A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA that causes mild PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Gram-negative rods widely distributed in LIZARDS and SNAKES, and implicated in enteric, bone (BONE DISEASES), and joint infections (JOINT DISEASES) in humans.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.
A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2- hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl pyridinium hydroxide-5'phosphate, inner salt. A nucleotide in which the nitrogenous base, nicotinamide, is in beta-N-glycosidic linkage with the C-1 position of D-ribose. Synonyms: Nicotinamide Ribonucleotide; NMN.
The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The penultimate step in the pathway of histidine biosynthesis. Oxidation of the alcohol group on the side chain gives the acid group forming histidine. Histidinol has also been used as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The family Erinaceidae, in the order INSECTIVORA. Most are true hedgehogs possessing a coat of spines and a very short tail. Those members of the family found in Southeast Asia (moonrats or gymnures) have normal body hair and a long tail.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of 4,5-dihydro-4-oxo-5-imidazolepropanoate to urocanate and water. EC
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-serine and 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate to L-tryptophan and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein that also catalyzes the conversion of serine and indole into tryptophan and water and of indoleglycerol phosphate into indole and glyceraldehyde phosphate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by several Paratyphi serotypes of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. It is similar to TYPHOID FEVER but less severe.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of ethanolamine to acetaldehyde. EC
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in Asia, Africa, and southern Europe.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetolactate from 2 moles of PYRUVATE in the biosynthesis of VALINE and the formation of acetohydroxybutyrate from pyruvate and alpha-ketobutyrate in the biosynthesis of ISOLEUCINE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
One of the early purine analogs showing antineoplastic activity. It functions as an antimetabolite and is easily incorporated into ribonucleic acids.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.
The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
A butyryl-beta-alanine that can also be viewed as pantoic acid complexed with BETA ALANINE. It is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
The expelling of bacteria from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract.
Transferases are enzymes transferring a group, for example, the methyl group or a glycosyl group, from one compound (generally regarded as donor) to another compound (generally regarded as acceptor). The classification is based on the scheme "donor:acceptor group transferase". (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.
The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.

Phenotype of mice and macrophages deficient in both phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase. (1/7066)

The two genetically established antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages are production of reactive oxygen intermediates by phagocyte oxidase (phox) and reactive nitrogen intermediates by inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). Mice doubly deficient in both enzymes (gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-)) formed massive abscesses containing commensal organisms, mostly enteric bacteria, even when reared under specific pathogen-free conditions with antibiotics. Neither parental strain showed such infections. Thus, phox and NOS2 appear to compensate for each other's deficiency in providing resistance to indigenous bacteria, and no other pathway does so fully. Macrophages from gp91(phox-/-)/NOS2(-/-) mice could not kill virulent Listeria. Their killing of S. typhimurium, E. coli, and attenuated Listeria was markedly diminished but demonstrable, establishing the existence of a mechanism of macrophage antibacterial activity independent of phox and NOS2.  (+info)

Salmonella typhimurium and lipopolysaccharide stimulate extracellularly regulated kinase activation in macrophages by a mechanism involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and phospholipase D as novel intermediates. (2/7066)

Activation of the extracellularly regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is part of the early biochemical events that follow lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment of macrophages or their infection by virulent and attenuated Salmonella strains. Phagocytosis as well as the secretion of invasion-associated proteins is dispensable for ERK activation by the pathogen. Furthermore, the pathways used by Salmonella and LPS to stimulate ERK are identical, suggesting that kinase activation might be solely mediated by LPS. Both stimuli activate ERK by a mechanism involving herbimycin-dependent tyrosine kinase(s) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Phospholipase D activation and stimulation of protein kinase C appear to be intermediates in this novel pathway of MEK/ERK activation.  (+info)

Pathogenicity island 2 mutants of Salmonella typhimurium are efficient carriers for heterologous antigens and enable modulation of immune responses. (3/7066)

The potential use as vaccine delivery system of Salmonella typhimurium strains harboring defined mutations in the sseC (HH104) and sseD (MvP101) genes, which encode putative effector proteins of the type III secretion system of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2, was evaluated and compared with that of the well-characterized aroA mutant strain SL7207 by using beta-galactosidase (beta-Gal) as a model antigen. When orally administered to immune-competent or gamma interferon-deficient (IFN-gamma-/-) BALB/c mice, both mutants were found to be highly attenuated (50% lethal dose, >10(9) bacteria). Both strains were also able to efficiently colonize and persist in Peyer's patches. Immunization with HH104 and MvP101 triggered beta-Gal-specific serum and mucosal antibody responses equivalent to or stronger than those observed in SL7207-immunized mice. Although immunoglobulin G2 (IgG2) serum antibodies were dominant in all groups, IgG1 was also significantly increased in mice vaccinated with MvP101 and SL7207. Comparable beta-Gal-specific IgA and IgG antibodies were detected in intestinal lavages from mice immunized with the different strains. Antigen-specific CD4(+) T-helper cells were generated after vaccination with all vaccine prototypes; however, responses were significantly more efficient when HH104 and MvP101 were used (P < 0.05). Significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma were produced by restimulated spleen cells from mice immunized with HH104 than from those vaccinated with the MvP101 or SL7207 derivatives (P +info)

Effect of transforming growth factor beta on experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice. (4/7066)

We have investigated the effect of the in vivo administration of recombinant transforming growth factor beta (rTGF-beta) on the pathogenic mechanisms involved in Salmonella typhimurium experimental infection in mice. The protective response elicited by macrophages was induced by rTGF-beta1 by 2 days after experimental infection, as demonstrated by an increased NO production, while the humoral protective effect began with cytokine mRNA expression 2 days after the challenge and continued after 5 days with cytokine release and lymphocyte activation. We demonstrated that all mice who received rTGF-beta1 survived 7 days after infection. The number of bacteria recovered in the spleens and in the livers of rTGF-beta1-treated mice 2 and 5 days after infection was significantly smaller than that found in the same organs after phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) inoculation. Furthermore, 2 and 5 days after infection, splenic macrophages from rTGF-beta1-treated mice showed a greater NO production than did those from PBS-treated mice. The effect of rTGF-beta1 on S. typhimurium infection in mice was correlated with the expression of cell costimulatory CD28 molecules. Five days after S. typhimurium infection, the percentage of CD28(+)-expressing T cells in splenic lymphocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice increased with respect to that from control mice. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) mRNA was present in a greater amount in spleen cells from rTGF-beta1-treated mice after 2 days, although the intensity of the band decreased 5 days after the challenge. A similar pattern was obtained with the mRNAs for interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), IL-6, TGF-beta, and inducible nitric oxide synthase, which showed greater expression in cells obtained from rTGF-beta1-treated and S. typhimurium-infected mice 2 days after challenge. The treatment with rTGF-beta1 induced an increase in IL-1alpha and IFN-gamma release in the supernatant of splenocyte cultures 5 days after the experimental infection with S. typhimurium. Moreover, we demonstrated that 5 days after infection, the IFN-gamma titer was significantly greater in the sera of rTGF-beta-treated mice than in those of PBS-treated mice. Also, hsp60 showed greater expression 2 days after the challenge in splenocytes from rTGF-beta1-treated mice. The role played by proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines and by CD28 is discussed.  (+info)

Molecular basis for the enterocyte tropism exhibited by Salmonella typhimurium type 1 fimbriae. (5/7066)

Salmonella typhimurium exhibits a distinct tropism for mouse enterocytes that is linked to their expression of type 1 fimbriae. The distinct binding traits of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is also reflected in their binding to selected mannosylated proteins and in their ability to promote secondary bacterial aggregation on enterocyte surfaces. The determinant of binding in Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is a 35-kDa structurally distinct fimbrial subunit, FimHS, because inactivation of fimHS abolished binding activity in the resulting mutant without any apparent effect on fimbrial expression. Surprisingly, when expressed in the absence of other fimbrial components and as a translational fusion protein with MalE, FimHS failed to demonstrate any specific binding tropism and bound equally to all cells and mannosylated proteins tested. To determine if the binding specificity of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae was determined by the fimbrial shaft that is intimately associated with FimHS, we replaced the amino-terminal half of FimHS with the corresponding sequence from Escherichia coli FimH (FimHE) that contains the receptor binding domain of FimHE. The resulting hybrid fimbriae bearing FimHES on a Salmonella fimbrial shaft exhibited binding traits that resembled that of Salmonella rather than E. coli fimbriae. Apparently, the quaternary constraints imposed by the fimbrial shaft on the adhesin determine the distinct binding traits of S. typhimurium type 1 fimbriae.  (+info)

Environmental signals modulate ToxT-dependent virulence factor expression in Vibrio cholerae. (6/7066)

The regulatory protein ToxT directly activates the transcription of virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae, including cholera toxin (CT) and the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP). Specific environmental signals stimulate virulence factor expression by inducing the transcription of toxT. We demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the ToxT protein is also modulated by environmental signals. ToxT expressed from an inducible promoter activated high-level expression of CT and TCP in V. cholerae at 30 degrees C, but expression of CT and TCP was significantly decreased or abolished by the addition of 0.4% bile to the medium and/or an increase of the temperature to 37 degrees C. Also, expression of six ToxT-dependent TnphoA fusions was modulated by temperature and bile. Measurement of ToxT-dependent transcription of genes encoding CT and TCP by ctxAp- and tcpAp-luciferase fusions confirmed that negative regulation by 37 degrees C or bile occurs at the transcriptional level in V. cholerae. Interestingly, ToxT-dependent transcription of these same promoters in Salmonella typhimurium was relatively insensitive to regulation by temperature or bile. These data are consistent with ToxT transcriptional activity being modulated by environmental signals in V. cholerae and demonstrate an additional level of complexity governing the expression of virulence factors in this pathogen. We propose that negative regulation of ToxT-dependent transcription by environmental signals prevents the incorrect temporal and spatial expression of virulence factors during cholera pathogenesis.  (+info)

Peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activity of the FlgJ protein, essential for flagellar rod formation in Salmonella typhimurium. (7/7066)

Because the rod structure of the flagellar basal body crosses the inner membrane, the periplasmic space, and the outer membrane, its formation must involve hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan layer. So far, more than 10 genes have been shown to be required for rod formation in Salmonella typhimurium. Some of them encode the component proteins of the rod structure, and most of the remaining genes are believed to encode proteins involved in the export process of the component proteins. Although FlgJ has also been known to be involved in rod formation, its exact role has not been understood. Recently, it was suggested that the C-terminal half of the FlgJ protein has homology to the active center of some muramidase enzymes from gram-positive bacteria. In this study, we showed that the purified FlgJ protein from S. typhimurium has a peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activity and that this activity is localized in its C-terminal half. Through oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis, we constructed flgJ mutants with amino acid substitutions in the putative active center of the muramidase. The resulting mutants produced FlgJ proteins with reduced enzymatic activity and showed poor motility. These results indicate that the muramidase activity of FlgJ is essential for flagellar formation. Immunoblotting analysis with the fractionated cell extracts revealed that FlgJ is exported to the periplasmic space, where the peptidoglycan layer is localized. On the basis of these results, we conclude that FlgJ is the flagellum-specific muramidase which hydrolyzes the peptidoglycan layer to assemble the rod structure in the periplasmic space.  (+info)

Molecular survey of the Salmonella phage typing system of Anderson. (8/7066)

Typing phages for Salmonella and the prophages of their typical propagation strains were analyzed at the DNA level. Most of them belong to the P22 branch of the lambdoid phages. Acquisition of new plating properties of the typing phages by propagation in particular strains can be due to different host specific modifications of the DNA or to recombination events with residing prophages which are reflected by changes in the respective DNA restriction patterns. It is concluded that the actually available set of typing phages is a historically unique combination of strains.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Unusual Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolate producing CMY-7, SHV-9 and OXA-30 β-lactamases. AU - Hanson, Nancy D.. AU - Moland, Ellen S.. AU - Hossain, Ashfaque. AU - Neville, Stephen A.. AU - Gosbell, Iain B.. AU - Thomson, Kenneth S.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - β-Lactam resistance in Salmonella isolates is increasing. This paper describes the combination of three different β-lactamases, OXA-30, SHV-9 and CMY-7, expressed by an isolate of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. This is the first report of an isolate of Salmonella having both an extended-spectrum β-lactamase and an AmpC β-lactamase.. AB - β-Lactam resistance in Salmonella isolates is increasing. This paper describes the combination of three different β-lactamases, OXA-30, SHV-9 and CMY-7, expressed by an isolate of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. This is the first report of an isolate of Salmonella having both an ...
Exit of salmonellae from the intestinal lumen involves invasion of intestinal epithelial cells, and this invasion relies upon the production of a type III secretory apparatus and protein effector molecules (including prgH and its cotranscribed genes) from SPI-1. These secreted effector molecules mediate changes in host epithelial cells, causing them to ruffle and engulf the bacterium. Our previous work showed that the transcription of prgH, which is part of an operon encoding members of the SPI-1-encoded secretion apparatus, is repressed in the presence of bile. Based on this preliminary observation, in this work, we show that the interaction of serovar Typhimurium with bile dramatically affects its invasive ability by downregulating the transcription of invasion gene regulators, which results in a marked decrease in the transcription of SPI-1 genes involved in epithelial cell entry.. A complex set of transcriptional activators interact to regulate serovar Typhimurium invasion of epithelial ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Three-dimensional tissue assemblies. T2 - Novel models for the study of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium pathogenesis. AU - Nickerson, C. A.. AU - Goodwin, T. J.. AU - Terlonge, J.. AU - Ott, C. M.. AU - Buchanan, K. L.. AU - Uicker, W. C.. AU - Emami, K.. AU - LeBlanc, C. L.. AU - Ramamurthy, R.. AU - Clarke, M. S.. AU - Vanderburg, C. R.. AU - Hammond, T.. AU - Pierson, D. L.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The lack of readily available experimental systems has limited knowledge pertaining to the development of Salmonella-induced gastroenteritis and diarrheal disease in humans. We used a novel low-shear stress cell culture system developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in conjunction with cultivation of three-dimensional (3-D) aggregates of human intestinal tissue to study the infectivity of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium for human intestinal epithelium. Immunohistochemical characterization and microscopic analysis of 3-D aggregates of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enterobacterial common antigen mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium establish a persistent infection and provide protection against subsequent lethal challenge. AU - Gilbreath, Jeremy J.. AU - Dodds, Jennifer Colvocoresses. AU - Rick, Paul D.. AU - Soloski, Mark J.. AU - Merrell, D. Scott. AU - Metcalf, Eleanor S.. PY - 2012/1. Y1 - 2012/1. N2 - Infection with Salmonella spp. is a significant source of disease globally. A substantial proportion of these infections are caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Here, we characterize the role of the enterobacterial common antigen (ECA), a surface glycolipid ubiquitous among enteric bacteria, in S. Typhimurium pathogenesis. Construction of a defined mutation in the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate transferase gene, wecA, in two clinically relevant strains of S. Typhimurium, TML and SL1344, resulted in strains that were unable to produce ECA. Loss of ECA did not affect the gross cell surface ultrastructure, ...
Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 is essential for invasion of non-phagocytic cells, whereas SPI-2 is required for intracellular survival and proliferation in phagocytes. Some SPI-1 effectors, however, are induced upon invasion of both phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, suggesting that they may also be required post-invasion. In the present work, the presence was analysed of SipA, SopA, SopB, SopD and SopE2 effector proteins of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in vitro and in vivo during murine salmonellosis. Tagged (3×FLAG) strains of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium were inoculated intraperitoneally or intragastrically to BALB/c mice and recovered from the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of moribund mice. Tagged proteins were detected by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting with anti-FLAG antibodies. In vitro experiments showed that SPI-1 effector proteins SipA, SopA, SopB, SopD and SopE2 were secreted under SPI-1 conditions. Interestingly, it was found that S. enterica serovar Typhimurium
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium can be internalized by immature dendritic cells (DCs). The interacting host and bacterial molecules initiating this process remain uncharacterized. The objective of this study was to investigate whether specific fimbriae are involved in the early step of binding and uptake of Salmonella by DCs. Type 1 fimbriated S. enterica serovar Typhimurium or recombinant Escherichia coli expressing the type 1 fimbriae showed a significantly greater ability to attach to murine bone-marrow-derived DCs than non-fimbriated bacteria. The FimH adhesin was required for efficient interactions with DCs, since fimbriated fimH mutants were impaired in both binding and internalization. Finally, the internalization involved a FimH-dependent process but did not require sipB, a gene essential for Salmonella-mediated invasion of mammalian epithelial cells. Collectively, these data suggest that the bacterial interaction of DCs through the type 1 fimbrial adhesin FimH is sufficient to target S.
Fosmidomycin is a time-dependent nanomolar inhibitor of methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) synthase, which is the enzyme that catalyzes the first committed step in the MEP pathway to isoprenoids. Importantly, fosmidomycin is one of only a few MEP pathway-specific inhibitors that exhibits antimicrobial activity. Most inhibitors identified to date only exhibit activity against isolated pathway enzymes. The MEP pathway is the sole route to isoprenoids in many bacteria, yet has no human homologs. The development of inhibitors of this pathway holds promise as novel antimicrobial agents. Similarly, analyses of the bacterial response toward MEP pathway inhibitors provides valuable information toward the understanding of how emergent resistance may ultimately develop to this class of antibiotics. We have examined the transcriptional response of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium LT2 to sub-inhibitory concentrations of fosmidomycin via cDNA microarray and RT-PCR. Within the regulated genes identified by
Members of Salmonella enterica are frequently involved in egg and egg product related human food poisoning outbreaks worldwide. In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium is frequently involved in egg and egg product related foodborne illness and Salmonella Mbandaka has also been found to be a contaminant of the layer farm environment. The ability possessed by Salmonella Enteritidis to colonise reproductive organs and contaminate developing eggs has been well described. However, there are few studies investigating this ability for Salmonella Typhimurium. The hypothesis of this study was that the Salmonella Typhimurium can colonise the gut for a prolonged period of time and that horizontal infection through feces is the main route of egg contamination. At 14 weeks of age hens were orally infected with either S. Typhimurium PT 9 or S. Typhimurium PT 9 and Salmonella Mbandaka. Salmonella shedding in feces and eggs was monitored for 15 weeks post infection. Egg shell surface and internal contents of eggs laid
The immobilization of a whole microbial cell is an important process used in nanotechnology of biosensors and other related fields, especially the development of bio-hybrid materials based on live organisms and inorganic compounds. Here, we described an essay to develop a bio-hybrid material based on Salmonella Typhimurium cells and layered double hydroxides (LDH). The synthetic clays have a good capacity to be a host matrix for immobilization of live entity like bacteria. The incorporation of LDH in the nutritive broth shows the capacity of bacteria to grow under the inorganic conditions. The immobilization of bacteria onto the LDH Layer deposited on gold wafers was successfully done and the verification of the final material consistence was given by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis that shows the possibility of various covalent links that can be established between the polar functional group of the cell and the interlayer level in the LDH. The roughness of the surface ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - RosE represses Std fimbrial expression in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. AU - Chessa, Daniela. AU - Winter, Maria G.. AU - Nuccio, Sean Paul. AU - Tükel, Çagla. AU - Baumler, Andreas J. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - The Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) genome contains a large repertoire of putative fimbrial operons that remain poorly characterized because they are not expressed in vitro. In this study, insertions that induced expression of the putative stdABCD fimbrial operon were identified from a random bank of transposon mutants by screening with immuno-magnetic particles for ligand expression (SIMPLE). Transposon insertions upstream of csgC and lrhA or within dam, setB and STM4463 (renamed rosE) resulted in expression of StdA and its assembly into fimbrial filaments on the cell surface. RosE is a novel negative regulator of Std fimbrial expression as indicated by its repression of a std::lacZ reporter construct and by binding of the ...
Bacterial fecal shedding by persistently infected hosts is the major source of new infection and disease for a number of bacterial pathogens. Yet, this pivotal phase of the pathogenesis of infection has been the most difficult phase to model experimentally. Infection of 129X1/SvJ (Nramp1+/+) mice with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium leads to a persistent infection (38). We show here that animals persistently infected with Salmonella serovar Typhimurium can transmit the infection to naïve animals housed in the same cage. However, there was considerable variability among mice in the ability to transmit bacteria to naïve animals. Also, we noted that the shedding levels varied significantly among individual donor mice and from those of exposed infected animals. We found that only a subset of infected mice, about 27%, shed high levels of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium in their feces (,108 CFU/g) and efficiently served as a reservoir to transmit the organisms to naïve individuals. We designated ...
1998) Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig ...
Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS), particularly Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, is among the leading etiologic agents of bacterial enterocolitis globally and a well-characterized cause of invasive disease (iNTS) in sub-Saharan Africa. In contrast, S. Typhimurium is poorly defined in Southeast Asia, a known hot spot for zoonotic disease with a recently described burden of iNTS disease. Here, we aimed to add insight into the epidemiology and potential impact of zoonotic transfer and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in S. Typhimurium associated with iNTS and enterocolitis in Vietnam. We performed whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic reconstruction on 85 human (enterocolitis, carriage, and iNTS) and 113 animal S. Typhimurium isolates isolated in Vietnam. We found limited evidence for the zoonotic transmission of S. Typhimurium. However, we describe a chain of events where a pandemic monophasic variant of S. Typhimurium (serovar I:4,[5],12:i:-sequence type 34 [ST34]) has been introduced into ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - FimY of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium functions as a DNA-binding protein and binds the fimZ promoter. AU - Wang, Ke Chuan. AU - Hsu, Yuan Hsun. AU - Huang, Yi Ning. AU - Lin, Jiunn Horng. AU - Yeh, Kuang Sheng. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium produces type 1 fimbriae with binding specificity to mannose residues. Elements involved in fimbrial structural biosynthesis, transport, and regulation are encoded by the fim gene cluster. FimZ, FimY, FimW, STM0551, and an arginine transfer RNA (fimU) were previously demonstrated to regulate fimbrial expression. The amino acid sequences of the C-terminal portion of FimY revealed similarity with those of LuxR-like proteins. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicated that FimY possessed DNA-binding capacity and bound a 605-bp DNA fragment spanning the intergenic region between fimY and fimZ, while a FimY protein harboring a double mutation in the C-terminal helix-turn-helix region containing a ...
BioAssay record AID 532763 submitted by ChEMBL: Antimicrobial activity against Salmonella serovar Typhimurium SL1344 expressing ramA::aph mutant by broth dilution method in presence of chlorpromazine.
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) play a key role in regulating immune responses and controlling infection. However, the direct role of IECs in restricting pathogens remains incompletely understood. Here, we provide evidence that IL-22 primed intestinal organoids derived from healthy human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) to restrict Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 infection. A combination of transcriptomics, bacterial invasion assays, and imaging suggests that IL-22-induced antimicrobial activity is driven by increased phagolysosomal fusion in IL-22-pretreated cells. The antimicrobial phenotype was absent in hIPSCs derived from a patient harboring a homozygous mutation in the IL10RB gene that inactivates the IL-22 receptor but was restored by genetically complementing the IL10RB deficiency. This study highlights a mechanism through which the IL-22 pathway facilitates the human intestinal epithelium to control microbial infection.
article{3186904, abstract = {Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases. As Salmonella can form biofilms in which it is better protected against antimicrobial agents on a wide diversity of surfaces, it is of interest to explore ways to inhibit biofilm formation. Brominated furanones, originally extracted from the marine alga Delisea pulchra, are known to interfere with biofilm formation in several pathogens. In this study, we have synthesized a small focused library of brominated furanones and tested their activity against S. enterica serovar Typhimurium biofilm formation. We show that several furanones inhibit Salmonella biofilm formation at non-growth-inhibiting concentrations. The most interesting compounds are (Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)3- alkyl-2(5H)-furanones with chain lengths of two to six carbon atoms. A microarray study was performed to analyze the gene expression profiles of Salmonella in the presence of (Z)-4-bromo-5-(bromomethylene)3- ...
The intestinal mucosa forms the first line of defense against infections mediated by enteric pathogens such as salmonellae. Here we exploited intestinal organoids (iHOs) generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) to explore the interaction of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium with iHOs. Imaging and RNA sequencing were used to analyze these interactions, and clear changes in transcriptional signatures were detected, including altered patterns of cytokine expression after the exposure of iHOs to bacteria. S. Typhimurium microinjected into the lumen of iHOs was able to invade the epithelial barrier, with many bacteria residing within Salmonella-containing vacuoles. An S. Typhimurium invA mutant defective in the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 invasion apparatus was less capable of invading the iHO epithelium. Hence, we provide evidence that hIPSC-derived organoids are a promising model of the intestinal epithelium for assessing interactions with enteric pathogens ...
Invasive Salmonella typhimurium induces dramatic cytoskeletal changes on the membrane surface of mammalian epithelial cells and RAW264.7 macrophages as part of its entry mechanism. Noninvasive S. typhimurium strains are unable to induce this membrane ruffling. Invasive S. typhimurium strains invade RAW264.7 macrophages in 2 h with 7- to 10-fold higher levels than noninvasive strains. Invasive S. typhimurium and Salmonella typhi, independent of their ability to replicate intracellularly, are cytotoxic to RAW264.7 macrophages and, to a greater degree, to murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Here, we show that the macrophage cytotoxicity mediated by invasive Salmonella is apoptosis, as shown by nuclear morphology, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and host cell DNA fragmentation. S. typhimurium that enter cells causing ruffles but are mutant for subsequent intracellular replication also initiate host cell apoptosis. Mutant S. typhimurium that are incapable of inducing host cell membrane ruffling fail ...
Invasive Salmonella typhimurium induces dramatic cytoskeletal changes on the membrane surface of mammalian epithelial cells and RAW264.7 macrophages as part of its entry mechanism. Noninvasive S. typhimurium strains are unable to induce this membrane ruffling. Invasive S. typhimurium strains invade RAW264.7 macrophages in 2 h with 7- to 10-fold higher levels than noninvasive strains. Invasive S. typhimurium and Salmonella typhi, independent of their ability to replicate intracellularly, are cytotoxic to RAW264.7 macrophages and, to a greater degree, to murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Here, we show that the macrophage cytotoxicity mediated by invasive Salmonella is apoptosis, as shown by nuclear morphology, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and host cell DNA fragmentation. S. typhimurium that enter cells causing ruffles but are mutant for subsequent intracellular replication also initiate host cell apoptosis. Mutant S. typhimurium that are incapable of inducing host cell membrane ruffling fail ...
Placental infection by Salmonella enterica typhimurium in a murine model : mechanisms of pathogenesis and role of inflammatory cell death
Whole-genome sequencing is rapidly replacing current molecular typing methods for surveillance purposes. Our study evaluates core-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis for outbreak detection and linking of sources of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and its monophasic variants during a 7-month surveillance period in Denmark. We reanalyzed and defined 8 previously characterized outbreaks from the phylogenetic relatedness of the isolates, epidemiologic data, and food traceback investigations. All outbreaks were identified, and we were able to exclude unrelated and include additional related human cases. We were furthermore able to link possible food and veterinary sources to the outbreaks. Isolates clustered according to sequence types (STs) 19, 34, and 36. Our study shows that core-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis is suitable for surveillance and outbreak investigation for Salmonella Typhimurium (ST19 and ST36), but whole genome-wide analysis may be required for the tight
Salmonella enterica causes systemic diseases (typhoid and paratyphoid fever), nontyphoidal septicemia (NTS), and gastroenteritis in humans and other animals worldwide. An important but underrecognized emerging infectious disease problem in sub-Saharan Africa is NTS in children and immunocompromised adults. A current goal is to identify Salmonella mutants that are not pathogenic in the absence of key components of the immune system such as might be found in immunocompromised hosts. Such attenuated strains have the potential to be used as live vaccines. We have used transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) to screen mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium for their ability to infect and grow in the tissues of wild-type and immunodeficient mice. This was to identify bacterial genes that might be deleted for the development of live attenuated vaccines that would be safer to use in situations and/or geographical areas where immunodeficiencies are prevalent. The relative ...
In order to deploy virulence factors at appropriate times and locations, microbes must rapidly sense and respond to various metabolite signals. Previously, we showed a transient elevation of the methionine-derived metabolite methylthioadenosine (MTA) concentration in serum during systemic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection. Here we explored the functional consequences of increased MTA concentrations on S Typhimurium virulence. We found that MTA, but not other related metabolites involved in polyamine synthesis and methionine salvage, reduced motility, host cell pyroptosis, and cellular invasion. Further, we developed a genetic model of increased bacterial endogenous MTA production by knocking out the master repressor of the methionine regulon, metJ Like MTA-treated S Typhimurium, the ΔmetJ mutant displayed reduced motility, host cell pyroptosis, and invasion. These phenotypic effects of MTA correlated with suppression of flagellar and Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) networks. S
Clonally derived bacterial populations exhibit significant genotypic and phenotypic diversity that contribute to fitness in rapidly changing environments. Here, we show that serial passage of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 (StLT2) in broth, or within a mouse host, results in selection of an evolved population that inhibits the growth of ancestral cells by direct contact. Cells within each evolved population gain the ability to express and deploy a cryptic orphan toxin encoded within the rearrangement hotspot (rhs) locus. The Rhs orphan toxin is encoded by a gene fragment located downstream of the main rhs gene in the ancestral strain StLT2. The Rhs orphan coding sequence is linked to an immunity gene, which encodes an immunity protein that specifically blocks Rhs orphan toxin activity. Expression of the Rhs orphan immunity protein protects ancestral cells from the evolved lineages, indicating that orphan toxin activity is responsible for the observed growth inhibition. Because ...
Salmonella can survive for long periods under extreme desiccation conditions. This stress tolerance poses a risk for food safety, but relatively little is known about the molecular and cellular regulation of this adaptation mechanism. To determine the genetic components involved in Salmonellas cellular response to desiccation, we performed a global transcriptomic analysis comparing S. enterica serovar Typhimurium cells equilibrated to low water activity (aw 0.11) and cells equilibrated to high water activity (aw 1.0). The analysis revealed that 719 genes were differentially regulated between the two conditions, of which 290 genes were up-regulated at aw 0.11. Most of these genes were involved in metabolic pathways, transporter regulation, DNA replication/repair, transcription and translation, and, more importantly, virulence genes. Among these, we decided to focus on the role of sopD and sseD. Deletion mutants were created and their ability to survive desiccation and exposure to aw 0.11 was compared to
Type 1 fimbriae are the most commonly found fimbrial appendages on the outer membrane of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. Previous investigations indicate that static broth culture favours S. Typhimurium to produce type 1 fimbriae, while non-fimbriate bacteria are obtained by growth on solid agar media. The phenotypic expression of type 1 fimbriae in S. Typhimurium is the result of the interaction and cooperation of several genes in the fim gene cluster. Other gene products that may also participate in the regulation of type 1 fimbrial expression remain uncharacterized. In the present study, transposon insertion mutagenesis was performed on S. Typhimurium to generate a library to screen for those mutants that would exhibit different type 1 fimbrial phenotypes than the parental strain. Eight-two mutants were obtained from 7,239 clones screened using the yeast agglutination test. Forty-four mutants produced type 1 fimbriae on both solid agar and static broth media, while none of the other 38
The comparison of the publicly available genomes of the virulent Salmonella serovar Typhimurium strains SL1344, 14028s, D23580 to that of the virulence attenuated isolate LT2 revealed the absence of a full sequence of bacteriophage ST64B in the latter. Four selected ST64B regions of unknown function (sb7-sb11, sb46, sb49-sb50, and sb54) were mapped by PCR in two strains collections; 1) 310 isolates of S. Typhimurium from human blood or stool samples and from food, animal and environmental reservoirs, and 2) 90 isolates belonging to other serovars. The region sb49-sb50 was found to be unique to S. Typhimurium and was strongly associated to strains isolated from blood samples (100% and 28.4% of the blood and non-blood isolates, respectively). The region was cloned into LT2 and knocked out in SL1344 and these strains were compared to wild type isogenic strains in in vitro assays used to predict virulence association. No difference in invasion of the Int407 human cell line was observed between the ...
a CIP, ciprofloxacin; CTZ, ceftriaxone; ND, not determined. CIP (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml), Salmonella isolates with ciprofloxacin MIC of ≥4 μg/ml; CTZ (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml), Salmonella isolates with ceftriaxone MIC of ≥4 μg/ml; CIP, CTZ (MIC, ≥4 μg/ml), Salmonella isolates with both ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone MICs of ≥4 μg/ml. ...
BACKGROUND: Salmonella infections cause gastrointestinal and systemic diseases worldwide and are the leading causes of food-borne illnesses in North America (1-4). Salmonella serotype typhimurium (ST), in particular, is increasingly becoming a major public health concern because of its ability to acquire multiple resistant genes (5,6).OBJECTIVE: To describe demographic, temporal and geographical distributions, and reported risk factors of nonoutbreak cases of ST reported to a surveillance system in Ontario.METHODOLOGY: Descriptive analyses were performed on data on salmonellosiscases reported in Ontario between 1990 and 1998. Direct age- and sex-standardized rates were computed, and temporal trend analyses were performed using simple linear regression and a general additive model with alocally weighted regression (LOESS) smoother.RESULTS: The mean annual rates of infections with all Salmonella serotypes and with ST were 27 cases per 100,000 persons and 3.7 cases per 100,000 persons, ...
A paper published in Lancet Infectious Diseases (behind a paywall) by researchers from the Institut Pasteur and the French National Reference Centre for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella generated much buzz online among those interested in antimicrobial resistance. They had studied 288 historical (1911-1969) isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium - a zoonotic bacterium that is one of the most common causes of non-typhoidal Salmonella…
Salmonella typhimurium. Coloured transmission electron micrograph of Salmonella typhimurium bacteria dividing. The orange areas in the centre of the cells are the sites of the genetic material. This rod-shaped, Gram-negative species is a pathogen of many animals and is the commonest cause of food poisoning (Salmonellosis) in humans. It produces enterotoxins which act on the small intestine. Infection occurs when these bacteria contaminate food such as meat, milk and eggs. Symptoms of food poisoning include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. The infection is usually controllable and is rarely fatal. Magnification x34,300 at 6x7cm size. - Stock Image B220/0830
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiple fimbrial adhesins are required for full virulence of Salmonella typhimurium in mice. AU - Van Der Velden, Adrianus W M. AU - Baumler, Andreas J. AU - Tsolis, Renee M. AU - Heffron, Fred. PY - 1998/6. Y1 - 1998/6. N2 - Adhesion is an important initial step during bacterial colonization of the intestinal mucosa. However, mutations in the Salmonella typhimurium fimbrial operons lpf, pef, fim only moderately alter mouse virulence. The respective adhesins may thus play only a minor role during infection or S. typhimurium may encode alternative virulence factors that can functionally compensate for their loss. To address this question, we constructed mutations in all four known fimbrial operons of S. typhimurium: fim, lpf, pef, and agf. A mutation in the agfB gene resulted in a threefold increase in the oral 50% lethal dose (LD50) of S. typhimurium for mice. In contrast, an S. typhimurium strain carrying mutations in all four fimbrial operons (quadruple mutant) had a 26-fold ...
DNA in intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium relaxes during growth in the acidified (pH 4-5) macrophage vacuole and DNA relaxation correlates…
Member of the two-component regulatory system PhoP/PhoQ which regulates the expression of genes involved in virulence, adaptation to acidic and low Mg(2+) environments and resistance to host defense antimicrobial peptides. Essential for intramacrophage survival of S.typhimurium. In low periplasmic Mg(2+), PhoQ phosphorylates PhoP, resulting in the expression of PhoP-activated genes (PAG) and repression of PhoP-repressed genes (PRG). In high periplasmic Mg(2+), PhoQ dephosphorylates phospho-PhoP, resulting in the repression of PAG and may lead to expression of some PRG. Essential for transcription of spiC inside macrophages by controlling the expression of the two-component regulatory system SsrB/SpiR (SsrA) and Pir at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels respectively. Promotes expression of the two-component regulatory system PmrA/PmrB via activation of pmrD gene. Is required to attenuate bacterial growth within fibroblast cells and to enhance bacterial resistance to bile in intestinal cells.
HilA activates the expression of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium invasion genes. To learn more about regulation of hilA, we isolated Tn5 mutants exhibiting reduced hilA and/or invasion gene expression. In addition to expected mutations, we identified Tn5 insertions in pstS, fadD, flhD, flhC, and fliA. Analysis of the pstS mutant indicates that hilA and invasion genes are repressed by the response regulator PhoB in the absence of the Pst high-affinity inorganic phosphate uptake system. This system is required for negative control of the PhoR-PhoB two-component regulatory system, suggesting that hilA expression may be repressed by PhoRPhoB under low extracellular inorganic phosphate conditions. FadD is required for uptake and degradation of long-chain fatty acids, and our analysis of the fadD mutant indicates that hilA is regulated by a FadDdependent, FadR-independent mechanism. Thus, fatty acid derivatives may act as intracellular signals to regulate hilA expression. flhDC and fliA encode
Involvement of ISCR3 and ISCR1 with the Salmonella genomic island 1 genetic element.SGI1 is a genetic element of approximately 43 kb (15). It has been associated mainly with MDR isolates of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT104 that are resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. This pathogen emerged in the last decade as a global animal and human health problem (15). Outbreaks of MDR S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 have occurred in poultry, beef, and pigs and their food products, as well as in dairy products and salad ingredients. MDR salmonellae are very common in the United Kingdom and increasingly prevalent in many other countries (15).. Since its initial discovery in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104, SGI1 has also been found in other S. enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types, i.e., DT120, DT12, DT1, and U302, and in other serovars such as Agona, Paratyphi B, Albany, Meleagridis, Newport, Emek, Cerro, Derby, Dusseldorf, ...
Spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) is increasingly reported worldwide. The presence of a pattern of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphe
Herbicides are frequently released into both rural and urban environments. Commercial herbicide formulations induce adaptive changes in the way bacteria respond to antibiotics. Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli were exposed to common co-formulants of formulations, and S. enterica sv. Typhimurium was exposed to active ingredients dicamba, 2,4-D and glyphosate to determine what ingredients of the commercial formulations caused this effect. Co-formulants Tween80 and carboxymethyl cellulose induced changes in response, but the pattern of the responses differed from the active ingredients, and effect sizes were smaller. A commercial wetting agent did not affect antibiotic responses. Active ingredients induced changes in antibiotic responses similar to those caused by complete formulations. This occurred at or below recommended application concentrations. Targeted deletion of efflux pump genes largely neutralized the adaptive response in the cases of increased survival in antibiotics,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Discovery of Salmonella virulence factors translocated via outer membrane vesicles to murine macrophages. AU - Yoon, Hyunjin. AU - Ansong, Charles. AU - Adkins, Joshua N.. AU - Heffron, Fred. PY - 2011/6. Y1 - 2011/6. N2 - Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, an intracellular pathogen and leading cause of food-borne illness, encodes a plethora of virulence effectors. Salmonella virulence factors are translocated into host cells and manipulate host cellular activities, providing a more hospitable environment for bacterial proliferation. In this study, we report a new set of virulence factors that is translocated into the host cytoplasm via bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMV). PagK (or PagK1), PagJ, and STM2585A (or PagK2) are small proteins composed of ~70 amino acids and have high sequence homology to each other (,85% identity). Salmonella lacking all three homologues was attenuated for virulence in a mouse infection model, suggesting at least partial functional ...
Massis, LM et al. Anti-flagellin antibody responses elicited in mice orally immunized with attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Sept 2008, vol.103, no.6, p.606-610. ISSN 0074- ...
Role of outer membrane lipopolysaccharides in the protection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from desiccation damage ...
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium U288 has firmly established itself within the United Kingdom pig production industry. The prevalence of this highly pathogenic multidrug-resistant serovar at such a critical point in the food chain is therefore of great concern. To enhance our understanding of this microorganism, whole-genome and plasmid sequencing was performed.. ...
Runkel, S (2014) Endogenous production and detoxification of a potent cytotoxin, nitric oxide, in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli. Doctoral thesis, University of East Anglia. ...
The health risks posed by Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium through the consumption of raw vegetables and vegetarian burger patties necessitates the needs for the optimization of analytical approach for their detection and enumeration in the raw vegetables, which served as potential vehicles for transmission of these pathogenic microorganisms. We sought to establish a rapid, economic and sensitive method to detect and determine the load of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium using the most probable numbers (MPN) in combination with the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR). From the naturally contaminated one hundred and seventy five samples tested (n = 175), the overall prevalence of Salmonella spp. was 28%, Salmonella Enteritidis was 20% and Salmonella Typhimurium was 14.3%, respectively. The MPN-MPCR is a quantitative method to determine the density of cell concentration of Salmonella in all the samples (Salmonella spp. ranged from
Vaccination with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lacking DNA adenine methyltransferase confers cross-protective immunity against multiple Salmonella serotypes. The mechanistic basis is thought to be associated with the de-repression of genes that are tightly regulated when transiting from one microenvironment to another. This de-repression provides a potential means for the production of a more highly expressed and stable antigenic repertoire capable of inducing cross-protective immune responses. To identify genes encoding proteins that may contribute to cross-protective immunity, we used a Salmonella Typhimurium DNA adenine methyltransferase mutant strain (UK-1 dam mutant) derived from the parental UK-1 strain, and assessed the transcriptional profile of the UK-1 dam mutant and UK-1 strain grown under conditions that simulate the intestinal or endosomal microenvironments encountered during the infective process. As expected, the transcriptional profile of the UK-1 dam mutant identified a set
In Denmark, as part of the national laboratory-based surveillance system of human enteric infections, all Salmonella Typhimurium isolates are currently subtyped by using phage typing, antimicrobial resistance profiles, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We evaluated the value of real-time typing that uses multiple-locus-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) to detect possible outbreaks. Because only a few subtypes identified by PFGE and phage typing account for most infections, we included MLVA typing in the routine surveillance in a 2-year period beginning December 2003. The 1,019 typed isolates were separated into 148 PFGE types and 373 MLVA types. Several possible outbreaks were detected and confirmed. MLVA was particularly valuable for discriminating within the most common phage types. MLVA was superior to PFGE for both surveillance and outbreak investigations of S. Typhimurium.
National Salmonella Centre (Vet), Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar 243 122, India.. The effect of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium, a zoonotic serovar, on mung bean (Phaseolus aureus) cultivar Pant Mung-3 plants was studied. Inoculation of mung bean seeds with Salmonella Typhimurium (7.2 x 10(5) CFU/ml) reduced sprouting rate (P , 0.07). This effect was more pronounced at higher levels of contamination. In the soil inoculated with Salmonella Typhimurium (7.2 x 10(6) CFU/g), germination was retarded and the number of defective sprouts was also significantly higher (P , 0.002). Salmonella Typhimurium grew inside germinating seeds and plant tissues and persisted in seedlings, adult plants, and harvested seedlings dried and stored at room temperature (30 degrees C) up to 45 days. Phaseolus aureus plants grown in sterile soil was resistant to Salmonella Typhimurium infection at 15 days of age and cleared Salmonella from all the aerial parts within 3 h of ...
Becoming antibiotic resistant is often associated with fitness costs for the resistant bacteria. This is seen as a loss of competitiveness against the antibiotic-sensitive wild-type in an antibiotic-free environment. In this study, the physiological alterations associated with fitness cost of antibiotic resistance in vitro (in the laboratory medium), and in vivo (in a mouse infection model), are identified in the model system of fusidic acid resistant (FusR) Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.. FusR mutants have mutations in fusA, the gene that encodes translation elongation factor G (EF-G). FusR EF-G has a slow rate of regeneration of active EF-G·GTP off the ribosome, resulting in a slow rate of protein synthesis. The low fitness of FusR mutants in vitro, and in vivo, can be explained in part by a slow rate of protein synthesis and resulting slow growth. However, some FusR mutants with normal rates of protein synthesis still suffer from reduced fitness in vivo. We observed that FusR ...
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in ...
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage P22 ATCC ® 19585-B1™ Designation: P22 TypeStrain=False Application: Emerging infectious disease research
Salmonella is the second most frequent cause of foodborne illness in Canada and pork is one of sources for human salmonellosis. Salmonella has also the potential to cause clinical disease in pigs. Salmonella is commonly found on Ontario swine farms. Thus control strategies should be implemented. Vaccination appears to be one of the most promising approaches. In Canada, there is currently available a live Salmonella Choleraesuis vaccine for use in pigs and a live Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine for use in poultry. However, the course of immune responses induced by the above vaccines in 11 pigs is not well studied. The objective of this proposal is to evaluate and compare the immune responses produced by these two Salmonella vaccines in pigs. This research can provide a better understanding of pig immune responses against Salmonella attenuated vaccines and will help to develop new vaccines for controlling Salmonella on Ontario swine farms.. ...
Background: S. Typhi, a human-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar, causes a systemic intracellular infection in humans (typhoid fever). In comparison, S. Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in humans, but causes a systemic typhoidal illness in mice. The PhoP regulon is a well studied two component (PhoP/Q) coordinately regulated network of genes whose expression is required for intracellular survival of S. enterica. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), we examined the protein expression profiles of three sequenced S. enterica strains: S. Typhimurium LT2, S. Typhi CT18, and S. Typhi Ty2 in PhoP-inducing and non-inducing conditions in vitro and compared these results to profiles of \(phoP^−/Q^−\) mutants derived from S. Typhimurium LT2 and S. Typhi Ty2. Our analysis identified 53 proteins in S. Typhimurium LT2 and 56 proteins in S. Typhi that were regulated in a PhoP-dependent manner. As expected, many proteins ...
Abstract: Poultry industry usually exposing birds to a variety of actions and stressors includs fasting for gastrointestinal emptying before transportation and where birds are often exposed to high environmental temperature during the summer months. These environmental stressors may have influences on bird performance and susceptibility to pathogens such as Salmonella enteritidis by altering the intestinal micrbiota and changes in the gut integrity. Approach: This research was conducted to show that acute stressors in the poultry production can induce changes in the normal intestinal microbiota and epithelium structure and execratory functions, which may cause an increase in the opportunities of attachment of Salmonella enteritidis. Results: Experiments were conducted to determine the influence of 24 h feed withdrawal with 24 h exposure to high temperature (30°C) on intestinal characteristics of broilers. Attachment of Salmonella enteritidis to ileal tissue was determined using an in vitro ...
humans, resulting in Being zoonotic, Salmonella enterica subsp. Salmonella pullorum 5. at 37°C and allowed to grow for 18 to 24 hours The LPS is made up of an O-antigen, a polysaccharide core, and lipid A, which connects it to the outer membrane. greater amounts of atmospheric oxygen, and in Remove garments that may have become soiled or contaminated and place them in a double red plastic bag. This pathogen is infamously Immunology, Infection, Rosenberger, C., Scott, Once this is Disease/Infection bluish-green with black centres, indicating that typhimurium, an aerobic bacteria, to to the spleen and liver where it causes Gram-negative Salmonella typhimurium that are produced as a result of engulfment include being lactose negative, citrate Salmonella is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped, motile bacilli which move with the use of its peritrichous flagella.The genus Salmonella can be divided into two species (S. enterica and S. bongori), based on their phenotypic profile.The genus Salmonella is a ...
Part of the ABC transporter complex MalEFGK involved in maltose/maltodextrin import. Responsible for energy coupling to the transport system.
We compared antimicrobial resistance phenotypes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) subtypes of 1,028 human and 716 animal Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium isolates from Minnesota from 1997 to 2003. Overall, 29% of human isolates were multidrug resistant. Predominant phenotypes included resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol or kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline (ACSSuT or AKSSuT). Most human multidrug-resistant isolates belonged to PFGE clonal group A, characterized by ACSSuT resistance (64%), or clonal group B, characterized by AKSSuT resistance (19%). Most animal isolates were from cattle (n = 358) or swine (n = 251). Eighty-one percent were multidrug resistant; of these, 54% were at least resistance phenotype ACSSuT, and 43% were at least AKSSuT. More than 80% of multidrug-resistant isolates had a clonal group A or B subtype. Resistance to ceftriaxone and nalidixic acid increased, primarily among clonal group A/ACSSuT isolates. Clonal group B/AKSSuT ...
Effect of Low Dose γ-Irradiation on the Fate and Cell Envelope of Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Typhimurium - ${\gamma}$-irradiation;cell envelop damage;antibiotic resistance;Bacillus cereus;Escherichia coli;Salmonella Typhimurium;
Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT104, resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol/florfenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline, has disseminated worldwide. The resistance genes reside on the 43-kb Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1), which is transferable. Drug-resistant variants of SGI1 have been identified in numerous serotypes. Strains harboring SGI1 may be more virulent and have a tendency to rapidly disseminate.
Many dogs and cats naturally carry Salmonella (mostly Salmonella typhimurium) in their digestive tracts. The report states that studies have found a 1-15% prevalence of Salmonella in the faeces of healthy dogs, and 1-18% in healthy cats.. According to the report, Salmonella is the most common food-borne bacteria. Around 1.4 million people in the U.S. contract Salmonella infections each year. About 1,000 of these die. About half of all Salmonella infections are from restaurants; and are often traced to infected, but asymptomatic, food handlers. Many of us have Salmonella infections and feel no ill effects. Meat, poultry, eggs, milk, fruits and vegetables can be contaminated with Salmonella. Processed foods can be easily infected in a contaminated plant. Recent food recalls for Salmonella have involved nuts, chocolate bars, peppers, and peanut butter. SALMONELLA INFECTION DOES NOT ALWAYS CAUSE ILL-HEALTH. MANY CARRIERS OF SALMONELLA SHOW NO SYMPTOMS OF DISEASE. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efficacy of Salmonella typhimurium A1-R versus chemotherapy on a pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX). AU - Hiroshima, Yukihiko. AU - Zhao, Ming. AU - Maawy, Ali. AU - Zhang, Yong. AU - Katz, Matthew H.G.. AU - Fleming, Jason B.. AU - Uehara, Fuminari. AU - Miwa, Shinji. AU - Yano, Shuya. AU - Momiyama, Masashi. AU - Suetsugu, Atsushi. AU - Chishima, Takashi. AU - Tanaka, Kuniya. AU - Bouvet, Michael. AU - Endo, Itaru. AU - Hoffman, Robert M.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R) on pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX). The PDOX model was originally established from a pancreatic cancer patient in SCID-NOD mice. The pancreatic cancer PDOX was subsequently transplanted by surgical orthotopic implantation (SOI) in transgenic nude red fluorescent protein (RFP) mice in ...
The GeneChip Porcine Genome Array was used to identify the transcriptional response upon either Salmonella typhimurium (ST) or Salmonella choleraesuis (SC) infection in two porcine epithelial cell lines (IPEC-J2, from jejunum and IPI-2I, from ileum) during 2 and 4 hours post infection. The objectives in this study were first, to identify the different response between the epithelial cell lines from different gut regions; second, to study how the Salmonella serotypes used could elicit a different host response; and third, to determine the effect of the time-points on the differentially gene expression. Overall design: Epithelial cells were seeded into 6-well tissue culture plates and grown to confluence in 5% CO2 at 37ºC. Monolayers were infected for 1 h. with Salmonella typhimurium or Salmonella choleraesuis serotypes (MOI 1:10) or incubated with media alone (Control cells). Extracellular bacteria were removed, and cultures were further incubated during 2 and 4 h. in the presence of 50 µg/ml of the
Although, haemolysis was also observed on blood agar prepared with whole blood, clarity of zone was more evident on blood agar made from washed erythrocytes. The local public health department confirmed the organism to be Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica â ¦ Representative dataare given in figure 4. The Salmonella are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli, motile, nonâ capsulated, non-sporing organism.Salmonella currently comprises of about 2,500 serotypes or species. microorganisms Article Validating Thermal Lethality to Salmonella enterica in Chicken Blood by Simulated Commercial Rendering Caleb Wong de la Rosa 1, Kourtney A. Daniels 2, Rosana G. â ¦ Severe pediatric malaria is an important risk factor for developing disseminated infections with nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS). Incubate plates 24 ± 2 h at 35°C. Clear zone haemolysis was best observed on blood agar â ¦ Adaptation of the Endogenous Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi clyA-Encoded Hemolysin for ... ...
We report the genome sequence of a monophasic Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Typhimurium strain (TW-Stm6) isolated in Australia that is similar to epidemic multidrug-resistant strains from Europe and elsewhere. This strain carries additional antibiotic and heavy-metal resistance genes on a large (275-kb) IncHI2 plasmid ...
Non-typhoidal Salmonella is an important bacterial pathogen causing worldwide morbidity and mortality. Early interactions between Salmonella Typhimurium and intestinal epithelium have been demonstrated in animal models, but little is known in humans. After HEp-2 cell infection and extraction of genomic DNA using 1,440 transposon mutants of Salmonella Typhimurium, Transposon Directed Insertion-site Sequencing (TraDIS) identified 6 novel Salmonella virulence genomic loci responsible for adhesion/invasion (intergenic sucD-cydA, glyA, yqiC, wzxE, and rfaI) and intracellular replication (speG). The aims of this project were to a) create the single-gene mutants by site-directed mutagenesis, b) characterize the discovered genes by testing the created mutants in the established in vitro human epithelial cells (e.g. HEp-2 cells, polarized Caco-2 cells, and LS174T cells) and polarized human intestinal ex vivo organ culture models to study Salmonella virulence (bacterial adhesion, invasion, and ...
Salmonella infections remain a big problem worldwide, causing enteric fever by Salmonella Typhi (or Paratyphi) or self-limiting gastroenteritis by non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) in healthy individuals. NTS may become invasive and cause septicemia in elderly or immuno-compromised individuals, leading to high mortality and morbidity. No vaccines are currently available for preventing NTS infection in human. As these invasive NTS are restricted to several O-antigen serogroups including B1, D1, C1 and C2, O-antigen polysaccharide is believed to be a good target for vaccine development. In this study, a strategy of O-serotype conversion was investigated to develop live attenuated S. Typhimurium vaccines against the major serovars of NTS infections. The immunodominant O4 serotype of S. Typhimurium was converted into O9, O7 and O8 serotypes through unmarked chromosomal deletion-insertion mutations. O-serotype conversion was confirmed by LPS silver staining and western blotting. All O-serotype conversion
1.Cheng, S., et al., Bacterial microcompartments: their properties and paradoxes. Bioessays, 2008. 30(11-12): p. 1084-95. 2.Yeates, T.O., et al., Protein-based organelles in bacteria: carboxysomes and related microcompartments. Nat Rev Microbiol, 2008. 6(9): p. 681-91. 3.Shively, J.M., Inclusion bodies of prokaryotes. Annu Rev Microbiol, 1974. 28(0): p. 167-87. 4.Chen, P., D.I. Andersson, and J.R. Roth, The control region of the pdu/cob regulon in Salmonella typhimurium. J Bacteriol, 1994. 176(17): p. 5474-82. 5.Havemann, G.D., E.M. Sampson, and T.A. Bobik, PduA is a shell protein of polyhedral organelles involved in coenzyme B(12)-dependent degradation of 1,2-propanediol in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium LT2. J Bacteriol, 2002. 184(5): p. 1253-61. 6.Brinsmade, S.R., T. Paldon, and J.C. Escalante-Semerena, Minimal functions and physiological conditions required for growth of salmonella enterica on ethanolamine in the absence of the metabolosome. J Bacteriol, 2005. 187(23): p. 8039-46. ...
In Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Southern Brazil, a clonal group of Salmonella Enteritidis has been identified as the main cause of foodborne diseases, in the last years. Given that, the objective of this study was to evaluate the survival in simulated gastric fluid (FGS) and the intestinal invasion ability of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE86) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST99) submitted or not to acid adaptation. The microorganisms were grown in culture media and culture media supplemented with glucose, aiming to promote acid adaptation. After that, approximately 9log of SE86 (Isolated from a foodborne outbreak) and ST99 (not involved with foodborne outbreaks), acid-adapted or not adapted, were exposed to FGS with pH 1.5, and inoculated in adult male Wistar rats. Germ-free mice were also inoculated but with approximately 2 log, and the animals were observed during 21 days, at aseptic conditions. Animal feces and portions of the gastrointestinal tract were examined by microbiological analysis, and ...
The extensive medical and agricultural use and misuse of antibiotics during the last 70 years has caused an enrichment of resistant pathogenic bacteria that now severely threatens our capacity to efficiently treat bacterial infections. While is has been known for a long time that high concentrations of antibiotics can select for resistant mutants, less is known about the lower limit at which antibiotics can be selective and enrich for resistant bacteria.. In this thesis we investigated the role of low concentrations of antibiotics and heavy metals in the enrichment and evolution of antibiotic resistance. Selection was studied using Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 with different resistance mutations, different chromosomal resistance genes as well as large conjugative multidrug resistance plasmids. Using very sensitive competition experiments, we showed that antibiotic and heavy metal levels more than several hundred-fold below the minimal inhibitory concentration ...
Deficiency of a modified nucleoside in tRNA often mediates suppression of +1 frameshift mutations. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain TR970 (hisC3737), which requires histidine for growth, a potential +1 frameshifting site, CCC-CAA-UAA, exists within the frameshifting window created by insertion of a C in the hisC gene. This site may be suppressed by peptidyl-tRNAProcmo5UGG (cmo(5)U is uridine-5-oxyacetic acid), making a frameshift when decoding the near-cognate codon CCC, provided that a pause occurs by, e.g., a slow entry of the tRNAGlnmnm5s2UUG (mnm(5)s(2)U is 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine) to the CAA codon located in the A site. We selected mutants of strain TR970 that were able to grow without histidine, and one such mutant (iscS51) was shown to have an amino acid substitution in the L-cysteine desulfurase IscS. Moreover, the levels of all five thiolated nucleosides 2-thiocytidine, mnm(5)s(2)U, 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine, 4-thiouridine, and ...
The flagellar systems of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica exhibit a significant level of genetic and functional synteny. Both systems are controlled by the flagellar specific master regulator FlhD4C2. Since the early days of genetic analyses of flagellar systems it has been known that E. coli flhDC can complement a ∆flhDC mutant in S. enterica. The genomic revolution has identified how genetic changes to transcription factors and/or DNA binding sites can impact the phenotypic outcome across related species. We were therefore interested in asking: using modern tools to interrogate flagellar gene expression and assembly, what would the impact be of replacing the flhDC coding sequences in S. enterica for the E. coli genes at the flhDC S. entercia chromosomal locus? We show that even though all strains created are motile, flagellar gene expression is measurably lower when flhDCEC are present. These changes can be attributed to the impact of FlhD4C2 DNA recognition and the protein-protein ...
Phylogenetic diversity of the enteric pathogen Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica inferred from genome-wide reference-free SNP characters ...
The first priority in case of a Salmonella contamination it to trace the source as soon as possible. To facilitate an efficient search it is good to know that different sources of Salmonella contamination are often associated with distinct Salmonella serotypes. Therefore, it is essential in any Salmonella reduction program to know which serotype is the culprit. The traditional Kauffmann-White method for confirming and serotyping Salmonella takes at least several days to obtain an end result. Also, up to 10 - 15% of cases yield inconclusive results. This is why Check-Points developed Check & Trace Salmonella, which overcomes these hurdles. It provides a rapid Salmonella confirmation and serotyping method based on DNA technology for routine use in any laboratory. With a single test - which can be performed in one day - it confirms the presence of Salmonella and identifies the serotype. If you suspect a Salmonella contamination in your poultry farm, Check & Trace Salmonella is the fastest and most ...
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Salmonella caused by an infectious agent (pathogen) that is called Salmonella enteriditis. The bacteria is larger than a virus; but, is visible with a microscope. It is a microscopic living creature that passes from the feces of people or animals to others. It has been causing illnesses for over 100 years. It infects the cell, multiples within it then bursts the cell. Special effect protein factors are required for salmonella intestinal invasion and the induction of fluid secretion and inflammatory responses. Salmonella is most common in birds, mainly poultry. Newborn calves are also susceptible to the bacteria. The feces from the dam could get in the mouth of the calf after being born. Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella enteric are which causes human disease. Salmonellosis spreads to people by ingestion of Salmonella bacteria that is from contaminated food. Salmonella is worldwide and can contaminate almost any food type, but outbreaks of the disease have highly involved raw eggs, raw meat, ...
1. Taylor J, McCoy JH. Salmonella and Arizonae infections and intoxications. In Riemann, H (ed.) Foodborne Infections and Intoxications. Academic Press:New York, New York. 1969;3-72.. 2. Bean NH, Griffin PM. Foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States 1973-1987: pathogens, vehicles and trends. J Food Prot. 1990; 53:804-817.. 3. Lammerding AM, Garcia MM, Mann ED, Robinson Y, Dorward WJ, Truscott RB, Tittiger F. 1988. Prevalence of Salmonella and thermophilic Campylobacter in fresh pork, beef, veal and poultry in Canada. J Food Prot. 1988; 51:47-52.. 4. Buchwald DS, Blaser MJ. A review of human salmonellosis. II. Duration of excretion following infection and nontyphi Salmonella. Rev Infect Dis. 1984; 6:345-356.. 5. Kotova AL, Kondratskaya SA, Yasutis IM. 1988. Salmonella carrier state and biological characteristics of the infectious agent. J Hyg Epidemiol Microbiol Immunol. 1988; 32:71-78.. 6. Wood RL, Pospischil A, Rose R. 1989. Distribution of persistent Salmonella typhimurium infection in ...
For several years, the resistance of Salmonella enterica to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins has been increasingly reported, as has the diversity of β-lactamases involved in this resistance. Using a chronological approach, we can assume that the extended-spectrum β-lactamases observed between 1985 and 1990 concerned SHV and TEM derivatives (1, 9) whereas those described since 1990 concerned not only new class A β-lactamases, such as CTX-M type and PER enzymes (2, 4, 15), but also plasmid-mediated class C β-lactamases, namely DHA-1 (8) and CMY-2 (7, 13). Fortunately, all these plasmid-mediated class A and class C β-lactamases do not confer imipenem (IMI) resistance to the isolates. However, as presented in this paper, the association of different mechanisms of resistance led to IMI resistance in one of the two multidrug-resistant isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Wien which were recently found in Tunis.. The two isolates (SW468 and SW1107) came from the blood of two neonates ...
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Muenchen ATCC ® BAA-1676D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Muenchen strain MZ1478 TypeStrain=False Application:
Many environmental signals are known to stimulate or repress expression of the Salmonella invasion regulon (for a review see Lucas and Lee, 2000). These signals are transduced by an unknown mechanism to HilA, which then directly activates invF (Lostroh et al., 2000). In this study, we examined the role of InvF and SicA in the regulation of a specific subset of invasion genes encoding secreted effector proteins and their cognate chaperones. A consensus sequence, the InvF binding site, was identified in three chromosomally unlinked invasion loci. The sicA promoter controls the expression of the sicAsip/sspBCDA and, most likely, the sicPsptP genes. Sip/SspB and C have been shown to be required for the translocation of several other proteins, including SigD, SopE, and SptP (Wood et al., 1996; Collazo and Galán, 1997; Galyov et al., 1997; Fu and Galán, 1998b). SipB has been assigned several functions from effector translocator to stimulator of bacterial induced apoptosis (Kaniga et al., 1995b; ...
Abstract Aims: The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of continuous ohmic heating for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in ...
Salmonella are ubiquitous enteric bacteria, responsible for thousands of deaths world-wide.. In this book, the authors present current research in the study of the classification, genetics and disease outbreak cases relating to salmonella.. Topics include the pre- and post-harvest intervention strategies for controlling salmonella contamination in broiler production; salmonella enterica survival to biocides and antibiotics; salmonella new-port contamination in produce; genome comparisons of salmonella; salmonella in sub-Antarctica and Antarctica; and hazard of salmonella in the intact shell egg. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumor targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R in combination with gemcitabine (GEM) regresses partially GEM-resistant pancreatic cancer patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse models. AU - Kawaguchi, Kei. AU - Miyake, Kentaro. AU - Zhao, Ming. AU - Kiyuna, Tasuku. AU - Igarashi, Kentaro. AU - Miyake, Masuyo. AU - Higuchi, Takashi. AU - Oshiro, Hiromichi. AU - Bouvet, Michael. AU - Unno, Michiaki. AU - Hoffman, Robert M.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2018, © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.. PY - 2018/8/18. Y1 - 2018/8/18. N2 - Gemcitabine (GEM) is first-line therapy for pancreatic cancer but has limited efficacy in most cases. Nanoparticle-albumin bound (nab)-paclitaxel is becoming first-line therapy for pancreatic cancer, but also has limited efficacy for pancreatic cancer. Our goal was to improve the treatment outcome in patient-like models of pancreatic cancer. We previously established patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) ...
Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104 is a major strain of Salmonella linked with food-borne illness and a significant concern to the beef industry. DT104 strains are often multiply drug-resistant and are easily spread in the close parameters of beef cattle ranches. A toxin found on the genome of DT104 strains, called artAB, has homology to other well characterized bacterial toxins. The goal of this study is to find an efficient way of genotyping and identifying the artAB toxin in bovine Salmonella isolates. The primary method used is Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPCR), which allows for simultaneous PCR of multiple genes. We obtained four sets of primers to identify Salmonella species, phage type and artAB. In separate trials using 8 agricultural Salmonella samples we have found that the MPCR program is effective and will work for continued genotyping. ArtAB has thus far been found in 3 of 8 samples and correlates well with DT104. This work will help to define the importance of artAB in bovine
The aim of this research was to evaluate the risk of inoculated Salmonella persisting on the outside of the shell of hens eggs. Hens eggs were surface inoculated with a cocktail of Salmonella strains and stored for up to 54 days at 4, 10 and 20 °C and at 80 and 90% relative humidity. Salmonella survival showed an irregular pattern, with extremes of high recovery and no recovery. However, salmonellae were always recovered after resuscitation. Monte Carlo simulation of different scenarios using relevant assumptions indicated that the distribution of surviving Salmonella was skewed towards low numbers, suggesting higher chances of Salmonella persisting on the eggs in low numbers (,104 cfu egg−1). Although numbers were low, the research demonstrated the ability of salmonellae to survive on the shells of eggs following contamination and this clearly has safety implications for handling of eggs in the food industry and the domestic environment. ...
Infections and inflammation can lead to cachexia and wasting of skeletal muscle and fat tissue by as yet poorly understood mechanisms. We observed that gut colonization of mice by a strain of Escherichia coli prevents wasting triggered by infections or physical damage to the intestine. During intestinal infection with the pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium or pneumonic infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, the presence of this E. coli did not alter changes in host metabolism, caloric uptake, or inflammation but instead sustained signaling of the insulin-like growth factor 1/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT pathway in skeletal muscle, which is required for prevention of muscle wasting. This effect was dependent on engagement of the NLRC4 inflammasome. Therefore, this commensal promotes tolerance to diverse diseases. ...
... the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium; the virus bacteriophage T4, an RNA virus and humans. In such studies, numerous mutations ...
... the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium; the virus bacteriophage T4, an RNA virus, and humans. The intermolecular forces likely ...
... the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium; and the virus bacteriophage T4. In several such studies, numerous mutations defective in ...
... the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium; the virus bacteriophage T4, an RNA virus and humans. In such studies, numerous mutations ...
Salmonella typhimurium nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 (34): 26004-26010. doi: ...
Reinigung und Eigenschaften der L-Histidinolphosphat-2-Oxoglutarat-Aminotransferase (EC 2. 6. 1. 9.) aus Salmonella typhimurium ...
isolated the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) homologue. Later it would be shown by Smith and Maguire ... Tao T, Snavely MD, Farr SG, Maguire ME (May 1995). "Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: mgtA encodes a P-type ATPase ... Snavely MD, Miller CG, Maguire ME (Jan 1991). "The mgtB Mg2+ transport locus of Salmonella typhimurium encodes a P-type ATPase ... Gibson MM, Bagga DA, Miller CG, Maguire ME (Nov 1991). "Magnesium transport in Salmonella typhimurium: the influence of new ...
... are caused by Salmonella enterica Typhimurium or Salmonella enterica Enteritidis. A new form of Salmonella Typhimurium (ST313) ... Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Typhimurium, but can be abbreviated to Salmonella Typhimurium. Further ... A recent Salmonella Typhimurium outbreak has been linked to chocolate. Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella serotypes which ... Initially, each Salmonella "species" was named according to clinical considerations, for example Salmonella typhi-murium (mouse ...
"Shikimate kinase isoenzymes in Salmonella typhimurium". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 243 (3): 676-7. PMID 4866525. ...
In 1890 he isolated Salmonella typhimurium. In 1893, he was involved in research into the flour moth, "scourge of the flour ...
Since then, phage typing schemes have been developed for Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi B., Salmonella typhimurium, ... Baggesen DL, Sørensen G, Nielsen EM, Wegener HC (2010). "Phage typing of Salmonella Typhimurium - is it still a useful tool for ... Baggesen DL, Sørensen G, Nielsen EM, Wegener HC (2010). "Phage typing of Salmonella Typhimurium - is it still a useful tool for ... Baggesen DL, Sørensen G, Nielsen EM, Wegener HC (2010). "Phage typing of Salmonella Typhimurium - is it still a useful tool for ...
Nagasawa T, Tanizawa K, Satoda T, Yamada H (1988). "Diaminopropionate ammonia-lyase from Salmonella typhimurium. Purification ...
Eisenstark, A. (1965). "Mutagen-induced hybridization of Salmonella typhimurium LT2 X Escherichia coli K12 Hfr". Proceedings of ... strains of Salmonella typhimurium; the discovery that bacteriophage can transfer plasmid genes as well as chromosomal genes; ... Wormser, Gary P.; Janda, J. Michael (2008). "Review of Salmonella Methods and Protocols: Methods in Molecular Biology, edited ... Schatten, H.; Eisenstark, A. (22 August 2007). Schatten, Heide; Eisenstark, Abraham (eds.). Salmonella: Methods and Protocols. ...
... has mutagenic effects on Salmonella typhimurium. The maximum safe concentration of dichloroacetylene in air ...
Luginbuhl GH, Hofler JG, Decedue CJ, Burns RO (October 1974). "Biodegradative L-threonine deaminase of Salmonella typhimurium ...
Salmonella typhimurium propanediol diffusion facilitator (gene pduF). Yeast FPS1, a glycerol uptake/efflux facilitator protein ...
Arena F, Ciliberto G, Ciampi S, Cortese R (1978). "Purification of pseudouridylate synthetase I from Salmonella typhimurium". ...
Typing of Salmonella typhimurium by means of bacteriophage. The Bacteriological Hygienical Department of the Royal Veterinary ...
The CorA transport system is the primary Mg2+ influx system of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. CorA is ubiquitous ... October 1998). "The CorA Mg2+ transport protein of Salmonella typhimurium. Mutagenesis of conserved residues in the third ... "The CorA Mg2+ transport protein of Salmonella typhimurium. Mutagenesis of conserved residues in the third membrane domain ...
It is primarily found in Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Enterobactin is the ... Pollack JR, Neilands JB (March 1970). "Enterobactin, an iron transport compound from Salmonella typhimurium". Biochemical and ...
Salmonella Typhimurium Salmonella Centre for Disease Control "Salmonella in chicken salad kills 1, sickens 265 in 8 states". ... CDC Salmonella CDC Salmonella typhimurium Key Resources (All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with unsourced ... "Multidate Outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium Linked to Chicken Salad (Final Update)". Centers for Disease Control and ... "Salmonella Typhimurium Illness Outbreak Associated with Chicken Salad, 2018". United States Department of Agriculture Food ...
Invasive strains of non-typhoidal Salmonella, such as Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 have recently been labelled as causing ... Salmonella Typhi whereas, full designation for Salmonella Typhi is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi. Each ... Wolfgang R, Helene A, Robert K, Rita P, Helmut T, Garry A, Andreas B (May 2002). "Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium and ... Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica is a subspecies of Salmonella enterica, the rod-shaped, flagellated, aerobic, Gram-negative ...
The plasmid is a natural plasmid from Salmonella typhimurium. In the early 1970s, Herbert Boyer and Stanley Norman Cohen ...
Wang JY, Koshland DE (1982). "The reversible phosphorylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase of Salmonella typhimurium". Arch. ...
Yourno J, Ino I (1968). "Purification and crystallization of histidinol dehydrogenase from Salmonella typhimurium LT-2". J. ... Loper JC (1968). "Histidinol dehydrogenase from Salmonella typhimurium Crystallization and composition studies". J. Biol. Chem ...
Stolowich NJ, Iida K, Scott AI (1992). "Expression of 9 Salmonella typhimurium enzymes for cobinamide synthesis. Identification ...
Stolowich NJ, Iida K, Scott AI (1992). "Expression of 9 Salmonella typhimurium enzymes for cobinamide synthesis. Identification ... biosynthetic genes of Salmonella typhimurium". J. Bacteriol. 175 (11): 3303-16. doi:10.1128/jb.175.11.3303-3316.1993. PMC ...
Gupta SD, Wu HC, Rick PD (August 1997). "A Salmonella typhimurium genetic locus which confers copper tolerance on copper- ... 5) suppressors of copper sensitivity (TC# 5.A.1.5.1; copper tolerance proteins) of Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae ...
Wang JY, Koshland DE (October 1, 1982). "The reversible phosphorylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase of Salmonella typhimurium ...
... "sRNAs and the virulence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium". RNA Biology. 9 (4): 437-45. doi:10.4161/rna.20480. PMC ... Polymyxin envelope stress assays such as this have been used for the study of small RNA (sRNA) responses in Salmonella enterica ...
In Salmonella typhimurium, a new pair of antiparallel β-sheets is created and five new interatomic contacts are formed in the ...
"Lipid A modifications in polymyxin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium: PMRA-dependent 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose, and ... "Purification and characterization of the L-Ara4N transferase protein ArnT from Salmonella typhimurium". Protein Expression and ... "Accumulation of a polyisoprene-linked amino sugar in polymyxin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli: ... "Identification of a functionally important loop in Salmonella typhimurium ArnT". Biochemistry. 49 (1): 29-35. doi:10.1021/ ...
Kredich NM, Tomkins GM (1966). "The enzymic synthesis of L-cysteine in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium". J. Biol. ...
This was due to the risk of possible Salmonella serotype Typhimurium contamination of peanut-based products consigned from a ...
... concentration of several antibiotics against zoonotic pathogens and food spoilage bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium SGI 1 ...
"A case of Salmonella typhimurium infection in cattle and its isolation from other sources". Veterinary Record. London: John ... The pigs, hens, and ducks were all found to be carrying Salmonella typhimurium, although none showed signs of infection. ... reported a cross-species infection of Salmonella typhimurium in shorthorn cows on a farm in Northumberland. The herd was milked ... Field and Farm". Salmonella Infections, Networks of Knowledge, and Public Health in Britain, 1880-1975. Oxford: Oxford ...
"Survival and Transmission of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in an Outdoor Organic Pig Farming Environment". Applied ... Other diseases can also spread in pig farms such as Salmonella, Toxoplasma, and Campylobacter. Many of these diseases are ... These lagoons often contain pathogens such as salmonella, pharmaceuticals like antibiotics and antimicrobials, as well as ...
Dobrogosz studied metabolic regulation in such species as Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. In particular, his ...
Anderson PE, Matsunaga J, Simons EL, Simons RW (1996). "Structure and regulation of the Salmonella typhimurium rnc-era-recO ... Further work has established that rncO structure and function is conserved in Salmonella typhimurium. Functionally the first ...
M cells are exploited by several pathogenic gram-negative bacteria including Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhimurium, and ... November 2012). "Salmonella transforms follicle-associated epithelial cells into M cells to promote intestinal invasion". Cell ... November 2012). "Salmonella transforms follicle-associated epithelial cells into M cells to promote intestinal invasion". Cell ... RANKL is expressed throughout the small intestine, facilitates uptake of pathogens such as Salmonella, and is the most critical ...
... and purine-dependent Salmonella typhimurium: attention, persistence, and ability to induce protective immunity in BALB/c mice ... "Distinguishable Epidemics of Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in Different Hosts". Science. 341 (6153): 1514- ... Salmonella infections: clinical, immunological, and molecular aspects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. García-Álvarez, ... "Salmonella typhimuriumaroA mutants as carriers of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit to the murine ...
... of cobalt-precorrin-5B in the anaerobic pathway of adenosylcobalamin biosynthesis in bacteria such as Salmonella typhimurium, ...
"Salmonella typhimurium Recognizes a Chemically Distinct Form of the Bacterial Quorum-Sensing Signal AI-2". Molecular Cell. 15 ( ...
"Oxidative stress responses in Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium". Microbiol Rev. 55: 561-85. PMC 372838. PMID 1779927 ...
"The two-component sensor kinase KdpD is required for Salmonella typhimurium colonization of Caenorhabditis elegans and survival ... "Resistance to antimicrobial peptides contributes to persistence of Salmonella typhimurium in the C. elegans intestine". ... completed her graduate work with Man-Wah Tan where she characterized the bacterial pathogenesis of Salmonella typhimurium in ...
Corynebacterium pyogenes Streptococci Staphylococci Gram negative Escherichia coli Salmonella dublin Salmonella typhimurium ...
"Structural studies of Salmonella typhimurium ArnB (PmrH) aminotransferase: a 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose lipopolysaccharide- ...
Banerjee S, Ghosh S (1969). "Purification and properties of N-acetylmannosamine kinase from Salmonella typhimurium". Eur. J. ...
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain ATCC14028 acquires nalidixic acid resistance when gyrB gene is mutated (strain ... "Ethanolamine utilization in Salmonella typhimurium: nucleotide sequence, protein expression, and mutational analysis of the ...
... such as Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. These methyl-accepting chemotaxis receptors are one of the first ...
Escherichia coli Yersinia pestis Haemophilus influenzae Vibrio cholerae Shigella dysenteriae Salmonella typhimurium Klebsiella ... GcvB has been shown to regulate a large number of genes in E. coli and Salmonella species. GcvB was shown to bind to Oppa and ... Vogel J (January 2009). "A rough guide to the non-coding RNA world of Salmonella". Mol. Microbiol. 71 (1): 1-11. doi:10.1111/j. ...
By using an oral DNA vaccine carried in an attenuated non-virulent form of Salmonella typhimurium, which co-encoded secretory ...
In Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium: Cellular and Molecular Biology. F. C. Neid- hardt, editor. Am. Soc. Microbiol ...
"Residence time and food contact time effects on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from tile, wood and carpet: testing the five ... "Residence time and food contact time effects on transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium from tile, wood and carpet: testing the five ... A more thorough study in 2006 using salmonella on wood, tiles, and nylon carpet, found that the bacteria were able to thrive ... Tested on surfaces that had been contaminated with salmonella eight hours previously, the bacteria were still able to ...
High concentrations of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella ... typhi, S. typhimurium, and Shigella sonnei - among other harmful fecal coliforms - are present in this wastewater, and transmit ...
"Salmonella typhimurium Recognizes a Chemically Distinct Form of the Bacterial Quorum-Sensing Signal AI-2". Molecular Cell. 15 ( ...
Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica (serovar Typhimurium) has also been described as a cause of bacillary dysentery,[ ...
Salmonella Dub is the name of a "Drum and Bass" band from New Zealand.. M*A*S*H*, Season 8, Episode 10: "The Yalu Brick Road" ... The name Salmonella was named after research program leader Dr. Daniel Salmon, but Theobald Smith was the actual discoverer of ... Salmonella has an even greater impact in less developed nations. Worldwide there are an estimated 93.8 million cases of ... Salmonella is able to move through the food chain, infecting many different animals before getting to humans. ...
Monoclonal antibodies particular for the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein outline neutralizing epitopes particular for Newcastle illness virus genotype 2.VII from Egypt Background: Newcastle illness is a devastating illness in poultry attributable to virulent Newcastle illness virus (NDV), a paramyxovirus endemic in lots of areas of the world regardless of intensive vaccination. Phylogenetic analyses reveal ongoing evolution of the predominant […]. ...
Timeline for Species Salmonella typhimurium [TaxId:90371] from a.25.1.2 Ribonucleotide reductase R2: *Species Salmonella ... PDB entries in Species: Salmonella typhimurium:. *Domain(s) for 1r2f: *. Domain d1r2fa_: 1r2f A: [16800]. ... Species Salmonella typhimurium [TaxId:90371] from a.25.1.2 Ribonucleotide reductase R2 appears in the current release, SCOPe ... Lineage for Species: Salmonella typhimurium. *Root: SCOP 1.55 *. Class a: All alpha proteins [46456] (138 folds). ...
Until August 2002, S. Typhimurium R-type ASSuT was uncommon in human isolates. From 1997 to July 2002 a total of 81 (2.5%) ... enterica serotype Typhimurium resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole (R-type ASSuT) were ... strains with this resistance profile were found in 3114 cases of S. Typhimurium tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. ... a total of 41 human cases of multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. ...
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica strain TA 1535 can be used in enteric disease research and zoonotic disease research. ... Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (ex Kauffmann and Edwards) Le Minor and Popoff serovar Typhimurium 29629™ ... Salmonella typhimurium (Loeffler) Castellani and Chalmers Depositors. PA Pattee Chain of custody. ATCC <-- PA Pattee <-- P ... The certificate of analysis for that lot of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica (ex Kauffmann and Edwards) Le Minor and Popoff ...
title = "Salmonella Typhimurium DT41 in poultry",. author = "Charlotta L{o}fstr{o}m and Ann-Sofie Hintzmann and Gitte S{\o} ... Salmonella Typhimurium DT41 in poultry. In Annual Report on Zoonoses in Denmark 2013. Søborg: DTU Food. 2014. p. 29-29. (Annual ... Salmonella Typhimurium DT41 in poultry. Annual Report on Zoonoses in Denmark 2013. Søborg : DTU Food, 2014. pp. 29-29 (Annual ... Löfström, C., Hintzmann, A-S., Sørensen, G., & Baggesen, D. L. (2014). Salmonella Typhimurium DT41 in poultry. In Annual Report ...
... was evaluated for the decontamination of spiked Salmonella Typhimurium on chicken egg shell surface. Acidified sodium chlorite ... Typhimurium as compared to control group. Likewise, CFCS of P. cerevisiae completely inhibited the growth of S. Typhimurium on ... at 100 μl/L concentration with the contact time of 20 min completely inhibited S. Typhimurium on egg shell surface while at 50 ... Acidified Sodium Chlorite, Eggs, Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus cerevisiae and Salmonella Typhimurium ...
Salmonella Typhimurium infections represent an important threat both to the swine industry and public health since pig is also ... Caractérisation phénotypique et génotypique disolats de Salmonella Typhimurium provenant de porcs sains ou septicémiques. dc. ... Les infections à Salmonella Typhimurium constituent un problème de taille pour lindustrie porcine et la santé publique car cet ... Caractérisation phénotypique et génotypique disolats de Salmonella Typhimurium provenant de porcs sains ou septicémiques. en. ...
Construction and characterisation of auxotrophic mutants of Salmonella typhimurium as live vaccines in the murine model of ...
We generated a library of targeted deletion mutants in Salmonella Typhimurium strain ATCC14028, primarily in genes specific to ... Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium can move through liquid using swimming motility, and across a surface by swarming ... Salmonella, that we have previously described. In the work presented here, we screened each individual mutant from this library ... Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium can move through liquid using swimming motility, and across a surface by swarming ...
Several mutants obtained from smooth Salmonella typhimurium strains by selection for resistance to Felix O (FO) phage [whose ... Sanderson K. E., Ross H., Ziegler L., Mäkelä P. H. 1972; F+, Hfr and F′ strains of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella abony ... Roantree R. J., Kuo T.-T., Macphee D. G., Stocker B. A. D. 1969; Effect of various rough lesions in Salmonella typhimurium upon ... Sanderson K. E., Saeed H. 1972; Insertion of the F factor into the cluster of rfa (Rough A) genes of Salmonella typhimurium. ...
Effect of growth temperature on Crl-dependent regulation of sigmaS activity in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. ... resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and the resistance of this organism to acidic pH are greater at 28 ... In contrast, increasing the sigma(S) level rendered Salmonella more resistant to H(2)O(2) at 28 degrees C, increased the ... resistance level of Salmonella and the expression of the sigma(S)-dependent gene katE encoding the stationary-phase catalase. ...
In addition, we demonstrated that YqiC localizes at cytoplasmic and membrane subcellular fractions, that a S. Typhimurium yqiC ... Typhimurium, which belongs to the cluster of the orthologous group 2960 (COG2960). We found that YqiC shares biophysical and ... Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an intracellular bacterial pathogen which can colonize a variety of hosts, including ... Typhimurium strains in cultured cells. S. Typhimurium ATCC 14028 (open bars) and 14028 ΔyqiC::CAT mutant (filled bars) ...
Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic ... 2011-Thiele-A community effort towards a knowledge-base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 ... A community effort towards a knowledge-base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2. ... Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects/genetics/metabolism ; Systems Biology. Abstract :. [en] BACKGROUND: Metabolic ...
... SURFE²R-technology (custom ... which in Salmonella typhimurium plays a critical role in intracellular virulence. We present a functional characterization of ... the S. typhimurium nitrite transporter StmNirC in native membrane vesicles as well as purified and reconstituted into ...
AB_SA: Accessory genes-Based Source Attribution - tracing the source of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium environmental strains. ... Salmonella Typhimurium. Abstract. The partitioning of pathogenic strains isolated in environmental or human cases to their ... tracing the source of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium environmental strains. Microbial Genomics, 6(7), 10p. Publishers ... method was applied to a dataset of strains of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and its monophasic variant ( S . enterica 1,4,[5 ...
This study explored the possibility of using an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing recombinant ZP3 to ... This study explored the possibility of using an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing recombinant ZP3 to ... This study explored the possibility of using an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing recombinant ZP3 to ... This study explored the possibility of using an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing recombinant ZP3 to ...
This work is protected by copyright. Reproduction or distribution of the work in any format is prohibited without written permission of the copyright owner ...
Here, we report crystallographic and biochemical data for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium YcbL that establishes it as ... Structural and functional characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium YcbL: an unusual Type II glyoxalase. ... Here, we report crystallographic and biochemical data for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium YcbL that establishes it as ... Structural and functional characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium YcbL: an unusual Type II glyoxalase. ...
Diversity of Plasmids Encoding Virulence and Resistance Functions in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium ... Diversity of Plasmids Encoding Virulence and Resistance Functions in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium ... Diversity of Plasmids Encoding Virulence and Resistance Functions in Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhimurium ... Plasmids encoding resistance and virulence properties in multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica (S.) serovar Typhimurium ...
A vaccine using GMMA (generalized modules for membrane antigens) fromS.Typhimurium andS.Enteritidis containing lipid A ... Interestingly, ΔmsbBΔpagPGMMA fromS.Enteritidis had a slightly higher stimulatory potential than those fromS.Typhimurium, a ... Overall, the stimulatory potential ofS.Typhimurium andS.Enteritidis ΔmsbBΔpagPGMMA was close to that ofShigellasonneiGMMA, ... caused primarily by Africa-specific strains ofSalmonella entericaserovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. ...
Using S. Typhimurium strains deleted for genes encoding components of the phosphotransferase system and glucose transport, we ... In this study we employed a mutational approach to define the nutrients and metabolic pathways required by Salmonella enterica ... Typhimurium utilizes glycolysis for replication within HeLa cells; however, glycolysis was not absolutely essential for ... serovar Typhimurium during infection of a human epithelial cell line (HeLa). We deleted the key glycolytic genes, pfkA and pfkB ...
Mouse mAbs are produced by hybrid cells formed by the fusion of mouse B cells and mouse myeloma cells
However, Mu transposition rates were only about fourfold lower in Salmonella HU double mutants. One reason that Salmonella HU ... Salmonella hupA and hupB mutants were studied to determine the reasons for the high degree of conservation in HU structure in ...
... ... BACKGROUND: Salmonella meningitis is a rare and serious infection of the central nervous system following acute Salmonella ... Salmonella meningitis is a rare and serious infection of the central nervous system following acute Salmonella enterica sepsis ... were used in the murine typhoid model to examine the dissemination of systemic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ...
Recently a number of cases of Salmonella Typhimurium in people have been linked to exposure to pet hedgehogs. This is a ... Hedgehogs and Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in People. Hedgehogs and Salmonella Typhimurium Infection in People. Like all ... Recently a number of cases of Salmonella Typhimurium in people have been linked to exposure to pet hedgehogs. This is a ... For more information on human Salmonella exposure from pet hedgehogs visit the Centers for Disease Controls website at https ...
Use of acetic and citric acids to control Salmonella Typhimurium in tahini (sesame paste). Food Microbiology. 2014 Sep;42:102- ... Use of acetic and citric acids to control Salmonella Typhimurium in tahini (sesame paste). In: Food Microbiology. 2014 ; Vol. ... Use of acetic and citric acids to control Salmonella Typhimurium in tahini (sesame paste). / Al-Nabulsi, Anas A.; Olaimat, Amin ... Dive into the research topics of Use of acetic and citric acids to control Salmonella Typhimurium in tahini (sesame paste). ...
3. Salmonella Typhimurium strains used to evaluation of the mutagenic activity of soils pollutants. 4. S-9 microsomal ... The organisms tested the most often were strains of Salmonella Typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100. Its different sensitivity on ... 3. Szczepy Salmonella Typhimurium stosowane do oceny aktywności mutagennej zanieczyszczeń gleby. 4. Stężenie frakcji ... which could be detected only by Salmonella Typhimurium TA 98, whereas mutations of the substitution of base pairs, are detected ...
  • CDC is collaborating with public health officials in many states and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to investigate a multistate outbreak of human infections due to Salmonella serotype Typhimurium. (cdc.gov)
  • enterica serotype Typhimurium resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole (R-type ASSuT) were reported in Denmark. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Identification of novel factors involved in modulating motility of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium. (escholarship.org)
  • Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium can move through liquid using swimming motility, and across a surface by swarming motility. (escholarship.org)
  • This report summarizes the investigation of an outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium gastrointestinal illness in Wisconsin associated with eating contaminated raw ground beef during the 1994 winter holiday season. (cdc.gov)
  • Salmonella serotype Typhimurium that did not ferment tartrate was isolated from seven specimens. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC is collaborating with public health officials in many states to investigate a multistate outbreak of human Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infections due to contact with water frogs including African Dwarf Frogs. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC is collaborating with public health officials in many states, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) - Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to investigate an ongoing multistate outbreak of human infections due to Salmonella serotype Typhimurium. (cdc.gov)
  • When a Salmonella species is the etiologic agent, public health laboratories serotype the isolate. (cdc.gov)
  • A Salmonella species is considered the confirmed etiology of an outbreak when the same serotype is isolated from more than 2 ill persons or when the bacterium is isolated from an epidemiologically implicated food. (cdc.gov)
  • Among all salmonellosis outbreaks and for each Salmonella serotype, we calculated the frequency and percentage of outbreaks associated with each food commodity. (cdc.gov)
  • A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. (bvsalud.org)
  • On November 10, 2008, CDC's PulseNet staff noted a small and highly dispersed multistate cluster of 13 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates with an unusual DNA fingerprint or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern reported from 12 states. (cdc.gov)
  • On December 2, CDC and state and local partners began an assessment of a second cluster of 41 Salmonella Typhimurium isolates. (cdc.gov)
  • Until August 2002, S. Typhimurium R-type ASSuT was uncommon in human isolates. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • The AB_SA model was then able to classify 25 of the 29 S . enterica Typhimurium and S . enterica 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates collected from the environment (considered to be of unknown source) into a specific category (i.e. animal source), with more than 85 % of probability. (ifremer.fr)
  • Plasmids encoding resistance and virulence properties in multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica (S.) serovar Typhimurium monophasic variant 4,[5],12:i:- isolates recovered from pigs and humans (2006-2008) in Europe were characterised. (wur.nl)
  • The isolates were selected based on the detection by PCR-amplification of S. Typhimurium virulence plasmid pSLT genes and were analysed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). (wur.nl)
  • To investigate how acquisition of the lpf-mediated pathway for mucosal penetration contributed to evolution of virulence, we studied the relationship between the presence of the lpf operon and the pathogenicity for mice of 18 isolates representing 14 Salmonella serotypes. (elsevier.com)
  • To test their algorithm, they gathered S . Typhimurium genomes from a wide range of sources, including isolates from eight zoonotic outbreaks. (nature.com)
  • In NSW, Salmonella isolates are referred to Pathology West - Institute for Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, the state reference laboratory, for further characterization, including serotyping and DNA sequence-based subtyping with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA). (who.int)
  • We applied whole-genome sequence-based phylogenetic methods to define the population structure of sub-Saharan African invasive Salmonella Typhimurium isolates and compared these to global Salmonella Typhimurium populations. (ukhsa.gov.uk)
  • Notably, the vast majority of sub-Saharan invasive Salmonella Typhimurium isolates fell within two closely related, highly clustered phylogenetic lineages that we estimate emerged independently ∼52 and ∼35 years ago in close temporal association with the current HIV pandemic. (ukhsa.gov.uk)
  • Fewer than 1% of nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) isolates are lactose-positive (pink on MacConkey agar), but most produce hydrogen sulfide, which is detectable on HE or SS agar. (medscape.com)
  • From 1997 to July 2002 a total of 81 (2.5%) strains with this resistance profile were found in 3114 cases of S. Typhimurium tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • SUMMARY: Several mutants obtained from smooth Salmonella typhimurium strains by selection for resistance to Felix O (FO) phage [whose receptor site includes the N -acetylglucosamine branch of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core] were smooth in cultural properties, antigenic character and phage sensitivity pattern (except for their FO resistance). (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Sensitivity of various Salmonella strains to Felix O'1 phage. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Invasion and intracellular survival of S . Typhimurium strains in cultured cells . (biomedcentral.com)
  • enterica Serovar Typhimurium Monophasic Variant 4,[5],12:i:- Strains Circulating in Europe. (wur.nl)
  • ABSTRACTInvasive nontyphoidalSalmonella(iNTS) disease is a neglected disease with high mortality in children and HIV-positive individuals in sub-Saharan Africa, caused primarily by Africa-specific strains ofSalmonella entericaserovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • Using S. Typhimurium strains deleted for genes encoding components of the phosphotransferase system and glucose transport, we show that glucose is a major substrate required for the intracellular replication of S. Typhimurium in HeLa cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The results of this study showed that the MIC against S. typhimurium was 93 μg/mL, and 3 strains were inhibited in this concentration. (ac.ir)
  • The products were tested for mutagenicity using Salmonella-typhimurium TA-98, TA-100, and YG1024 as the tester strains in the presence or absence of an S9 system. (cdc.gov)
  • 6] Although the infectious dose varies among Salmonella strains, a large inoculum is thought to be necessary to overcome stomach acidity and to compete with normal intestinal flora. (medscape.com)
  • Once there, salmonellae induce an influx of macrophages (typhoidal strains) or neutrophils (nontyphoidal strains). (medscape.com)
  • 8] As a rule, infection with nontyphoidal salmonellae generally precipitates a localized response, while S typhi and other especially virulent strains invade deeper tissues via lymphatics and capillaries and elicit a major immune response. (medscape.com)
  • Please see the Timeline for Reporting Cases of Salmonella Infection for more details . (cdc.gov)
  • Nutritional and metabolic requirements for the infection of HeLa cells by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this study we employed a mutational approach to define the nutrients and metabolic pathways required by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium during infection of a human epithelial cell line (HeLa). (ox.ac.uk)
  • BACKGROUND: Salmonella meningitis is a rare and serious infection of the central nervous system following acute Salmonella enterica sepsis. (edu.au)
  • METHODS: Five mouse lines including C57BL/6, Balb/c, 129S6-Slc11a1tm1Mcg, 129S1/SvImJ, B6.129-Inpp5dtm1Rkh were used in the murine typhoid model to examine the dissemination of systemic Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium following oral infection. (edu.au)
  • RESULTS: We report data on spontaneous meningitis and brain infection following oral infection of mice with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. (edu.au)
  • Finally, we show that K. oxytoca is killed in the host gut in an Hcp1-dependent manner and that the T6SS antibacterial activity is essential for Salmonella to establish infection within the host gut. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It is concluded that the productive parameters and the economic retribution in guinea pigs are negatively affected by subclinical infection with Salmonella Typhimurium. (edu.pe)
  • Víctor Bazán, R, Sandra Bezada, Q , Fernando Carcelén, C & Graciela Yamada, A 2019, ' Effect of subclinical infection of Salmonella Typhimurium on the productive parameters in the production of fattening Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) ', Revista de Investigaciones Veterinarias del Peru , pp. 1697-1706. (edu.pe)
  • An S. typhimurium invA lpfC mutant was 150-fold attenuated by the oral route of infection but was fully virulent when the intestine was bypassed by intraperitoneal challenge of mice. (elsevier.com)
  • During mixed-infection experiments, the S. typhimurium invA lpfC mutant showed a strong defect in colonizing Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes. (elsevier.com)
  • The CDC reports that as of Wednesday, January 7, 2009, there are 388 confirmed cases Salmonella Typhimurium human infection connected to an ongoing 42 state outbreak. (salmonellalawsuit.com)
  • The results showed that oral administration of IEC during suckling alleviated the injury in ileal morphology induced by post- weaning S.Typhimurium infection via increasing the levels of two tight junction proteins [ zonula occluden -1 (ZO-1) and Occludin -1] and several secreted proteins ( Lysozyme , Mucin-2 , and SIgA ) in the intestinal mucosa . (bvsalud.org)
  • The 16S rDNA sequence results showed that pre-stimulation with IEC decreased the abundance of Clostridia, Prevotella , Christensenellaceae_R-7_group and Parabacteroides after intestinal infection of S.Typhimurium. (bvsalud.org)
  • A probable case of Salmonella infection was defined as diarrhea or abdominal cramps with onset during December 22, 1994-January 4, 1995, in a resident of or a visitor to Dodge County or any of the four contiguous counties. (cdc.gov)
  • In the case of ciprofloxacin therapy in a Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium, S. Tm) mouse infection model, this has been traced to tolerant bacterial cells surviving in lymph node monocytes (i.e., classical dendritic cells). (medworm.com)
  • This study determined the incidence of Salmonella infection in 250 enteric fever and 210 food poisoning cases attending Thamar general hospital and Dar Alshafaa medical clinic in 2008. (who.int)
  • Infection à Salmonella spp. (who.int)
  • The Salmonella infection cycle starts after the ingestion of microbes. (medscape.com)
  • Infection with salmonellae is characterized by attachment of the bacteria by fimbriae or pili to cells lining the intestinal lumen. (medscape.com)
  • We generated a library of targeted deletion mutants in Salmonella Typhimurium strain ATCC14028, primarily in genes specific to Salmonella, that we have previously described. (escholarship.org)
  • Suppression of amber and ochre mutants in Salmonella typhimurium by a mutant F′-1 -gal factor carrying an ochre suppressor gene. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Salmonella hupA and hupB mutants were studied to determine the reasons for the high degree of conservation in HU structure in bacteria. (uab.edu)
  • However, Mu transposition rates were only about fourfold lower in Salmonella HU double mutants. (uab.edu)
  • One reason that Salmonella HU double mutants may be less defective for Mu transposition than E. coli is the synthesis in double mutants of a new, small, basic heat-stable protein, which might partially compensate for the loss of HU. (uab.edu)
  • From a detailed complementation analysis of the region II che mutants of Salmonella typhimurium, we have located five che genes, cheA, cheW, cheR, cheB, and cheY. (elsevier.com)
  • Kutsukake, K & Iino, T 1985, ' Refined genetic analysis of the region II che mutants in Salmonella typhimurium ', MGG Molecular & General Genetics , vol. 199, no. 3, pp. 406-409. (elsevier.com)
  • The ability of an isogenic set of mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium L354 (SL1344) with defined deletions in genes encoding components of tripartite efflux pumps, including acrB, acrD, acrF and tolC, to colonize chickens was determined in competition with L354. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Davies, R.H. and Breslin, M. (2003) Investigations into Possible Alternative Decontamination Methods for Salmonella Enteritidis on the Surface of Table Eggs. (scirp.org)
  • A vaccine using GMMA (generalized modules for membrane antigens) fromS.Typhimurium andS.Enteritidis containing lipid A modifications to reduce potentialin vivoreactogenicity is under development. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • Interestingly, ΔmsbBΔpagPGMMA fromS.Enteritidis had a slightly higher stimulatory potential than those fromS.Typhimurium, a finding consistent with the higher lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) stimulatory potential of the former. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • Overall, the stimulatory potential ofS.Typhimurium andS.Enteritidis ΔmsbBΔpagPGMMA was close to that ofShigellasonneiGMMA, which are currently in phase I clinical trials. (jenner.ac.uk)
  • Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. (uni.lu)
  • Serovars of Salmonella enterica subspecies I are associated mainly with warm-blooded vertebrates and are responsible for most Salmonella infections in humans and domesticated animals. (moam.info)
  • en] BACKGROUND: Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. (uni.lu)
  • RESULTS: Here, we describe a community-driven effort, in which more than 20 experts in S. Typhimurium biology and systems biology collaborated to reconcile and expand the S. Typhimurium BiGG knowledge-base. (uni.lu)
  • Abstract: The ability to from biofilms, which is a common feature in Salmonella serovars, is the main cause of persistent infections and permanent contamination in both clinical and industrial systems. (microbiology.pl)
  • abstract = "A highly invasive form of non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease has recently been documented in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. (ukhsa.gov.uk)
  • ABSTRACT Salmonella remains a public health concern around the world, including Yemen although data on its incidence are few. (who.int)
  • CDC, public health and regulatory officials in several states, and the FDA investigated a multistate outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The phenotypes we report are the first phenotypes ever assigned to 74 of these open reading frames, as they are annotated as 'hypothetical genes' in the Typhimurium genome. (escholarship.org)
  • IJDPgalactose-epimerase deficiency in Salmonella typhimurium and its correction by plasmid-borne galactose genes of E. coli KI2: effects on mouse virulence. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Mapping of rfa genes in Salmonella typhimurium by ES18 and P22 transduction and by conjugation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • We also deleted genes encoding enzymes involved in the utilization of gluconeogenic substrates and the glyoxylate shunt and show that neither of these pathways were required for intracellular replication of S. Typhimurium within HeLa cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, mutations in genes that are important for intestinal invasion result in only moderately decerased virulence of S. typhimurium for mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Here we report that combining mutations in invA and lpfC, two genes necessary for entry into Peyer's patches, results in a much stronger attenuation of S. typhimurium than inactivation of either of these genes alone. (elsevier.com)
  • Intestinal invasion by serovar Abortusovis was significantly reduced after mutation of invH but was not reduced following curing of the virulence plasmid, suggesting that the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 influences but the virulence plasmid genes do not influence the ability of serovar Abortusovis to invade the intestinal mucosa in sheep. (moam.info)
  • Worldwide there are an estimated 93.8 million cases of gastrointestinal infections from a Salmonella species causing 155,000 deaths. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Laboratories are required to report positive culture results of Salmonella species to NSW Health. (who.int)
  • Pathogenic Salmonella species can move using peritrichal flagellum. (medscape.com)
  • The nomenclature and classification of Salmonella species have been changed and restructured multiple times. (medscape.com)
  • Traditionally, Salmonella species were named in accordance with the Kaufmann-White typing system, defined by different combinations of somatic O, surface Vi, and flagellar H antigens. (medscape.com)
  • In 2005, Salmonella enterica finally gained official approval as the type species of the genus Salmonella. (medscape.com)
  • The genus Salmonella also contains the species Salmonella bongori and Salmonella subterranean, which was recognized in 2005. (medscape.com)
  • Currently, Salmonella species have the serologically defined names appended as serovars or serotypes. (medscape.com)
  • Kauffmann F. V. Liste der Salmonella -Species. (dsmz.de)
  • Cette étude documentaire, analyse les données des patients diagnostiqués et traités pour tuberculose de 2007 à 2017 en RDC. (bvsalud.org)
  • Le taux d'accroissement au cours de cette décade était de 28,95%, soit de 66099 en 2007 à 93767 en 2017 pour les NP TP+. (bvsalud.org)
  • Federal, state and local health officials are investigating a multistate outbreak of multidrug-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg infections, which has sickened 21 people in eight states this year. (theglobaldispatch.com)
  • Which came first: the chicken, or the egg -- or the Salmonella bacteria? (giantmicrobes.com)
  • 2.5-5.0 micrometers, about 27,620 salmonella bacteria span the length of the iPhone 6. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and cell free culture supernatant (CFCS) of two lactic acid bacteria ( Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus cerevisiae ) was evaluated for the decontamination of spiked Salmonella Typhimurium on chicken egg shell surface. (scirp.org)
  • Singh, S. , Yadav, A. and Bharti, P. (2015) Antimicrobial Activity of Acidified Sodium Chlorite and Cell Free Culture Supernatent of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Salmonella Typhimurium. (scirp.org)
  • Influence of O side chains on the attachment of the Felix O-i bacteriophage to Salmonella bacteria. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In anaerobically grown bacteria, transport of nitrite is catalyzed by an integral membrane protein of the form ate-nitrite transporter family, NirC, which in Salmonella typhimurium plays a critical role in intracellular virulence. (nanion.de)
  • In an in vitro setting, we demonstrate that bile salts increase SPI-6 antibacterial activity and that S Typhimurium kills commensal bacteria in a T6SS-dependent manner. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Salmonellae are gram-negative motile, nonsporulating, straight-rod bacteria. (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 300 carcinogens and non-carcinogens of a variety of chemical types were tested for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome test. (europa.eu)
  • Mutagenicity of mild gasification products in Salmonella typhimurium. (cdc.gov)
  • Lung S9 from various exposure groups was isolated from tissue homogenates and characterized for metabolic activity in activating 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) mutagenicity using the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 and YG1029. (cdc.gov)
  • In comparison to the controls, lung S9 from rats exposed to asphalt fume at a total exposure level of 479+/-33 mg h/m3 did not significantly enhance 2-AA mutagenicity with either S. typhimurium YG1024 or YG1029. (cdc.gov)
  • As of 9 PM EDT, Monday, April 20, 2009, 714 persons infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium have been reported from 46 states. (cdc.gov)
  • This study explored the possibility of using an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing recombinant ZP3 to elicit an antibody response and infertility in mice. (elsevier.com)
  • An avirulent Salmonella vaccine strain stably expressed the ZP3 polypeptide and colonized the internal organs of mice after oral inoculation. (elsevier.com)
  • Oral immunization of female BALB/c mice with the recombinant Salmonella vaccine strain expressing mZP3 induced significant levels of anti-native ZP IgG antibodies in serum and IgA antibodies in vaginal secretions. (elsevier.com)
  • Fourteen people infected with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium were reported from eight states and the District of Columbia. (cdc.gov)
  • FDA testing identified the outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium in an unopened sample of Natural Grocers Coconut Smiles Organic collected from Natural Grocers. (cdc.gov)
  • FDA also collected dried coconut from International Harvest, Inc. The outbreak strain of Salmonella Typhimurium was identified in samples of International Harvest Brand Organic Go Smile! (cdc.gov)
  • For instance, the current nomenclature of Salmonella typhi is S enterica serovar Typhi. (medscape.com)
  • Salmonellosis is caused by all nontyphoid serotypes of the Salmonella genus except for S typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A, B, and C. Salmonellosis-causing serotypes are isolated from humans and animals, including livestock. (medscape.com)
  • The colonization of intestinal and systemic tissues by Salmonella enterica serovars with different host specificities was determined 7 days after inoculation of 1 to 2-month-old lambs. (moam.info)
  • Serovars Dublin and Gallinarum and the broad-host-range Salmonella serovar Typhimurium were recovered in comparable numbers from ileal mucosa 3 h after loop inoculation, whereas the recovery of serovar Abortusovis was approximately 10-fold lower. (moam.info)
  • Microscopic analysis of intestinal mucosae infected with serovars Typhimurium and Dublin showed dramatic morphological changes and infiltration of inflammatory cells, whereas mucosae infected with serovars Abortusovis and Gallinarum were indistinguishable from uninfected mucosae. (moam.info)
  • In this review, the current state of knowledge regarding gene regulation systems that affect the biofilm formation in Salmonella, has been summarized and discussed. (microbiology.pl)
  • In experiments with infectious Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium , which forms biofilms in the human intestinal tract and on medical devices, Tukel's team found that amyloid binding by 3H3 disrupted biofilm formation, causing the separation of bacterial cells within the film. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • The researchers then tested the antibody in mice infected with catheter-associated S. Typhimurium biofilm. (drugtargetreview.com)
  • Salmonella is a frequently implicated organism and is responsible for the majority of hospitalizations and deaths attributable to foodborne infections. (who.int)
  • The results of this study demonstrated good antimicrobial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on S. typhimurium , which can be used to treat infections caused by S. typhimurium . (ac.ir)
  • In contrast, none of the mice that received Salmonella containing the vector plasmid produced antibodies to ZP and all were fertile. (elsevier.com)
  • Salmonella is able to move through the food chain, infecting many different animals before getting to humans. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • This seems to counter the notion that most S . Typhimurium infections in humans originate from animal sources, with adaptation to humans being associated with more severe disease outcomes 2 . (nature.com)
  • Red and white wines without added sulfite were tested for antibacterial activity against stationary-phase grown cells of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. (nofima.com)
  • Helms M , Borck B , Neimann J . Outbreak of multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT120 in Denmark. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • From August to October 2002, a total of 41 human cases of multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. (eurosurveillance.org)
  • Salmonella is the causative agent of a spectrum of human and animal diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to typhoid fever. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Since tahini and its products have been linked to Salmonella illness outbreaks and product recalls in recent years, this study assessed the ability of Salmonella Typhimurium to survive or grow in commercial tahini and when hydrated (10% w/v in water), treated with 0.1%-0.5% acetic or citric acids, and stored at 37, 21 and 10°C for 28d. (uaeu.ac.ae)
  • These serotypes that cause plant-associated outbreaks were found relatively infrequently in Salmonella reservoir studies of livestock, which suggests that serotypes with non-livestock reservoirs may be more likely to cause outbreaks by plant-based food vehicles. (cdc.gov)
  • Pour un sous-groupe d'isolats sélectionnés selon leur taux d'invasion, des tests de phagocytose, d'apoptose et d'adhésion au mucus intestinal ont été effectués en utilisant la cytométrie en flux. (umontreal.ca)
  • Intestinal M cells in Peyer's patches, the specialized antigen-sampling cells of the mucosal immune system, are exploited by Salmonella and other pathogens as a route of invasion. (elsevier.com)
  • Penetration of the intestinal mucosa at areas of Peyer's patches is an important first step for Salmonella typhimurium to produce lethal systemic disease in micie. (elsevier.com)
  • These data show that both the invA- and lpfC- mediaited pathways of intestinal perforation are conserved in mouse virulent Salmonella serotypes. (elsevier.com)
  • Oral administration of heat-inactivated Escherichia coli during suckling alleviated Salmonella typhimurium -derived intestinal injury after rat weaning. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our results confirmed that the previous oral administration of IEC had a protective effect on S.Typhimurium-induced intestinal injury in weaned rats by inducing a robust immune response . (bvsalud.org)
  • Salmonella enterica is estimated to cause 1.2 million illnesses each year in the United States and to be the leading cause of hospitalizations and deaths from foodborne disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Together these data suggest that Salmonella serovar specificity in sheep correlates with bacterial persistence at systemic sites. (moam.info)
  • The reopening comes after six days of closure because of salmonella illnesses linked to the restaurant. (theglobaldispatch.com)
  • We report that successful establishment in the gut by the enteropathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium requires a T6SS encoded within Salmonella pathogenicity island-6 (SPI-6). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Pathogenicity Island 2. (moam.info)
  • We present a functional characterization of the S. typhimurium nitrite transporter StmNirC in native membrane vesicles as well as purified and reconstituted into proteoliposomes. (nanion.de)
  • Structural and functional characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium YcbL: an unusual Type II glyoxalase. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Salmonellae are intracellular facultative pathogens that may survive in variable conditions. (medscape.com)
  • It has been associated with gastrointestinal (GI) infections with Shigella, Salmonella, Campylobacter, and other organisms, as well as with genitourinary (GU) infections (especially with Chlamydia trachomatis ). (medscape.com)
  • The Salmonella/histidine reversion assay and the SOS/Umu test were used for measuring gene mutations and DNA damage, respectively. (cdc.gov)
  • Inhibition of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lipopolysaccharide deacylation by aminoarabinose membrane modification. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nano oxide on Salmonella typhimurium isolated from poultry in Zabol. (ac.ir)
  • The S. typhimurium was isolated from poultry in Zabol and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the microdilution method. (ac.ir)
  • On July 13, 2015, Barber Foods recalled more than 1.7 million pounds of frozen, stuffed chicken products due to potential salmonella contamination, after at least six people in Minnesota and Wisconsin got sick between April and late June. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Jones, F.T., Rive, D.V. and Carey, J.B. (1995) Salmonella Contamination in Commercial Eggs and an Egg Production Facility. (scirp.org)
  • De plus, on observe, chez des souches appartenant au lysotype (LT) 104, des résistances multiples aux antimicrobiens associées à des septicémies chez les porcs en engraissement, ce qui peut contribuer à la contamination des carcasses. (umontreal.ca)
  • Environmental swabs detected widespread contamination with Salmonella at the premises. (who.int)
  • Gilliland, S.E. and Speck, M.L. (1972) Interactions of Food Starter Cultures and Food Borne Pathogens: Lactic Acid Streptococci versus Staphylococci and Salmonellae. (scirp.org)
  • The mutagenic potential of seven mild gasification products was examined, using the preincubation variant of the Salmonella assay. (cdc.gov)
  • Salmonella Typhimurium utilizes a T6SS-mediated antibacterial weapon to establish in the host gut. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The present study was undertaken to explore the in vitro antibacterial effects of four different leaves extracts of Ocimum sanctum (OS) and Argemone mexicana (AM) against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O26. (hortherbpublisher.com)
  • Preliminary data on several of these compounds have displayed antibacterial activity and Salmonella typhimurium IspF enzyme inhibition greater than that of the parent compound. (niu.edu)
  • We found notable relationships between Salmonella serotypes and food commodities that point to major food reservoirs for different serotypes. (cdc.gov)
  • Vinyl acetate was negative in bacterial gene mutation assays using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, with and without rat liver S-9 activation. (europa.eu)
  • Vinyl acetate was shown to be negative in bacterial gene mutation assays using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535 and TA1537, with and without rat liver S-9 activation. (europa.eu)
  • Salmonellae can be isolated in the microbiology laboratory using numerous low-selective media (MacConkey agar, deoxycholate agar), intermediate-selective media (Salmonella-Shigella [SS] agar, Hektoen [HE] agar), and highly selective media (selenite agar with brilliant green). (medscape.com)
  • A community effort towards a knowledge-base and mathematical model of the human pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium LT2. (uni.lu)
  • For more information on human Salmonella exposure from pet hedgehogs visit the Centers for Disease Control's website at https://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/typhimurium-01-19/index.html . (azeah.com)
  • Our analysis suggests that iNTS disease is in part an epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa caused by highly related Salmonella Typhimurium lineages that may have occupied new niches associated with a compromised human population and antibiotic treatment. (ukhsa.gov.uk)
  • In contrast, increasing the sigma(S) level rendered Salmonella more resistant to H(2)O(2) at 28 degrees C, increased the expression of katE, and reduced the magnitude of Crl activation. (pasteur.fr)