation of the alcohol group on the side chain gives the acid group forming histidine. Histidinol has also been used as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Heptoses are rare monosaccharides (simple sugars) containing seven carbon atoms, with a general formula of C7H14O7, which can exist in various structural forms such as D-glycero-D-manno-heptose and D-glycero-D-gulo-heptose.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Arabinose is a simple, pentose sugar (a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms) that is a constituent of various polysaccharides and glycosides, particularly found in plant tissues and some microorganisms, and can be metabolized in humans as a source of energy through the pentose phosphate pathway.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The family Erinaceidae, in the order INSECTIVORA. Most are true hedgehogs possessing a coat of spines and a very short tail. Those members of the family found in Southeast Asia (moonrats or gymnures) have normal body hair and a long tail.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 4,5-dihydro-4-oxo-5-imidazolepropanoate to urocanate and water. EC
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
'Sugar acids' are organic compounds derived from sugars through various processes, characterized by the presence of both a carboxyl group (-COOH) and a hydroxyl group (-OH) in their molecular structure, often found in food sources like fruits and used in industries such as food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-serine and 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate to L-tryptophan and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein that also catalyzes the conversion of serine and indole into tryptophan and water and of indoleglycerol phosphate into indole and glyceraldehyde phosphate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by several Paratyphi serotypes of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. It is similar to TYPHOID FEVER but less severe.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of ethanolamine to acetaldehyde. EC
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in Asia, Africa, and southern Europe.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
One of the early purine analogs showing antineoplastic activity. It functions as an antimetabolite and is easily incorporated into ribonucleic acids.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
The expelling of bacteria from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (1/7066)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

Salmonella typhimurium and lipopolysaccharide stimulate extracellularly regulated kinase activation in macrophages by a mechanism involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phospholipase D as novel intermediates. (2/7066)

Activation of the extracellularly regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is part of the early biochemical events that follow lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of macrophages or their infection by virulent and attenuated Salmonella strains. Phagocytosis as well as the secretion of invasion-associated proteins is dispensable for ERK activation by the pathogen. Furthermore, the pathways used by Salmonella and LPS to stimulate ERK are identical, suggesting that kinase activation might be solely mediated by LPS. Both stimuli activate ERK by a mechanism involving herbimycin-dependent tyrosine kinase(s) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Phospholipase D activation and stimulation of protein kinase C appear to be intermediates in this novel pathway of MEK/ERK activation.  (+info)

Pathogenicity island 2 mutants of Salmonella typhimurium are efficient carriers for heterologous antigens and enable modulation of immune responses. (3/7066)

The potential use as vaccine delivery system of Salmonella typhimurium strains harboring defined mutations in the sseC (HH104) and sseD (MvP101) genes, which encode putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, was evaluated and compared with that of the well-characterized aroA mutant strain SL7207 by using beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) as a model antigen. When orally administered to immune-competent or gamma interferon-deficient (IFN-gamma-/-) BALB/c mice, both mutants were found to be highly attenuated (50% lethal dose, >10(9) bacteria). Both strains were also able to efficiently colonize and persist in Peyer's patches. Immunization with HH104 and MvP101 triggered beta-Gal-specific serum and mucosal antibody responses equivalent to or stronger than those observed in SL7207-immunized mice. Although immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) serum antibodies were dominant in all groups, IgG1 was also significantly increased in mice vaccinated with MvP101 and SL7207. Comparable beta-Gal-specific IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in intestinal lavages from mice immunized with the different strains. Antigen-specific CD4(+) T-helper cells were generated after vaccination with all vaccine prototypes; however, responses were significantly more efficient when HH104 and MvP101 were used (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma were produced by restimulated spleen cells from mice immunized with HH104 than from those vaccinated with the MvP101 or SL7207 derivatives (P +info)

Effect of transforming growth factor beta on experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice. (4/7066)

We have investigated the effect of the in vivo administration of recombinant transforming growth factor beta (rTGF-beta) on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in Salmonella typhimurium experimental infection in mice. The protective response elicited by macrophages was induced by rTGF-beta1 by 2 days after experimental infection, as demonstrated by an increased NO production, while the humoral protective effect began with cytokine mRNA expression 2 days after the challenge and continued after 5 days with cytokine release and lymphocyte activation. We demonstrated that all mice who received rTGF-beta1 survived 7 days after infection. The number of bacteria recovered in the spleens and in the livers of rTGF-beta1-treated mice 2 and 5 days after infection was significantly smaller than that found in the same organs after phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) inoculation. Furthermore, 2 and 5 days after infection, splenic macrophages from rTGF-beta1-treated mice showed a greater NO production than did those from PBS-treated mice. The effect of rTGF-beta1 on S. typhimurium infection in mice was correlated with the expression of cell costimulatory CD28 molecules. Five days after S. typhimurium infection, the percentage of CD28(+)-expressing T cells in splenic lymphocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice increased with respect to that from control mice. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) mRNA was present in a greater amount in spleen cells from rTGF-beta1-treated mice after 2 days, although the intensity of the band decreased 5 days after the challenge. A similar pattern was obtained with the mRNAs for interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, TGF-beta, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which showed greater expression in cells obtained from rTGF-beta1-treated and S. typhimurium-infected mice 2 days after challenge. The treatment with rTGF-beta1 induced an increase in IL-1alpha and IFN-gamma release in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures 5 days after the experimental infection with S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that 5 days after infection, the IFN-gamma titer was significantly greater in the sera of rTGF-beta-treated mice than in those of PBS-treated mice. Also, hsp60 showed greater expression 2 days after the challenge in splenocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice. The role played by proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines and by CD28 is discussed.  (+info)

Molecular basis for the enterocyte tropism exhibited by Salmonella typhimurium type 1 fimbriae. (5/7066)

Salmonella typhimurium exhibits a distinct tropism for mouse enterocytes that is linked to their expression of type 1 fimbriae. The distinct binding traits of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is also reflected in their binding to selected mannosylated proteins and in their ability to promote secondary bacterial aggregation on enterocyte surfaces. The determinant of binding in Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is a 35-kDa structurally distinct fimbrial subunit, FimHS, because inactivation of fimHS abolished binding activity in the resulting mutant without any apparent effect on fimbrial expression. Surprisingly, when expressed in the absence of other fimbrial components and as a translational fusion protein with MalE, FimHS failed to demonstrate any specific binding tropism and bound equally to all cells and mannosylated proteins tested. To determine if the binding specificity of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae was determined by the fimbrial shaft that is intimately associated with FimHS, we replaced the amino-terminal half of FimHS with the corresponding sequence from Escherichia coli FimH (FimHE) that contains the receptor binding domain of FimHE. The resulting hybrid fimbriae bearing FimHES on a Salmonella fimbrial shaft exhibited binding traits that resembled that of Salmonella rather than E. coli fimbriae. Apparently, the quaternary constraints imposed by the fimbrial shaft on the adhesin determine the distinct binding traits of S. typhimurium type 1 fimbriae.  (+info)

Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. (6/7066)

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

Peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activity of the FlgJ protein, essential for flagellar rod formation in Salmonella typhimurium. (7/7066)

Because the rod structure of the flagellar basal body crosses the inner membrane, the periplasmic space, and the outer membrane, its formation must involve hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan layer. So far, more than 10 genes have been shown to be required for rod formation in Salmonella typhimurium. Some of them encode the component proteins of the rod structure, and most of the remaining genes are believed to encode proteins involved in the export process of the component proteins. Although FlgJ has also been known to be involved in rod formation, its exact role has not been understood. Recently, it was suggested that the C-terminal half of the FlgJ protein has homology to the active center of some muramidase enzymes from gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we showed that the purified FlgJ protein from S. typhimurium has a peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activity and that this activity is localized in its C-terminal half. Through oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, we constructed flgJ mutants with amino acid substitutions in the putative active center of the muramidase. The resulting mutants produced FlgJ proteins with reduced enzymatic activity and showed poor motility. These results indicate that the muramidase activity of FlgJ is essential for flagellar formation. Immunoblotting analysis with the fractionated cell extracts revealed that FlgJ is exported to the periplasmic space, where the peptidoglycan layer is localized. On the basis of these results, we conclude that FlgJ is the flagellum-specific muramidase which hydrolyzes the peptidoglycan layer to assemble the rod structure in the periplasmic space.  (+info)

Molecular survey of the Salmonella phage typing system of Anderson. (8/7066)

Typing phages for Salmonella and the prophages of their typical propagation strains were analyzed at the DNA level. Most of them belong to the P22 branch of the lambdoid phages. Acquisition of new plating properties of the typing phages by propagation in particular strains can be due to different host specific modifications of the DNA or to recombination events with residing prophages which are reflected by changes in the respective DNA restriction patterns. It is concluded that the actually available set of typing phages is a historically unique combination of strains.  (+info)

"Salmonella enterica" serovar "Typhimurium" is a subspecies of the bacterial species Salmonella enterica, which is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It is a common cause of foodborne illness in humans and animals worldwide. The bacteria can be found in a variety of sources, including contaminated food and water, raw meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products.

The infection caused by Salmonella Typhimurium is typically self-limiting and results in gastroenteritis, which is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. However, in some cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and cause more severe illness, particularly in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

Salmonella Typhimurium is a major public health concern due to its ability to cause outbreaks of foodborne illness, as well as its potential to develop antibiotic resistance. Proper food handling, preparation, and storage practices can help prevent the spread of Salmonella Typhimurium and other foodborne pathogens.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacteria that are facultative anaerobes and are motile due to peritrichous flagella. They are non-spore forming and often have a single polar flagellum when grown in certain conditions. Salmonella species are important pathogens in humans and other animals, causing foodborne illnesses known as salmonellosis.

Salmonella can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans, birds, reptiles, and mammals. They can contaminate various foods, including meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and fresh produce. The bacteria can survive and multiply in a wide range of temperatures and environments, making them challenging to control completely.

Salmonella infection typically leads to gastroenteritis, characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection may spread beyond the intestines, leading to more severe complications like bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or focal infections in various organs.

There are two main species of Salmonella: S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is further divided into six subspecies and numerous serovars, with over 2,500 distinct serotypes identified to date. Some well-known Salmonella serovars include S. Typhi (causes typhoid fever), S. Paratyphi A, B, and C (cause paratyphoid fever), and S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium (common causes of foodborne salmonellosis).

Salmonella infections, also known as salmonellosis, are a type of foodborne illness caused by the Salmonella bacterium. These bacteria can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans, animals, and birds, especially poultry. People typically get salmonella infections from consuming contaminated foods or water, or through contact with infected animals or their feces. Common sources of Salmonella include raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, and milk products; contaminated fruits and vegetables; and improperly prepared or stored food.

Symptoms of salmonella infections usually begin within 12 to 72 hours after exposure and can include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, vomiting, and headache. Most people recover from salmonella infections without treatment within four to seven days, although some cases may be severe or even life-threatening, especially in young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems. In rare cases, Salmonella can spread from the intestines to the bloodstream and cause serious complications such as meningitis, endocarditis, and arthritis.

Prevention measures include proper food handling, cooking, and storage practices; washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom, changing diapers, or touching animals; avoiding cross-contamination of foods during preparation; and using pasteurized dairy products and eggs. If you suspect that you have a Salmonella infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to prevent complications and reduce the risk of spreading the infection to others.

A Salmonella infection in animals refers to the presence and multiplication of Salmonella enterica bacteria in non-human animals, causing an infectious disease known as salmonellosis. Animals can become infected through direct contact with other infected animals or their feces, consuming contaminated food or water, or vertical transmission (from mother to offspring). Clinical signs vary among species but may include diarrhea, fever, vomiting, weight loss, and sepsis. In some cases, animals can be asymptomatic carriers, shedding the bacteria in their feces and acting as a source of infection for other animals and humans. Regular monitoring, biosecurity measures, and appropriate sanitation practices are crucial to prevent and control Salmonella infections in animals.

"Salmonella enterica" is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a common cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide, often resulting in gastroenteritis, which is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting.

"Salmonella enterica" is further divided into several serovars or subspecies, with some of the most common ones causing human illness being Typhimurium and Enteritidis. These bacteria are typically transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water sources, such as raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products.

Once ingested, "Salmonella enterica" can colonize the gastrointestinal tract and release endotoxins that cause inflammation and damage to the intestinal lining. In some cases, the bacteria can spread to other parts of the body, leading to more severe and potentially life-threatening infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Preventing "Salmonella enterica" infections involves proper food handling and preparation practices, such as washing hands and surfaces thoroughly, cooking meats and eggs to appropriate temperatures, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

Salmonella phages are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria of the genus Salmonella. These phages, also known as bacteriophages or simply phages, are composed of a protein capsid that encases the genetic material, which can be either DNA or RNA. They specifically target Salmonella bacteria, using the bacteria's resources to replicate and produce new phage particles. This process often leads to the lysis (breaking open) of the bacterial cell, resulting in the release of newly formed phages.

Salmonella phages have been studied as potential alternatives to antibiotics for controlling Salmonella infections, particularly in food production settings. They offer the advantage of being highly specific to their target bacteria, reducing the risk of disrupting beneficial microbiota. However, further research is needed to fully understand their safety and efficacy before they can be widely used as therapeutic or prophylactic agents.

Salmonella Enteritidis is a specific strain of the Salmonella bacterium that primarily infects the intestinal tract, leading to a type of foodborne illness known as salmonellosis. This organism can be found in a variety of animals and their feces, including poultry and cattle. It can contaminate various foods, particularly eggs, raw meat, and unpasteurized dairy products.

Infection with Salmonella Enteritidis typically occurs when an individual ingests contaminated food or water. The bacteria then multiply within the digestive system, causing symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and vomiting. In some cases, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems, Salmonella Enteritidis infection can lead to more severe complications, including bacteremia (bloodstream infection) and invasive diseases affecting other organs.

Preventing Salmonella Enteritidis infection involves proper food handling, cooking, and storage practices, as well as maintaining good hygiene and sanitation standards in both residential and commercial settings.

Salmonella typhi is a bacterium that causes typhoid fever, a severe and sometimes fatal infectious disease. It is a human-specific pathogen, which means it only infects humans and is not carried in animals or birds. The bacteria are spread through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. Once ingested, Salmonella typhi can invade the intestinal tract, causing symptoms such as high fever, headache, abdominal pain, constipation, and rose-colored spots on the chest. If left untreated, typhoid fever can lead to serious complications, including intestinal perforation, bacteremia, and death.

Salmonella food poisoning, also known as salmonellosis, is an infection caused by the Salmonella enterica bacterium. It's typically contracted through the consumption of contaminated food or water, or by coming into contact with infected animals or their feces. The bacteria can cause gastrointestinal distress, including diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever, within 12 to 72 hours after exposure. Symptoms usually last for four to seven days, and most people recover without treatment. However, in severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage dehydration caused by excessive diarrhea. In rare instances, Salmonella can spread from the intestines to the bloodstream and cause life-threatening infections.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Salmonella vaccines are immunizations that are developed to protect against Salmonella infections, which are caused by bacteria of the Salmonella enterica species. These vaccines typically contain antigens or weakened forms of the Salmonella bacteria that stimulate an immune response in the body, enabling it to recognize and fight off future Salmonella infections.

There are two main types of Salmonella vaccines:

1. Live Attenuated Vaccines: These vaccines contain weakened (attenuated) forms of the Salmonella bacteria that can still replicate but at a much slower rate and with reduced virulence compared to the wild-type bacteria. Examples include Ty21a, a live oral typhoid vaccine, and χ 144, an experimental live oral vaccine against nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars.
2. Inactivated (Killed) Vaccines: These vaccines contain killed Salmonella bacteria or their components, such as proteins or polysaccharides. They cannot replicate and are generally considered safer than live attenuated vaccines. However, they may not stimulate as strong an immune response compared to live vaccines. An example is the Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever.

Salmonella vaccines are primarily used for preventing Salmonella infections in humans and animals, particularly those that cause typhoid fever and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections. Vaccination is an essential component of controlling Salmonella infections, especially in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene, where the risk of exposure to Salmonella bacteria is higher.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Mutagenicity tests are a type of laboratory assays used to identify agents that can cause genetic mutations. These tests detect changes in the DNA of organisms, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, after exposure to potential mutagens. The most commonly used mutagenicity test is the Ames test, which uses a strain of Salmonella bacteria that is sensitive to mutagens. If a chemical causes an increase in the number of revertants (reversion to the wild type) in the bacterial population, it is considered to be a mutagen. Other tests include the mouse lymphoma assay and the chromosomal aberration test. These tests are used to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of chemicals and are an important part of the safety evaluation process for new drugs, chemicals, and other substances.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

Mutagens are physical or chemical agents that can cause permanent changes in the structure of genetic material, including DNA and chromosomes, leading to mutations. These mutations can be passed down to future generations and may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases. Examples of mutagens include ultraviolet (UV) radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals found in industrial settings. It is important to note that not all mutations are harmful, but some can have negative effects on health and development.

Salmonella Paratyphi A is a bacterium that causes a type of enteric fever known as Paratyphoid fever. It's a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is motile and non-spore forming. This bacterium is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. The incubation period for paratyphoid fever can range from 5 to 10 days. Symptoms include high fever, headache, abdominal pain, and sometimes a rash. Paratyphoid fever is a systemic infection that can affect various organs in the body, including the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It's treated with antibiotics, and prevention measures include good hygiene practices, safe food handling, and vaccination for high-risk populations.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Genetic transduction is a process in molecular biology that describes the transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another by a viral vector called a bacteriophage (or phage). In this process, the phage infects one bacterium and incorporates a portion of the bacterial DNA into its own genetic material. When the phage then infects a second bacterium, it can transfer the incorporated bacterial DNA to the new host. This can result in the horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of traits such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors between bacteria.

There are two main types of transduction: generalized and specialized. In generalized transduction, any portion of the bacterial genome can be packaged into the phage particle, leading to a random assortment of genetic material being transferred. In specialized transduction, only specific genes near the site where the phage integrates into the bacterial chromosome are consistently transferred.

It's important to note that genetic transduction is not to be confused with transformation or conjugation, which are other mechanisms of HGT in bacteria.

Bacteriophage typing is a laboratory method used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains based on their susceptibility to specific bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. In this technique, a standard set of bacteriophages with known host ranges are allowed to infect and form plaques on a lawn of bacterial cells grown on a solid medium, such as agar. The pattern and number of plaques formed are then used to identify the specific bacteriophage types that are able to infect the bacterial strain, providing a unique "fingerprint" or profile that can be used for typing and differentiating different bacterial strains.

Bacteriophage typing is particularly useful in epidemiological studies, as it can help track the spread of specific bacterial clones within a population, monitor antibiotic resistance patterns, and provide insights into the evolution and ecology of bacterial pathogens. It has been widely used in the study of various bacterial species, including Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, among others.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Flagella are long, thin, whip-like structures that some types of cells use to move themselves around. They are made up of a protein called tubulin and are surrounded by a membrane. In bacteria, flagella rotate like a propeller to push the cell through its environment. In eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus), such as sperm cells or certain types of algae, flagella move in a wave-like motion to achieve locomotion. The ability to produce flagella is called flagellation.

Bacterial chromosomes are typically circular, double-stranded DNA molecules that contain the genetic material of bacteria. Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA housed within a nucleus, bacterial chromosomes are located in the cytoplasm of the cell, often associated with the bacterial nucleoid.

Bacterial chromosomes can vary in size and structure among different species, but they typically contain all of the genetic information necessary for the survival and reproduction of the organism. They may also contain plasmids, which are smaller circular DNA molecules that can carry additional genes and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation.

One important feature of bacterial chromosomes is their ability to replicate rapidly, allowing bacteria to divide quickly and reproduce in large numbers. The replication of the bacterial chromosome begins at a specific origin point and proceeds in opposite directions until the entire chromosome has been copied. This process is tightly regulated and coordinated with cell division to ensure that each daughter cell receives a complete copy of the genetic material.

Overall, the study of bacterial chromosomes is an important area of research in microbiology, as understanding their structure and function can provide insights into bacterial genetics, evolution, and pathogenesis.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

Typhoid fever is an acute illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. It is characterized by sustained fever, headache, constipation or diarrhea, rose-colored rash (in some cases), abdominal pain, and weakness. The bacteria are spread through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with an infected person's feces. If left untreated, typhoid fever can lead to severe complications and even be fatal. It is diagnosed through blood, stool, or urine tests and treated with antibiotics. Vaccination is available for prevention.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Flagellin is a protein that makes up the structural filament of the flagellum, which is a whip-like structure found on many bacteria that enables them to move. It is also known as a potent stimulator of the innate immune response and can be recognized by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the host's immune system, triggering an inflammatory response. Flagellin is highly conserved among different bacterial species, making it a potential target for broad-spectrum vaccines and immunotherapies against bacterial infections.

Microbial genetics is the study of heredity and variation in microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It involves the investigation of their genetic material (DNA and RNA), genes, gene expression, genetic regulation, mutations, genetic recombination, and genome organization. This field is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis, evolution, ecology, and biotechnological applications. Research in microbial genetics has led to significant advancements in areas such as antibiotic resistance, vaccine development, and gene therapy.

A genetic complementation test is a laboratory procedure used in molecular genetics to determine whether two mutated genes can complement each other's function, indicating that they are located at different loci and represent separate alleles. This test involves introducing a normal or wild-type copy of one gene into a cell containing a mutant version of the same gene, and then observing whether the presence of the normal gene restores the normal function of the mutated gene. If the introduction of the normal gene results in the restoration of the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at different loci and can complement each other's function. However, if the introduction of the normal gene does not restore the normal phenotype, it suggests that the two genes are located at the same locus and represent different alleles of the same gene. This test is commonly used to map genes and identify genetic interactions in a variety of organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and animals.

Histidine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C6H9N3O2. Histidine plays a crucial role in several physiological processes, including:

1. Protein synthesis: As an essential amino acid, histidine is required for the production of proteins, which are vital components of various tissues and organs in the body.

2. Hemoglobin synthesis: Histidine is a key component of hemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body. The imidazole side chain of histidine acts as a proton acceptor/donor, facilitating the release and uptake of oxygen by hemoglobin.

3. Acid-base balance: Histidine is involved in maintaining acid-base homeostasis through its role in the biosynthesis of histamine, which is a critical mediator of inflammatory responses and allergies. The decarboxylation of histidine results in the formation of histamine, which can increase vascular permeability and modulate immune responses.

4. Metal ion binding: Histidine has a high affinity for metal ions such as zinc, copper, and iron. This property allows histidine to participate in various enzymatic reactions and maintain the structural integrity of proteins.

5. Antioxidant defense: Histidine-containing dipeptides, like carnosine and anserine, have been shown to exhibit antioxidant properties by scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and chelating metal ions. These compounds may contribute to the protection of proteins and DNA from oxidative damage.

Dietary sources of histidine include meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, and wheat germ. Histidine deficiency is rare but can lead to growth retardation, anemia, and impaired immune function.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

"Salmonella arizonae" is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is motile and facultatively anaerobic. It is a species within the genus Salmonella, which are commonly associated with foodborne illnesses in humans and animals. However, "Salmonella arizonae" is primarily associated with reptiles and is rarely known to cause disease in humans. It can be found in the intestinal tracts of reptiles, amphibians, and birds, and can contaminate their environments, including water and soil. In rare cases, human infection may occur through direct contact with infected animals or their feces, consumption of contaminated food or water, or person-to-person transmission. The clinical presentation of "Salmonella arizonae" infection in humans is similar to other Salmonella infections, typically causing gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Genetic conjugation is a type of genetic transfer that occurs between bacterial cells. It involves the process of one bacterium (the donor) transferring a piece of its DNA to another bacterium (the recipient) through direct contact or via a bridge-like connection called a pilus. This transferred DNA may contain genes that provide the recipient cell with new traits, such as antibiotic resistance or virulence factors, which can make the bacteria more harmful or difficult to treat. Genetic conjugation is an important mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance and other traits among bacterial populations.

DNA transposable elements, also known as transposons or jumping genes, are mobile genetic elements that can change their position within a genome. They are composed of DNA sequences that include genes encoding the enzymes required for their own movement (transposase) and regulatory elements. When activated, the transposase recognizes specific sequences at the ends of the element and catalyzes the excision and reintegration of the transposable element into a new location in the genome. This process can lead to genetic variation, as the insertion of a transposable element can disrupt the function of nearby genes or create new combinations of gene regulatory elements. Transposable elements are widespread in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and are thought to play a significant role in genome evolution.

Enzyme repression is a type of gene regulation in which the production of an enzyme is inhibited or suppressed, thereby reducing the rate of catalysis of the chemical reaction that the enzyme facilitates. This process typically occurs when the end product of the reaction binds to the regulatory protein, called a repressor, which then binds to the operator region of the operon (a group of genes that are transcribed together) and prevents transcription of the structural genes encoding for the enzyme. Enzyme repression helps maintain homeostasis within the cell by preventing the unnecessary production of enzymes when they are not needed, thus conserving energy and resources.

"Genomic Islands" are horizontally acquired DNA segments in bacterial and archaeal genomes that exhibit distinct features, such as different nucleotide composition (e.g., GC content) and codon usage compared to the rest of the genome. They often contain genes associated with mobile genetic elements, such as transposons, integrases, and phages, and are enriched for functions related to adaptive traits like antibiotic resistance, heavy metal tolerance, and virulence factors. These islands can be transferred between different strains or species through various mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), including conjugation, transformation, and transduction, contributing significantly to bacterial evolution and diversity.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are large molecules found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of a hydrophilic polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid portion known as Lipid A. The Lipid A component is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS, which can trigger a powerful immune response in animals, including humans. This response can lead to symptoms such as fever, inflammation, and septic shock, especially when large amounts of LPS are introduced into the bloodstream.

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS and plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of gram-negative bacterial infections. Lipid A is a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, consisting of a glucosamine disaccharide backbone with multiple fatty acid chains and phosphate groups attached to it. It can induce the release of proinflammatory cytokines, fever, and other symptoms associated with sepsis when introduced into the bloodstream.

Regulator genes are a type of gene that regulates the activity of other genes in an organism. They do not code for a specific protein product but instead control the expression of other genes by producing regulatory proteins such as transcription factors, repressors, or enhancers. These regulatory proteins bind to specific DNA sequences near the target genes and either promote or inhibit their transcription into mRNA. This allows regulator genes to play a crucial role in coordinating complex biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism, and response to environmental stimuli.

There are several types of regulator genes, including:

1. Constitutive regulators: These genes are always active and produce regulatory proteins that control the expression of other genes in a consistent manner.
2. Inducible regulators: These genes respond to specific signals or environmental stimuli by producing regulatory proteins that modulate the expression of target genes.
3. Negative regulators: These genes produce repressor proteins that bind to DNA and inhibit the transcription of target genes, thereby reducing their expression.
4. Positive regulators: These genes produce activator proteins that bind to DNA and promote the transcription of target genes, thereby increasing their expression.
5. Master regulators: These genes control the expression of multiple downstream target genes involved in specific biological processes or developmental pathways.

Regulator genes are essential for maintaining proper gene expression patterns and ensuring normal cellular function. Mutations in regulator genes can lead to various diseases, including cancer, developmental disorders, and metabolic dysfunctions.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

In the medical context, the term "eggs" is not typically used as a formal medical definition. However, if you are referring to reproductive biology, an egg or ovum is a female reproductive cell (gamete) that, when fertilized by a male sperm, can develop into a new individual.

In humans, eggs are produced in the ovaries and are released during ovulation, usually once per month. They are much larger than sperm and contain all the genetic information necessary to create a human being, along with nutrients that help support the early stages of embryonic development.

It's worth noting that the term "eggs" is also commonly used in everyday language to refer to chicken eggs or eggs from other birds, which are not relevant to medical definitions.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

"O antigens" are a type of antigen found on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The "O" in O antigens stands for "outer" membrane. These antigens are composed of complex carbohydrates and can vary between different strains of the same species of bacteria, which is why they are also referred to as the bacterial "O" somatic antigens.

The O antigens play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria, as they help the bacteria evade the host's immune system by changing the structure of the O antigen, making it difficult for the host to mount an effective immune response against the bacterial infection.

The identification and classification of O antigens are important in epidemiology, clinical microbiology, and vaccine development, as they can be used to differentiate between different strains of bacteria and to develop vaccines that provide protection against specific bacterial infections.

'Escherichia coli (E. coli) proteins' refer to the various types of proteins that are produced and expressed by the bacterium Escherichia coli. These proteins play a critical role in the growth, development, and survival of the organism. They are involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, translation, repair, and regulation.

E. coli is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobe that is commonly found in the intestines of warm-blooded organisms. It is widely used as a model organism in scientific research due to its well-studied genetics, rapid growth, and ability to be easily manipulated in the laboratory. As a result, many E. coli proteins have been identified, characterized, and studied in great detail.

Some examples of E. coli proteins include enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism such as lactase, sucrase, and maltose; proteins involved in DNA replication such as the polymerases, single-stranded binding proteins, and helicases; proteins involved in transcription such as RNA polymerase and sigma factors; proteins involved in translation such as ribosomal proteins, tRNAs, and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases; and regulatory proteins such as global regulators, two-component systems, and transcription factors.

Understanding the structure, function, and regulation of E. coli proteins is essential for understanding the basic biology of this important organism, as well as for developing new strategies for combating bacterial infections and improving industrial processes involving bacteria.

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Multiple bacterial drug resistance (MDR) is a medical term that refers to the resistance of multiple strains of bacteria to several antibiotics or antimicrobial agents. This means that these bacteria have developed mechanisms that enable them to survive and multiply despite being exposed to drugs that were previously effective in treating infections caused by them.

MDR is a significant public health concern because it limits the treatment options available for bacterial infections, making them more difficult and expensive to treat. In some cases, MDR bacteria may cause severe or life-threatening infections that are resistant to all available antibiotics, leaving doctors with few or no effective therapeutic options.

MDR can arise due to various mechanisms, including the production of enzymes that inactivate antibiotics, changes in bacterial cell membrane permeability that prevent antibiotics from entering the bacteria, and the development of efflux pumps that expel antibiotics out of the bacteria. The misuse or overuse of antibiotics is a significant contributor to the emergence and spread of MDR bacteria.

Preventing and controlling the spread of MDR bacteria requires a multifaceted approach, including the judicious use of antibiotics, infection control measures, surveillance, and research into new antimicrobial agents.

Insertional mutagenesis is a process of introducing new genetic material into an organism's genome at a specific location, which can result in a change or disruption of the function of the gene at that site. This technique is often used in molecular biology research to study gene function and regulation. The introduction of the foreign DNA is typically accomplished through the use of mobile genetic elements, such as transposons or viruses, which are capable of inserting themselves into the genome.

The insertion of the new genetic material can lead to a loss or gain of function in the affected gene, resulting in a mutation. This type of mutagenesis is called "insertional" because the mutation is caused by the insertion of foreign DNA into the genome. The effects of insertional mutagenesis can range from subtle changes in gene expression to the complete inactivation of a gene.

This technique has been widely used in genetic research, including the study of developmental biology, cancer, and genetic diseases. It is also used in the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural and industrial applications.

Antimutagenic agents are substances that prevent or reduce the frequency of mutations in DNA, which can be caused by various factors such as radiation, chemicals, and free radicals. These agents work by preventing the formation of mutations or by repairing the damage already done to the DNA. They can be found naturally in foods, such as antioxidants, or they can be synthesized in a laboratory. Antimutagenic agents have potential use in cancer prevention and treatment, as well as in reducing the negative effects of environmental mutagens.

Polymyxins are a group of antibiotics derived from the bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa. They consist of polymyxin B and polymyxin E (also known as colistin), which have similar structures and mechanisms of action. Polymyxins bind to the lipopolysaccharide component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, causing disruption of the membrane and ultimately leading to bacterial cell death. These antibiotics are primarily used to treat serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, but their use is limited due to potential nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity.

Propylene glycol is not a medical term, but rather a chemical compound. However, it does have various applications in the medical field. Medically, propylene glycol can be used as a:

1. Vehicle for intravenous (IV) medications: Propylene glycol helps dissolve drugs that are not water-soluble and allows them to be administered intravenously. It is used in the preparation of some IV medications, including certain antibiotics, antivirals, and chemotherapeutic agents.
2. Preservative: Propylene glycol acts as a preservative in various medical products, such as topical ointments, eye drops, and injectable solutions, to prevent bacterial growth and increase shelf life.
3. Humectant: In some medical devices and pharmaceutical formulations, propylene glycol is used as a humectant, which means it helps maintain moisture and prevent dryness in the skin or mucous membranes.

The chemical definition of propylene glycol (C3H8O2) is:

A colorless, nearly odorless, viscous liquid belonging to the alcohol family. It is a diol, meaning it contains two hydroxyl groups (-OH), and its molecular formula is C3H8O2. Propylene glycol is miscible with water and most organic solvents and has applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, food processing, cosmetics, and industrial manufacturing.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

Salmonella Paratyphi B, also known as Salmonella enterica serovar Java, is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a human pathogen that can cause a systemic illness called paratyphoid fever, which is characterized by fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and headache. The infection typically spreads through the consumption of contaminated food or water.

Salmonella Paratyphi B has a characteristic bipolar staining pattern, giving it a "safety pin" appearance under the microscope. It is motile due to the presence of peritrichous flagella and can survive in a wide range of temperatures and environments. The bacterium produces several virulence factors that allow it to invade and colonize host cells, including fimbriae, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and type III secretion systems.

Paratyphoid fever caused by Salmonella Paratyphi B is generally less severe than typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi, but it can still lead to serious complications such as bacteremia, meningitis, and intestinal perforation in some cases. The diagnosis of paratyphoid fever typically involves the isolation and identification of the bacterium from clinical samples such as blood or stool cultures. Treatment usually involves antibiotic therapy, with fluoroquinolones being the drug of choice for severe cases.

Lysogeny is a process in the life cycle of certain viruses, known as bacteriophages or phages, which can infect bacteria. In lysogeny, the viral DNA integrates into the chromosome of the host bacterium and replicates along with it, remaining dormant and not producing any new virus particles. This state is called lysogeny or the lysogenic cycle.

The integrated viral DNA is known as a prophage. The bacterial cell that contains a prophage is called a lysogen. The lysogen can continue to grow and divide normally, passing the prophage onto its daughter cells during reproduction. This dormant state can last for many generations of the host bacterium.

However, under certain conditions such as DNA damage or exposure to UV radiation, the prophage can be induced to excise itself from the bacterial chromosome and enter the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the viral DNA replicates rapidly, producing many new virus particles, which eventually leads to the lysis (breaking open) of the host cell and the release of the newly formed virions.

Lysogeny is an important mechanism for the spread and survival of bacteriophages in bacterial populations. It also plays a role in horizontal gene transfer between bacteria, as genes carried by prophages can be transferred to other bacteria during transduction.

Pentosyltransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a pentose (a sugar containing five carbon atoms) molecule from one compound to another. These enzymes play important roles in various biochemical pathways, including the biosynthesis of nucleotides, glycoproteins, and other complex carbohydrates.

One example of a pentosyltransferase is the enzyme that catalyzes the addition of a ribose sugar to form a glycosidic bond with a purine or pyrimidine base during the biosynthesis of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA.

Another example is the enzyme that adds xylose residues to proteins during the formation of glycoproteins, which are proteins that contain covalently attached carbohydrate chains. These enzymes are essential for many biological processes and have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Bacterial RNA refers to the genetic material present in bacteria that is composed of ribonucleic acid (RNA). Unlike higher organisms, bacteria contain a single circular chromosome made up of DNA, along with smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. These bacterial genetic materials contain the information necessary for the growth and reproduction of the organism.

Bacterial RNA can be divided into three main categories: messenger RNA (mRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), and transfer RNA (tRNA). mRNA carries genetic information copied from DNA, which is then translated into proteins by the rRNA and tRNA molecules. rRNA is a structural component of the ribosome, where protein synthesis occurs, while tRNA acts as an adapter that brings amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis.

Bacterial RNA plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and regulation of metabolic pathways. Understanding the structure and function of bacterial RNA is essential for developing new antibiotics and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase (PCT) is an enzyme that catalyzes the sixth step in the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in plants and microorganisms. The reaction it catalyzes is the conversion of 3-phosphoshikimate (3PSM) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate (EPSP). This step is a key control point in the aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway, and the enzyme is the target of several herbicides, including glyphosate. The gene that encodes this enzyme is also used as a molecular marker for plant systematics and evolutionary studies.

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a type of electrophoresis technique used in molecular biology to separate DNA molecules based on their size and conformation. In this method, the electric field is applied in varying directions, which allows for the separation of large DNA fragments that are difficult to separate using traditional gel electrophoresis methods.

The DNA sample is prepared by embedding it in a semi-solid matrix, such as agarose or polyacrylamide, and then subjected to an electric field that periodically changes direction. This causes the DNA molecules to reorient themselves in response to the changing electric field, which results in the separation of the DNA fragments based on their size and shape.

PFGE is a powerful tool for molecular biology research and has many applications, including the identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens, the analysis of genomic DNA, and the study of gene organization and regulation. It is also used in forensic science to analyze DNA evidence in criminal investigations.

Genetic suppression is a concept in genetics that refers to the phenomenon where the expression or function of one gene is reduced or silenced by another gene. This can occur through various mechanisms such as:

* Allelic exclusion: When only one allele (version) of a gene is expressed, while the other is suppressed.
* Epigenetic modifications: Chemical changes to the DNA or histone proteins that package DNA can result in the suppression of gene expression.
* RNA interference: Small RNAs can bind to and degrade specific mRNAs (messenger RNAs), preventing their translation into proteins.
* Transcriptional repression: Proteins called transcription factors can bind to DNA and prevent the recruitment of RNA polymerase, which is necessary for gene transcription.

Genetic suppression plays a crucial role in regulating gene expression and maintaining proper cellular function. It can also contribute to diseases such as cancer when genes that suppress tumor growth are suppressed themselves.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Typhoid-Paratyphoid vaccines are immunizations that protect against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers, which are caused by the Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi, respectively. These vaccines contain inactivated or attenuated bacteria or specific antigens that stimulate an individual's immune system to develop immunity against these diseases without causing the illness itself. There are several types of typhoid-paratyphoid vaccines available, including:

1. Ty21a (oral live attenuated vaccine): This is a live but weakened form of the Salmonella Typhi bacteria. It is given orally in capsule form and requires a series of 4 doses taken every other day. The vaccine provides protection for about 5-7 years.
2. Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) typhoid vaccine: This vaccine contains purified Vi antigens from the Salmonella Typhi bacterium's outer capsular layer. It is given as an injection and provides protection for approximately 2-3 years.
3. Combined typhoid-paratyphoid A and B vaccines (Vi-rEPA): This vaccine combines Vi polysaccharide antigens from Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A and B. It is given as an injection and provides protection for about 3 years against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers A and B.
4. Typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs): These vaccines combine the Vi polysaccharide antigen from Salmonella Typhi with a protein carrier to enhance the immune response, particularly in children under 2 years of age. TCVs are given as an injection and provide long-lasting protection against typhoid fever.

It is important to note that none of these vaccines provides 100% protection, but they significantly reduce the risk of contracting typhoid or paratyphoid fevers. Additionally, good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, can further minimize the risk of infection.

Medical Definition:

Lethal Dose 50 (LD50) is a standard measurement in toxicology that refers to the estimated amount or dose of a substance, which if ingested, injected, inhaled, or absorbed through the skin by either human or animal, would cause death in 50% of the test population. It is expressed as the mass of a substance per unit of body weight (mg/kg, μg/kg, etc.). LD50 values are often used to compare the toxicity of different substances and help determine safe dosage levels.

Cobamides are a class of compounds that are structurally related to vitamin B12 (cobalamin). They consist of a corrin ring, which is a large heterocyclic ring made up of four pyrrole rings, and a cobalt ion in the center. The lower axial ligand of the cobalt ion can be a variety of different groups, including cyano, hydroxo, methyl, or 5'-deoxyadenosyl groups.

Cobamides are involved in a number of important biological processes, including the synthesis of amino acids and nucleotides, the metabolism of fatty acids and cholesterol, and the regulation of gene expression. They function as cofactors for enzymes called cobamide-dependent methyltransferases, which transfer methyl groups (CH3) from one molecule to another.

Cobamides are found in a wide variety of organisms, including bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. In humans, the most important cobamide is vitamin B12, which is essential for the normal functioning of the nervous system and the production of red blood cells. Vitamin B12 deficiency can lead to neurological problems and anemia.

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Thiamine, also known as vitamin B1, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in certain metabolic reactions, particularly in the conversion of carbohydrates into energy in the body. It is essential for the proper functioning of the heart, nerves, and digestive system. Thiamine acts as a cofactor for enzymes involved in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Deficiency in thiamine can lead to serious health complications, such as beriberi (a disease characterized by peripheral neuropathy, muscle wasting, and heart failure) and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (a neurological disorder often seen in alcoholics due to chronic thiamine deficiency). Thiamine is found in various foods, including whole grains, legumes, pork, beef, and fortified foods.

In the context of medical laboratory reporting, "R factors" refer to a set of values that describe the resistance of certain bacteria to different antibiotics. These factors are typically reported as R1, R2, R3, and so on, where each R factor corresponds to a specific antibiotic or class of antibiotics.

An R factor value of "1" indicates susceptibility to the corresponding antibiotic, while an R factor value of "R" (or "R-", depending on the laboratory's reporting practices) indicates resistance. An intermediate category may also be reported as "I" or "I-", indicating that the bacterium is intermediately sensitive to the antibiotic in question.

It's important to note that R factors are just one piece of information used to guide clinical decision-making around antibiotic therapy, and should be interpreted in conjunction with other factors such as the patient's clinical presentation, the severity of their infection, and any relevant guidelines or recommendations from infectious disease specialists.

Peyer's patches are specialized lymphoid nodules found in the mucosa of the ileum, a part of the small intestine. They are a component of the immune system and play a crucial role in monitoring and defending against harmful pathogens that are ingested with food and drink. Peyer's patches contain large numbers of B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which work together to identify and eliminate potential threats. They also have a unique structure that allows them to sample and analyze the contents of the intestinal lumen, providing an early warning system for the immune system.

Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) is a bioactive nucleotide that is found in various cells and tissues within the human body. It is a crucial intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which is an essential coenzyme involved in numerous cellular processes, including energy metabolism, DNA repair, and gene expression.

NMN can be synthesized within the body from nicotinamide or niacin, and it can also be obtained through dietary sources such as milk, fruits, and vegetables. In recent years, NMN has gained attention in the scientific community for its potential anti-aging effects, as studies have suggested that supplementation with NMN may help to restore NAD+ levels and improve various age-related physiological declines. However, more research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential of NMN and its mechanisms of action in humans.

Nitrosoguanidines are a type of organic compound that contain a nitroso (NO) group and a guanidine group. They are known to be potent nitrosating agents, which means they can release nitrous acid or related nitrosating species. Nitrosation is a reaction that leads to the formation of N-nitroso compounds, some of which have been associated with an increased risk of cancer in humans. Therefore, nitrosoguanidines are often used in laboratory studies to investigate the mechanisms of nitrosation and the effects of N-nitroso compounds on biological systems. However, they are not typically used as therapeutic agents due to their potential carcinogenicity.

The Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) is not exactly a "sugar," but rather a complex molecular machinery used by certain bacteria for the transport and phosphorylation of sugars. The PTS system is a major carbohydrate transport system in many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, which allows them to take up and metabolize various sugars for energy and growth.

The PTS system consists of several protein components, including the enzyme I (EI), histidine phosphocarrier protein (HPr), and sugar-specific enzymes II (EII). The process begins when PEP transfers a phosphate group to EI, which then passes it on to HPr. The phosphorylated HPr then interacts with the sugar-specific EII complex, which is composed of two domains: the membrane-associated domain (EIIA) and the periplasmic domain (EIIC).

When a sugar molecule binds to the EIIC domain, it induces a conformational change that allows the phosphate group from HPr to be transferred to the sugar. This phosphorylation event facilitates the translocation of the sugar across the membrane and into the cytoplasm, where it undergoes further metabolic reactions.

In summary, the Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System (PEP-PTS) is a bacterial transport system that utilizes phosphoryl groups from phosphoenolpyruvate to facilitate the uptake and phosphorylation of sugars, allowing bacteria to efficiently metabolize and utilize various carbon sources for energy and growth.

Bacterial outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. The outer membrane is a unique characteristic of gram-negative bacteria, and it serves as a barrier that helps protect the bacterium from hostile environments. OMPs play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and selective permeability of the outer membrane. They are involved in various functions such as nutrient uptake, transport, adhesion, and virulence factor secretion.

OMPs are typically composed of beta-barrel structures that span the bacterial outer membrane. These proteins can be classified into several groups based on their size, function, and structure. Some of the well-known OMP families include porins, autotransporters, and two-partner secretion systems.

Porins are the most abundant type of OMPs and form water-filled channels that allow the passive diffusion of small molecules, ions, and nutrients across the outer membrane. Autotransporters are a diverse group of OMPs that play a role in bacterial pathogenesis by secreting virulence factors or acting as adhesins. Two-partner secretion systems involve the cooperation between two proteins to transport effector molecules across the outer membrane.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial OMPs is essential for developing new antibiotics and therapies that target gram-negative bacteria, which are often resistant to conventional treatments.

Biotransformation is the metabolic modification of a chemical compound, typically a xenobiotic (a foreign chemical substance found within an living organism), by a biological system. This process often involves enzymatic conversion of the parent compound to one or more metabolites, which may be more or less active, toxic, or mutagenic than the original substance.

In the context of pharmacology and toxicology, biotransformation is an important aspect of drug metabolism and elimination from the body. The liver is the primary site of biotransformation, but other organs such as the kidneys, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract can also play a role.

Biotransformation can occur in two phases: phase I reactions involve functionalization of the parent compound through oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis, while phase II reactions involve conjugation of the metabolite with endogenous molecules such as glucuronic acid, sulfate, or acetate to increase its water solubility and facilitate excretion.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug derived from the actinobacterium Streptomyces griseus. It belongs to the class of aminoglycosides and works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial death.

Streptomycin is primarily used to treat a variety of infections caused by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, including tuberculosis, brucellosis, plague, tularemia, and certain types of bacterial endocarditis. It is also used as part of combination therapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).

Like other aminoglycosides, streptomycin has a narrow therapeutic index and can cause ototoxicity (hearing loss) and nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) with prolonged use or high doses. Therefore, its use is typically limited to cases where other antibiotics are ineffective or contraindicated.

It's important to note that the use of streptomycin requires careful monitoring of drug levels and kidney function, as well as regular audiometric testing to detect any potential hearing loss.

In a medical context, "meat" generally refers to the flesh of animals that is consumed as food. This includes muscle tissue, as well as fat and other tissues that are often found in meat products. However, it's worth noting that some people may have dietary restrictions or medical conditions that prevent them from consuming meat, so it's always important to consider individual preferences and needs when discussing food options.

It's also worth noting that the consumption of meat can have both positive and negative health effects. On the one hand, meat is a good source of protein, iron, vitamin B12, and other essential nutrients. On the other hand, consuming large amounts of red and processed meats has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, it's generally recommended to consume meat in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

Bacteriophage P22 is a specific type of virus that infects and replicates within the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. It is a double-stranded DNA virus and has an icosahedral head and a short, non-contractile tail. Bacteriophage P22 is known for its ability to undergo generalized transduction, where it can package host bacterial DNA into new phage particles, allowing the transfer of genetic material between bacteria. It is widely used in molecular biology as a tool for studying and manipulating bacterial genomes.

Bacterial adhesion is the initial and crucial step in the process of bacterial colonization, where bacteria attach themselves to a surface or tissue. This process involves specific interactions between bacterial adhesins (proteins, fimbriae, or pili) and host receptors (glycoproteins, glycolipids, or extracellular matrix components). The attachment can be either reversible or irreversible, depending on the strength of interaction. Bacterial adhesion is a significant factor in initiating biofilm formation, which can lead to various infectious diseases and medical device-associated infections.

Bacterial fimbriae are thin, hair-like protein appendages that extend from the surface of many types of bacteria. They are involved in the attachment of bacteria to surfaces, other cells, or extracellular structures. Fimbriae enable bacteria to adhere to host tissues and form biofilms, which contribute to bacterial pathogenicity and survival in various environments. These protein structures are composed of several thousand subunits of a specific protein called pilin. Some fimbriae can recognize and bind to specific receptors on host cells, initiating the process of infection and colonization.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

Histidinol is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a biochemical concept. Histidinol is an intermediate in the metabolic pathway for the synthesis of the amino acid histidine. It is a reduced form of histidine, where a hydroxyl group replaces the imidazole ring's double-bonded nitrogen atom.

In clinical or medical contexts, Histidinol may be mentioned in relation to inborn errors of metabolism, such as histidinemia, which is characterized by an accumulation of histidine and its metabolites, including histidinol, due to a deficiency in the enzyme histidase. However, it's worth noting that histidinemia is typically asymptomatic or associated with mild symptoms, such as delayed development, learning difficulties, or speech problems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poultry" is not a medical term. It is a agricultural and culinary term that refers to domestic birds (such as chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys) that are kept for their eggs, meat, or feathers. The study and care of these birds would fall under the field of veterinary medicine, but "poultry" itself is not a medical term.

Isoleucine is an essential branched-chain amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C6H13NO2. Isoleucine is crucial for muscle protein synthesis, hemoglobin formation, and energy regulation during exercise or fasting. It is found in various foods such as meat, fish, eggs, dairy products, legumes, and nuts. Deficiency of isoleucine may lead to various health issues like muscle wasting, fatigue, and mental confusion.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Heptoses are rare sugars that contain seven carbons in their structure. They are not as common as monosaccharides with 5 or 6 carbons, such as ribose or glucose. An example of a heptose is sedoheptulose, which can be found in some plants and honey. Heptoses can play a role in various biological processes, including cell signaling and metabolism, but they are not as widely studied or well-understood as other types of sugars.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

A regulon is a group of genes that are regulated together in response to a specific signal or stimulus, often through the action of a single transcription factor or regulatory protein. This means that when the transcription factor binds to specific DNA sequences called operators, it can either activate or repress the transcription of all the genes within the regulon.

This type of gene regulation is important for coordinating complex biological processes, such as cellular metabolism, stress responses, and developmental programs. By regulating a group of genes together, cells can ensure that they are all turned on or off in a coordinated manner, allowing for more precise control over the overall response to a given signal.

It's worth noting that the term "regulon" is not commonly used in clinical medicine, but rather in molecular biology and genetics research.

Phosphotransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. This reaction is essential for various cellular processes, including energy metabolism, signal transduction, and biosynthesis.

The systematic name for this group of enzymes is phosphotransferase, which is derived from the general reaction they catalyze: D-donor + A-acceptor = D-donor minus phosphate + A-phosphate. The donor molecule can be a variety of compounds, such as ATP or a phosphorylated protein, while the acceptor molecule is typically a compound that becomes phosphorylated during the reaction.

Phosphotransferases are classified into several subgroups based on the type of donor and acceptor molecules they act upon. For example, kinases are a subgroup of phosphotransferases that transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein or other organic compound. Phosphatases, another subgroup, remove phosphate groups from molecules by transferring them to water.

Overall, phosphotransferases play a critical role in regulating many cellular functions and are important targets for drug development in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Rhamnose is a naturally occurring sugar or monosaccharide, that is commonly found in various plants and some fruits. It is a type of deoxy sugar, which means it lacks one hydroxyl group (-OH) compared to a regular hexose sugar. Specifically, rhamnose has a hydrogen atom instead of a hydroxyl group at the 6-position of its structure.

Rhamnose is an essential component of various complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates found in plant cell walls, such as pectins and glycoproteins. It also plays a role in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and is used in the production of some antibiotics.

In medical contexts, rhamnose may be relevant to research on bacterial infections, plant-derived medicines, or the metabolism of certain sugars. However, it is not a commonly used term in clinical medicine.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Membrane transport proteins are specialized biological molecules, specifically integral membrane proteins, that facilitate the movement of various substances across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and regulated transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, nucleotides, and other molecules into and out of cells, as well as within different cellular compartments. These proteins can be categorized into two main types: channels and carriers (or pumps). Channels provide a passive transport mechanism, allowing ions or small molecules to move down their electrochemical gradient, while carriers actively transport substances against their concentration gradient, requiring energy usually in the form of ATP. Membrane transport proteins play a crucial role in maintaining cell homeostasis, signaling processes, and many other physiological functions.

Arabinose is a simple sugar or monosaccharide that is a stereoisomer of xylose. It is a pentose, meaning it contains five carbon atoms, and is classified as a hexahydroxyhexital because it has six hydroxyl (-OH) groups attached to the carbon atoms. Arabinose is found in various plant polysaccharides, such as hemicelluloses, gums, and pectic substances. It can also be found in some bacteria and yeasts, where it plays a role in their metabolism. In humans, arabinose is not an essential nutrient and must be metabolized by specific enzymes if consumed.

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of DNA, formation of red blood cells, and maintenance of the nervous system. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell in the body, particularly affecting DNA regulation and neurological function.

Vitamin B12 is unique among vitamins because it contains a metal ion, cobalt, from which its name is derived. This vitamin can be synthesized only by certain types of bacteria and is not produced by plants or animals. The major sources of vitamin B12 in the human diet include animal-derived foods such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products, as well as fortified plant-based milk alternatives and breakfast cereals.

Deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to various health issues, including megaloblastic anemia, fatigue, neurological symptoms such as numbness and tingling in the extremities, memory loss, and depression. Since vitamin B12 is not readily available from plant-based sources, vegetarians and vegans are at a higher risk of deficiency and may require supplementation or fortified foods to meet their daily requirements.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

A sigma factor is a type of protein in bacteria that plays an essential role in the initiation of transcription, which is the first step of gene expression. Sigma factors recognize and bind to specific sequences on DNA, known as promoters, enabling the attachment of RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for synthesizing RNA.

In bacteria, RNA polymerase is made up of several subunits, including a core enzyme and a sigma factor. The sigma factor confers specificity to the RNA polymerase by recognizing and binding to the promoter region of the DNA, allowing transcription to begin. Once transcription starts, the sigma factor is released from the RNA polymerase, which then continues to synthesize RNA until it reaches the end of the gene.

Bacteria have multiple sigma factors that allow them to respond to different environmental conditions and stresses by regulating the expression of specific sets of genes. For example, some sigma factors are involved in the regulation of genes required for growth and metabolism under normal conditions, while others are involved in the response to heat shock, starvation, or other stressors.

Overall, sigma factors play a crucial role in regulating gene expression in bacteria, allowing them to adapt to changing environmental conditions and maintain cellular homeostasis.

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are primarily responsible for causing shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery. These pathogens are highly infectious and can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in humans through the consumption of contaminated food or water, or direct contact with an infected person's feces.

There are four main species of Shigella: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei. Each species has distinct serotypes that differ in their epidemiology, clinical presentation, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The severity of shigellosis can range from mild diarrhea to severe dysentery with abdominal cramps, fever, and tenesmus (the strong, frequent urge to defecate). In some cases, Shigella infections may lead to complications such as bacteremia, seizures, or hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Preventive measures include maintaining good personal hygiene, proper food handling and preparation, access to clean water, and adequate sanitation facilities. Antibiotic treatment is generally recommended for severe cases of shigellosis, but the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains has become a growing concern in recent years.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

Microbial viability is the ability of a microorganism to grow, reproduce and maintain its essential life functions. It can be determined through various methods such as cell growth in culture media, staining techniques that detect metabolic activity, or direct observation of active movement. In contrast, non-viable microorganisms are those that have been killed or inactivated and cannot replicate or cause further harm. The measurement of microbial viability is important in various fields such as medicine, food safety, water quality, and environmental monitoring to assess the effectiveness of disinfection and sterilization procedures, and to determine the presence and concentration of harmful bacteria in different environments.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. The term "hedgehogs" is commonly referred to as a small, spiny mammal found in Europe, Asia, and Africa. However, in medical terms, there is no widely accepted or recognized definition for "hedgehogs."

If you meant to ask about a different term or concept, please provide more context or clarify your question, and I would be happy to help.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

Virulence factors are characteristics or components of a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, that contribute to its ability to cause damage or disease in a host organism. These factors can include various structures, enzymes, or toxins that allow the pathogen to evade the host's immune system, attach to and invade host tissues, obtain nutrients from the host, or damage host cells directly.

Examples of virulence factors in bacteria include:

1. Endotoxins: lipopolysaccharides found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that can trigger a strong immune response and inflammation.
2. Exotoxins: proteins secreted by some bacteria that have toxic effects on host cells, such as botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum or diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
3. Adhesins: structures that help the bacterium attach to host tissues, such as fimbriae or pili in Escherichia coli.
4. Capsules: thick layers of polysaccharides or proteins that surround some bacteria and protect them from the host's immune system, like those found in Streptococcus pneumoniae or Klebsiella pneumoniae.
5. Invasins: proteins that enable bacteria to invade and enter host cells, such as internalins in Listeria monocytogenes.
6. Enzymes: proteins that help bacteria obtain nutrients from the host by breaking down various molecules, like hemolysins that lyse red blood cells to release iron or hyaluronidases that degrade connective tissue.

Understanding virulence factors is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by these microorganisms.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Urocanate hydratase is an enzyme that is involved in the metabolism of the amino acid histidine. The gene for this enzyme is located on chromosome 7q31-q32. Urocanate hydratase catalyzes the conversion of urocanate to imidazoleacetic acid, which is an important step in the degradation of histidine. Defects in this enzyme can lead to a rare genetic disorder called histidinemia, which is characterized by elevated levels of histidine and its metabolites in the blood and urine. However, it's important to note that histidinemia is generally considered a benign condition, and affected individuals usually do not experience any symptoms or complications.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Sugar acids are a type of organic acid that are derived from sugars through the process of hydrolysis or oxidation. They have complex structures and can be found in various natural sources such as fruits, vegetables, and honey. In the medical field, sugar acids may be used in the production of pharmaceuticals and other chemical products.

Some common examples of sugar acids include:

* Gluconic acid, which is derived from glucose and has applications in the food industry as a preservative and stabilizer.
* Lactic acid, which is produced by fermentation of carbohydrates and is used in the production of various pharmaceuticals, foods, and cosmetics.
* Citric acid, which is found in citrus fruits and is widely used as a flavoring agent, preservative, and chelating agent in food, beverages, and personal care products.

It's worth noting that while sugar acids have important applications in various industries, they can also contribute to tooth decay and other health problems when consumed in excess. Therefore, it's important to consume them in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Aerobiosis is the process of living, growing, and functioning in the presence of oxygen. It refers to the metabolic processes that require oxygen to break down nutrients and produce energy in cells. This is in contrast to anaerobiosis, which is the ability to live and grow in the absence of oxygen.

In medical terms, aerobiosis is often used to describe the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi, that require oxygen to survive and multiply. These organisms are called aerobic organisms, and they play an important role in many biological processes, including decomposition and waste breakdown.

However, some microorganisms are unable to grow in the presence of oxygen and are instead restricted to environments where oxygen is absent or limited. These organisms are called anaerobic organisms, and their growth and metabolism are referred to as anaerobiosis.

Tryptophan synthase is a bacterial enzyme that catalyzes the final step in the biosynthesis of the essential amino acid tryptophan. It is a complex enzyme composed of two types of subunits, α and β, which form an αββα tetrameric structure.

Tryptophan synthase catalyzes the conversion of indole-3-glycerol phosphate (IGP) and L-serine into tryptophan through two separate reactions that occur in a coordinated manner within the active site of the enzyme. In the first reaction, the α subunit catalyzes the breakdown of IGP into indole and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P). The indole molecule then moves through a tunnel to the active site of the β subunit, where it is combined with L-serine to form tryptophan in the second reaction.

The overall reaction catalyzed by tryptophan synthase is:

Indole-3-glycerol phosphate + L-serine → L-tryptophan + glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

Tryptophan synthase plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of tryptophan, which is an essential amino acid that cannot be synthesized by humans and must be obtained through diet. Defects in tryptophan synthase can lead to various genetic disorders, such as hyperbeta-alaninemia and tryptophanuria.

Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic medication that is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the ability of bacteria to synthesize proteins, which essential for their growth and survival. This helps to stop the spread of the infection and allows the body's immune system to clear the bacteria from the body.

Chloramphenicol is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which means that it is effective against many different types of bacteria. It is often used to treat serious infections that have not responded to other antibiotics. However, because of its potential for serious side effects, including bone marrow suppression and gray baby syndrome, chloramphenicol is usually reserved for use in cases where other antibiotics are not effective or are contraindicated.

Chloramphenicol can be given by mouth, injection, or applied directly to the skin in the form of an ointment or cream. It is important to take or use chloramphenicol exactly as directed by a healthcare provider, and to complete the full course of treatment even if symptoms improve before all of the medication has been taken. This helps to ensure that the infection is fully treated and reduces the risk of antibiotic resistance.

Polymyxin B is an antibiotic derived from the bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa. It belongs to the class of polypeptide antibiotics and has a cyclic structure with a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic region, which allows it to interact with and disrupt the bacterial cell membrane. Polymyxin B is primarily active against gram-negative bacteria, including many multidrug-resistant strains. It is used clinically to treat serious infections caused by these organisms, such as sepsis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. However, its use is limited due to potential nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Paratyphoid fever is an acute infectious disease, similar to typhoid fever, caused by the Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi bacteria. The illness is characterized by fever, headache, abdominal pain, and occasionally rash. It's spread through contaminated food and water, and it primarily affects the intestinal tract and sometimes the bloodstream. Symptoms typically appear within a week of exposure and may include sustained fever, malaise, muscle aches, headache, cough, and constipation or diarrhea. Paratyphoid fever can be prevented by practicing good sanitation and hygiene, such as frequent hand washing, and is treated with antibiotics.

Transaminases, also known as aminotransferases, are a group of enzymes found in various tissues of the body, particularly in the liver, heart, muscle, and kidneys. They play a crucial role in the metabolism of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.

There are two major types of transaminases: aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Both enzymes are normally present in low concentrations in the bloodstream. However, when tissues that contain these enzymes are damaged or injured, such as during liver disease or muscle damage, the levels of AST and ALT in the blood may significantly increase.

Measurement of serum transaminase levels is a common laboratory test used to assess liver function and detect liver injury or damage. Increased levels of these enzymes in the blood can indicate conditions such as hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, drug-induced liver injury, heart attack, and muscle disorders. It's important to note that while elevated transaminase levels may suggest liver disease, they do not specify the type or cause of the condition, and further diagnostic tests are often required for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Porins are a type of protein found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. They form water-filled channels, or pores, that allow small molecules such as ions, nutrients, and waste products to pass through the otherwise impermeable outer membrane. Porins are important for the survival of gram-negative bacteria, as they enable the selective transport of essential molecules while providing a barrier against harmful substances.

There are different types of porins, classified based on their structure and function. Some examples include:

1. General porins (also known as nonspecific porins): These are the most common type of porins and form large, water-filled channels that allow passive diffusion of small molecules up to 600-700 Da in size. They typically have a trimeric structure, with three identical or similar subunits forming a pore in the membrane.
2. Specific porins: These porins are more selective in the molecules they allow to pass through and often have smaller pores than general porins. They can be involved in the active transport of specific molecules or ions, requiring energy from the cell.
3. Autotransporters: While not strictly considered porins, autotransporter proteins share some structural similarities with porins and are involved in the transport of protein domains across the outer membrane. They consist of an N-terminal passenger domain and a C-terminal translocator domain, which forms a β-barrel pore in the outer membrane through which the passenger domain is transported.

Porins have attracted interest as potential targets for antibiotic development, as they play crucial roles in bacterial survival and virulence. Inhibiting porin function or blocking the pores could disrupt essential processes in gram-negative bacteria, providing a new approach to treating infections caused by these organisms.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydro-Lyases" is not a recognized medical term or category in biochemistry. It seems like there might be a misunderstanding or a typo in the term.

In biochemistry, "lyases" are enzymes that catalyze the removal of groups from substrates by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation, often forming a double bond or a ring-forming reaction. They are classified and named based on the type of bond they break.

If you meant to ask about a specific enzyme or reaction, could you please provide more context or clarify the term? I'd be happy to help further with accurate information.

Nalidixic acid is an antimicrobial agent, specifically a synthetic quinolone derivative. It is primarily used for the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by susceptible strains of gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Nalidixic acid works by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase, an enzyme necessary for DNA replication. This leads to the prevention of DNA synthesis and ultimately results in bacterial cell death. However, its use has become limited due to the emergence of resistance and the availability of more effective antimicrobials.

It is essential to note that nalidixic acid is not typically used as a first-line treatment for urinary tract infections or any other type of infection. It should only be used when other antibiotics are not suitable due to resistance, allergies, or other factors. Additionally, the drug's potential side effects, such as gastrointestinal disturbances, headaches, and dizziness, may limit its use in some patients.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Ethanolamine ammonia-lyase (EAL) is an enzyme that plays a role in the breakdown and metabolism of certain compounds in the body. Its primary function is to catalyze the conversion of ethanolamine, a type of amino alcohol, into acetaldehyde and ammonia. This reaction is an important step in the catabolism of phosphatidylethanolamines, which are major components of cell membranes.

EAL is also known as "ethanolamine deaminase" or "N-ethanolamine deaminase." It requires the cofactor pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) to facilitate the reaction. The enzyme's activity has been identified in various organisms, including bacteria, archaea, and plants, but not in mammals. In some bacterial species, EAL is involved in the biosynthesis of certain amino acids and other biomolecules.

The reaction catalyzed by ethanolamine ammonia-lyase:

Ethanolamine + H2O + PLP → Acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Methylglyoxal + PLP

Salmonella Paratyphi C is a bacterium that causes a type of enteric fever, also known as paratyphoid fever. This is a severe gastrointestinal infection characterized by fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation, vomiting, and headache. The bacteria is usually transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. It can also be spread through close contact with an infected person.

Salmonella Paratyphi C specifically causes a less severe form of paratyphoid fever compared to Salmonella Typhi, which causes typhoid fever. However, it can still lead to serious complications such as intestinal perforation, bacteremia (bacteria in the blood), and chronic carrier state if not properly treated with antibiotics.

It's important to note that Salmonella Paratyphi C is a relatively rare cause of enteric fever, with most cases occurring in developing countries where access to clean water and proper sanitation may be limited.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

Beta-galactosidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-galactosides into monosaccharides. It is found in various organisms, including bacteria, yeast, and mammals. In humans, it plays a role in the breakdown and absorption of certain complex carbohydrates, such as lactose, in the small intestine. Deficiency of this enzyme in humans can lead to a disorder called lactose intolerance. In scientific research, beta-galactosidase is often used as a marker for gene expression and protein localization studies.

Food preservation, in the context of medical and nutritional sciences, refers to the process of treating, handling, and storing food items to reduce the risk of foodborne illness and to extend their shelf life. The goal is to prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and mold, as well as to slow down the oxidation process that can lead to spoilage.

Common methods of food preservation include:

1. Refrigeration and freezing: These techniques slow down the growth of microorganisms and enzyme activity that cause food to spoil.
2. Canning: This involves sealing food in airtight containers, then heating them to destroy microorganisms and inactivate enzymes.
3. Dehydration: Removing water from food inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds.
4. Acidification: Adding acidic ingredients like lemon juice or vinegar can lower the pH of food, making it less hospitable to microorganisms.
5. Fermentation: This process involves converting sugars into alcohol or acids using bacteria or yeasts, which can preserve food and also enhance its flavor.
6. Irradiation: Exposing food to small doses of radiation can kill bacteria, parasites, and insects, extending the shelf life of certain foods.
7. Pasteurization: Heating food to a specific temperature for a set period of time can destroy harmful bacteria while preserving the nutritional value and taste.

Proper food preservation is crucial in preventing foodborne illnesses and ensuring the safety and quality of the food supply.

Shigella flexneri is a species of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is one of the four species of the genus Shigella, which are the causative agents of shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery.

Shigella flexneri is responsible for causing a significant proportion of shigellosis cases worldwide, particularly in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene practices. The bacteria can be transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated food or water, and can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and tenesmus (the urgent need to defecate).

The infection can lead to inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the intestines, resulting in the destruction of the epithelial cells and the formation of ulcers. In severe cases, Shigella flexneri can invade the bloodstream and cause systemic infections, which can be life-threatening for young children, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals.

The diagnosis of Shigella flexneri infection typically involves the detection of the bacteria in stool samples using culture methods or molecular techniques such as PCR. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, although resistance to multiple drugs has been reported in some strains. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, safe food handling, and access to clean water.

"Food handling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in the context of public health and food safety, it generally refers to the activities involved in the storage, preparation, and serving of food in a way that minimizes the risk of contamination and foodborne illnesses. This includes proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and wearing gloves, separating raw and cooked foods, cooking food to the correct temperature, and refrigerating or freezing food promptly. Proper food handling is essential for ensuring the safety and quality of food in various settings, including restaurants, hospitals, schools, and homes.

A cell-free system is a biochemical environment in which biological reactions can occur outside of an intact living cell. These systems are often used to study specific cellular processes or pathways, as they allow researchers to control and manipulate the conditions in which the reactions take place. In a cell-free system, the necessary enzymes, substrates, and cofactors for a particular reaction are provided in a test tube or other container, rather than within a whole cell.

Cell-free systems can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. They can be used to study a wide range of cellular processes, such as transcription, translation, protein folding, and metabolism. For example, a cell-free system might be used to express and purify a specific protein, or to investigate the regulation of a particular metabolic pathway.

One advantage of using cell-free systems is that they can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes without the need for time-consuming and resource-intensive cell culture or genetic manipulation. Additionally, because cell-free systems are not constrained by the limitations of a whole cell, they offer greater flexibility in terms of reaction conditions and the ability to study complex or transient interactions between biological molecules.

Overall, cell-free systems are an important tool in molecular biology and biochemistry, providing researchers with a versatile and powerful means of investigating the fundamental processes that underlie life at the cellular level.

Acetolactate synthase (ALS), also known as acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of branched-chain amino acids (valine, leucine, and isoleucine) in bacteria, fungi, and plants. It catalyzes the first step in the pathway, which is the condensation of two molecules of pyruvate to form acetolactate.

Inhibitors of ALS, such as sulfonylureas and imidazolinones, are widely used as herbicides because they disrupt the biosynthesis of amino acids that are essential for plant growth and development. These inhibitors work by binding to the active site of the enzyme and preventing the substrate from accessing it.

In humans, ALS is not involved in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids, but a homologous enzyme called dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) plays a crucial role in the synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides. Inhibitors of DHOD are used as immunosuppressants to treat autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

Azaguanine is a type of antimetabolite drug that is used in medical research and treatment. It is a purine analogue, which means it has a similar chemical structure to the natural purine bases adenine and guanine, which are building blocks of DNA and RNA. Azaguanine can be incorporated into the genetic material of cells, interfering with their normal function and replication. It is used in research to study the effects of such interference on cell growth and development.

In clinical medicine, azaguanine has been used as an anticancer drug, although it is not widely used today due to its toxicity and the availability of more effective treatments. It may also have some activity against certain types of parasitic infections, such as leishmaniasis and malaria.

It's important to note that azaguanine is not a commonly used medication and its use should be under the supervision of a medical professional with experience in its administration and management of potential side effects.

Blood bactericidal activity refers to the ability of an individual's blood to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. This is an important aspect of the body's immune system, as it helps to prevent infection and maintain overall health. The bactericidal activity of blood can be influenced by various factors, including the presence of antibodies, white blood cells (such as neutrophils), and complement proteins.

In medical terms, the term "bactericidal" specifically refers to an agent or substance that is capable of killing bacteria. Therefore, when we talk about blood bactericidal activity, we are referring to the collective ability of various components in the blood to kill or inhibit the growth of bacteria. This is often measured in laboratory tests as a way to assess a person's immune function and their susceptibility to infection.

It's worth noting that not all substances in the blood are bactericidal; some may simply inhibit the growth of bacteria without killing them. These substances are referred to as bacteriostatic. Both bactericidal and bacteriostatic agents play important roles in maintaining the body's defense against infection.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Extrachromosomal inheritance refers to the transmission of genetic information that occurs outside of the chromosomes, which are the structures in the cell nucleus that typically contain and transmit genetic material. This type of inheritance is relatively rare and can involve various types of genetic elements, such as plasmids or transposons.

In extrachromosomal inheritance, these genetic elements can replicate independently of the chromosomes and be passed on to offspring through mechanisms other than traditional Mendelian inheritance. This can lead to non-Mendelian patterns of inheritance, where traits do not follow the expected dominant or recessive patterns.

One example of extrachromosomal inheritance is the transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell rather than on the chromosomes. Mitochondria are organelles that produce energy for the cell, and they contain their own small circular genome that is inherited maternally. Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases.

Overall, extrachromosomal inheritance is an important area of study in genetics, as it can help researchers better understand the complex ways in which genetic information is transmitted and expressed in living organisms.

Chemotaxis is a term used in biology and medicine to describe the movement of an organism or cell towards or away from a chemical stimulus. This process plays a crucial role in various biological phenomena, including immune responses, wound healing, and the development and progression of diseases such as cancer.

In chemotaxis, cells can detect and respond to changes in the concentration of specific chemicals, known as chemoattractants or chemorepellents, in their environment. These chemicals bind to receptors on the cell surface, triggering a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in the cytoskeleton and directed movement of the cell towards or away from the chemical gradient.

For example, during an immune response, white blood cells called neutrophils use chemotaxis to migrate towards sites of infection or inflammation, where they can attack and destroy invading pathogens. Similarly, cancer cells can use chemotaxis to migrate towards blood vessels and metastasize to other parts of the body.

Understanding chemotaxis is important for developing new therapies and treatments for a variety of diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Gene deletion is a type of mutation where a segment of DNA, containing one or more genes, is permanently lost or removed from a chromosome. This can occur due to various genetic mechanisms such as homologous recombination, non-homologous end joining, or other types of genomic rearrangements.

The deletion of a gene can have varying effects on the organism, depending on the function of the deleted gene and its importance for normal physiological processes. If the deleted gene is essential for survival, the deletion may result in embryonic lethality or developmental abnormalities. However, if the gene is non-essential or has redundant functions, the deletion may not have any noticeable effects on the organism's phenotype.

Gene deletions can also be used as a tool in genetic research to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes. For example, researchers may use gene deletion techniques to create genetically modified animal models to investigate the impact of gene deletion on disease progression or development.

Bacterial transformation is a natural process by which exogenous DNA is taken up and incorporated into the genome of a bacterial cell. This process was first discovered in 1928 by Frederick Griffith, who observed that dead virulent bacteria could transfer genetic material to live avirulent bacteria, thereby conferring new properties such as virulence to the recipient cells.

The uptake of DNA by bacterial cells typically occurs through a process called "competence," which can be either naturally induced under certain environmental conditions or artificially induced in the laboratory using various methods. Once inside the cell, the exogenous DNA may undergo recombination with the host genome, resulting in the acquisition of new genes or the alteration of existing ones.

Bacterial transformation has important implications for both basic research and biotechnology. It is a powerful tool for studying gene function and for engineering bacteria with novel properties, such as the ability to produce valuable proteins or degrade environmental pollutants. However, it also poses potential risks in the context of genetic engineering and biocontainment, as transformed bacteria may be able to transfer their newly acquired genes to other organisms in the environment.

Pantothenic Acid, also known as Vitamin B5, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a vital role in the metabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. It is essential for the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA), which is involved in various biochemical reactions in the body, including energy production, fatty acid synthesis, and cholesterol metabolism.

Pantothenic Acid is widely distributed in foods, including meat, poultry, fish, whole grains, legumes, and vegetables. Deficiency of this vitamin is rare but can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, irritability, sleep disturbances, muscle cramps, and gastrointestinal problems.

In addition to its role in metabolism, Pantothenic Acid also has potential benefits for wound healing, reducing inflammation, and supporting the immune system.

Bacterial shedding refers to the release or discharge of bacteria from an infected individual into their environment. This can occur through various routes, such as respiratory droplets when coughing or sneezing, or through fecal matter. The bacteria can then potentially spread to other individuals, causing infection and disease. It's important to note that not all bacteria that are shed cause illness, and some people may be colonized with certain bacteria without showing symptoms. However, in healthcare settings, bacterial shedding is a concern for the transmission of harmful pathogens, particularly in vulnerable populations such as immunocompromised patients.

Transferases are a class of enzymes that facilitate the transfer of specific functional groups (like methyl, acetyl, or phosphate groups) from one molecule (the donor) to another (the acceptor). This transfer of a chemical group can alter the physical or chemical properties of the acceptor molecule and is a crucial process in various metabolic pathways. Transferases play essential roles in numerous biological processes, such as biosynthesis, detoxification, and catabolism.

The classification of transferases is based on the type of functional group they transfer:

1. Methyltransferases - transfer a methyl group (-CH3)
2. Acetyltransferases - transfer an acetyl group (-COCH3)
3. Aminotransferases or Transaminases - transfer an amino group (-NH2 or -NHR, where R is a hydrogen atom or a carbon-containing group)
4. Glycosyltransferases - transfer a sugar moiety (a glycosyl group)
5. Phosphotransferases - transfer a phosphate group (-PO3H2)
6. Sulfotransferases - transfer a sulfo group (-SO3H)
7. Acyltransferases - transfer an acyl group (a fatty acid or similar molecule)

These enzymes are identified and named according to the systematic nomenclature of enzymes developed by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB). The naming convention includes the class of enzyme, the specific group being transferred, and the molecules involved in the transfer reaction. For example, the enzyme that transfers a phosphate group from ATP to glucose is named "glucokinase."

The lac operon is a genetic regulatory system found in the bacteria Escherichia coli that controls the expression of genes responsible for the metabolism of lactose as a source of energy. It consists of three structural genes (lacZ, lacY, and lacA) that code for enzymes involved in lactose metabolism, as well as two regulatory elements: the lac promoter and the lac operator.

The lac repressor protein, produced by the lacI gene, binds to the lac operator sequence when lactose is not present, preventing RNA polymerase from transcribing the structural genes. When lactose is available, it is converted into allolactose, which acts as an inducer and binds to the lac repressor protein, causing a conformational change that prevents it from binding to the operator sequence. This allows RNA polymerase to bind to the promoter and transcribe the structural genes, leading to the production of enzymes necessary for lactose metabolism.

In summary, the lac operon is a genetic regulatory system in E. coli that controls the expression of genes involved in lactose metabolism based on the availability of lactose as a substrate.

... the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium; the virus bacteriophage T4, an RNA virus and humans. In such studies, numerous mutations ...
... the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium; the virus bacteriophage T4, an RNA virus, and humans. The intermolecular forces likely ...
... the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium; and the virus bacteriophage T4. In several such studies, numerous mutations defective in ...
... the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium; the virus bacteriophage T4, an RNA virus and humans. In such studies, numerous mutations ...
Salmonella typhimurium nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 (34): 26004-26010. doi: ...
Reinigung und Eigenschaften der L-Histidinolphosphat-2-Oxoglutarat-Aminotransferase (EC 2. 6. 1. 9.) aus Salmonella typhimurium ...
isolated the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) homologue. Later it would be shown by Smith and Maguire ... Tao T, Snavely MD, Farr SG, Maguire ME (May 1995). "Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: mgtA encodes a P-type ATPase ... Snavely MD, Miller CG, Maguire ME (Jan 1991). "The mgtB Mg2+ transport locus of Salmonella typhimurium encodes a P-type ATPase ... Gibson MM, Bagga DA, Miller CG, Maguire ME (Nov 1991). "Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: the influence of new ...
... are caused by Salmonella enterica Typhimurium or Salmonella enterica Enteritidis. A new form of Salmonella Typhimurium (ST313) ... Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhimurium, but can be abbreviated to Salmonella Typhimurium. Further ... Initially, each Salmonella "species" was named according to clinical consideration, for example Salmonella typhi-murium (mouse ... The two known species of Salmonella are Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. S. enterica is the type species and is ...
"Shikimate kinase isoenzymes in Salmonella typhimurium". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 243 (3): 676-7. PMID 4866525. ...
In 1890 he isolated Salmonella typhimurium. In 1893, he was involved in research into the flour moth, "scourge of the flour ...
Since then, phage typing schemes have been developed for Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi B., Salmonella typhimurium, ... Baggesen DL, Sørensen G, Nielsen EM, Wegener HC (2010). "Phage typing of Salmonella Typhimurium - is it still a useful tool for ... Baggesen DL, Sørensen G, Nielsen EM, Wegener HC (2010). "Phage typing of Salmonella Typhimurium - is it still a useful tool for ... Baggesen DL, Sørensen G, Nielsen EM, Wegener HC (2010). "Phage typing of Salmonella Typhimurium - is it still a useful tool for ...
Nagasawa T, Tanizawa K, Satoda T, Yamada H (1988). "Diaminopropionate ammonia-lyase from Salmonella typhimurium. Purification ...
Eisenstark, A. (1965). "Mutagen-induced hybridization of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 X Escherichia coli K12 Hfr". Proceedings of ... strains of Salmonella typhimurium; the discovery that bacteriophage can transfer plasmid genes as well as chromosomal genes; ... Wormser, Gary P.; Janda, J. Michael (2008). "Review of Salmonella Methods and Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology, edited ... Schatten, H.; Eisenstark, A. (22 August 2007). Schatten, Heide; Eisenstark, Abraham (eds.). Salmonella: Methods and Protocols. ...
... has mutagenic effects on Salmonella typhimurium. The maximum safe concentration of dichloroacetylene in air ...
Luginbuhl GH, Hofler JG, Decedue CJ, Burns RO (October 1974). "Biodegradative L-threonine deaminase of Salmonella typhimurium ...
Salmonella typhimurium propanediol diffusion facilitator (gene pduF). Yeast FPS1, a glycerol uptake/efflux facilitator protein ...
Arena F, Ciliberto G, Ciampi S, Cortese R (1978). "Purification of pseudouridylate synthetase I from Salmonella typhimurium". ...
Typing of Salmonella typhimurium by means of bacteriophage. The Bacteriological Hygienical Department of the Royal Veterinary ...
The CorA transport system is the primary Mg2+ influx system of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. CorA is ubiquitous ... October 1998). "The CorA Mg2+ transport protein of Salmonella typhimurium. Mutagenesis of conserved residues in the third ... "The CorA Mg2+ transport protein of Salmonella typhimurium. Mutagenesis of conserved residues in the third membrane domain ...
It is primarily found in Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Enterobactin is the ... Pollack JR, Neilands JB (March 1970). "Enterobactin, an iron transport compound from Salmonella typhimurium". Biochemical and ...
The plasmid is a natural plasmid from Salmonella typhimurium. In the early 1970s, Herbert Boyer and Stanley Norman Cohen ...
"Oxidative stress responses in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium". Microbiol Rev. 55 (4): 561-85. doi:10.1128/mr.55.4. ...
Wang JY, Koshland DE (1982). "The reversible phosphorylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase of Salmonella typhimurium". Arch. ...
Salmonella Typhimurium Salmonella Centre for Disease Control "Salmonella in chicken salad kills 1, sickens 265 in 8 states". ... CDC Salmonella CDC Salmonella typhimurium Key Resources (All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with unsourced ... "Multidate Outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium Linked to Chicken Salad (Final Update)". Centers for Disease Control and ... "Salmonella Typhimurium Illness Outbreak Associated with Chicken Salad, 2018". United States Department of Agriculture Food ...
Yourno J, Ino I (1968). "Purification and crystallization of histidinol dehydrogenase from Salmonella typhimurium LT-2". J. ... Loper JC (1968). "Histidinol dehydrogenase from Salmonella typhimurium Crystallization and composition studies". J. Biol. Chem ...
Stolowich NJ, Iida K, Scott AI (1992). "Expression of 9 Salmonella typhimurium enzymes for cobinamide synthesis. Identification ...
Wolfgang R, Helene A, Robert K, Rita P, Helmut T, Garry A, Andreas B (May 2002). "Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium and ... Salmonella Typhi whereas, full designation for Salmonella Typhi is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi. Each ... Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is a subspecies of Salmonella enterica, the rod-shaped, flagellated, aerobic, Gram-negative ... "Salmonella nomenclature". March 19, 2005. Archived from the original on 2006-04-15. Brenner, F. W.; Villar, R. G.; Angulo, F. J ...
"Recognition of Salmonella typhimurium by immobilized phage P22 monolayers". Surface Science. 602 (7): 1392-1400. Bibcode: ...
Stolowich NJ, Iida K, Scott AI (1992). "Expression of 9 Salmonella typhimurium enzymes for cobinamide synthesis. Identification ... biosynthetic genes of Salmonella typhimurium". J. Bacteriol. 175 (11): 3303-16. doi:10.1128/jb.175.11.3303-3316.1993. PMC ...
"Environmentally-regulated mutation and adaptive-evolution in Salmonella typhimurium , WorldCat.org". www.worldcat.org. ... Her doctoral research considered salmonella tryphimurium. She was a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Bath. She ...
43 states reported more than 400 individuals who were infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium. ...
This report presents the first documented outbreak of Salmonella originating in tofu, highlighting the need for awareness of ... An Outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium Infections Linked to Ready-To-Eat Tofu in Multiple Health Districts. Ontario, Canada, May ... Salmonella Typhimurium is a serovar commonly implicated in foodborne illnesses linked to animal product consumption. ... investigated a spatiotemporal cluster of 38 patients with Salmonella Typhimurium infections across multiple public health ...
Timeline for Species Salmonella typhimurium [TaxId:90371] from b.38.1.6 Putative outer membrane lipoprotein STM1585: *Species ... PDB entry in Species: Salmonella typhimurium [TaxId: 90371]:. *Domain(s) for 2rd1: *. Domain d2rd1a1: 2rd1 A:22-73 [151915]. ... Species Salmonella typhimurium [TaxId:90371] from b.38.1.6 Putative outer membrane lipoprotein STM1585 appears in SCOPe 2.06. * ... Lineage for Species: Salmonella typhimurium [TaxId: 90371]. *Root: SCOPe 2.07 *. Class b: All beta proteins [48724] (178 folds) ...
This report describes the use of bacterial genetic data to quickly identify cantaloupes as the source of a Salmonella ... This report describes the use of bacterial genetic data to quickly identify cantaloupes as the source of a Salmonella ... Salmonella Typhimurium identified in environmental testing was related to illnesses in previous years that exhibited a seasonal ... Notes from the Field: Rapidly Linking an Outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium Infections to Domestically Grown Cantaloupes ...
Factors required for adhesion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to lettuce (Lactuca sativa). View ORCID ProfileLaura ... Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) is a major cause of food-borne gastroenteritis. Recent outbreaks of infections by ... Factors required for adhesion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) ... Factors required for adhesion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) ...
Recombinant Salmonella typhimurium Beta-lactamase CTX-M-2 (bla) from Cusabio. Cat Number: CSB-EP303362SWX. USA, UK & Europe ... Cusabio Salmonella typhimurium Recombinants Recombinant Salmonella typhimurium Beta-lactamase CTX-M-2 (bla) , CSB-EP303362SWX. ... Cusabio Salmonella typhimurium Recombinants. Recombinant Salmonella typhimurium Beta-lactamase CTX-M-2 (bla) , CSB-EP303362SWX ... Recombinant Salmonella typhimurium Beta-lactamase CTX-M-2 (bla) , CSB-EP303362SWX ...
Salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium) outbreaks in Cavia porcellus Authors. * Selene DallAcqua Coutinho Universidade de São ... Salmonellosis, Salmonella typhimurium, Guinea pigs, Zoonoses, Vivarium Abstract. Two outbreaks of salmonellosis in guinea pigs ... Salmonellosis (Salmonella typhimurium) outbreaks in Cavia porcellus. Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. [Internet]. 1994 Dec. 3 [ ... The isolated colonies were characterized biochemically and serologically as Salmonella typhimurium. The histopathological ...
Bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. ID: 105867 Effect of cyclic AMP on the relative amount of major OMP in S. typhimurium LT2 ... Bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. ID: 105886 Estimations of periplasmic volume from distributions of different solutes in ... Bacteria Salmonella typhimurium. Reference. Aldea M, Herrero E, Esteve MI, Guerrero R. Surface density of major outer membrane ... Amount of protein in S. typhimurium LT2 at different growth rates. Range. 99 and 521 for doubling time of 2.24hours and 17.3min ...
Typhimurium phage type 197 of multiple genotypes, which occurred in Queensland and were linked to a single egg producer ... In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) is the most commonly notified serovar1 of salmonellas causing gastrointestinal ... Outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 197 of multiple genotypes linked to an egg producer This report describes ... This paper describes outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type 197 (STm197) linked to eggs from the farm of a single egg ...
In contrast, the frequencies of transfer of these episomes from lt-7fer to the other substrains of S. typhimurium were ... typhimurium with phage P-22 grown on various substrains were parallel with the e.o.p. of this phage on these strains. It was ... typhimurium are comparable to those to lt-7fer and E. coli, are interpreted as due to the restriction- and modification-less ... typhimurium lt-2mut +, both of which lack the mut gene, were poor recipients of these foreign deoxyribonucleic acids, lt-7mut ...
Salmonella typhimurium A1, selected for anticancer activity in vivo. S. typhimurium A1 is auxotrophic (leu/arg-dependent) [5]. ... Efficacy of Salmonella typhimurium A1-R versus chemotherapy on a pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX ... S. typhimurium A1-R killed MiaPaCa-2 and Panc-1 pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. GFP-expressing S. typhimurium A1-R invaded ... The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R treatment following ...
In the experiment, the observed lowest concentration for Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis using ... The "RapidSalmonella" Method: Estimation of the Limit of Detection for Salmonella Strains Typhimurium and Enteritidis Isolated ... Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis based on chromogenic media of RapidSalmonella method. Salmonella-free chicken meat samples was ... The majority of Salmonella strains has a LOD50% of 1-4 CFU/25 g in poultry meat, but also that there are some Salmonella ...
... on Salmonella Typhimurium colonisation in broilers. One hundred and twenty 1-day-old broilers were divided into four ... stimulates Salmonella Typhimurium clearance in that cecum and may contribute to diminishing the risk of carcass contamination ... Our results showed a significant reduction of Salmonella spp. in the cecum of 42-day-old broilers, suggesting that fermented ... Additionally, cecum content was collected for Salmonella spp. detection by culture and qPCR, and for metagenomic analysis. ...
Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis field serotypes were spiked on Salmonella-free poultry meat with different ... Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis field serotypes were spiked on Salmonella-free poultry meat with different ... Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis field serotypes were spiked on Salmonella-free poultry meat with different ... Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis field serotypes were spiked on Salmonella-free poultry meat with different ...
Phagosomes were purified from human neutrophils ingesting Salmonella typhimurium opsonized with adsorbed normal human serum or ... K A Joiner, T Ganz, J Albert, D Rotrosen; The opsonizing ligand on Salmonella typhimurium influences incorporation of specific ... A network of Rab GTPases controls phagosome maturation and is modulated by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ... Phagosomes were purified from human neutrophils ingesting Salmonella typhimurium opsonized with adsorbed normal human serum or ...
The case definition is illness in a person with a Salmonella Typhimurium infection with illness onset (or isolation, if onset ... As of January 16, 2009, 9PM EST, 474 persons infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium have been reported ... CDC investigation : CDC investigation and interim recommendations : outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections -- United ... CDC investigation : CDC investigation and interim recommendations : outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections -- United ...
... , Second Life, Swine Flu, Tweets, Twitter, War Council, Yellowbrickroad ...
The levels of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium recovered from cell suspensions and pork surfaces by the TAL, OV, and ... The levels of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium recovered from cell suspensions and pork surfaces by the TAL, OV, and ... The levels of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium recovered from cell suspensions and pork surfaces by the TAL, OV, and ... The levels of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium recovered from cell suspensions and pork surfaces by the TAL, OV, and ...
Salmonella Typhimurium fl-għalf, qamħ, ikel, mediċina u tabakk. 15-il minuta biss biex tirriżulta. Manifattur tat-test rapidu ... BALLYA Salmonella Typhimurium Test użat biex jinstab il-kontenut ta ... Xinhi s-Salmonella Typhimurium?. Xinhi l-enterite tas-Salmonella typhimurium?. Xinhuma l-ħsara għas-Salmonella Typhimurium? ... Xinhuma l-ħsara għas-Salmonella Typhimurium?. Ħsara tas-Salmonella Typhimurium. Is-Salmonella typhimurium tikkawża l-aktar ...
Dive into the research topics of Regulation of autoinducer production in Salmonella typhimurium. Together they form a unique ...
This studys major goal was to investigate how ileal bacteria, intestinal health, and resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium ... Colistin Sulphate for Controlling Salmonella Typhimurium revised file. Publication Date : 10/12/2023 ... On the eighth day, one member of each of the two groups was exposed to S. Typhimurium; these were referred to as CONS, Anti G+S ...
... against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteric typhimurium in chicken mince meat and their sensory characteristics in ... against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteric typhimurium in chicken mince meat and their sensory characteristics in ... against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteric typhimurium in chicken mince meat and their sensory characteristics in ... While against S. typhimurium it produced 6±0.3mm, 7±0.4mm and 9±0.5mm at 2%, 4% and 6% respectively. MIC of the Jakhiya and ...
Determining antimicrobial susceptibility in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium through whole genome sequencing: a ... disk diffusion and agar dilution to the broth microdilution reference AST for 102 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. ... Determining antimicrobial susceptibility in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium through whole genome sequencing: a ... For seven antimicrobials interpreted using Salmonella clinical breakpoints, genotyping produced 0.84 sensitivity and 0.88 ...
Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium Infections Linked to Dried Coconut ... Human Salmonella Typhimurium Infections Linked to Live Poultry in Backyard Flocks, 2013plus icon *Advice to Consumers ... Human Salmonella Typhimurium Infections Linked to Laboratory Exposure, 2017plus icon *Advice to Students & Employees in ... Human Salmonella Typhimurium Infections Linked to Frozen Feeder Rodents, 2014plus icon *Advice to Pet Owners ...
S. Typhimurium lacking both chitinases showed a 70% reduction in invasion of small intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. In a ... The invasion defect of the chitinase-deficient strain was rescued by the presence of wild-type S. Typhimurium, suggesting that ... However, the role of these chitinases during S. Typhimurium pathogenesis is unknown. The putative chitinase STM0233 has not ... Chitinases have been recently emerging as virulence factors for various pathogenic bacterial species, and the S. Typhimurium ...
Content page for Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Typhimurium 2008-2009 ... Salmonella, Salmonella Outbreak Investigations , Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Typhimurium 2008- ... Investigation of Outbreak of Infections Caused by Salmonella Typhimurium 2008-2009. Update for January 08, 2009 (next update ... As of Wednesday, January 7, 2009, 388 persons infected with the outbreak strains of Salmonella Typhimurium have been reported ...
  • Salmonella Typhimurium is a serovar commonly implicated in foodborne illnesses linked to animal product consumption. (medscape.com)
  • We compared WGS-based genotyping, disk diffusion and agar dilution to the broth microdilution reference AST for 102 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) isolates across 11 antimicrobial compounds. (uea.ac.uk)
  • SadA, a trimeric autotransporter from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, can promote biofilm formation and provides limited protection against infection. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this study, the properties of SadA, a purported trimeric autotransporter adhesin of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, were examined. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) is the most common serovar in Australia. (who.int)
  • Genomic epidemiology of mcr carrying multidrug-resistant ST34 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in a one health context: The evolution of a global menace. (bvsalud.org)
  • These isolates were identified as either serovar Typhimurium or its monophasic variant, which were obtained from both clinical and non-clinical sources. (bvsalud.org)
  • enterica serovar Typhimurium str. (nih.gov)
  • 2] "Complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2. (tcdb.org)
  • As a part of evaluation the surveillance system of Salmonella in frozen imported poultry meat into Jordan, we conducted a study to estimate the limit of detection (LOD50% and LOD95%) of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis based on chromogenic media of Rapid'Salmonella method. (ccsenet.org)
  • In the experiment, the observed lowest concentration for Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis using Rapid'Salmonella method were from 1 to 50 CFU/25 g. (ccsenet.org)
  • The two reference strains and 9 wild strains had a LOD50% less than 2 CFU/25 g, one wild strain of Salmonella Enteritidis had a LOD50% of 6.8 CFU/25 g and another one had a LOD50% of 21.2 CFU/25 g. (ccsenet.org)
  • The newest addition to our range of Thermo Scientific PCR food pathogen testing solutions is the Thermo Scientific™ RapidFinder™ Salmonella species, Typhimurium and Enteritidis Multiplex Assay which, like SureTect, follows a simple workflow for simultaneous detection of Salmonella species, Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis in poultry, pork and production environment samples. (thermofisher.com)
  • This report summarizes the investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium gastrointestinal illness in Wisconsin associated with eating contaminated raw ground beef during the 1994 winter holiday season. (cdc.gov)
  • Salmonella serotype Typhimurium that did not ferment tartrate was isolated from seven specimens. (cdc.gov)
  • In NSW, Salmonella isolates are referred to Pathology West - Institute for Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, the state reference laboratory, for further characterization, including serotyping and DNA sequence-based subtyping with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA). (who.int)
  • Among the mcr-positive Salmonella isolates, ST34 was found to be the predominant lineage, comprising 30.12 % (704/2337) of the total collection. (bvsalud.org)
  • Salmonella isot primary isolation sources [ 2 ], and isolates lates were obtained from 123 imported frot of human origin have been reported to be zen chicken carcasses, 191 live chickens at less resistant than those of animal or foodt private chicken farms and 201 live chickens feed origin [ 10 ]. (who.int)
  • Salmonella-free chicken meat samples was inoculated with 1 to 100 CFU of 11 wild strains that originated from frozen imported poultry meat and 2 reference strains. (ccsenet.org)
  • The majority of Salmonella strains has a LOD50% of 1-4 CFU/25 g in poultry meat, but also that there are some Salmonella strains which will first be detected at 10 CFU/25 g and higher. (ccsenet.org)
  • ABSTRACT We investigated the antibiotic resistance of various strains of Salmonella isolated from dif- ferent sources in Oman, namely sewage water, chicken and food handlers. (who.int)
  • Salmonella strains were isolated from samt potentially pathogenic to humans and vertt ples taken from human faeces, chicken cart tebrates and cause salmonellosis. (who.int)
  • Strains of Salmonella spp. (who.int)
  • Different public health ance of the Salmonella strains has been laboratories of the Ministry of Health were found to vary significantly according to the involved in this screening. (who.int)
  • For example, enteric fever, which number of trained personnel dealing is caused by strains of Salmonella Typhi with this issue is inadequate. (who.int)
  • Title : CDC investigation : CDC investigation and interim recommendations : outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections -- United States, 2008-2009 Corporate Authors(s) : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.);United States. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC, public health and regulatory officials in several states, and the FDA investigated a multistate outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Salmonella is a frequently implicated organism and is responsible for the majority of hospitalizations and deaths attributable to foodborne infections. (who.int)
  • Salmonella enterica subsp. (nih.gov)
  • Crystal structure of Putative dehydratase protein from Salmonella enterica subsp. (berkeley.edu)
  • Persisters are phenotypic variants of the bacterial population that survive against lethal doses of bactericidal antibiotics.These phenotypes are created in numerous bacterial species, including those of clinical significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium. (ac.ir)
  • Salmonella enterica species are intracellular pathogens causative agents of gastroenteritis and typhoid fever in humans worldwide. (canada.ca)
  • Laboratories are required to report positive culture results of Salmonella species to NSW Health. (who.int)
  • Tofu has not been previously linked to nontyphoidal Salmonella outbreaks. (medscape.com)
  • As of January 15, 2009, 43 states reported more than 400 individuals who were infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium. (cdc.gov)
  • Fourteen people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium were reported from eight states and the District of Columbia. (cdc.gov)
  • FDA testing identified the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium in an unopened sample of Natural Grocers Coconut Smiles Organic collected from Natural Grocers. (cdc.gov)
  • FDA also collected dried coconut from International Harvest, Inc. The outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium was identified in samples of International Harvest Brand Organic Go Smile! (cdc.gov)
  • Up to date, poultry meat is considered one of the primary sources of disseminating hazardous pathogens, especially non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS), to consumers, and salmonellosis is the major food safety issue worldwide, including the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) population. (dtu.dk)
  • Our food safety PCR assays offer qualitative detection of the major pathogens ( Salmonella, Listeria, E. coli O157:H7, Cronobacter spp. (thermofisher.com)
  • This study's major goal was to investigate how ileal bacteria, intestinal health, and resistance to Salmonella Typhimurium infection were affected by flavomycin and colistin sulfate. (biologicaltimes.com)
  • We demonstrated that SadA is exposed on the Salmonella cell surface in vitro and in vivo during infection of mice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A probable case of Salmonella infection was defined as diarrhea or abdominal cramps with onset during December 22, 1994-January 4, 1995, in a resident of or a visitor to Dodge County or any of the four contiguous counties. (cdc.gov)
  • This study determined the incidence of Salmonella infection in 250 enteric fever and 210 food poisoning cases attending Thamar general hospital and Dar Alshafaa medical clinic in 2008. (who.int)
  • The range covers workflows to detect Salmonella , Listeria , E. coli O157:H7 and Cronobacter in a variety of food and environmental sample types. (thermofisher.com)
  • From May to mid-August 2021, the Ontario, Canada provincial public health agency, Public Health Ontario, in collaboration with local public health authorities and federal food safety partners, investigated a spatiotemporal cluster of 38 patients with Salmonella Typhimurium infections across multiple public health districts in Ontario. (medscape.com)
  • During May-July 2021, an outbreak of S. Typhimurium involving 38 cases in 10 public health districts in Ontario, Canada was linked to consumption of tofu, suggesting a novel outbreak-associated S. Typhimurium food vehicle. (medscape.com)
  • The aim of this study was emphasized on the effect of Phyllanthus niruri L extract to limphocyte morphology and nitric oxide(NO) production of macrophage Balb/C mice that infected Salmonella typhimurium. (undip.ac.id)
  • Background : UK public health organisations perform routine antimicrobial susceptibility tests (ASTs) to characterise the potential for antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovars. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Previous studies have indicated that Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (S. Tm) rapidly replicates within murine placenta leading to placental inflammation and death. (canada.ca)
  • The functionality of both tlyC and pld was determined by complementation studies of Salmonella, which replicates within endosomes. (utmb.edu)
  • Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella spp. (who.int)
  • Conclusions : An 89.8% concordance from WGS-based AST predictions using ECOFF interpretations suggest that WGS would serve as an effective screening tool for the tracking of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms in S. Typhimurium. (uea.ac.uk)
  • For seven antimicrobials interpreted using Salmonella clinical breakpoints, genotyping produced 0.84 sensitivity and 0.88 specificity. (uea.ac.uk)
  • From these patients, 773 clinical agents of acute diarrhoeal disease in of Salmonella in Yemen that cause food specimens were collected: 250 blood children and adults. (who.int)
  • 1] "Cloning and molecular analysis of the Salmonella enterica ansP gene, encoding an L-asparagine permease. (tcdb.org)
  • Drug Resistance in Salmonella enterica ser. (cdc.gov)
  • The rapid global dissemination of Salmonella enterica sequence type 34 (ST34) has sparked significant concern due to its resistance to critical antimicrobials and its ability to spread across various sectors. (bvsalud.org)
  • To ensure the entrance of safer imported poultry meat products to Jordan at the border control, Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA) applied a Salmonella surveillance system for imported poultry meat and poultry products. (dtu.dk)
  • However, there is no such available tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the current or alternative Salmonella surveillance system in imported poultry meat and poultry products. (dtu.dk)
  • The specific outcome of the research performed during the PhD scholarship is a Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment (QMRA) model were i) the occurrence of Salmonella in the poultry meat of different products and export countries, ii) the sample size for microbiological analysis, iii) performance of the diagnostic test (Rapid' Salmonella ) and iv) criteria for compliance are integrated. (dtu.dk)
  • Sampling procedure for detection of Salmonella in imported poultry meat. (dtu.dk)
  • Norton S, Huhtinen E, Conaty S, Hope K, Campbell B, Tegel M, Boyd R, Cullen B. A large point-source outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium linked to chicken, pork and salad rolls from a Vietnamese bakery in Sydney. (who.int)
  • Infected casses and chicken faeces, and sewage water humans and animals shed salmonellae into in Oman during the period 1998-99. (who.int)
  • Salmonella enterica and veterinary agencies. (cdc.gov)
  • To assess potential risk factors for illness, DCHSHD and WDOH conducted a case-control study including 40 case-patients who were randomly selected from the persons with a stool specimen culture positive for tartrate-negative Salmonella Typhimurium and 40 controls who were identified by random telephone digit dialing. (cdc.gov)
  • Objective II: Determining the limit of detection (LOD) of the Rapid' Salmonella method in the surveillance settings. (dtu.dk)
  • NSW Health routinely tracks Salmonella using SaTScan v9.4.2, a geographic information system (GIS) software programme, to identify spatiotemporal clusters of STm that have been notified through NCIMS. (who.int)
  • In September 2015, the South Western Sydney (SWS) Public Health Unit was notified of a cluster of Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) cases with a common multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) pattern. (who.int)
  • Outer membrane proteins of Salmonella are of significance because they are at the interface between the pathogen and the host, they can contribute to adherence, colonization, and virulence, and they are frequently targets of antibody-mediated immunity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • ABSTRACT Salmonella remains a public health concern around the world, including Yemen although data on its incidence are few. (who.int)
  • Based on these results, probability of detection (POD) curve was estimated according to the model described in EN ISO 16140-4. (ccsenet.org)
  • Applying the Salmonella detection method used in JFDA laboratories. (dtu.dk)
  • Salmonella Typhimurium multiple-locus-variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) type 3-10-8-9-523 was identified in 95.9% (47/49) of stool samples. (who.int)
  • A confirmed case was defined as a stool culture positive for tartrate-negative Salmonella Typhimurium. (cdc.gov)
  • Public health communications to consumers and food establishments should aim to increase awareness of the possible transmission of Salmonella through ready-to-eat soy products. (medscape.com)
  • Lactoferrin and vitamin B12 binding protein (TC1 and TC3), markers for specific granules, were present in the phagosomes from neutrophils ingesting S. typhimurium opsonized with IgG but were 3.5- to 5-fold less prominent in phagosomes from cells phagocytosing Salmonella bearing C3 fragments only. (rupress.org)
  • The results of the study showed that the S. Typhimurium produced high levels of persister cells in the exposure of bactericidal antibiotics. (ac.ir)
  • Overall, this study provides information on the creation of persister cells and the role of different genes in the formation of these cells and structure of proteins involved in the production of persister cells in S. Typhimurium. (ac.ir)
  • Phagosomes were purified from human neutrophils ingesting Salmonella typhimurium opsonized with adsorbed normal human serum or with rabbit IgG. (rupress.org)
  • Il s'agit d'une étude transversale, monocentrique et descriptive, durant 12 mois, incluant les patients âgés d'au moins 18 ans admis en réanimation polyvalente pour un sepsis ou choc septique. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cette étude documentaire, analyse les données des patients diagnostiqués et traités pour tuberculose de 2007 à 2017 en RDC. (bvsalud.org)
  • Tofu was identified as a novel outbreak-associated food vehicle for S. Typhimurium in this outbreak. (medscape.com)
  • These samples were cultured for Salmonella sp. (cdc.gov)
  • The extracts were assayed for mutagenic activity using the Ames/Salmonella system. (cdc.gov)
  • Salmonella enterica is a major cause of morbidity worldwide and mortality in children and immunocompromised individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The presence of persisters in S. Typhimurium was determined by time dependent killing of different types of bactericidal antibiotics and expression of genes associated with persister cell formation which was assessed five hours after the addition of antibiotics by the qRT-PCR. (ac.ir)
  • Complementation of Salmonella organisms with either tlyC or pld resulted in the escape of transformants from endosomal vacuoles into the host cell cytosol demonstrated by quantitative ultrastructural analyses. (utmb.edu)