A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA that causes mild PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.
Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.
A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by several Paratyphi serotypes of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. It is similar to TYPHOID FEVER but less severe.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in Asia, Africa, and southern Europe.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.
Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.
An infectious disease clinically similar to epidemic louse-borne typhus (TYPHUS, EPIDEMIC LOUSE-BORNE), but caused by RICKETTSIA TYPHI, which is transmitted from rat to man by the rat flea, XENOPSYLLA CHEOPIS.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Gram-negative rods widely distributed in LIZARDS and SNAKES, and implicated in enteric, bone (BONE DISEASES), and joint infections (JOINT DISEASES) in humans.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A lactose-fermenting bacterium causing dysentery.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Inflammation of the SACROILIAC JOINT. It is characterized by lower back pain, especially upon walking, fever, UVEITIS; PSORIASIS; and decreased range of motion. Many factors are associated with and cause sacroiliitis including infection; injury to spine, lower back, and pelvis; DEGENERATIVE ARTHRITIS; and pregnancy.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.

Potent immunoregulatory effects of Salmonella typhi flagella on antigenic stimulation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (1/1101)

A key function of monocytes/macrophages (Mphi) is to present antigens to T cells. However, upon interaction with bacteria, Mphi lose their ability to effectively present soluble antigens. This functional loss was associated with alterations in the expression of adhesion molecules and CD14 and a reduction in the uptake of soluble antigen. Recently, we have demonstrated that Salmonella typhi flagella (STF) markedly decrease CD14 expression and are potent inducers of proinflammatory cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). In order to determine whether S. typhi and soluble STF also alter the ability of Mphi to activate T cells to proliferate to antigens and mitogens, hPBMC were cultured in the presence of tetanus toxoid (TT) or phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and either killed whole-cell S. typhi or purified STF protein. Both whole-cell S. typhi and STF suppressed proliferation to PHA and TT. This decreased proliferation was not a result of increased Mphi production of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, or oxygen radicals or the release of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, or interleukin-10 following exposure to STF. However, the ability to take up soluble antigen, as determined by fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran uptake, was reduced in cells cultured with STF. Moreover, there was a dramatic reduction in the expression of CD54 on Mphi after exposure to STF. These results indicate that whole-cell S. typhi and STF have the ability to alter in vitro proliferation to soluble antigens and mitogens by affecting Mphi function.  (+info)

Marmoset species variation in the humoral antibody response: in vivo and in vitro studies. (2/1101)

A comparison of the in vivo and in vitro antibody response capabilities of two marmoset species, Saguinus fuscicollis and Saguinus oedipus oedipus, revealed the former to be superior in elaborating humoral antibody. In vivo challenges with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Salmonella typhi flagella consistently yielded higher antibody titres in S. fuscicollis; indeed, with LPS antigen, multiple inoculations of S.o. oedipus marmosets led ultimately to a decrease in antibody formation, in contrast to the anamnestic response of S. fuscicollis. This species differential in immune competence was also suggested in the in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and spleen cells with sheep red blood cells (RBC). None of 55 S.o. oedipus PBL cultures and 49 of 89 (55%) S. fuscicollis cultures responded to the test antigen. A similar differential in response to sheep RBC was noted with the spleen cells of each species, although this report contrasts the antibody-forming potential of two marmoset species, a comparison of the immunological response profile of marmosets to those of other laboratory animals challenged with similar antigens suggests these primates may be relatively incompetent. The possible relationship between the haemopoietic chimerism of marmosets and a diminished immune competence is discussed.  (+info)

The Salmonella invasin SipB induces macrophage apoptosis by binding to caspase-1. (3/1101)

Recently, Salmonella spp. were shown to induce apoptosis in infected macrophages. The mechanism responsible for this process is unknown. In this report, we establish that the Inv-Spa type III secretion apparatus target invasin SipB is necessary and sufficient for the induction of apoptosis. Purified SipB microinjected into macrophages led to cell death. Binding studies show that SipB associates with the proapoptotic protease caspase-1. This interaction results in the activation of caspase-1, as seen in its proteolytic maturation and the processing of its substrate interleukin-1beta. Caspase-1 activity is essential for the cytotoxicity. Functional inhibition of caspase-1 activity by acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethyl ketone blocks macrophage cytotoxicity, and macrophages lacking caspase-1 are not susceptible to Salmonella-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the data demonstrate that SipB functions as an analog of the Shigella invasin IpaB.  (+info)

Decreased IgA1 response after primary oral immunization with live typhoid vaccine in primary IgA nephropathy. (4/1101)

INTRODUCTION: Patients with primary IgA nephropathy (IgAN) have an increased level of immunological memory to certain parenteral recall antigens. We recently found a deficient IgA1 immune response after intranasal challenge with a neo-antigen: cholera toxin subunit B. In the present study, we assessed the specific IgA1 and IgA2 antibody response in plasma, peripheral blood cells and mucosal secretions after primary enteral immunization. METHODS: Twenty eight IgAN patients, 26 patients with non-immunological renal disease and 32 healthy subjects were immunized orally with three sequential doses of live, attenuated, Salmonella typhi Ty21a. The humoral immune response in body fluids and antibody synthesis by circulating B cells was assessed in specific ELISAs and ELIPSAs respectively. RESULTS: Oral immunization resulted in significantly (P<0.0001) increased IgM, IgG, IgA, IgA1 and IgA2 responses in all groups, both in plasma and in circulating B cells in vitro. The IgA1 response in plasma was significantly (P<0.05) lower in IgAN patients, while no significant differences in IgM (P=0.36), IgG (P= 0.79) or IgA2 (P=0.45) responses were found as compared with matched control groups. The amount of IgA1 synthesized by circulating B cells tended to be lower in IgAN patients. No significant IgA response after oral immunization with S. typhi Ty21a was found in saliva (P=0.11) or tears (P=0.10). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest an IgA1 hyporesponsiveness in patients with IgAN that is not only apparent after primary challenge of the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue but also after presentation to the gut. Previous results after parenteral recall immunization may be explained by assuming that IgAN patients require more frequent and/or longer exposure to IgA1-inducing antigens on their mucosal surfaces before they reach protective mucosal immunity. As a consequence, overproduction of IgA1 antibodies occurs in the systemic compartment, accompanied by an increased number of IgA1 memory cells.  (+info)

The Salmonella typhi melittin resistance gene pqaB affects intracellular growth in PMA-differentiated U937 cells, polymyxin B resistance and lipopolysaccharide. (5/1101)

Salmonella typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever in humans. A cell-culture based assay involving the human monocyte macrophage cell line U937 has been developed to examine S. typhi invasion and survival. An S. typhi PhoP- (null) mutant was shown to be restricted in net growth in phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) differentiated U937 (PMA-U937) cells, and an S. typhi PhoPc (constitutive) mutant showed a defect in invasion. Neither of the phoP/Q mutants were growth impaired in HeLa cells, however the PhoPc mutant was impaired in invasion. As opposed to what was found for S. typhi, Salmonella typhimurium wild-type, PhoP- and PhoPc mutants grew equally well in PMA-U937 cells, indicating that the PhoP(-)-mediated net growth restriction in the PMA-U937 cells was S. typhi specific. An S. typhi mutation, pqaB::MudJ, recently shown to be a PhoP-activated locus, was shown to have a net growth defect in PMA-U937 cells. Sequencing of the S. typhipqaB gene revealed it had 98% identity to the fifth gene in a S. typhimurium PmrA/B regulated operon necessary for 4-aminoarabinose lipid A modification and polymyxin B resistance. The pqaB locus was regulated by PmrA/B (whose activity is modulated by PhoP-PhoQ) and the pqaB transposon mutant was sensitive to polymyxin B. The lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of S. typhi and S. typhimurium wild-type, PhoP- and PhoPc mutants, were compared by SDS-PAGE and silver staining. Differences in the LPS profile between the two Salmonella species were observed, and shown to be affected differently by the PhoPc mutation. Additionally, the pqaB::MudJ mutation affected S. typhi LPS. The effects on LPS may have ramifications for the difference between S. typhi and S. typhimurium infection of hosts.  (+info)

PhoP-PhoQ-regulated loci are required for enhanced bile resistance in Salmonella spp. (6/1101)

As enteric pathogens, Salmonella spp. are resistant to the actions of bile. Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella typhi strains were examined to better define the bile resistance phenotype. The MICs of bile for wild-type S. typhimurium and S. typhi were 18 and 12%, respectively, and pretreatment of log-phase S. typhimurium with 15% bile dramatically increased bile resistance. Mutant strains of S. typhimurium and S. typhi lacking the virulence regulator PhoP-PhoQ were killed at significantly lower bile concentrations than wild-type strains, while strains with constitutively active PhoP were able to survive prolonged incubation with bile at concentrations of >60%. PhoP-PhoQ was shown to mediate resistance specifically to the bile components deoxycholate and conjugated forms of chenodeoxycholate, and the protective effect was not generalized to other membrane-active agents. Growth of both S. typhimurium and S. typhi in bile and in deoxycholate resulted in the induction or repression of a number of proteins, many of which appeared identical to PhoP-PhoQ-activated or -repressed products. The PhoP-PhoQ regulon was not induced by bile, nor did any of the 21 PhoP-activated or -repressed genes tested play a role in bile resistance. However, of the PhoP-activated or -repressed genes tested, two (prgC and prgH) were transcriptionally repressed by bile in the medium independent of PhoP-PhoQ. These data suggest that salmonellae can sense and respond to bile to increase resistance and that this response likely includes proteins that are members of the PhoP regulon. These bile- and PhoP-PhoQ-regulated products may play an important role in the survival of Salmonella spp. in the intestine or gallbladder.  (+info)

An immunoblotting procedure comprising O = 9,12 and H = d antigens as an alternative to the Widal agglutination assay. (7/1101)

AIMS: To compare the established Widal agglutination assay with an immunoblotting procedure. METHODS: 110 sera were used to compare the established Widal agglutination assay with an immunoblotting procedure incorporating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (O = 9,12) and flagellar (H = d) antigens. RESULTS: Antibodies to the LPS antigens were detected in 18 sera by the Widal assay and in 37 by immunoblotting. Antibodies to the flagellar antigens were detected in 27 sera by Widal assay and in 25 by immunoblotting. CONCLUSIONS: An immunoblotting procedure incorporating O = 9,12 LPS and H = d flagellar antigens was rapid and more sensitive than the established Widal agglutination assay for providing evidence of infection with S typhi.  (+info)

Outcome in three groups of patients with typhoid fever in Indonesia between 1948 and 1990. (8/1101)

The outcome in three groups of patients with bacteriologically confirmed typhoid fever caused by Salmonella typhi, treated during three episodes between 1948 and 1990 in Java, Indonesia, was compared by retrospective analysis of hospital records. The study population consisted of three groups of patients. Group I (n = 50) was treated in Batavia (the present Jakarta) from 1948 to 1950, Group II (n = 61) in Yogyakarta from 1952 to 1956, Group III (n = 105) in Semarang from 1989 to 1990. Main outcome measures were days until defervescence, early relapses during hospitalization, duration of hospital stay, complications and mortality. Group I received supportive treatment only, Group II low doses of chloramphenicol (total 12.5 g) and Group III full doses of chloramphenicol (total 27 g); occasionally other antibiotics were used. In Group I, II and III the mean number of days until defervescence was 16, 8 and 6 and the mean number of days in hospital 43, 47 and 15, respectively. Mortality was 26%, 10% and 5% and complications occurred in 38%, 18% and 13%, respectively. Between Group I and Group II the differences in mortality and complications were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Compared to Group I the proportion of early relapses was higher in Group II, but was zero in Group III. There were significantly fewer gastrointestinal complications in Group II than in Group I (P < 0.01) and even fewer in Group III. When no antibiotic against S. typhi was available, typhoid fever had a protracted course, and only 74% of patients survived. Even with low dosages of chloramphenicol, defervescence was earlier and mortality and complications decreased dramatically, but early relapses were frequent. Full doses of chloramphenicol for a sufficient period of time only slightly reduced mortality and complications further, but eliminated early relapses completely.  (+info)

|jats:title|ABSTRACT|/jats:title| |jats:p|Infections with |jats:italic|Salmonella enterica|/jats:italic| serovar Typhi isolates that have reduced susceptibility to ofloxacin (MIC ≥ 0.25 μg/ml) or ciprofloxacin (MIC ≥ 0.125 μg/ml) have been associated with a delayed response or clinical failure following treatment with these antimicrobials. These isolates are not detected as resistant using current disk susceptibility breakpoints. We examined 816 isolates of |jats:italic|S.|/jats:italic| Typhi from seven Asian countries. Screening for nalidixic acid resistance (MIC ≥ 16 μg/ml) identified isolates with an ofloxacin MIC of ≥0.25 μg/ml with a sensitivity of 97.3% (253/260) and specificity of 99.3% (552/556). For isolates with a ciprofloxacin MIC of ≥0.125 μg/ml, the sensitivity was 92.9% (248/267) and specificity was 98.4% (540/549). A zone of inhibition of ≤28 mm around a 5-μg ofloxacin disc detected strains with an ofloxacin MIC of ≥0.25 μg/ml with a sensitivity of 94.6
Infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates that are multidrug resistant (MDR: resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole) with intermediate ciprofloxacin susceptibility are widespread in Asia but there is little information from Cambodia. We studied invasive salmonellosis in children at a paediatric hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Between 2007 and 2011 Salmonella was isolated from a blood culture in 162 children. There were 151 children with enteric fever, including 148 serovar Typhi and three serovar Paratyphi A infections, and 11 children with a non-typhoidal Salmonella infection. Of the 148 serovar Typhi isolates 126 (85%) were MDR and 133 (90%) had intermediate ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Inpatient antimicrobial treatment was ceftriaxone alone or initial ceftriaxone followed by a step-down to oral ciprofloxacin or azithromycin. Complications developed in 37/128 (29%) children admitted with enteric fever and two (1.6%) died. There was one ...
Infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates that are multidrug resistant (MDR: resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole) with intermediate ciprofloxacin susceptibility are widespread in Asia but there is little information from Cambodia. We studied invasive salmonellosis in children at a paediatric hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Between 2007 and 2011 Salmonella was isolated from a blood culture in 162 children. There were 151 children with enteric fever, including 148 serovar Typhi and three serovar Paratyphi A infections, and 11 children with a non-typhoidal Salmonella infection. Of the 148 serovar Typhi isolates 126 (85%) were MDR and 133 (90%) had intermediate ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Inpatient antimicrobial treatment was ceftriaxone alone or initial ceftriaxone followed by a step-down to oral ciprofloxacin or azithromycin. Complications developed in 37/128 (29%) children admitted with enteric fever and two (1.6%) died. There was one confirmed
A single-dose, oral Salmonella typhi vaccine strain has been sought as a carrier or vector of cloned genes encoding protective antigens of other pathogens. Such a hybrid vaccine, administered orally, would stimulate immune responses both at the mucosal surface and in the systemic compartment and would potentially provide protection against multiple pathogens. S. typhi CVD 908 and CVD 906, which harbor deletions in aroC and aroD, were further engineered by deletion in htrA to produce strains CVD 908-htrA and CVD 906-htrA, which are unable to sustain growth and are severely impaired in their ability to survive in host tissues. These strains were fed to humans at doses of 5 x 10(7) to 5 x 10(9) CFU with buffer, and safety and immune responses were assessed. CVD 908-htrA and CVD 906-htrA were well tolerated in volunteers; mild diarrhea in 3 of 36 volunteers and mild fever in 1 volunteer were the only notable adverse responses. The vaccine strains were not detected in blood cultures and only ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - The Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi regulator TviA reduces interleukin-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells by repressing flagellin secretion. AU - Winter, Sebastian E.. AU - Raffatellu, Manuela. AU - Wilson, Paul R.. AU - Rüssmann, Holger. AU - Bäumler, Andreas J.. PY - 2008/1. Y1 - 2008/1. N2 - Unlike non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes, S. enterica serotype Typhi does not elicit neutrophilic infiltrates in the human intestinal mucosa. The Vi capsule-encoding tviABCDEvexABCDE operon (viaB locus) is a S. Typhi-specific DNA region preventing production of interleukin (IL)-8 during infection of intestinal epithelial cells. We elucidated the mechanism by which the viaB locus reduces IL-8 production in human colonic epithelial (T84) cells. A S. Typhi tviABCDEvexABCDE deletion mutant, but not a tviBCDEvexABCDE deletion mutant, elicited increased IL-8 production, which could be reduced to wild-type levels by introducing the cloned tviA regulatory gene. Thus, IL-8 expression ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacteremia associated with live attenuated χ8110 Salmonella enterica serovar typhi ISP1820 in healthy adult volunteers. AU - Frey, Sharon E.. AU - Bollen, Wendy. AU - Sizemore, Donata. AU - Campbell, Mark. AU - Curtiss, Roy. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Live attenuated χ8110 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ISP1820 vaccine was given in a dose-escalation trial to healthy, adult volunteers. Positive stool and blood cultures were noted, but limited, as were immune responses measured by ELISA and ELISPOT. Only volunteers with bacteremia developed immune responses; however, no symptoms were associated with bacteremia. The vaccine was insufficiently immunogenic for use as a vaccine. It is possible that reduced survival in the gut and reduced immunogenicity may have been due to the thawing of frozen inocula immediately prior to use.. AB - Live attenuated χ8110 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi ISP1820 vaccine was ...
A recombinant strain of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi surface-expressing Yersinia pestis F I antigen was generated by transforming strain BRD1116 (aroA aroC htrA) with plasmid pAH34L encoding the Y. pestis caf operon. BRD1116/pAH34L was stable in vitro and in vivo. An immunisation regimen of two intranasal doses of I x 10(8) cfu of BRD1116/pAH34L given intranasally to mice 7 days apart induced the strongest immune response compared to other regimens and protected 13 out of 20 mice from lethal challenge with Y pestis. Intranasal immunisation of mice constitutes a model for oral immunisation with Salmonella vaccines in humans. Thus, the results demonstrate that attenuated strains of S. enterica serovar Typhi which express Y pestis F1 antigen may be developed to provide an oral vaccine against plague suitable for use in humans. Crown Copyright (C) 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular characterization of the Salmonella enterica serovar typhi Vi-typing bacteriophage E1. AU - Pickard, Derek. AU - Thomson, Nicholas R.. AU - Baker, Stephen. AU - Wain, John. AU - Pardo, Mercedes. AU - Goulding, David. AU - Hamlin, Nancy. AU - Choudhary, Jyoti. AU - Threfall, John. AU - Dougan, Gordon. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2019 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008/4. Y1 - 2008/4. N2 - Some bacteriophages target potentially pathogenic bacteria by exploiting surface-associated virulence factors as receptors. For example, phage have been identified that exhibit specificity for Vi capsule producing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Here we have characterized the Vi-associated E1-typing bacteriophage using a number of molecular approaches. The absolute requirement for Vi capsule expression for infectivity was demonstrated using different Vi-negative S. enterica derivatives. The phage particles were shown to have an icosahedral head and a long noncontractile tail ...
SOUZA, Cintya de Oliveira et al. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella Typhi isolated in the State of Pará, Brazil. Rev Pan-Amaz Saude [online]. 2010, vol.1, n.2, pp.61-65. ISSN 2176-6223. http://dx.doi.org/10.5123/S2176-62232010000200007.. Antimicrobial resistance has been widely studied in every bacterial genus, especially among those agents responsible for epidemic diseases, such as typhoid fever. Outbreaks have lead to increased usage and erroneous administration of antimicrobial drugs, contributing to the emergence of resistant bacterial strains. Therefore, this study evaluated the resistance of 44 strains of Salmonella Typhi to the main antibiotics used in the treatment of typhoid fever. Of the 44 strains isolated from 2003 to 2005, ten (2.7%) were resistant to at least one microbial drug. Among the ten resistant Salmonella Typhi strains, nine showed monoresistance to nitrofurantoin or tetracycline. Only one case of concomitant resistance to two drugs (chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin) ...
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) and Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) are two gram negative bacilli, responsible for enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid, respectively). Both of the fever, mainly typhoid caused by S. Typhi sometimes takes place in epidemic form in developing countries like Bangladesh. The morbidity and mortality rates of this disease can be reduced by effective antimicrobial therapy. But resistance to antibiotic is a never ending process that generate severe problem to treat this life threatening disease. The aim of our study was to assess the patterns of antimicrobial resistance and their changing trends in S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi that are endemic in Bangladesh. Blood and stool samples were cultured from the patients with high and continuous fever in icddr,b Dhaka hospital. One hundred S. Typhi, 21 S. Paratyphi A and 1 S. Paratyphi B were identified by biochemical and serological tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular typing reveals a unique clone of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi among Indian strains [2]. AU - Chandel, Dinesh S.. AU - Chaudhry, Rama. AU - Dey, Aparajit B.. AU - Malhotra, Pawan. PY - 2006/7/1. Y1 - 2006/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33746216084&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33746216084&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1128/JCM.02514-05. DO - 10.1128/JCM.02514-05. M3 - Letter. C2 - 16825414. AN - SCOPUS:33746216084. VL - 44. SP - 2673. EP - 2675. JO - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. JF - Journal of Clinical Microbiology. SN - 0095-1137. IS - 7. ER - ...
Manuela Raffatellu; Yao-Hui Sun; R. Paul Wilson; Quynh T. Tran; Daniela Chessa; Helene L. Andrews-Polymenis; Sara D. Lawhon; Josely F. Figueiredo; Renée M. Tsolis; L. Garry Adams; Andreas J. Bäumler (2005). Host Restriction of Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhi Is Not Caused by Functional Alteration of SipA, SopB, or SopD. Infection and Immunity. Available electronically from http : / /hdl .handle .net /1969 .1 /182814. ...
The viaB locus coding for the Vi antigen of Salmonella typhi Ty2 was cloned on a 40.6-kilobase fragment into the cosmid vector pHC79. The live, oral, attenuated Vi-negative S. typhi Ty21a vaccine strain was transformed with the recombinant cosmid encoding the viaB locus. Homologous recombination of the viaB locus into the chromosome of S. typhi Ty21a was induced by UV irradiation, and Vi-positive recombinants were selected in the presence of D-cycloserine. One such isolate, termed WR4103, contained no plasmids or the attendant antibiotic resistance markers and expressed the Vi antigen stably. Vi antigen extracted from WR4103 was immunologically indistinguishable from Vi antigen purified from S. typhi Ty2. The only detectable difference between Ty21a and WR4103 was in the production of Vi antigen. The mean lethal doses of Ty21a and WR4103 for mice were nearly identical. Immunization of mice with WR4103 engendered a Vi antibody response and afforded complete protection against fatal infection with ...
Gastrointestinal infections by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) are rare in industrialized countries. However, they remain a major public health problem in the developing world with an estimated 26.9 million new cases annually and significant mortality when untreated. Recently, we provided the first direct evidence that CD8+ MAIT cells are activated and have the potential to kill cells exposed to S. Typhi, and that these responses are dependent on bacterial load. However, MAIT cell kinetics and function during bacterial infections in humans remain largely unknown. In this study, we characterize the human CD8+ MAIT cell immune response to S. Typhi infection in subjects participating in a challenge clinical trial who received a low- or high dose of wild-type S. Typhi. We define the kinetics of CD8+ MAIT cells as well as their levels of activation, proliferation, exhaustion/apoptosis, and homing potential. Regardless of the dose, in volunteers resistant to infection (NoTD), the levels of CD8+
Gastrointestinal infections by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) are rare in industrialized countries. However, they remain a major public health problem in the developing world with an estimated 26.9 million new cases annually and significant mortality when untreated. Recently, we provided the first direct evidence that CD8(+) MAIT cells are activated and have the potential to kill cells exposed to S. Typhi, and that these responses are dependent on bacterial load. However, MAIT cell kinetics and function during bacterial infections in humans remain largely unknown. In this study, we characterize the human CD8(+) MAIT cell immune response to S. Typhi infection in subjects participating in a challenge clinical trial who received a low- or high dose of wild-type S. Typhi. We define the kinetics of CD8(+) MAIT cells as well as their levels of activation, proliferation, exhaustion/apoptosis, and homing potential. Regardless of the dose, in volunteers resistant to infection (NoTD), the levels of
1. Nuccio S-P, Wangdi T, Winter SE, Baumler AJ (2013) Typhoid. In: Rosenberg E, DeLong EF, Lory S, Stackebrandt E, Thompson F, editors. The Prokaryotes. 4th ed. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. pp. 353-374.. 2. ZhangS, KingsleyRA, SantosRL, Andrews-PolymenisH, RaffatelluM, et al. (2003) Molecular pathogenesis of Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium- induced diarrhea. Infect Immun 71: 1-12.. 3. SpanoS, UgaldeJE, GalanJE (2008) Delivery of a Salmonella Typhi exotoxin from a host intracellular compartment. Cell Host Microbe 3: 30-38.. 4. SongJ, GaoX, GalanJE (2013) Structure and function of the Salmonella Typhi chimaeric A(2)B(5) typhoid toxin. Nature 499: 350-354.. 5. WinterSE, RaffatelluM, WilsonRP, RussmannH, BaumlerAJ (2008) The Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi regulator TviA reduces interleukin-8 production in intestinal epithelial cells by repressing flagellin secretion. Cell Microbiol 10: 247-261.. 6. WinterSE, WinterMG, GodinezI, YangH-J, RussmannH, et al. (2010) A Rapid Change in ...
We report the emergence in Kenya during 1997-1999 of typhoid fever due to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and cotrimoxazole. Genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of XbaI-digested chromosomal DNA yielded a single cluster. The multidrug-resistant S. Typhi were related to earlier drug-susceptible isolates but were unrelated to multidrug-resistant isolates from Asia.
Enzyme immunoassays were developed using monoclonal antibodies raised against somatic (O), flagellar (H) and capsular (Vi) antigens of Salmonella typhi. The assay based on anti-O monoclonal antibodies could specifically detect S. typhi and soluble lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from S. typhi. Anti-H MoAbs detected motile S. typhi and soluble flagellar antigen. Monoclonal antibodies against capsular polysaccharide could detect Vi-containing S. typhi as well as soluble Vi antigen. The three assays reported here detected S. typhi with 100% sensitivity in blood culture broths obtained from bacteriologically confirmed typhoid patients and were negative with blood specimens containing Salmonella senftenberg, E. coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis or Streptococcus (α-hemolytic) derived from patients with pyrexia. The assays, however, did not demonstrate the presence of soluble antigens in sera and urine samples obtained from typhoid patients. ...
Salmonella typhi utilize inter and intra species communication via the process of cell-cell communication, which use to regulate population density with small, diffusible signaling molecules as communication intermediary called Autoinducers-2 (AI-2). Lsrk is the kinase phosphorylate AI-2, be capable to simulate the lsr operon. On the other hand, a solved structure of LsrK from Salmonella typhi is not available on Protein Data Bank. For that reason, we modelled and validated LsrK through online servers. Secondary structural insights were discussed. These findings provide new knowledge to molecular understanding of Autoinducer-2 kinase within Salmonella typhi.. ...
pR(ST98), a chimeric plasmid isolated from Salmonella enterica serovar typhi (S. typhi), is involved in bacterial multidrug-resistance and virulence, however, its exact contributions to bacterial pathogenesis are still not fully understood. To investigate whether pR(ST98) exhibits potential to media …
In the era of emerging antibiotic resistance, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi the causative agent of typhoid, is a threat for healthcare systems in developing countries especially India, where the disease is highly endemic. Genetic diversity among different strains may be the cause of variable severity of disease in different regions of the world. To explore this genetic diversity, genome annotation by rapid annotation using subsystem technology (RAST) was carried out for genomes of four Salmonella Typhi strains from two distinct areas available in the public domain. Two clinical strains were from India (P-stx-12 and E02-1180) and the other two strains considered as reference strains were from the endemic regions of Papua New Guinea (UJ308A and UJ816A). We report that Indian clinical strains possess several similar genes responsible for virulence and pathogenicity as those present in the reference strains. Interestingly, Indian clinical strains also possess 34 additional ...
Background: S. Typhi, a human-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar, causes a systemic intracellular infection in humans (typhoid fever). In comparison, S. Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis in humans, but causes a systemic typhoidal illness in mice. The PhoP regulon is a well studied two component (PhoP/Q) coordinately regulated network of genes whose expression is required for intracellular survival of S. enterica. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), we examined the protein expression profiles of three sequenced S. enterica strains: S. Typhimurium LT2, S. Typhi CT18, and S. Typhi Ty2 in PhoP-inducing and non-inducing conditions in vitro and compared these results to profiles of \(phoP^−/Q^−\) mutants derived from S. Typhimurium LT2 and S. Typhi Ty2. Our analysis identified 53 proteins in S. Typhimurium LT2 and 56 proteins in S. Typhi that were regulated in a PhoP-dependent manner. As expected, many proteins ...
In the early 1900s, with mortality of ∼30%, typhoid and paratyphoid (caused by Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A) ravaged parts of the world; with improved water, sanitation, and hygiene in resource-rich countries and the advent of antimicrobials, mortality dwindled to ,1%. Today, the burden rests disproportionately on South Asia, where the primary means for combatting the disease is antimicrobials. ...
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever. S. Typhi does not have an animal reservoir and can be transmitted from a typhoid carrier only through contaminated water or food (11). It was estimated that the global incidence of typhoid is 16,000,000 cases, with 500,000 deaths per year (9). In this study, we isolated and sequenced the S. Typhi strain of a chronic carrier from a region in India where the disease is highly endemic.. Whole-genome sequencing was performed with both Roche 454 and Illumina paired-end sequencing technologies. A 4-kb genomic library was constructed and 177,021 paired-end and 65,478 single-end reads were generated using the GS FLX Titanium system, giving ∼18-fold coverage of the genome. A total of 97.09% of the reads were assembled into 11 scaffolds using Newbler (Roche). A total of ∼500 Mbp of 3-kb mate pair (MP) sequencing data (100-fold coverage) were generated with an Illumina Solexa GA IIx. These sequences were mapped to the scaffolds ...
|jats:p|Fluoroquinolones (FQ) are the recommended antimicrobial treatment for typhoid, a severe systemic infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. FQ-resistance mutations in S. Typhi have become common, hindering treatment and control efforts. Using in vitro competition experiments, we assayed the fitness of eleven isogenic S. Typhi strains with resistance mutations in the FQ target genes, gyrA and parC. In the absence of antimicrobial pressure, 6 out of 11 mutants carried a selective advantage over the antimicrobial-sensitive parent strain, indicating that FQ resistance in S. Typhi is not typically associated with fitness costs. Double-mutants exhibited higher than expected fitness as a result of synergistic epistasis, signifying that epistasis may be a critical factor in the evolution and molecular epidemiology of S. Typhi. Our findings have important implications for the management of drug-resistant S. Typhi, suggesting that FQ-resistant strains would be naturally
An 11 year-old boy was admitted to our hospital because of high fever, gross hematuria and pain in abdomen. He also had hypertension, nephrotic range proteinuria with renal failure, for which hemodialysis was required. Salmonella Typhi was isolated from blood culture and was diagnosed to have typhoid fever. In view of low C3 levels, renal biopsy was done, showed evidence of proliferative glomerulonephritis. On discharge, he had mildly deranged renal function with persistence of gross hematuria and proteinuria which gradually resolved over a period of one year. Renal involvement with enteric fever is noticed only in 2-3% cases. The common complications of typhoid related to the urinary tract include cystitis, pyelitis, pyelonephritis, and mild proteinuria. Few cases have been reported of acute nephritic syndrome in typhoid fever requiring renal replacement therapy. Here, we report a case of Salmonella typhi septicemia associated with acute renal failure secondary to proliferative ...
1. Banerjee B, Madiyal M, Madhava PK, Agarwal M, Mukhopadhyay C. Typhoid spondylodiscitis mimicking tuberculosis in a teenage girl. J Infect Public Health. 2018. 11: 136-7. 2. Carvell JE, Maclarnon JC. Chronic osteomyelitis of the thoracic spine due to salmonella typhi: A case report. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1981. 6: 527-30. 3. Chang IC. Salmonella spondylodiscitis in patients without sickle cell disease. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2005. 430: 243-7. 4. Chattaway MA, Aboderin AO, Fashae K, Okoro CK, Opintan JA, Okeke IN. Fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric bacteria in Sub-Saharan Africa: Clones, implications and research needs. Front Microbiol. 2016. 7: 558-. 5. Jain AK. Tuberculosis of the spine: A fresh look at an old disease. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2010. 92: 905-13. 6. Laloum E, Zeller V, Graff W, Aerts J, Chazerain P, Mamoudy P. Salmonella typhi osteitis can mimic tuberculosis. A report of three cases. Joint Bone Spine. 2005. 72: 171-4. 7. Rajesh PK, Mythili S, Subramaniam L. Typhoid spine-a case ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against native Salmonella typhi. Native purified Salmonella typhi. (MAB2443) - Products - Abnova
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Salmonella enterica serovar typhi impairs CD4 T cell responses by reducing antigen availability. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Entry into intestinal epithelial cells is an essential feature in the pathogenicity of Salmonella typhi, which causes typhoid fever in humans. This process requires intact motility and secretion of the invasion-promoting Sip proteins, which are targets of the type III secretion machinery encoded by …
Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi Ag from Salmonella typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. In this study, we have characterized the B cell response to this vaccine in wild-type and T cell-deficient mice. We show that immunization with typhoid vi polysaccharide vaccine rapidly induces proliferation in B1b peritoneal cells, but not in B1a cells or marginal zone B cells. This induction of B1b proliferation is concomitant with the detection of splenic Vi-specific Ab-secreting cells and protective Ab in Rag1-deficient B1b cell chimeras generated by adoptive transfer-induced specific Ab after Vi immunization. Furthermore, Ab derived from peritoneal B cells is sufficient to confer protection against Salmonella that express Vi Ag. Expression of Vi by Salmonella during infection did not inhibit the development of early Ab responses to non-Vi Ags. Despite this, the protection conferred by immunization of mice with ...
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Long-term survival of persistent bacterial pathogens in mammalian hosts critically depends on their ability to avoid elimination by innate and adaptive immune responses. The persistent human pathogens that cause typhoid fever and tuberculosis exemplify alternative strategies for survival in the host: immune evasion and immune adaptation, respectively. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi evades host innate immune responses and inflammation by expressing factors that interfere with its detection as a Gram-negative bacterium, enabling persistent colonization of an immunologically privileged niche, the gallbladder. In contrast, Mycobacterium tuberculosis has adapted to survive within phagocytic cells, which typically eliminate invading microbes, by deploying stress resistance mechanisms that counteract the harsh environment of the phagolysosome.. Keywords: Adaptation, Physiological ; Immune Evasion. ...
Dorman CJ, H-NS and genomic bridge building: lessons from the human pathogen Salmonella Typhi, Microbiology, 155, 7, 2009, 2114 - 2115 ...
The causative agent of typhoid fever is the bacterium Salmonella typhi. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ...
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes case reports related to infectious diseases of bacterial, viral and parasitic origin.
CLINICOPATHOLOGICAL PROFILE OF SALMONELLA TYPHI AND PARATYPHI INFECTIONS PRESENTING AS FEVER OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN IN A TROPICAL COUNTRY.
Summary The type strains of Vi-phage type E1, M1 and A of Salmonella typhi, together with drug-resistant and drug-sensitive strains of phage types E1 and M1 isolated in 1992 from patients associated with India or Pakistan, and a drug-resistant strain of phage type A isolated in South Africa in 1991, were characterised with respect to the presence of plasmids conferring resistance to antimicrobial drugs and their chromosomal insertion sequence IS200 profiles. The three type strains, the drug-sensitive strains of Vi-phage types E1 and M1, and a strain of phage type M1 resistant to ampicillin and trimethoprim but not to chloramphenicol, did not contain plasmids. In contrast, for strains of phage types E1 and M1 resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin and trimethoprim, and for the drug-resistant strain of phage type A, the complete spectrum of resistance was encoded by high molecular mass plasmids belonging to the H1 incompatibility group. Characterisation of IS200 profiles demonstrated that at least 13
British journal of biomedical science. 02/2008; Prevalence of Salmonella typhi among food handlers from bukkas in Nigeria. Talanta 77 (2008) 727-732 Salmonella
Wong VK, Baker S, Pickard DJ, Parkhill J, Page AJ, Feasey NA, Kingsley RA, Thomson NR, Keane JA, Weill FX, Edwards DJ, Hawkey J, Harris SR, Mather AE, Cain AK, Hadfield J, Hart PJ, Thieu NT, Klemm EJ, Glinos DA, Breiman RF, Watson CH, Kariuki S, Gordon MA, Heyderman RS, Okoro C, Jacobs J, Lunguya O, Edmunds WJ, Msefula C, Chabalgoity JA, Kama M, Jenkins K, Dutta S, Marks F, Campos J, Thompson C, Obaro S, MacLennan CA, Dolecek C, Keddy KH, Smith AM, Parry CM, Karkey A, Mulholland EK, Campbell JI, Dongol S, Basnyat B, Dufour M, Bandaranayake D, Naseri TT, Singh SP, Hatta M, Newton P, Onsare RS, Isaia L, Dance D, Davong V, Thwaites G, Wijedoru L, Crump JA, De Pinna E, Nair S, Nilles EJ, Thanh DP, Turner P, Soeng S, Valcanis M, Powling J, Dimovski K, Hogg G, Farrar J, Holt KE, Dougan G. Phylogeographical analysis of the dominant multidrug-resistant H58 clade of Salmonella Typhi identifies inter- and intracontinental transmission events. NATURE GENETICS 47 (6) : 632 - 9(2015) PubMed (Grant IDs: ...
Proteinuria, Salmonella Typhi, Subacute Clinical Course Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Urinary Tract Infection, Perinephric Abscess, Henoch-Schönlein Purpura. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the cause of typhoid fever, is host-adapted to humans and unable to cause disease in mice. Here, we show that S. Typhi can replicate in vivo in nonobese diabetic (NOD)-scid IL2rgamma(null) mice engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells (hu-SRC-SCID mice) to cause a lethal infection with pathological and inflammatory cytokine responses resembling human typhoid. In contrast, S. Typhi does not exhibit net replication or cause illness in nonengrafted or immunocompetent control animals. Screening of transposon pools in hu-SRC-SCID mice revealed both known and previously unknown Salmonella virulence determinants, including Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6. Our observations indicate that the presence of human immune cells allows the in vivo replication of S. Typhi in mice. The hu-SRC-SCID mouse provides an unprecedented opportunity to gain insights into S. Typhi pathogenesis and devise strategies for the prevention of typhoid fever.
The results from the study are a first warning sign: reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was found in some salmonella serotypes; in one serotype, even half of the isolates were affected. Isolates of Salmonella Typhi, the pathogen that causes typhoid fever, did not show reduced susceptibility. However, in a multicountry analysis, Salmonella Typhi has already been found to have reduced sensitivity to ciprofloxacin; this being particularly high in Kenya. This is worrying because ciprofloxacin is going to be used more frequently with decreasing costs, explains May ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi a are avirulent in newborn and infant mice even when expressing virulence plasmid genes of salmonella Typhimurium. AU - Santander Javier, S. M.. AU - Roy, Curtiss. PY - 2010/11/1. Y1 - 2010/11/1. N2 - Background: Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are human host-restricted pathogens. Therefore, there is no small susceptible animal host that can be used to assess the virulence and safety of vaccine strains derived from these Salmonella serovars. However, infant mice have been used to evaluate virulence and colonization by another human host-restricted pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. Methodology: The possibility that infant mice host could be adapted for Salmonella led us to investigate the susceptibility of newborn and infant mice to oral infection with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes enteric fever in adult mice and this system has been used as a model for human typhoid. The ...
TELL ME FAST Salmonella typhi s typhi antigen typhoid rapid test kit cardparatyphi A,B,C Antigens & S.Typhi IgG s typhi antigen typhoid rapid test kit cardIgM Antibody Combo Test Device is a rapid chromatographic immunoassay for the simultaneous & qualitative detection of Salmonella typhi and paratyphi ABC antigens in stool s typhi antigen typhoid rapid test kit cardserum s typhi antigen typhoid rapid test kit cardplasma and S.Typhi IgG s typhi antigen typhoid rapid test kit cardIgM Antibodies in serum s typhi antigen typhoid rapid test kit cardplasma s typhi antigen typhoid rapid test kit cardwhole blood.. ...
Typhoid fever is a human-specific disease caused by a bacterium, Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi. It is transmitted through ingestion of contaminated food or water. It is mostly diagnosed by blood culture. Salmonella Typhi usually manifests as a febrile illness with bacteremia after initial entry through the gastrointestinal route, but it can occasionally cause significant disease in extraintestinal sites. We report a case of a girl in Fiji with a right ovarian abscess infected by Salmonella Typhi. A 14-year-old iTaukei (indigenous Fijian) girl presented to our hospital with abdominal pain of 1 months duration. Two days prior to her admission, she developed high-grade fever and nausea and had one episode of vomiting. On presentation, she appeared unwell; she was tachycardic (116 beats per minute) and febrile (38.8 °C). Her abdominal examination revealed generalized tenderness. Other examination findings were normal. The provisional diagnosis of abdominal sepsis led to an
The genome of S. enterica serovar Typhi P-stx-12 was compared with the other two published S. enterica serovar Typhi genomes, CT18 (isolated from Vietnam) and Ty2 (isolated from Russia). Comparison between these three genomes revealed that the coding genes of S. enterica serovar Typhi P-stx-12 were 84% similar to those of CT18 [47] and Ty2 [9]. The genome organization of these three strains is shown in Figure 5. The location of the genes in strains P-stx-12 and Ty2 are identical. Both have three blocks of genes that are inverted from strain CT18. Our observations are in agreement with the work of Deng et al. [9], where they discovered that half of the Ty2 genome was inverted relative to the CT18 genome. Nevertheless, most of the genes have the same function, indicating that these are the possible housekeeping genes which maintain the survival of this pathogen. Besides that, this P-stx-12 strain has one plasmid which shares 169 orthologous CDSs with pHCM1, the plasmid belonging to CT18 (Genbank ...
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi that causes symptoms.[3] Symptoms may vary from mild to severe and usually begin six to thirty days after exposure.[1][2] Often there is a gradual onset of a high fever over several days.[1] Weakness, abdominal pain, constipation, and headaches also commonly occur.[2][6] Diarrhea is uncommon and vomiting is not usually severe.[6] Some people develop a skin rash with rose colored spots.[2] In severe cases there may be confusion.[6] Without treatment, symptoms may last weeks or months.[2] Other people may carry the bacterium without being affected; however, they are still able to spread the disease to others.[4] Typhoid fever is a type of enteric fever along with paratyphoid fever.[3]. The cause is the bacterium Salmonella typhi, also known as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, growing in the intestines and blood.[2][6] Typhoid is spread by eating or drinking food or water contaminated with the feces of ...
Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi), is a major human disease responsible for 21.6 million illnesses and 216,000 deaths annually. The pathogenesis of typhoid fever is incompletely understood due to the lack of suitable animal models for the strictly human-adapted S. Typhi. S. enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) infection of mice is commonly used to model the pathogenesis of S. Typhi infections in humans. A limitation of this approach is that S. Typhimurium does not cause typhoid fever in humans, but rather causes a localized gastroenteritis. As a result, virulence mechanisms that set typhoid fever apart from human gastroenteritis remain understudied. Experiments proposed in this application are aimed at addressing this important gap in knowledge. Our long-range goal is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which Salmonella serotypes manipulate host responses during infection. The objectives of this application are to study the mechanism by which ...
|jats:title|ABSTRACT|/jats:title| |jats:p| |jats:named-content content-type=genus-species|Salmonella enterica|/jats:named-content| serovar Typhi is a human-restricted Gram-negative bacterial pathogen responsible for causing an estimated 27 million cases of typhoid fever annually, leading to 217,000 deaths, and current vaccines do not offer full protection. The O-antigen side chain of the lipopolysaccharide is an immunodominant antigen, can define host-pathogen interactions, and is under consideration as a vaccine target for some Gram-negative species. The composition of the O-antigen can be modified by the activity of glycosyltransferase ( |jats:italic|gtr|/jats:italic| ) operons acquired by horizontal gene transfer. Here we investigate the role of two |jats:italic|gtr|/jats:italic| operons that we identified in the |jats:italic|S|/jats:italic|
Penyakit yang ditularkan melalui makanan mencakup spektrum yang luas dari penyakit dan merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat yang berkembang di seluruh dunia. Penyakit bawaaan makanan terjadi karena mencerna bahan makanan yang terkontaminasi baik oleh mikroorganisme atau bahan kimia. Tujuan daripada penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui apakah ekstrak etanol dari kayu manis (Cinnamomum burmannii) mempunyai efek inhibisi terhadap pertumbuhan koloni Staphylococcus aureus dan Salmonella typhi secara in vitro. Penelitian ini memakai metode eksperimental laboratorik bersifat komparatif dengan mengukur zona inhibisi yang terbentuk dari ekstrak kayu manis pada koloni Staphylococcus aureus dan Salmonella typhi dan pengolahan data digunakan dengan metoda analisis statistik uji ANAVA satu arah dan Post Hoc LSD Test, dengan p ,0.005. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan diameter zona inhibisi rata-rata dari percobaan pada konsentrasi ekstrak 100% pada Staphylococcus aureus adalah 13.51 mm, hasil ini masih ...
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative enterobacteria that causes typhoid fever, paratyphoid and foodborne illness. Salmonella does not ferment lactose. It is motile in nature and produces hydrogen sulfide. Disease-causing salmonellae have recently been re-classified into a single species, Salmonella enterica, which has numerous strains or serovars. Salmonella typhi is a well known serovar that causes typhoid fever. Other salmonellae are frequent causes of foodborne illness, and can especially be caught from poultry and more generally from food that has been cooked or frozen, and not eaten straight away. In the mid to late 20th century, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was a common contaminant of eggs. This is much less common now with the advent of hygiene measures in egg production and the vaccination of laying hens to prevent samonella colonisation. Many different salmonella serovars also cause severe diseases in animals other than human beings. ...
Typhoid fever is a waterborne and food borne disease caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi). Studies have established that some patients presenting with typhoid-like symptoms are usually inflicted by other bacteria pathogens, which mayor may not be transmitted by fecal oral route. It is common belief that typhoid fever cases are high in Alupe and continue to cause significant morbidity among the people of Alupe, Busia County. The study focused on isolation and characterization of the bacteria pathogens in blood and stool among patients presenting with typhoid fever symptoms at two health facilities located in Alupe, Busia County. A total of one hundred and fifty patients were recruited and thereafter their blood and stool samples collected. Subsequently, laboratory analysis at KEMRI-CIPDCR was done to isolate and characterize bacteria pathogens as well as their antibiotic susceptibility profiles done. One hundred and forty nine blood cultures and 140 stool cultures were ...
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Question - Typhoid infection, fever, abdominal pain. Widal test shows S typhi O, H positive. Recurring infection?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Typhoid, Ask an Internal Medicine Specialist
If typhoid fever is diagnosed in its early stages, a course of antibiotic tablets may be prescribed for you. Most people need to take these for 7 to 14 days.Typhoid fever vaccination in Vietnam Dr. Duc Dang Ahn Deputy Director. Antibiotic resistant typhoid is growing rapidly in Vietnam and.Antimicrobial resistance: a complex issue. typhoid fever,. antibiotic resistance by a bacterial cell is the occurrence of.2 Yale Journal of Medicine and law. When one of her employers became sick with typhoid. perhaps the greatest way to address antibiotic resistance.Typhoid fever. Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella typhi that, contrary to most of the species of the genus (Salmonella), only infect humans by causing an illness.. typhoid, Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi that causes symptoms Weakness, abdominal pain ...
I am a 38 years old male, who had severe weakness, dizziness, breathlessness and chest pain for over period of one month last year. It started with a throat infection. Finally, |b|I underwent Widal test, where my paratyphi B was found to be 1:160 and white blood cell (WBC) count was 3500.|/b| Based on this, I was treated for typhoid. But I never had fever in this period. I also underwent ECG and 2D echo cardiogram, which came normal. However, I was diagnosed with GERD. Two months back, I again went for Widal test, where my paratyphi B was found to be 1:20 and white blood cell (WBC) count was 6300. Now, I am again experiencing fatigue and chest pain. Widal test has revealed Typhi O as 1:80 and Typhi H 1:160. WBC came 4300. Is Widal test a confirmation of typhoid? I have no loose motions, fever and do exercise regularly.
While there is scant detail on the outbreak, the report notes that typhoid related deaths are increasing among the older people.. The outbreak is attributable to the Norths poor water supply, sewerage system and the Yalu River as many local residents in Ryanggang Province drink the water from the river without boiling it.. Typhoid fever is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. Salmonella typhi lives only in humans. Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. In addition, a small number of persons, called carriers, recover from typhoid fever but continue to carry the bacteria. Both ill persons and carriers shed S.typhi in their feces.. You can get typhoid fever if you eat food or drink beverages that have been handled by a person who is shedding S. typhi or if sewage contaminated with S. typhi bacteria gets into the water you use for drinking or washing food. Therefore, typhoid fever is more common in areas ...
To date, French authorities have reported three cases and Germany has reported one case. European authorities say additional cases are possibly associated with this event.. Typhoid fever, a rare disease in Europe, is caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi, is a life-threatening bacterial infection. Typhoid fever is still common in the developing world, where it affects about 21 million people annually.. Salmonella typhi lives only in humans. Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their bloodstream and intestinal tract. In addition, a small number of persons, called carriers, recover from typhoid fever but continue to carry the bacteria. Both ill persons and carriers shed S.typhi in their feces.. Save up to 40% off tours & activities in Paris. You can get typhoid fever if you eat food or drink beverages that have been handled by a person who is shedding S. typhi or if sewage contaminated with S. typhi bacteria gets into the water you use for drinking or washing food. Therefore, ...
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Typhoid fever remains a significant health problem in many developing countries. A rapid test with a performance comparable to that of blood culture would be highly useful. A rapid diagnostic test for typhoid fever, Tubex®, is commercially available that uses particle separation to detect immunoglobulin M directed towards Salmonella Typhi O9 lipopolysaccharide in sera. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the Tubex test among Tanzanian children hospitalized with febrile illness using blood culture as gold standard. Evaluation was done considering blood culture confirmed S. Typhi with non-typhi salmonella (NTS) and non - salmonella isolates as controls as well as with non-salmonella isolates only. Of 139 samples tested with Tubex, 33 were positive for S. Typhi in blood culture, 49 were culture-confirmed NTS infections, and 57 were other non-salmonella infections. Thirteen hemolyzed samples were excluded. Using all non - S. Typhi isolates as controls, we showed a sensitivity of 79% and a
Although typhoid fever is a major public health problem in Ethiopia, data is not available in the study area. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence, clinical presentation at the time of diagnosis and associated factors of typhoid fever among febrile patients visiting Shashemene Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1, 2016, to October 30, 2016. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. A blood sample was collected and inoculated into Tryptic soy broth. A total of 421 adult febrile patients suspected of typhoid fever were included in the study. Of these, the overall prevalence of culture-confirmed typhoid fever was 5.0% (21/421). The prevalence of typhoid fever was significantly associated with rural residence (8.4%). As compared to the urban resident, the rural resident was 3.6 times more likely found to have culture-confirmed typhoid fever. The prevalence of typhoid fever was significantly
Kenikir (Cosmos caudatus Kunth) herb has known to have antibacterial activities against several bacterial strains. In this study, we tested leaf extract of the kenikir against Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella typhi strains. The extracts of 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, and 20% (v/v) screened for their antibacterial activity in comparison with standard antibiotic chloramphenicol as the positive control and distilled water as the negative control using the disc-diffusion agar method. The MIC and MBCs value of the extracts was determined using broth dilution method followed by sub culturing bacterial suspension taken from the lowest concentration that completely showed no bacterial growth. The results showed all kenikir (Cosmos caudatus Kunth) leaf extract concentration levels applied (20-100%) on the tested bacteria exhibited growth inhibition higher than that of standard antibiotic (chloramphenicol). MIC and MBC value of the extract against Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella typhi consecutively are ...
Results: Out of 216 isolates, 68.05% were Salmonella typhi and 31.48% were Salmonella paratyphi A. In Salmonella typhi, there was signifi cant increase in cefotaxime resistance(X2 = 4.951, p , 0.05) and ciprofl oxacin resistance (X2 = 17.506, p ,0.001) whereas there was signifi cant decrease in ampicillin resistance (X2 = 4.830, p , 0.05). No resistance was seen against ceftriaxone in Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A. Resistance to chloramphenicol and cotrimoxazole was low as well, in both isolates. None of the isolates tested were multidrug resistant ...
Typhoid fever, also acknowledged as Salmonella Typhi or just Typhoid, is a worldwide common illness that transmits by ingestion of water or food contaminated with feces of an infected person. Then the bacteria Salmonella Typhi perforate through the wall of the intestinal and phagocytes by macrophages and alerts its structure to enforce their existence within Read more ...
What do Pericles, Alexander the Great, and William the Conqueror all have in common? Typhoid Mary knows.... Learn all about Typhoid Fever with this unique item Great gift for science and history buffs
Typhoid fever is the name given to the illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, a member of the Salmonella family. Typhoid fever is spread through food and water contaminated by animal and human feces. Typhoid fever is very rare in the United States and other developed nations, and it is more common in underdeveloped nations, particularly Latin America, Asia, and Africa. When traveling to underdeveloped areas, a good way to remember what foods and beverages are safe is to think of the following: If you cannot boil it (to kill bacteria), peel it (to remove bacteria) or cook it (to kill bacteria), do not eat it. When traveling to areas without clean drinking water, also remember to avoid ice cubes, which may be made with contaminated water, and to check the seal on all bottled water that you purchase (as the water bottle may have been refilled with unclean water). Some travelers drink only carbonated water in order to avoid this issue ...
Question - Got typhoid fever S.typhi and O typhi. Taking ciprofloxacin. Suggest?. Ask a Doctor about Typhoid mary, Ask a General & Family Physician
These goals will be achieved using a combination of analytical chemistry, transcriptomics, proteomics, phenotypic screens, and bacterial genetics. This proposal will provide novel insights in to the combined action of bacterial autoinducers and host-derived hormones on the biology and pathogenicity of S.Typhi. It will provide mechanistic molecular insights of the signal transduction pathways and how these different input signals are sensed and integrated to modulate the virulence and fitness of S.Typhi.. This will fill a significant gap in our knowledge of this under-studied area of research which has major implications in bacterial pathogenicity and the development of novel therapeutics. ...
Photo 3. Temperature chart in case of Salmonellosis with S. mansoni infection.. An association has been established between chronic Salmonella typhi infection and S. mansoni. Eradication of the helminth infection is needed to eliminate the Salmonella organism.. ...
252 blood samples collected from patients of different localities of Allahabad region were found to be positive for typhoid fever when tested by Widal test. The causative agentSalmonella species were cultured from the blood samples and then were identified by using standard procedures. The isolates were identified as S. typhi, S. paratyphiA, S. typhimurium and S. bongori. Age, socio-economic status and seasonal variations were identified as significant risk factors associated with incidence of Salmonella infection. Blood samples were collected from both males and females belonging to the age groups from ˂1 to 50 years where the infection rate of typhoid fever was found to be higher among children. Socio-economic strata showed difference in incidence of Salmonella species with the low category showed highest number of isolates. Peak period of typhoid fever was found in June while a lower peak was noted in the month of November.. ...
Despite the obvious benefits of chloramphenicol therapy in typhoid fever,1, 2 there are several problems in this disease which remain to be solved: (1) The present chloramphenicol regimens do not alleviate the toxemia of the disease for at least 36 to 48 hours and fail to eliminate the fever until about the fourth day; (2) relapses of typhoid fever occur in a certain percentage of treated patients3; (3) Salmonella typhosa continues to be shed in the feces for variable periods of time after therapy is begun,2 and (4) the typhoid carrier state when it exists is not permanently benefited by ...
Dr. Priyadarshini M. Deodurg, Dr. Rajive Kumar Sureka. ABSTRACT. Enteric fever is a global health problem, widely prevalent in the developing countries where it is endemic. It is estimated that there are 22 million new cases of enteric fever annually, with 200,000 deaths. Although Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) remains the predominant Salmonella species causing enteric fever in India, Salmonella Paratyphi A (S.Paratyphi A) causing has also been reported increasingly. In India, antibiotic resistance among S. Typhi has been reported since 1960. Since then multi drug resistance has appeared throughout the world, especially in South America, the Indian subcontinent, Africa and Southeast Asia. In recent years there have been several reports indicating the re-emergence of susceptibility to drugs used in the past, such as Chloramphenicol and Ampicillin. There are very few studies on the sensitivity pattern of Salmonella in this region. The present study was done to know the antibiogram of S. Typhi and ...
The pentose phosphate pathway is a process of glucose turnover that produces NADPH as reducing equivalents and pentoses as essential parts of nucleotides. There are two different phases in the pathway. One is irreversible oxidative phase in which glucose-6P is converted to ribulose-5P by oxidative decarboxylation, and NADPH is generated [MD:M00006]. The other is reversible non-oxidative phase in which phosphorylated sugars are interconverted to generate xylulose-5P, ribulose-5P, and ribose-5P [MD:M00007]. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) formed from ribose-5P [MD:M00005] is an activated compound used in the biosynthesis of histidine and purine/pyrimidine nucleotides. This pathway map also shows the Entner-Doudoroff pathway where 6-P-gluconate is dehydrated and then cleaved into pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3P [MD:M00008 ...
The first WB Injector is supplied free of charge along with a supply of Maxpar® Cell Acquisition Solution. Please contact your field application scientist (FAS) if you would like to try out the new Helios™ sample acquisition protocol and your FAS will help you place the order. Additional injectors can be purchased through Fluidigm by referencing Cat. No. 107950. …. ...
Hi, I am Qila. On this occasion, I will talk about 5 Common Signs of Typhoid Fever that you should to know. Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with fever, caused by the Salmonella ...
Typhoid fever, also acknowledged as Salmonella Typhi or just Typhoid, is a worldwide common illness that transmits by ingestion of water or food contaminated with feces of an infected person. Then the bacteria Salmonella Typhi perforate through the wall of the intestinal and phagocytes by macrophages and alerts its structure to enforce their existence within Read more ...
Typhoid fever is caused by bacteria (Salmonella typhi). The bacteria are passed on by eating food or drinking water that has been contaminated by someone with the disease. The bacteria are also found in the infected persons stool. You can also get the disease if water used for drinking or washing food is contaminated with sewage containing the bacteria. People who recover from typhoid fever can sometimes still carry the bacteria and can pass them on to other people. ...
Typhoid fever is caused by bacteria (Salmonella typhi). The bacteria are passed on by eating food or drinking water that has been contaminated by someone with the disease. The bacteria are also found in the infected persons stool. You can also get the disease if water used for drinking or washing food is contaminated with sewage containing the bacteria. People who recover from typhoid fever can sometimes still carry the bacteria and can pass them on to other people. ...
The Miami-Dade Health Department said today that a cook at the Bayside Chilis restaurant has a confirmed case of a serious, contagious illness and l
Aims: The therapeutic effect of Euphorbia heterophylla and cassava flakes mixture in treatment of Salmonellosis was studied in vivo.. Methodology: Antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of Euphorbia heterophylla was first evaluated using agar well diffusion method by measuring the diameters of zones of inhibition on Salmonella typhi in vitro. The test organism was susceptible to Euphorbia heterophylla extract. Albino rats were infected with Salmonella typhi and confirmed using WIDAL test.. Results: The result showed that the infectivity dose was 2.0×102 cfu/ml for an albino rat of average weight 110 g. The qualitative analysis of the phytochemical of the plant showed that anthraquinone, glycosides and alkaloid are present. The analysis of the pH of the white cassava flakes used was 3.83 while that of the red cassava flakes was 5.62. The titre value of the infected rats increased significantly from 1:20 to 1:160 three days after infection. Administration of Euphorbia heterophylla with cassava ...
Scientists at the University of Liverpool have demonstrated how a single-celled organism, living freely in the environment, could be a source of Salmonella transmission to animals and humans.. Salmonella are microscopic living creatures that can contaminate almost any food type, causing diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever. Scientists know that Salmonella which can also cause typhoid fever has evolved unique mechanisms to prevent the bodys immune system from functioning effectively, but until now it was not understood how it survives so successfully in the environment.. Scientists at Liverpool, in collaboration with the Institute for Animal Health, have shown that Salmonella use a secretion system to protect themselves inside amoeba a single-celled organism living on land and in the water. The research suggests that amoeba may be a major source of Salmonella within the environment and could play a significant role in transmission of infection to man and animals.. Salmonella uses a ...
An agar medium for the isolation of Salmonella spp. is described. The medium, lysine-mannitol-glycerol agar, has features of both xylose-lysine-deoxycholate agar and mannitol-lysine-crystal violet-brilliant green agar, but glycerol is added for the differentiation of Salmonella and Citrobacter spp. The medium facilitates the detection of strains having atypical fermentation patterns, such as the lactose- or sucrose-positive salmonellae. The medium also detects Salmonella typhi after enrichment.
Typhoid fever continues to ravage mankind, and, although its attacks have been combatted therapeutically, serious complications and death occur, there is no completely effective vaccine, and the carrier problem is unsolved.. Studies in volunteers, designed to ascertain the effectiveness of typhoid vaccine, have permitted critical appraisal of the clinical disease, its variability, and physiologic alterations. Bacteremia often occurs prior to the onset of symptoms, and response to therapy is prompt. There appears to be no relationship between the height of the antibody titer (O and H) and the ability to isolate Salmonella typhosa from the blood during first infection or ...
Typhim Vi: Typhoid vaccine is used to prevent typhoid fever. Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi (S. typhi). Typhoid is spread by contaminated water and food.
Polysaccharide antigens are T cell-independent antigens, and do not induce immune B cell memory. Consequently, vaccines based on polysaccharides have limited clinical usefulness and induce short-lasting antibody responses in adults. Their immunogenicity can be enhanced by conjugation to an immunogenic carrier protein, generating T cell-dependent glycoconjugate antigens able to induce immunological memory. However, these glycoconjugates suffer from some problems. Recent investigations have found a group of structurally distinct bacterial polysaccharides able to activate T cells in vivo and in vitro. They present a zwitterionic charge motif distributed along the chain and, for this reason, they are called zwitterionic polysaccharides (ZPSs). This zwitterionic charge motif is believed to be responsible for their particular immunological behavior. The integrity of the zwitterionic motif is essential for the biological activity of ZPS. However, it must be clarified if the introduction of the ...
Salmonella typhi endocarditis: a case report. Khan G Q; Kadri S M; Hassan G; Shahid I T; Gazanfar A; Kak M; Showkat H // Journal of Clinical Pathology;Oct2003, Vol. 56 Issue 10, p801 Salmonella are a rare cause of infective endocarditis. This report describes a case where Salmonella typhi was isolated from the blood and urine of a patient with echocardiographically documented aortic valve disease and endocarditis. The patient was treated with two weeks of ceftriaxone (3... ...
Bacteria are microorganisms that have circular double-stranded DNA and (except for mycoplasmas) cell walls. Most bacteria live extracellularly. Some bacteria (eg, Salmonella typhi; Neisseria gonorrhoeae; Legionella, Mycobacteria, Rickettsia, Chlamydia, and Chlamydophila species) preferentially reside and replicate intracellularly. Some bacteria such as chlamydiae, Chlamydophila species, and rickettsiae are obligate intracellular pathogens (ie, able to grow, reproduce, and cause disease only within the cells of the host). Others (eg, Salmonella typhi, Brucella species, Francisella tularensis, N. gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Legionella and Listeria species, Mycobacterium tuberculosis) are facultative intracellular pathogens.
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The cause is the bacterium Salmonella typhi, also known as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi, growing in the intestines and ... The cause is the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, also known as Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi.[17] ... Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi that causes symptoms.[3] Symptoms ... Salmonella typhi (spread by food or water contaminated with feces)[3][4]. ...
Salmonella typhi Vi polysaccharide and hepatitis A virus antigen) Vaccine". Retrieved 18 October 2020. "Vivaxim Salmonella ... typhi vaccine; Hepatitis A vaccine". Retrieved 18 October 2020. "Vivaxim 1mL injection syringe composite pack". Therapeutic ...
"Vivaxim Salmonella typhi vaccine; Hepatitis A vaccine". Retrieved 18 October 2020. "Vivaxim 1mL injection syringe composite ... It is a combination of inactivated Hepatitis A virus and Vi polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi bacteria. Branded formulations ... "Australian Product Information - Vivaxim (Salmonella typhi Vi polysaccharide and hepatitis A virus antigen) Vaccine" (PDF). ...
Jesudasan, M.; John, T. J.; Gupta, B. L.; Bhujwala, R. A.; Shriniwas (1990). "Multiresistant Salmonella typhi in India". Lancet ...
October 2012). "A mouse model of Salmonella typhi infection". Cell. 151 (3): 590-602. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.08.042. PMC ... TLR11 mounts an immune response to multiple microbes, including Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), Salmonella species, and ...
TLR11 deficient mice (knockout mouse) are efficiently infected with orally administered Salmonella Typhi. S. Typhi does not ... October 2012). "A mouse model of Salmonella typhi infection". Cell. 151 (3): 590-602. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.08.042. PMC ... Recently the enteropathogen Salmonella spp. was found to have a ligand which is bound by TLR11. Salmonella is a gram-negative ... Because of this, studies were carried out and it was found that tlr-/- mice can be immunized against S. Typhi and they are used ...
... salmonella strains that cause food poisoning and Salmonella Paratyphi. It is not so selective for Salmonella Typhi. This growth ... Salmonella spp appear to be yellow or colourless colonies, often with a dark centre. As there are many bacteria that also look ... like Salmonella on DCA, it is widely recommended that more selective agars are used for the identification of Salmonella, ...
Salmonella typhi (Bacillus typhosus). *Pseudomonas aeruginosa. *Neisseria gonorrhoeae. *Actinomyces. *Burkholderia mallei ( ...
Cells expressing a mutant form of the CFTR protein are resistant to invasion by the Salmonella typhi bacterium, the agent of ... May 1998). "Salmonella typhi uses CFTR to enter intestinal epithelial cells". Nature. 393 (6680): 79-82. Bibcode:1998Natur.393 ... since CFTR has been shown to act as a receptor for Salmonella typhi bacteria to enter intestinal epithelial cells. Cystic ...
Tsou's plot has also given good results with other systems, such the type I dehydroquinase from Salmonella typhi, for which ... "Characterization of oThe Type I Dehydroquinase from Salmonella typhi". Biochem. J. 295 (1): 277-285. doi:10.1042/Bj2950277. PMC ...
May 1998). "Salmonella typhi uses CFTR to enter intestinal epithelial cells". Nature. 393 (6680): 79-82. Bibcode:1998Natur.393 ... Typhoid: Normal CFTR proteins are also essential for the entry of Salmonella Typhi into cells, suggesting that carriers of ...
Rathi B, Sarangi AN, Trivedi N (October 2009). "Genome subtraction for novel target definition in Salmonella typhi". ... Among bacteria, Salmonella typhimurium and Thermus thermophilus have PGM enzymes of characterized 3D structure. In eukaryotes, ... The highest resolution structure is from Salmonella typhimurium (1.7 A), with PDB ID 3na5. In addition, biochemical studies ... Paterson GK, Cone DB, Peters SE, Maskell DJ (October 2009). "The enzyme phosphoglucomutase (Pgm) is required by Salmonella ...
Stefania Spanò, Juan E. Ugalde, Jorge E. Galán: Delivery of a Salmonella Typhi Exotoxin from a Host Intracellular Compartment. ... Salmonella enterica Serotyp Typhi, Campylobacter upsaliensis, Campylobacter jejuni.[4] Weblinks[Bearbeiten , Quelltext ... R. Miller, M. Wiedmann: Dynamic Duo-The Salmonella Cytolethal Distending Toxin Combines ADP-Ribosyltransferase and Nuclease ... enterica Serotyp Typhi kein CdtA und C, sondern die A- und B-Untereinheit des Pertussis-like Toxins, PltA und PltB.[6] ...
Dougan, Gordon; Baker, Stephen (2014-09-08). "Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi and the Pathogenesis of Typhoid Fever". Annual ... Typhoid fever is caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi. In Canada alone, the typhus epidemic of 1847 killed ... and murine typhus is due to Rickettsia typhi spread by fleas. Vaccines have been developed, but none are commercially available ...
Salmonella typhi and poliovirus also target this section of the intestine. Medicine portal Lung cancer Influenza Zijlstra M, ... S typhi peritonitis is due to perforation of Peyer's patches. Listen to this article (4 minutes) This audio file was created ...
Different from all other CDTs, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CDT (SeCDT) has no CdtA and CdtC homologues. However, encoded ... Spanò S, Ugalde JE, Galán JE (January 2008). "Delivery of a Salmonella Typhi exotoxin from a host intracellular compartment". ... Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (typhoid fever) Campylobacter upsaliensis (enterocolitis) Campylobacter jejuni ( ... In addition, different from all other CDTs, Salmonella genotoxin is produced only upon bacterial internalization in infected ...
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, serovar typhi Typhus fever Rickettsia Ureaplasma urealyticum infection Ureaplasma ...
Simultaneous assay of every Salmonella Typhi gene using one million transposon mutants. Genome Res. 2009;19:2308-16. doi: ...
Metal nanoparticles assisted polymerase chain reaction for strain typing of Salmonella typhi' Analyst, 2015. 'From porous gold ... "Metal nanoparticle assisted polymerase chain reaction for strain typing of Salmonella Typhi". Analyst. 140 (21): 7366-7372. ...
These fevers occur following infection by Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi respectively. Rose spots may also occur ...
2004). "Comparison of genome degradation in Paratyphi A and Typhi, human-restricted serovars of Salmonella enterica that cause ... 2003). "Comparative genomics of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strains Ty2 and CT18". J Bacteriol. 185 (7): 2330-7. doi: ... 2001). "Complete genome sequence of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18". Nature. 413 (6858): 848- ... 2004). "Complete genome sequence of Rickettsia typhi and comparison with sequences of other rickettsiae". J Bacteriol. 186 (17 ...
December 2009). "Simultaneous assay of every Salmonella Typhi gene using one million transposon mutants". Genome Research. 19 ( ... Knuth K, Niesalla H, Hueck CJ, Fuchs TM (March 2004). "Large-scale identification of essential Salmonella genes by trapping ... November 2016). "Identification of Essential Genes in the Salmonella Phage SPN3US Reveals Novel Insights into Giant Phage Head ...
"High-throughput sequencing provides insights into genome variation and evolution in Salmonella Typhi". Nature Genetics. 40 (8 ... He completed a PhD in the Department of Pathology in 1986 on Salmonella infections. At 11, he performed at the Queen Elizabeth ... Salmonella infections: clinical, immunological, and molecular aspects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. García-Álvarez, ... "Salmonella typhimuriumaroA mutants as carriers of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit to the murine ...
It has been found that Salmonella typhi persists in infected mice macrophages that have cycled from an inflammatory state to a ... Typhoid fever is a human-specific disease caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. It is highly contagious and becoming ... S. typhi is susceptible to creating asymptomatic carriers. The most famous carriers are Mary Mallon, known as Typhoid Mary, ... "Salmonella Require the Fatty Acid Regulator PPARδ for the Establishment of a Metabolic Environment Essential for Long-Term ...
Species commonly investigated in the temperate zone include Salmonella typhi and Salmonella Typhimurium. Depending on the ... basic fuchsin and was originally developed for the isolation of Salmonella typhi, but is now commonly used in water analysis. ...
He identified the typhoid bacillus (now named Salmonella typhi) before Karl Joseph Eberth. Klebs identified four "Grundversuche ...
October 2001). "Complete genome sequence of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18". Nature. 413 ( ... Salmonella enterica, and Yersinia pestis. Over time, the pseudogenes are deleted, and the organisms become fully dependent on ...
Felix and Pitt isolated the Salmonella Typhi strain Ty2, which is still in use in laboratory research today. Ty2 was the basis ... "The pathogenic and immunogenic activities of Salmonella typhi in relation to its antigenic constituents". Journal of Hygiene. ...
2001). "Complete genome sequence of a multiple drug resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi CT18". Nature. 413 (6858): 848- ... Yersinia pestis and Salmonella typhi. As well as providing complete catalogues of the arsenal of genes carried by each ... Salmonella Typhimurium and Yersinia enterocolitica. Their current research focuses on the application of high-throughput ...
Rickettsia typhi *Murine typhus. *Rickettsia prowazekii *Epidemic typhus, Brill-Zinsser disease, Flying squirrel typhus ... Salmonella enterica *Typhoid fever, Paratyphoid fever, Salmonellosis. H2S−. *Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii * ...
Salmonella typhi. yes. yes. no Intracellular protozoa. *Plasmodium malariae. *Leishmania donovani. no. no. no ... as in Salmonella.[19] Bacteroides species are normally mutualistic bacteria, making up a substantial portion of the mammalian ...
Jantsch, J.; Chikkaballi, D.; Hensel, M. (2011). "Cellular aspects of immunity to intracellular Salmonella enterica". ...
Infection due to Salmonella typhi. *(A01.1) Paratyphoid fever A. *(A01.2) Paratyphoid fever B ...
Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella enterica (serovar Typhimurium) has also been described as a cause of bacillary dysentery,[ ... Rickettsia typhi *Murine typhus. *Rickettsia prowazekii *Epidemic typhus, Brill-Zinsser disease, Flying squirrel typhus ...
ტიფი: Salmonella Typhi ასევე საჭიროებს ნორმალურ CFTR ცილას უჯრედში მოსახვედრად,[125] რაც გულისხმობს, რომ ამ ცილის პათოლოგიური ... "Salmonella typhi uses CFTR to enter intestinal epithelial cells". Nature 393 (6680): 79-82. Bibcode 1998Natur.393...79P. . PMID ...
Salmonella typhi,[56] at Giardia na uri.[23] Sa mga may Giardia o Entamoeba histolytica na uri, ang paggamot gamit ang ... Ang pinaka-karaniwang mga organismo ay ang: Campylobacter, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, at Salmonella.[70] ... Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ATCC 14028) tulad ng nakikita sa pamamagitan ng isang mikroskopyo na pinalaki ng 1000 ... Salmonella,Shigella, at Campylobacter.[16] Kung ang pagkain ay nakontamina ng bakterya at nanatili sa temperatura ng silid ng ...
സാൽമോണല്ല ടൈഫി (Salmonella Typhi ) എന്ന ബാക്ടീരിയ അണുബാധയെതുടർന്നാണ് ടൈഫോയ്ഡ് ഉണ്ടാകുന്നത്. ക്ഷീണം, വയറുവേദന , ക്രമേണ വർ ... Rickettsia typhi (Murine typhus) · Rickettsia prowazekii (Epidemic typhus, Brill-Zinsser disease, Flying squirrel typhus) ...
... beberapa jenis bakteri yang sering kali menjadi agen penyebab penyakit adalah Salmonella enterica subspesies I serovar Typhi ... Salmonella (gram -) Serratia (gram -) Shigella (gram -) Thiobacter (gram -) Treponema (gram -) Vibrio (gram -) Yersinia (gram ...
"The B subunit of an AB5 toxin produced by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi up-regulates chemokines, cytokines, and adhesion ...
Salmonella typhi. Typhoid fever. Typhoid vaccine. Typhim Vi, Typherix, Ty21a Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumococcal pneumonia. ...
... and Salmonella spp. are other common bacterial pathogens. Campylobacter, Yersinia, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas spp. are less ... Rickettsia typhi *Murine typhus. *Rickettsia prowazekii *Epidemic typhus, Brill-Zinsser disease, Flying squirrel typhus ...
"Gold nanoparticles as efficient antimicrobial agents for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi " Chemistry Central, vol. 7:11, ...
... for example Salmonella is after D.E. Salmon, who discovered it (albeit as "Bacillus typhi"[106]).[107] ... the salmonellas) or using the ancient Greek or Latin plural form (irregular plurals) of the noun (the salmonellae); the latter ... Salmonella entry in LPSN [. Euzéby, J.P. (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on ... the salmonellas), although there is some debate about the grammar of plurals, which can either be regular plural by adding -(e) ...
Initially, each Salmonella "species" was named according to clinical considerations,[39] for example Salmonella typhi-murium ( ... The two species of Salmonella are Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. S. enterica is the type species and is further ... Typhoidal serotypes include Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, which are adapted to humans and do not occur in other ... "Clonal nature of Salmonella typhi and its genetic relatedness to other salmonellae as shown by multilocus enzyme ...
Rickettsia typhi *Murine typhus. *Rickettsia prowazekii *Epidemic typhus, Brill-Zinsser disease, Flying squirrel typhus ... Salmonella enterica *Typhoid fever, Paratyphoid fever, Salmonellosis. H2S-. *Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii * ...
... carriers of Salmonella species that may have been confused with the Salmonella typhi that causes typhoid. However, the authors ... "Analysis of the type 1 pilin gene cluster fim in Salmonella: Its distinct evolutionary histories in the 5' and 3' regions". J ...
... beberapa jenis bakteri yang sering kali menjadi agen penyebab penyakit adalah Salmonella enterica subspesies I serovar Typhi ... Alpha · Beta · Gamma/Enterobacteriaceae (Salmonella, Vibrio, Shigella) · Delta · Epsilon (Campylobacter) / Aquificae (Aquifex) ... Salmonella (Gram -) Serratia (Gram -) Shigella (Gram -) Thiobacter (Gram -) Treponema (Gram -) Vibrio (gGram -) Yersinia (Gram ...
Prvotna indikacija kloramfenikola je bilo zdravljenje trebušnega tifusa, ki ga povzroča Salmonella typhi, vendar so danes sevi ...
... which works on salmonella typhi (typhoid fever) and shigella.[76] Novartis is also involved in publicly funded collaborative ...
Trebušni tifus povzroča Salmonella typhi, ki se prenaša iz človeka na človeka z uživanjem okužene vode ali hrane ter s telesnim ... Giannella RA (1996). "Salmonella". Baron's Medical Microbiology (Baron S et al., eds.) (4th izd.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch ... Povzročiteljica je Rickettsia typhi[4] Pegasti tifus[uredi , uredi kodo]. Pegasti tifus ali pegavica je vrsta tifusa, ki jo ...
... includes, along with many harmless symbionts, many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella, ... Rickettsia typhi *Murine typhus. *Rickettsia prowazekii *Epidemic typhus, Brill-Zinsser disease, Flying squirrel typhus ... Some enterobacteria are important pathogens, e.g. Salmonella, or Shigella e.g. because they produce endotoxins. Endotoxins ...
... antigen of Salmonella typhi Motility of flagellated salmonella strains used to study phage transduction First description of ...
... that had been contaminated with the bacterium Salmonella typhi; other meats cut afterward with the same slicing machine, and ...
... caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhii (not to be confused with Salmonella enterica, the cause of salmonella food poisoning ... and murine typhus is due to Rickettsia typhi spread by fleas.[1] ... Rickettsia typhi Fleas on rats Scrub typhus Orientia ...
Rickettsia typhi (Murine typhus) · Rickettsia prowazekii (Epidemic typhus, Brill-Zinsser disease, Flying squirrel typhus) ... Salmonella enterica (Typhoid fever, Paratyphoid fever, Salmonellosis). H2S-. Shigella dysenteriae/sonnei/flexneri/boydii( ...
Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Schistosoma haematobium, BK virus or Simian virus.[16][20][21][22] The Ebola virus may ... Storage of urine kills bacterial pathogens encountered in urine - including Salmonella typhi and paratyphi and Mycobacterium ...
Originally developed for the isolation of Salmonella typhi, it is now used mostly as a coliform medium. Most gram-negative ... Salmonella sp.. Endo agar typically contains (w/v): 1.0 % peptone 0.25 % dipotassium hydrogen phosphate (K2HPO4) 1.0 % lactose ...
Salmonella typhi. at 0.8gml-1 while the cold-water extract of ginger inhibited both Escherichia coli. and Salmonella typhi. at ... Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi. and Bacillus subtilis. , the widest zones of inhibition was obtained with Salmonella typhi ... Salmonella typhi. and no effect on Escherichia coli. and Bacillus subtilis.. The reason for this is not clear because the raw ... Salmonella typhi. , the reason for this variation is not very clear. The cold-water extract of onion did not inhibit at all the ...
The causative agent of typhoid fever is the bacterium Salmonella typhi. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and ... The causative agent of typhoid fever is the bacterium Salmonella typhi. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and ...
Salmonella Typhi infection (Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi) , 2019 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/ ... Salmonella-Typhi-Infection/case-definition/2019/) Related Condition(s). * Salmonella Paratyphi infection (Salmonella enterica ... serotypes Paratyphi A, B [tartrate negative], and C [S. Paratyphi]) (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/Salmonella-Paratyphi ... Salmonella Typhi Infection (Salmonella Enterica Serotype Typhi) * 2019 Case Definition. *2020 National Notifiable Conditions * ...
Infections caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) are often characterized by insidious onset of sustained ... Isolation of S. Typhi from a clinical specimen. Presumptive laboratory evidence: *Detection of S. Typhi in a clinical specimen ... Epidemiological linkage to a confirmed S. Typhi infection case, OR. *Epidemiological linkage to a probable S. Typhi infection ... S. Typhi are bacteria that often cause a potentially severe and occasionally life-threatening bacteremic illness. While fever ...
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever, a life-threatening human disease. The lack of animal models ... A mouse model for the human pathogen Salmonella typhi.. Song J1, Willinger T, Rongvaux A, Eynon EE, Stevens S, Manz MG, Flavell ... D) Immunofluorescence staining of intracellular S. Typhi in humanized mouse spleen. S. Typhi, red; Human CD45+ cells, green ( ... Typhi replication and persistent infection. A S. Typhi mutant in a gene required for virulence in humans was unable to ...
Salmonella Typhi Introduction The typhoid bacillus or simply typhoid is caused by salmonella typhi bacteria, it usually and ... Salmonella Typhi. Introduction. The typhoid bacillus or simply typhoid is caused by salmonella typhi bacteria, it usually and ... Typhoid fever or Salmonella typhi major epidemics have been linked to pollution of public water. Whereas…show more content…. ... More about Salmonella Typhi Research Paper. *. Vibrio Cholera Case Studies. 759 Words , 4 Pages ...
... Bin Zeng,1 Guozhong Zhao,2 Xiaohong Cao,2 Zhen Yang,2 ... J. Song, T. Willinger, A. Rongvaux et al., "A mouse model for the human pathogen Salmonella typhi," Cell Host and Microbe, vol ... Q. Zhu, C. K. Lim, and Y. N. Chan, "Detection of Salmonella typhi by polymerase chain reaction," Journal of Applied ... A. R. Gupte, C. L. E. De Rezende, and S. W. Joseph, "Induction and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable Salmonella ...
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Saintpaul. Salmonella enterica I. Salmonella typhimurium. Salmonella choleraesuis. ... Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Tennessee. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Hayindogo. Salmonella ... Salmonella typhiImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... tr,Q8XGH1,Q8XGH1_SALTI Putative aminotransferase OS=Salmonella typhi OX=90370 GN=STY2561 PE=4 SV=1 ...
... leads to identification of a multidrug-resistant strain of Salmonella Typhi. ... Salmonella Typhi causes typhoid fever which is one of the major health threats in low-income countries. Researchers of the ... Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Producing CTX-M-15 Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase in the Democratic Republic of the Congo ( ... This is the first time we observe ESBL production in Salmonella Typhi strains from Central Africa. If this strain would spread ...
Vi-CRM 197 as a new conjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi.. Micoli F1, Rondini S, Pisoni I, Proietti D, Berti F, ... The virulence capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella Typhi (Vi) coupled to recombinant mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotein ... Vi from a BSL1 organism, Citrobacter freundii, strain WR7011, was used as an alternative to Vi from S. Typhi. We showed that Vi ...
In the early 1900s, with mortality of ∼30%, typhoid and paratyphoid (caused by Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A) ravaged parts ... Tracking the Emergence of Azithromycin Resistance in Multiple Genotypes of Typhoidal Salmonella ...
sp,Q8Z234,GLGX_SALTI Glycogen debranching enzyme OS=Salmonella typhi OX=90370 GN=glgX PE=3 SV=1 ... Salmonella typhi. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Enterobacteriaceae › Salmonella › ...
Each year, Salmonella Typhi causes an estimated 22 million cases of typhoid fever and 216,000 deaths worldwide (1). Humans are ... Notes from the Field: Salmonella Typhi Infections Associated with Contaminated Water - Zimbabwe, October 2011-May 2012. On ... the only reservoir for S. Typhi, and infection occurs by the fecal-oral route, usually through ingestion of contaminated food ...
The immunological basis for immunization series: module 20: salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (‎typhoid)‎ vaccines  ... Salmonella serotipo Typhi, Shigella y Vibrio cholerae / Autores principales: Mindy J. Perilla ... [‎et al.]‎  ... Salmonella serotype Typhi, Shigella, and Vibrio cholerae / Principal authors: Mindy J. Perilla ... [‎et al.]‎  ...
sp,Q8Z5B2,DUSC_SALTI tRNA-dihydrouridine(16) synthase OS=Salmonella typhi OX=90370 GN=dusC PE=3 SV=1 ... Salmonella typhi. ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and ... cellular organisms › Bacteria › Proteobacteria › Gammaproteobacteria › Enterobacterales › Enterobacteriaceae › Salmonella › ...
Type 1 fimbriae have been purified from a Salmonella typhi strain of clinical origin. Purified fimbriae retained their ability ... Purification and characterization of type 1 fimbriae of Salmonella typhi Microbiol Immunol. 1994;38(5):353-8. doi: 10.1111/j. ... Type 1 fimbriae have been purified from a Salmonella typhi strain of clinical origin. Purified fimbriae retained their ability ... Analysis of different S. typhi clinical isolates using the anti-fimbrial antiserum showed an overall immunological similarity ...
... serovar Typhi, which is commonly referred to as Salmonella typhi, Salmonella Typhi, or S. typhi. Not to be confused with other ... "non-typhi Salmonella"), which invade the intestines to cause Salmonella food poisoning, or salmonellosis, Salmonella Typhi has ... "Detection of Salmonella typhi in the Blood of Patients with Typhoid Fever by Polymerase Chain Reaction." Journal of Clinical ... "Relative efficacy of blood, urine, rectal swab, bone-marrow, and rose-spot cultures for recovery of Salmonella typhi in typhoid ...
Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) are bacteria which infect the intestinal tract and the blood. The disease is referred to as typhoid ... Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) are bacteria that infect the intestinal tract and the blood. The disease is referred to as typhoid ... SOURCE: Typhoid Fever (Salmonella Typhi) ( ) Page printed: . Unofficial document if printed. Please refer to SOURCE for latest ... A S. Typhi infection is serious and potentially life-threatening.. S. Typhi may cause:. *Constipation, more common than ...
Quorum Sensing and Host-Pathogen Communication in Salmonella Typhi Institutions. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Start date ... observations from our laboratories demonstrating the production of signal molecules by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and ... Typhi, and how these hormones cross-talk with the AI-3 signalling system. ... in to the combined action of bacterial autoinducers and host-derived hormones on the biology and pathogenicity of S.Typhi. It ...
Salmonella typhi Infection in an Ovarian Dermoid Report of a Case. HINGORANI, VERA M.R.C.O.G., F.A.C.S., F.I.C.S.; NARULA, R. K ...
... typhi from nontyphoidal salmonellae if its specific localization could be demonstrated in S. typhi isolates from sites of ... Distinctive IS200 insertion between the gyrA and rcsC genes in Salmonella typhi.J. Clin. Microbiol. 35 1997 3048 3053 ... IS200 Insertion between gyrA andrcsC Genes in Salmonella typhi Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... IS200 Insertion between gyrA andrcsC Genes in Salmonella typhi. Subhash C. Arya ...
Pentose phosphate pathway - Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi Ty2 [ Pathway menu , Organism menu , Pathway ...
The Capsular Polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi Is a B1b Antigen. Jennifer L. Marshall, Adriana Flores-Langarica, Robert A ... The Capsular Polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi Is a B1b Antigen. Jennifer L. Marshall, Adriana Flores-Langarica, Robert A ... The Capsular Polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi Is a B1b Antigen Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... The Capsular Polysaccharide Vi from Salmonella Typhi Is a B1b Antigen. Jennifer L. Marshall, Adriana Flores-Langarica, Robert A ...
Analysis of data gaps pertaining to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi infections in low and medium human development index ... Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhi (Salmonella Typhi) belong to the family of Enterobacteriaceae and are ... Reevaluating fluoroquinolone breakpoints for Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi and for non-Typhi salmonellae. Clinical ... 22. Battikhi, MN . Occurence of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi in Jordan. New Microbiology 2003; 26: 363-373.Google ...
Comparison of different crystal forms of 3-dehydroquinase from Salmonella typhi and its implication for the enzyme activity. ... CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF 3-DEHYDROQUINASE FROM SALMONELLA TYPHI COMPLEXED WITH REACTION PRODUCT. ...
The organisms isolated 2 include Salmonella typhi; 45 (75.0%), Shigella; 6 (10.0%), E. coli; 3 (5.0%), Klebsiella; 3 (5.0%), ... This study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Salmonella typhi isolated from blood specimen. One hundred blood ... The Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella typhi among Patients Attending a Military Hospital in Minna ... There appear to be multiple drug resistant (MDR) strain of S. typhi in the study area. These may be as a result of ...
Home , Case News , Typhoid Fever (Salmonella Typhi) Risk to Miami Chilis Patrons. Typhoid Fever (Salmonella Typhi) Risk to ... Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella Typhi, a bacteria that can be "passed" on through fecal/oral contact by eating or ... Fareway Triple T Salmonella Outbreak Hits 170 in 7 States with 62 Hospitalized ...
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is the causative agent of typhoid fever. S. Typhi does not have an animal reservoir and can ... Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica Serovar Typhi P-stx-12. Su Yean Ong, Chandra Bhan Pratap, ... The intestinal phase of salmonella infections, p 30- 51. In Rhen M, Maskell D, Mastroeni P, Threlfall EJ (ed), Salmonella: ... We report here the complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi P-stx-12, a clinical isolate ...
  • Salmonella Typhi bacteria cause typhoid fever, a potentially life-threatening disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Vaccination before travel to countries where the Salmonella eptible t disease is common may prevent typhoid fever. (cdc.gov)
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) causes typhoid fever, a life-threatening human disease. (nih.gov)
  • We expect that this mouse model will be a useful resource for understanding S. Typhi pathogenesis and for evaluating potential vaccine candidates against typhoid fever. (nih.gov)
  • The typhoid bacillus or simply typhoid is caused by salmonella typhi bacteria, it usually and mostly infect only humans. (ipl.org)
  • The typhoid fever is an acute and a dangerous disease that is caused by bacterium salmonella entrica serovar Typhi. (ipl.org)
  • Typhoid fever or Salmonella typhi major epidemics have been linked to pollution of public water. (ipl.org)
  • Investigation into suspected typhoid fever epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) leads to identification of a multidrug-resistant strain of Salmonella Typhi. (itg.be)
  • Salmonella Typhi causes typhoid fever which is one of the major health threats in low-income countries. (itg.be)
  • Researchers of the Institut National de Recherche Biomédicale (INRB) in Kinshasa and the Institute of Tropical Medicine Antwerp (ITM) isolated a super-resistant Salmonella Typhi strain from a six-years old boy at a rural health centre in southwestern DRC, as part of an ongoing investigation of a suspected typhoid fever epidemic in the area. (itg.be)
  • Typhoid fever - caused by Salmonella Typhi - affects more than 10 million people yearly with an estimated 100,000 deaths, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, including in Sub-Saharan Africa. (itg.be)
  • Each year, Salmonella Typhi causes an estimated 22 million cases of typhoid fever and 216,000 deaths worldwide ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Typhoid fever is a systemic illness caused by the bacterium Salmonel a enterica serotype Typhi (Typhi). (cdc.gov)
  • Typhoid fever is a blood infection caused by the consumption of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Salmonella enterica , subspecies enterica , serovar Typhi, which is commonly referred to as S almonella typhi, Salmonella Typhi, or S. typhi . (ufl.edu)
  • However, confirmation of typhoid fever requires isolation of S . Typhi in stool, blood, or bone marrow samples. (ufl.edu)
  • Nevertheless, in-depth experimentation on salmonellae from a variety of sites of infection could serve to vindicate the reported sensitivity and specificity of IS 200 localization between gyrA and rcsC ( 3 ) as a tool to differentiate typhoid and nontyphoid salmonellae. (asm.org)
  • I certainly agree with the observation by Dr. Subhash C. Arya regarding the need for probing additional typhoid and nontyphoid salmonellae, isolated from sites of infection other than the blood, in order to see if our observation of the specific localization of the IS 200 element between gyrA and rcsC in Salmonella typhi is valid in infection settings other than the bloodstream. (asm.org)
  • Vaccination with purified capsular polysaccharide Vi Ag from Salmonella typhi can protect against typhoid fever, although the mechanism for its efficacy is not clearly established. (jimmunol.org)
  • One hundred blood samples were collected from suspected typhoid fever patients in 31 Artillery Brigade Medical Centre, Minna, and were analyzed for S. typhi while antibiotic sensitivity testing was done Kirby-Bauer method. (hindawi.com)
  • Typhoid fever is caused by Salmonella Typhi , a bacteria that can be "passed" on through fecal/oral contact by eating or drinking something prepared by someone with the illness. (marlerblog.com)
  • enterica serovar Typhi P-stx-12, a clinical isolate obtained from a typhoid carrier in India. (asm.org)
  • S. Typhi does not have an animal reservoir and can be transmitted from a typhoid carrier only through contaminated water or food ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Cases of typhoid, diagnosed by the isolation of S. typhi from blood cultures after 3 or more days of fever (a temperature of 37.5 degrees C or higher), were identified by active surveillance over a period of 27 months. (nih.gov)
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is a human-restricted Gram-negative bacterial pathogen responsible for causing an estimated 27 million cases of typhoid fever annually, leading to 217,000 deaths, and current vaccines do not offer full protection. (osti.gov)
  • yet a small percentage of Salmonella serovars can cause a systemic infection, such as typhoid fever by the Typhi serovar ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. (marlerblog.com)
  • Background: S. Typhi, a human-restricted Salmonella enterica serovar, causes a systemic intracellular infection in humans (typhoid fever). (harvard.edu)
  • A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was used for the detection of the pathogen in blood, urine, and stool samples from 131 patients with clinical suspicion of typhoid fever. (ajtmh.org)
  • Fluoroquinolones (FQ) are the recommended antimicrobial treatment for typhoid, a severe systemic infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. (elifesciences.org)
  • Typhoid is caused by a bacterial pathogen known as Salmonella Typhi, and mutations in two genes- gyrA and parC -result in resistance to fluoroquinolones. (elifesciences.org)
  • Typhoid is caused by Salmonella typhi (strictly termed S. enterica sub-species enterica serotype typhi ) ( 186 ) and paratyphoid is caused by either Salmonella paratyphi A , B , or C. Serologically S. typhi is LPS antigen 09, 12, protein flagellar antigen Hd, and capsular polysaccharide antigen Vi positive. (antimicrobe.org)
  • Approximately 10% of patients recovering from typhoid fever excrete S. typhi in the stool for three months, and in the past 2-3% became permanent carriers. (antimicrobe.org)
  • In such areas typhoid is predominantly a disease of children, and stool excretion of S. typhi during and after infection is the main source of the infection. (antimicrobe.org)
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is associated with a disseminated febrile illness in humans, termed typhoid fever, while Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium causes localized gastroenteritis in immunocompetent individuals. (asm.org)
  • The gram-negative bacterium Salmonella typhi , a human host-restricted pathogen, is the causative agent of typhoid fever ( 17 , 18 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • However, it is unlikely that fever and other symptoms of typhoid fever are caused by LPS, since most patients with typhoid do not exhibit increases in circulating levels of endotoxin and volunteers made LPS tolerant by repeated injections of endotoxin developed typhoid fever when challenged with virulent S. typhi ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid. (asm.org)
  • You can get typhoid fever if you eat food or drink beverages that have been handled by a person who is shedding Salmonella Typhi or if sewage contaminated with Salmonella Typhi bacteria gets into the water you use for drinking or washing food. (viviennebalonwu.com)
  • The only way to know for sure if an illness is typhoid fever is to have samples of stool or blood tested for the presence of Salmonella Typhi. (viviennebalonwu.com)
  • Resistance to multiple antibiotics is increasing among Salmonella that cause typhoid fever. (viviennebalonwu.com)
  • We investigated the acquisition of natural immunity to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in a region where typhoid is endemic by testing sera from an age-stratified sample of 210 healthy participants in Kathmandu, Nepal, for bactericidal activity toward S . Typhi and for anti-Vi capsular polysaccharide antibodies. (asm.org)
  • Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhi is responsible for 17 million new cases of typhoid fever and 200,000 deaths annually ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Salmonella Typhi was isolated from blood culture and was diagnosed to have typhoid fever. (bmj.com)
  • However, it is absent in typhoid serovars such as S. Typhi and Paratyphi A, which carry SPI-8 at the same genomic location. (tufts.edu)
  • Salmonella Typhi ( S . Typhi) causes typhoid fever, which remains an important public health issue in many developing countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we have used the GoldenGate (Illumina) platform to simultaneously type 1,500 of these SNPs in 62 S . Typhi isolates causing severe typhoid in children admitted to Patan Hospital in Kathmandu. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We provide evidence for genotype introduction and define a nalidixic acid resistant subclone of S . Typhi, which appears to be the dominant cause of severe pediatric typhoid in Kathmandu during the study period. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Typhoid fever is an acute, invasive, and potentially fatal systemic infection caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Typhi ( S. Typhi). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since protective efficacy of the current typhoid vaccines-oral whole-cell Salmonella Typhi Ty21a and parenteral Vi-capsular polysaccharide preparation-is not optimal, and no vaccines are available against paratyphoid or non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serotypes, new approaches deserve to be explored. (diva-portal.org)
  • Typhoid fever is an acute illness associated with fever caused by the Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi bacteria. (diagnosingsleepapnea.com)
  • Prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. typhi in typhoid-positive patients, phenotypic screening and molecular detection of blaCTX-M2 , and blaCTX-M9 ESBL coding genes. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The first, enteric fever, is caused by Typhoidal salmonella (TS) like S. typhi (typhoid fever), S. paratyphi A, and S. paratyphi B (Paratyphoid fever) and are mostly transmitted through contaminated water and food. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Typhi), a human-restricted bacterial pathogen that causes typhoid, show limited genetic variation. (cirad.fr)
  • In infants and young adults, the usual infections due to salmonella include typhoid fever and gastroenteritis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Salmonella can cause other diseases such as typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever. (issuepoints.com)
  • Serotype-specific PCR assays targeting Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A, the causal agents of typhoid and paratyphoid fevers, are required to accelerate formal diagnosis and to overcome the lack of typing sera and, in some situations, the need for culture. (pasteur.fr)
  • Salmonella Typhi causes Typhoid fever which is also known as enteric fever. (1mg.com)
  • Typhoid fever also called enteric fever is caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. (1mg.com)
  • In the present study, we examined the effect of anaerobiosis on the virulence of Salmonella Typhi , a Gram negative bacteria which invades through the gut mucosa and is responsible for typhoid fever . (bvsalud.org)
  • Analysis of different S. typhi clinical isolates using the anti-fimbrial antiserum showed an overall immunological similarity of these structures within this serovar. (nih.gov)
  • While probing DNA from 193 Salmonella isolates of 47 different serotypes, Calva et al. (asm.org)
  • This specific IS 200 could be an important tool in molecular taxonomy and epidemiology for differentiation of S. typhi from nontyphoidal salmonellae if its specific localization could be demonstrated in S. typhi isolates from sites of multiplication other than the blood. (asm.org)
  • Undoubtedly, the specific IS 200 localization of S. typhi ( 3 ) would show less promise if the technique fails to identify isolates from sites other than the bloodstream as well as from those from patients coinfected with AIDS. (asm.org)
  • Despite an increase in overall number of localized, extensively drug-resistant Salmonella Typhi in organ infections during 2018, there was no increase in the proportion of such isolates in comparison with non-extensively drug-resistant isolates. (cdc.gov)
  • During the 6-year study period, 8,736 isolates of Salmonella Typhi were reported from blood, bone marrow, stool, and urine, and 62 isolates were reported from other body sites ( Table 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Such Salmonella isolates typically also have decreased susceptibility to fluoroquinolones, although minimum inhibitory concentrations of the fluoroquinolones usually are within the susceptible range of the interpretive criteria of the NCCLS. (ebscohost.com)
  • In this article, we recommend that laboratories test extraintestinal Salmonella isolates for nalidixic acid resistance, we recommend that short-course fluoroquinolone therapy be avoided for infection with nalidixic acid-resistant extraintestinal salmonellae, and we summarize existing data and data needs that would contribute to reevaluation of the current NCCLS fluoroquinolone breakpoints for salmonellae. (ebscohost.com)
  • Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Characterization of Ciprofloxacin Resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Isolates in Kerala, South India. (ebscohost.com)
  • The aim of the study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and to examine the mechanism of increasing quinolone resistance of S. typhi isolates in Kerala, South India. (ebscohost.com)
  • Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi clinical isolates ( n = 91) resistant to nalidixic acid (Nal r ) were collected from sporadic cases and minor outbreaks throughout Vietnam between 1996 and 2004. (asm.org)
  • In contrast, the ribotyping and, with more accuracy, the SNP analysis methods indicated that all Nal r isolates belonged to a single clone (ribotype 3a, haplotype H58) that was found previously and that largely consisted of plasmid-encoded multidrug-resistant serotype Typhi isolates. (asm.org)
  • MDR serotype Typhi isolates with additional resistance to ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were first reported in southern Vietnam at the beginning of the 1990s ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Over 90% of the sporadic or epidemic serotype Typhi isolates in the north, central, and south regions of Vietnam were MDR from 1995 to 2002 ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • However, MDR serotype Typhi isolates with additional chromosomally encoded resistance to nalidixic acid (Nal r ) and with reduced susceptibilities to fluoroquinolones have been reported more and more in the Indian subcontinent since the early 1990s and have later been reported in various Asian countries ( 13 , 23 , 24 , 33 , 38 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • All isolates of S. typhi are closely related, although the genome is remarkably plastic (with homologous recombination around 7 ribosomal RNA genes) ( 126 ). (antimicrobe.org)
  • Blood samples were obtained for bacterial culture, and Salmonella isolates were identified biochemically and confirmed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (ovid.com)
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility of all Salmonella isolates was performed by disk diffusion test, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against ciprofloxacin were measured by Etest. (ovid.com)
  • We identified 3 lineages among multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolates in the Gulf of Guinea region in Africa during the 2000s. (cdc.gov)
  • The emergence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin and 3rd-generation cephalosporins is a concern for physicians in developing countries. (who.int)
  • This study assessed the in vitro activity of gentamicin and amikacin against 464 S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates obtained from blood of patients clinically suspected of enteric fever who attended the Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine from 1991 to 2003. (who.int)
  • Multidrug-resistant (MDR) enteric fever continues to be a worldwide health problem [3,4] and the emergence of S. enterica serovar Typhi isolates showing resistance to ciprofloxacin and the 3rd-generation cephalosporins is a cause of concern for physicians in developing countries [5-7]. (who.int)
  • Eight distinct S . Typhi haplotypes were identified during the 20-month study period, with 68% of isolates belonging to a subclone of the previously defined H58 S . Typhi. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The majority of isolates were confirmed as S . Typhi. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antimicrobial resistance among blood culture isolates of Salmonella enterica in New Delhi. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Antimicrobial resistance trends in blood culture positive Salmonella Typhi isolates from Pondicherry, India, 2005-2009. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The significant increase in MIC was observed between 128-256 μg/ml to cefetoxime, among the isolates, 9 S. typhi isolates reported positive for cefetoxime-mediated ESBL production. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The study shows an increase in the incidence rate of MDR S. typhi infection and ESBL production in S. typhi clinical isolates. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Results: A total of 7,401 blood samples were collected for microbiological confirmation, out of which 189 S. Typhi and 32 S . Paratyphi A isolates were identified with estimated annual incidences of 451/100,000 (95% CI: 446 - 457) and 76/100,000 (95% CI: 74 - 78) respectively. (jidc.org)
  • There was no statistically significant difference in clinical presentation of blood culture sensitive and resistant S. Typhi isolates. (jidc.org)
  • We generated whole-genome sequences for 19 Typhi isolates using 454 (Roche) and Solexa (Illumina) technologies. (cirad.fr)
  • Of 2,165 non-Typhi Salmonella isolates submitted in 2007 to the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System, 100 (4.6%) displayed elevated MICs (≥2 mg/L) of ceftriaxone or ceftiofur. (cdc.gov)
  • Using a new family of repeated DNA sequences, CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats), as a serotype-specific target, we developed a conventional multiplex PCR assay for the detection and differentiation of serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A from cultured isolates. (pasteur.fr)
  • Identification of Salmonella Typhi /Paratyphi isolates was confirmed using standard biochemical tests and agglutination with Salmonella species and serovar-specific antisera (Ramel, Thermo Fisher Scientific). (labshake.com)
  • Isolates of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi are reported to the Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Enteric Diseases, National Center for for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, CDC, through the Laboratory-Based Enteric Disease Surveillance (LEDS). (cdc.gov)
  • Given the potential for inconsistent application of the label "different" across jurisdictions, this case definition does not exclude persons with a previously reported S. Typhi Infection case from being counted as a new case if the subsequent positive laboratory result is more than 365 days from the most recent positive laboratory result associated with the existing case. (cdc.gov)
  • We find that immunodeficient Rag2(-/-) γc(-/-) mice engrafted with human fetal liver hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are able to support S. Typhi replication and persistent infection. (nih.gov)
  • A-C ) CFU recovered from S. Typhi-infected control (left) and humanized (right) mouse spleen ( A ), liver ( B ), and gall bladder ( C ). Control and humanized mice were infected intraperitoneally with 10 4 S. Typhi and CFU of the organs of the infected animals were examined 4 weeks after infection. (nih.gov)
  • E-J ) Flow cytometric analysis of blood cells from mice before ( E, F ) and splenocytes 4 weeks after ( G-J ) infection with 10 4 S. Typhi. (nih.gov)
  • Humans are the only reservoir for S. Typhi, and infection occurs by the fecal-oral route, usually through ingestion of contaminated food or water. (cdc.gov)
  • 1) Information on extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Salmonel a Typhi (Typhi) infections among U.S. residents without international travel, and 2) Treatment recommendations for XDR Typhi infection. (cdc.gov)
  • As of January 14, 2021, CDC has received 71 reports of XDR Typhi infection in the United States, with specimens obtained from February 9, 2018, through November 16, 2020. (cdc.gov)
  • Before the outbreak in Pakistan, no case of ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi infection had been identified in the United States [2]. (cdc.gov)
  • The incubation period of S . Typhi is between 3-60 days, but symptoms are typically presented within 1-2 weeks of infection (Chatterjee et al. (ufl.edu)
  • Rose-colored spots on the lower abdomen and/or upper torso are generally a characteristic symptom in the diagnosis of S . Typhi infection. (ufl.edu)
  • A S. Typhi infection is serious and potentially life-threatening. (bccdc.ca)
  • If you think you have a S. Typhi infection, see your family doctor for testing, advice and treatment. (bccdc.ca)
  • Your doctor can test for an S. Typhi infection through a blood, stool or urine culture. (bccdc.ca)
  • To investigate how the neuroendocrine stress hormones, adrenaline and noradrenaline encountered during infection, can alter the physiology and pathogenicity of S. Typhi, and how these hormones cross-talk with the AI-3 signalling system. (usda.gov)
  • Salmonella typhi Infection in an Ovarian Dermoid Report of a. (lww.com)
  • Expression of Vi by Salmonella during infection did not inhibit the development of early Ab responses to non-Vi Ags. (jimmunol.org)
  • Salmonella infection occurs mainly by expression of two Salmonella pathogenicity Islands (SPI-1 and SPI-2). (frontiersin.org)
  • Control of Salmonella infection is difficult, in part due to the capacity of the bacterium to tolerate environmental stress, to its widespread distribution, multiple drug resistance, and adaptability ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • After oral acquisition, Salmonella resists low pH in the stomach and colonizes the intestinal tract and some cells can disseminate to cause systemic infection of organs such as liver and spleen ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These bacterial effectors promote a transcriptional reprograming in host cells, which in turn leads to the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which could be essential for the initiation of diarrhea, a hallmark of acute Salmonella infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Infection results from eating food or drink beverages that have been handled by a person who is shedding S. Typhi or if sewage contaminated with S. Typhi bacteria gets into the water you use for drinking or washing food. (marlerblog.com)
  • An inability to resist low pH reduces the ability of Salmonella to reach the small intestine and increases the number of cells required to initiate a successful infection ( 9 ). (asm.org)
  • In most cases an asymptomatic carrier of S. typhi , or an individual who has recently recovered from the infection, continues to excrete large numbers of organisms in the stool and contaminates food or water, either through direct food handling, through transfer of bacteria by flies and other insects, or by contamination of potable water ( 118 , 120 , 121 ). (antimicrobe.org)
  • These data demonstrate that STF are powerful monocyte activators which may have important implications for vaccine development and for understanding the pathogenesis of S. typhi infection. (asm.org)
  • Enteric fever due to infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is a major health hazard, even with the introduction of newer antimicrobial drugs. (who.int)
  • We conducted a community-based surveillance for Salmonella Typhi infection in children in Karachi, Pakistan. (jidc.org)
  • 2 ] Salmonella rarely causes spinal infection, except in patients who are either immunocompromised or have sickle cell anemia,[ 7 ] A few cases are seen in healthy individuals without preexisting gastrointestinal infection. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • METHODS:Clinical and laboratory features were reviewed for 192 blood culture-confirmed children with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A infection presenting to a paediatric referral hospital in Siem Reap, 2012 - 2016. (tropmedres.ac)
  • It is thought that Salmonella virulence factors are specifically expressed at determined stages of the infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Complicated persistent salmonella infection should be considered in schistosomiasis endemic areas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Salmonellosis is an infection that is caused by the presence of salmonella bacterium in the small intestine. (issuepoints.com)
  • Polluted water, contact with feces from an infected person, or contact with reptiles such as snakes and turtles are other sources for salmonella infection. (issuepoints.com)
  • A. R. Gupte, C. L. E. De Rezende, and S. W. Joseph, "Induction and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104," Applied and Environmental Microbiology , vol. 69, no. 11, pp. 6669-6675, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • J. Passerat, P. Got, S. Dukan, and P. Monfort, "Respective roles of culturable and viable-but-nonculturable cells in the heterogeneity of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium invasiveness," Applied and Environmental Microbiology , vol. 75, no. 16, pp. 5179-5185, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • Salicylate reduces the antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin against extracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, but not against Salmonella in macrophages. (ebscohost.com)
  • Plasmid-Mediated High-Level Ceftriaxone Resistance in a Salmonella enterica Serotype typhimurium Isolate. (ebscohost.com)
  • Objective: To present the first documented case of acute infectious gastroenteritis caused by high-level ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium in Kuwait. (ebscohost.com)
  • S. enterica Typhimurium and Typhi serovars interact with host cells through the activities mainly of two type three secretion systems (TTSS), encoded in two pathogenicity islands, 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) ( 6 , 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Methodology/Principal Findings: Using high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), we examined the protein expression profiles of three sequenced S. enterica strains: S. Typhimurium LT2, S. Typhi CT18, and S. Typhi Ty2 in PhoP-inducing and non-inducing conditions in vitro and compared these results to profiles of \(phoP^−/Q^−\) mutants derived from S. Typhimurium LT2 and S. Typhi Ty2. (harvard.edu)
  • Our analysis identified 53 proteins in S. Typhimurium LT2 and 56 proteins in S. Typhi that were regulated in a PhoP-dependent manner. (harvard.edu)
  • As expected, many proteins identified in S. Typhi demonstrated concordant differential expression with a homologous protein in S. Typhimurium. (harvard.edu)
  • Conclusions/Significance: This study is the first protein expression study of the PhoP virulence associated regulon using strains of Salmonella mutant in PhoP, has identified three Typhi-unique proteins (CdtB, HlyE and STY1499) that are not present in the genome of the wide host-range Typhimurium, and includes the first protein expression profiling of a live attenuated bacterial vaccine studied in humans (Ty800). (harvard.edu)
  • Introduction of the S . Typhi tviA gene into S . Typhimurium suppressed antigen presentation of dendritic cells to flagellin-specific CD4 T cells in vitro . (asm.org)
  • The ability of Salmonella typhimurium to elicit TNF-α production by human promonocytic cell lines and peripheral blood adherent cells was shown to depend on the expression of the fliC gene, which codes for flagella ( 5 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi expresses a capsule of Vi polysaccharide, while most Salmonella serovars, including S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium, do not. (duke.edu)
  • Using isogenic Vi-expressing and non-Vi-expressing derivatives of S. Typhi and S. Typhimurium, we show that S. Typhi is inherently more sensitive to serum and blood than S. Typhimurium. (duke.edu)
  • Background: Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-13 is conserved in many serovars of S. enterica, including S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium and S. Gallinarum. (tufts.edu)
  • All volunteers were investigated for circulating specific and cross-reactive plasmablasts, identified by ELISPOT as IgA, IgG or IgM antibody-secreting cells (ASC) reactive with S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi A/B/C, or selected NTS serotypes (S. Enteritidis, S. Typhimurium). (diva-portal.org)
  • Salmonella enteriditis and Salmonella typhimurium are other salmonella bacteria. (diagnosingsleepapnea.com)
  • Salmonella Typhimurium - What Are Bacteria? (diagnosingsleepapnea.com)
  • Multidrug resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium from humans in France (1993 to 2003). (semanticscholar.org)
  • DNA probes generated from FURTA positive plasmids were then used for hybridization with chromosomal DNA from S. typhi, Salmonella typhimurium and E. coli. (elsevier.com)
  • Using these techniques we identified an iron regulated locus present in S. typhi and S. typhimurium but not in E. coli. (elsevier.com)
  • The genes iroBC were located at 4 and 57 centisomes on the physical maps of Salmonella typhi and S. typhimurium, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • The salmonella family has over 2,300 serotypes of bacteria, with Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium being the most common strains of the pathogen in the United States. (issuepoints.com)
  • Over the past decade, several strains (types) of Salmonella Typhi strains are often nonsusceptible to Salmonella Typhi have become resistant to multiple ciprofloxacin, so antibiotic treatment options are diminishing. (cdc.gov)
  • Salmonella Typhi strains to identify it quickly and ensure that patients get appropriate antibiotic treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • This is the first time we observe ESBL production in Salmonella Typhi strains from Central Africa. (itg.be)
  • 3 ) found one of the copies of IS 200 elements to be constantly present between the gyrA and rcsC genes in all 63 strains of Salmonella typhi examined. (asm.org)
  • Apart from being localized in these S. typhi strains from different locations globally, IS 200 was also localized at the identical place in 18 strains of S. weltevreden examined. (asm.org)
  • These may be as a result of overdependence or uncontrolled use of the few available antibiotics and/or inaccurate or inconclusive diagnosis resulting in the development and spread of resistant strains of S. typhi . (hindawi.com)
  • The genome of S. Typhi P-stx-12 was significantly different from the other two published genomes of S . Typhi strains, CT18, which was isolated in Vietnam (GenBank accession number AL513382 ), and Ty2, which was isolated in Russia (GenBank accession number AE014613 ). (asm.org)
  • We evaluated Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi strains isolated from all body sites in Pakistan during 2013-2018. (cdc.gov)
  • For XDR Salmonella Typhi strains, susceptibility was confirmed by using the Vitek2 System (bioMérieux), except for azithromycin, which was reported by using the disk diffusion method. (cdc.gov)
  • Surveillance and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Strains Isolated from Slaughtered Pigs in Spain. (ebscohost.com)
  • However, arginine decarboxylase is typically repressed under routine culture conditions, and for many live attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains, the acid tolerance response is unable to provide the necessary protection. (asm.org)
  • The objective of this study was to enhance survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine strains at pHs 3.0 and 2.5 to compensate for the defects in the acid tolerance response imposed by mutations in rpoS , phoPQ , and fur . (asm.org)
  • Using in vitro competition experiments, we assayed the fitness of eleven isogenic S. Typhi strains with resistance mutations in the FQ target genes, gyrA and parC . (elifesciences.org)
  • Our findings have important implications for the management of drug-resistant S. Typhi, suggesting that FQ-resistant strains would be naturally maintained even if fluoroquinolone use were reduced. (elifesciences.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Genetic fingerprinting of S. Typhi in Indonesia showed the presence of endemic strains in localized geographic areas, as well as the movement of one strain type throughout the archipelago. (jidc.org)
  • Salmonella Typhi is a bacterium that is strictly a human pathogen with currently 107 known strains of the bacteria. (issuepoints.com)
  • Strains of salmonella that have no symptoms for animals can make people sick, and vice versa. (issuepoints.com)
  • Abstract The host-pathogen interactions induced by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A during enteric fever are poorly understood. (irses-tuberculosis.info)
  • It can also be caused by Salmonella paratyphi , a related bacterium that usually how to get rid of skunks with chocolate The bacteria Salmonella is commonly associated with food poisoning in countries all over the world. (diagnosingsleepapnea.com)
  • Salmonella typhi is a facultative anaerobic, Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. (bode-science-center.com)
  • A mouse model for the human pathogen Salmonella typhi. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, infected animals mounted human innate and adaptive immune responses to S. Typhi, resulting in the production of cytokines and pathogen-specific antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • A mouse model for the human pathogen Salmonella typhi ," Cell Host and Microbe , vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 369-376, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • This proposal stems from recent unpublished observations from our laboratories demonstrating the production of signal molecules by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and the ability of this pathogen to sense and respond to neuroendocrine stress hormones. (usda.gov)
  • Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi is a major pathogen affecting populations from low- and middle-income countries that generally lack clean, potable water and good sanitary disposal systems ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, it has been observed that the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 22 (IL-22) can be exploited by pathogens, such as Salmonella , to suppress the growth of their closest competitors thereby enhancing pathogen colonization of mucosal surfaces ( 11 - 13 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • No information concerning the effects of the human pathogen S. typhi on human monocytes by bacterial components other than LPS is available. (asm.org)
  • Chitosan-dextran sulphate nanocapsule drug delivery system as an effective therapeutic against intraphagosomal pathogen Salmonella. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The observed patterns of genetic isolation and drift are consistent with the proposed key role of asymptomatic carriers of Typhi as the main reservoir of this pathogen, highlighting the need for identification and treatment of carriers. (cirad.fr)
  • The antimicrobial properties of various extracts of Allium cepa (onions) and Zingiber officinale (ginger) against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis that are common cause of gastrointestinal tract infections were investigated using the cup-plate diffusion method. (ispub.com)
  • The percent of Salmonella Typhi infections nonsusceptible to and 620 hospitalizations each year in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Ongoing surveillance of S. Typhi infections is essential to detect and control outbreaks, determine public health priorities, monitor trends in illness, and assess effectiveness of public health interventions. (cdc.gov)
  • Infections caused by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi ( S. Typhi) are often characterized by insidious onset of sustained fever, headache, malaise, anorexia, relative bradycardia, constipation or diarrhea, and non-productive cough. (cdc.gov)
  • However, no current serological test is sufficiently sensitive or specific to replace culture-based tests for the identification of S. Typhi infections. (cdc.gov)
  • In 2016, a large outbreak of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Typhi infections began in Sindh province, Pakistan [1]. (cdc.gov)
  • Case reporting of U.S. Typhi infections for 2020 is not yet complete. (cdc.gov)
  • An unrelated cluster of ceftriaxone-resistant Typhi infections linked to Iraq has been reported in the United States and the United Kingdom [2]. (cdc.gov)
  • o Although most Typhi infections are acquired during international travel, Typhi can be acquired in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Antibiotic treatment is required for S. Typhi infections. (bccdc.ca)
  • Seeding of deep-seated organs by Salmonella Typhi, resulting in bone and soft tissue infections and splenic and hepatic abscesses, has been reported ( 6 - 9 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We conducted a study to determine if there was a true increase in the proportion of extraintestinal XDR Salmonella Typhi infections compared with non-XDR infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Salmonella enterica infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. (ebscohost.com)
  • Antimicrobial therapy may be lifesaving for patients with extraintestinal infections with S. enterica serotype Typhi or non-Typhi salmonellae. (ebscohost.com)
  • In such areas Salmonella typhi infections are commonly mild and self limiting. (antimicrobe.org)
  • Apart from exposure to the contaminated food (often ice creams or iced drinks) or water source, a number of host factors increase the risk of Salmonella infections. (antimicrobe.org)
  • Disease related or iatrogenic immunosuppression and several other infections, notably schistosomiasis, malaria ( 120 , 121 ), histoplasmosis and bartonellosis, are associated with an increased risk of Salmonella infections. (antimicrobe.org)
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi is a predominant cause of bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). (ovid.com)
  • Southern Asia carries a heavy burden of disease, with S. Typhi causing almost 40% of culture-positive bloodstream infections in Nepal ( 26 ). (asm.org)
  • Salmonella rarely causes spinal infections in patients other than those who are immunocompromised or have sickle cell anemia. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A infections in Cambodian children, 2012 - 2016. (tropmedres.ac)
  • In the context of a national Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A outbreak, this retrospective study objective was to compare features of S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A infections in Cambodian children. (tropmedres.ac)
  • More research should be done to confirm the association between salmonella infections and urinary schistosomiasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infections with S. typhi belong to the notifiable diseases in accordance with the Federal Law on the Prevention of Infectious Diseases in Humans (IfSG). (bode-science-center.com)
  • Salmonella infections in humans are normally caused by infected foods such as beef, poultry, and eggs that have not been cooked or stored properly. (issuepoints.com)
  • To investigate metabolite signals associated with enteric fever we performed two dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC/TOFMS) on plasma from patients with S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A infections and asymptomatic controls, identifying 695 individual metabolite peaks. (irses-tuberculosis.info)
  • Vi from a BSL1 organism, Citrobacter freundii, strain WR7011, was used as an alternative to Vi from S. Typhi. (nih.gov)
  • If the specificity does not hold true, the finding would open questions regarding the role of IS 200 insertions in the physiology of Salmonella , possibly reflecting the ability of this organism to survive in different niches. (asm.org)
  • Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Salmonella Typhi, a strain resistant to 5 groups of antimicrobial drugs, including third-generation cephalosporins ( 10 , 11 ), has emerged in 2 cities in the southern part of Sindh Province and further disseminated to other parts of Pakistan, raising concern for persistence of the organism in hosts because of delays in appropriate therapy. (cdc.gov)
  • S. Typhi are bacteria that often cause a potentially severe and occasionally life-threatening bacteremic illness. (cdc.gov)
  • The same lifecycle is followed by all species of Salmonella as the cell is passed through the intestine with fecal matter and leave the host when defection has occur and through ingestion of the bacteria, Salmonella Typhi is then transferred to a new host, this happens through the consumption of contaminated water and food, while the bacteria passes through the stomach into the intestine and start its replication process. (ipl.org)
  • Infected individuals carry S . Typhi in their intestinal tract and bloodstream and periodically "shed" the bacteria in their stool (CDC 2013, Gopinath et al. (ufl.edu)
  • Salmonella Typhi ( S. Typhi) are bacteria that infect the intestinal tract and the blood. (bccdc.ca)
  • Once S. Typhi bacteria are eaten or drunk, they multiply and spread into the bloodstream. (marlerblog.com)
  • For Salmonella , transient exposure to gastric pH prepares invading bacteria for the stresses of host-cell interactions. (asm.org)
  • One of the genetic differences between both pathogens is the presence in S . Typhi of TviA, a regulatory protein that shuts down flagellin (FliC) expression when bacteria transit from the intestinal lumen into the intestinal mucosa. (asm.org)
  • Data presented here indicate the possibility of a relationship between low levels of bactericidal activity toward S . Typhi in serum and susceptibility to disease, as observed for other polysaccharide-encapsulated bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Salmonella are a group of bacteria that cause a wide spectrum of diseases. (diagnosingsleepapnea.com)
  • Explore the features of two closely related subspecies of the bacteria, Salmonella. (diagnosingsleepapnea.com)
  • Originally Answered: What kills salmonella bacteria? (diagnosingsleepapnea.com)
  • Typhi and Paratyphi generally cause a bacteremic illness These conditions are also ideal for the growth of bacteria, including Salmonella, Listeria, and E. coli. (diagnosingsleepapnea.com)
  • In general, safe cooking and preparation of food can kill existing Salmonella bacteria and prevent it from spreading. (diagnosingsleepapnea.com)
  • At the same time, calprotectin inadvertently promotes salmonella growth by killing the microbes that normally reside within the intestines and help the immune system battle pathogenic bacteria. (diagnosingsleepapnea.com)
  • Furthermore, SPI-9 contributed to adherence of S. Typhi to epithelial cells when bacteria were grown under high osmolarity or low pH. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Bacteria Collection: NCTC 160 Salmonella enterica subsp. (phe-culturecollections.org.uk)
  • Salmonella is a infectious rod shaped, gram negative bacteria that can cause diarrhea illnesses in both humans and animals. (issuepoints.com)
  • Most salmonella bacteria is destroyed by the stomach acids, but if there is a high concentration in infected foods then some can manage to survive and multiply. (issuepoints.com)
  • Salmonella is a bacteria that's is related with your intestines and usually is associated with food poisoning. (issuepoints.com)
  • Anaerobically grown S. Typhi showed significantly higher cell surface hydrophobicity as compared to aerobic bacteria . (bvsalud.org)
  • It is a combination of inactivated Hepatitis A virus and Vi polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • S. Typhi and S . Paratyphi are common in many developing countries where sewage and water treatment systems are poor. (bccdc.ca)
  • If you are a food handler, health care worker or work in or attend a day care, it is possible for you to transmit S. Typhi or S. Paratyphi to others in these settings. (bccdc.ca)
  • Both S. typhi and S. paratyphi have emerged as opportunistic organisms in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus. (asm.org)
  • Salmonella paratyphi B is also known as S. schottmuelleri , and Salmonella paratyphi C as S. hirschfeldii . (antimicrobe.org)
  • Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A, and 27 (0.3%) nontyphoid Salmonella (NTS) were isolated. (ovid.com)
  • One Salmonella Paratyphi A isolate with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was found in Senegal, with 1 mutation in gyrA (Ser83Phe) and a second mutation in parC (Ser57Phe). (ovid.com)
  • Fluoroquinolone resistance among Salmonella enterica serovar Paratyphi A in Pondicherry. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Molecular characterization of ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and Paratyphi A causing enteric fever in India. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Applying supervised pattern recognition, we found highly significant and reproducible metabolite profiles separating S. Typhi cases, S. Paratyphi A cases, and controls, calculating that a combination of six metabolites could accurately define the etiological agent. (irses-tuberculosis.info)
  • The virulence capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella Typhi (Vi) coupled to recombinant mutant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoprotein A (Vi-rEPA) has been shown to be highly efficacious. (nih.gov)
  • A newly devised conjugate of the capsular polysaccharide of Salmonella typhi, Vi, bound to nontoxic recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A (rEPA), has enhanced immunogenicity in adults and in children 5 to 14 years old and has elicited a booster response in children 2 to 4 years old. (nih.gov)
  • A S. Typhi mutant in a gene required for virulence in humans was unable to replicate in these mice. (nih.gov)
  • The changing epidemiology of Salmonella: trends in serotypes isolated from humans in the United States, 1987-1997," Journal of Infectious Diseases , vol. 183, no. 5, pp. 753-761, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • Not to be confused with other members of the bacterial group Salmonella (often called "non-typhi Salmonella "), which invade the intestines to cause Salmonella food poisoning, or salmonellosis, Salmonella Typhi has no known reservoir outside of humans. (ufl.edu)
  • S . Typhi colonizes only humans. (cambridge.org)
  • Molecular and comparative analysis of Salmonella enterica Senftenberg from humans and animals using PFGE, MLST and NARMS. (ebscohost.com)
  • The article focuses on the molecular and comparative study of Salmonella enterica Senftenberg derived from humans and animals using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Multi-Locus Sequence Type (MLST) and National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). (ebscohost.com)
  • Salmonella Typhi lives only in humans. (marlerblog.com)
  • The vast majority of live attenuated Salmonella vaccines for humans are constructed from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty2, an rpoS mutant ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • S . Typhi is atypical with respect to the majority of Salmonella serotypes as it does not have the ability to interact with multiple hosts and is restricted solely to infecting humans [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These include S. enterica serovar Typhi ( S. Typhi), which infects only humans. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, resistance to nalidixic acid has emerged among both Typhi and non-Typhi Salmonella serotypes. (ebscohost.com)
  • Among 11 patients without international travel in 2020, eight patients were infected with XDR Typhi, one patient was infected with non-XDR Typhi, and susceptibility testing is pending for two others. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, we aimed to measure the ciprofloxacin susceptibility of S. Typhi isolated from patients with febrile illness in SSA. (ovid.com)
  • Salmonella Typhi with reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was not distributed homogenously throughout SSA. (ovid.com)
  • It will provide mechanistic molecular insights of the signal transduction pathways and how these different input signals are sensed and integrated to modulate the virulence and fitness of S.Typhi. (usda.gov)
  • Salmonella virulence factors as well as host immune responses are determinant in the infectious process developed in the pathology ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In log-phase cells, the Salmonella virulence proteins PhoP, PhoQ, and Fur regulate the acid tolerance response. (asm.org)
  • To create a live attenuated Salmonella vaccine, it is necessary to introduce mutations that attenuate the virulence of the vaccine strain, and, unfortunately, these mutations often simultaneously decrease the ability to survive at low pH. (asm.org)
  • BapA, the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis orthologous to S. Typhi STY2875, has been associated with biofilm formation, and is described as a virulence factor in mice. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Anaerobiosis induced virulence of Salmonella typhi. (bvsalud.org)
  • Salmonella Typhi (ty2) was cultured in aerobic and anaerobic conditions to compare its virulence by rabbit ileal loop assay, hydrophobicity assay, expression of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) and antioxidant enzymes assay. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our results suggest that exposure of S. Typhi to anaerobic conditions enhances its virulence . (bvsalud.org)
  • Our results emphasize that natural O-antigen modifications should be taken into consideration when assessing responses to vaccines, especially O-antigen-based vaccines, and that the Salmonella gtr repertoire may confound the protective efficacy of broad-ranging Salmonella lipopolysaccharide conjugate vaccines. (osti.gov)
  • Differential Killing of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Antibodies Targeting Vi and Lipopolysaccharide O:9 Antigen. (duke.edu)
  • Both S. Typhi and S. Enteritidis express the lipopolysaccharide O:9 antigen, yet there is little evidence of cross-protection from anti-O:9 antibodies. (duke.edu)
  • Australian Product Information - Vivaxim (Salmonella typhi Vi polysaccharide and hepatitis A virus antigen) Vaccine" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Multiple-Antibiotic Resistance and Plasmid Profiles of Salmonella enteritidis Isolated from Retail Chicken Meats. (ebscohost.com)
  • A study was conducted to determine the prevalence, antibiotics resistant and plasmid patterns of Salmonella enteritidis on chicken meat samples. (ebscohost.com)
  • Differential roles for pathogenicity islands SPI-13 and SPI-8 in the interaction of Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhi with murine and human macrophages. (tufts.edu)
  • d the role played by SPI-13 and SPI-8 in the interaction of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhi with cultured murine (RAW264.7) and human (THP-1) macrophages. (tufts.edu)
  • Preliminary in silico analyses revealed that S. Typhi STY2875 ORF has a 600 bp deletion compared with S. Enteritidis bapA , suggesting that S. Typhi STY2875 might be non-functional. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • However, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were more sensitive to the extract of onion bulbs compared to Bacillus subtilis which was predominantly resistant. (ispub.com)
  • The discovery started with sound investigational work by Prof. Octavie Lunguya and Dr. Marie-France Phoba at INRB in Kinshasa, who observed the resistant strain in the child's blood and identified it as Salmonella Typhi. (itg.be)
  • To understand the genetic background of this super-resistant Salmonella Typhi strain, the Diagnostic Bacteriology Unit of ITM sequenced the genome of the strain and identified the genes that are responsible for the observed resistance. (itg.be)
  • There appear to be multiple drug resistant (MDR) strain of S. typhi in the study area. (hindawi.com)
  • Ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi in a pregnant traveller returning from Karachi, Pakistan to Denmark, 2019. (medworm.com)
  • We describe a ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella Typhi bacteraemia in a pregnant woman returning from a family visit in Pakistan. (medworm.com)
  • The construction of the rhamnose-regulated arginine decarboxylase system allowed us to render S . Typhi acid resistant (to pH 2.5) on demand, with survival levels approximately equivalent to that of the native arginine decarboxylase system. (asm.org)
  • Phylogeographical analysis of the dominant multidrug-resistant H58 clade of Salmonella Typhi identifies inter- and intracontinental transmission events. (edu.au)
  • Multidrug-resistant S. Typhi were isolated in Kenya (79% [n = 38]) and Tanzania (89% [n = 8]) only. (ovid.com)
  • The in vitro antibacterial activity of 100 unifloral honey samples against a blood culture isolate of multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella typhi were investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fluoroquinolone resistant S . Typhi constitute a serious public health concern in endemic areas as well as in industrialized countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the 1990ies, antimicrobial therapy became problematic in endemic areas due to multi-drug resistant (MDR) S . Typhi, rendering chloramphenicol, trimethoprim and ampicillin, which were the drugs used as first-line treatment ineffective. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A case report and review of the literature: ciprofloxacin resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in India. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Emergence of highly fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in a community-based fever surveillance from Kolkata, India. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Emergence of nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi resistant to ciprofloxacin in India. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The ciprofloxacin resistant and cefetoxime sensitive standard MTCC S. typhi 734 and S. typhi BST 63 strain showed absence of both blaCTX-M2 and blaCTXM-9 genes. (alliedacademies.org)
  • At the time of presentation, after adjusting for age, there was an association between the duration of fever and temperature at presentation, and being infected with multidrug-resistant S. Typhi. (jidc.org)
  • In the last 30 years, high rates of multiple-drug resistance (MDR) to all first-line antimicrobial agents encoded by large conjugative plasmids in Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi have been reported around the world, but the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asian countries are particularly affected ( 43 ). (asm.org)
  • In the absence of antimicrobial pressure, 6 out of 11 mutants carried a selective advantage over the antimicrobial-sensitive parent strain, indicating that FQ resistance in S. Typhi is not typically associated with fitness costs. (elifesciences.org)
  • In addition, the antimicrobial effect of several commercial germicides was tested on alfalfa sprouts for reduction of native coliforms and inoculated Vibrio cholerae Ol or Salmonella typhi. (edu.mx)
  • We compared the antimicrobial resistance profiles of 192 S . Typhi isolated from patients over a time span of twelve years. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By comparing the strain's genome with 1800 other Salmonella Typhi genomes from around the world, we showed that the closest siblings of this strain originate from DRC as well, suggesting that the strain was not imported from elsewhere. (itg.be)
  • Type 1 fimbriae have been purified from a Salmonella typhi strain of clinical origin. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we isolated and sequenced the S. Typhi strain of a chronic carrier from a region in India where the disease is highly endemic. (asm.org)
  • The live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine strain Ty21a ( 8 ) has been extensively studied with regard to its safety and immunogenicity in healthy volunteers ( 14 , 15 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • The amino-terminal sequence of fimbrillin was determined and turned out to be very similar but not identical to that of type 1 fimbrillins of other Salmonella serovars. (nih.gov)
  • The second type of clinical syndromes like diarrhea and gastroenteritis are caused by non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars [ 1 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • SPI-18 is a pathogenicity island found in some Salmonella enterica serovars, including S. Typhi. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of these Salmonella serovars are "generalists", infecting a wide range of hosts and causing different symptoms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. (edu.mx)
  • Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against native Salmonella typhi. (abnova.com)
  • This antibody is only reactive with S. typhi. (abnova.com)
  • Salmonella typhi antibody LS-C511190 is an AP-conjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to salmonella typhi Salmonella typhi. (lsbio.com)
  • Bactericidal antibody may be a marker of protective immunity against S . Typhi. (asm.org)
  • Here we investigate the role of Vi capsule and antibodies against Vi and O:9 in antibody-dependent complement- and phagocyte-mediated killing of Salmonella. (duke.edu)
  • The Vi capsule is associated with reduced C3 and C5b-9 deposition, and decreased overall antibody binding to S. Typhi. (duke.edu)
  • Salmonella -specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody responses in serum along with IgA antibody responses in ileostomy fluids from the patients who had undergone colectomies were also evaluated. (asm.org)
  • Salmonella -specific IgA and/or IgG antibody responses in serum were observed for five (56%) of nine patients who had undergone colectomies and in 15 (88%) of 17 healthy volunteers. (asm.org)
  • In ileostomy fluids, significant anti- Salmonella IgA antibody titer increases were detected in six (67%) of nine patients who had undergone colectomies. (asm.org)
  • Isolation of S. Typhi from a clinical specimen. (cdc.gov)
  • During 2018, a sudden increase in isolation frequency of XDR Salmonella Typhi from clinical samples other than blood, stool, and urine in Pakistan was observed. (cdc.gov)
  • Yearly isolation of Salmonella Typhi from different body sites gradually decreased during 2013-2017, but during 2018, there was a slight increase. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, although XDR Salmonella Typhi isolation from blood, feces, and urine had been consistently increasing since the beginning of outbreak, its isolation from other body sites was not observed until 2017. (cdc.gov)
  • A method for rapid isolation of S. typhi from blood clot is presented. (ajtmh.org)
  • Following ingestion of contaminated food or water, S . Typhi enters the small intestine, multiplies, and spreads into the bloodstream. (ufl.edu)
  • After ingestion, S. typhi reaches the small intestine, where it quickly penetrates the epithelium. (asm.org)
  • This study investigated the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of Salmonella typhi isolated from blood specimen. (hindawi.com)
  • What Antibiotic Is Used to Kill Salmonella? (diagnosingsleepapnea.com)
  • Here, we present a 58-year-old immunologically normal female without a significant gastrointestinal history with infective pyogenic spondylodiscitis attributed to S . Typhi, treated with surgical decompression and appropriate antibiotic therapy. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • The lack of evidence for antigenic variation driven by immune selection is in contrast to strong adaptive selection for mutations conferring antibiotic resistance in Typhi. (cirad.fr)
  • A single nucleotide mutation at either codon 83 or 87 of the gene encoding the GyrA protein ( gyrA ) confers resistance to nalidixic acid in S . Typhi [ 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparison between these three genomes revealed that the coding genes of S. Typhi P-stx-12 were 84% similar to those of CT18 ( 10 ) and Ty2 ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • In order to identify genes belonging to the Fur regulon of Salmonella typhi which are absent from Escherichia coli K-12, a plasmid gene bank consisting of 4000 independent clones was screened for Fur regulated promoters using the Fur titration assay (FURTA). (elsevier.com)
  • Double-mutants exhibited higher than expected fitness as a result of synergistic epistasis, signifying that epistasis may be a critical factor in the evolution and molecular epidemiology of S. Typhi. (elifesciences.org)
  • Background: The epidemiology of non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS) bacteremia in Africa will likely evolve as potential co-factors, such as HIV, malaria, and urbanization, also change. (elsevier.com)
  • Occasionally other Salmonella e may cause an enteric fever-like syndrome. (antimicrobe.org)
  • RESULTS An isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) from a case of enteric fever gave a ciprofloxacin MIC of 64 microg/ml. (semanticscholar.org)
  • After approval was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee at Aga Khan Hospital, all reports of clinical specimens that showed growth of Salmonella Typhi during January 2013-December 2018 were extracted from the laboratory database and included in the study. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, informed consent and detailed history were obtained by telephone from patients who had XDR Salmonella Typhi isolated from sites other than blood/bone marrow, stool, and urine during 2018. (cdc.gov)
  • Vi-CRM 197 as a new conjugate vaccine against Salmonella Typhi. (nih.gov)
  • Consistent with previous findings in volunteers vaccinated with aroC aroD deletion mutants of S. typhi , PBMC from volunteers immunized with the licensed live Ty21a S. typhi vaccine secreted gamma interferon following exposure to STF. (asm.org)
  • The capacity of an oral live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a vaccine to induce immune responses in patients who had undergone colectomies because of ulcerative colitis was evaluated, and these responses were compared with those of healthy volunteers. (asm.org)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the T- and B-cell responses to oral S. enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a vaccine in a group of patients who had undergone colectomies because of ulcerative colitis and to compare their immune responses with those found for a group of healthy volunteers given the same vaccine. (asm.org)
  • Salmonella are facultative intracellular pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Salmonella enterica are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens capable of infecting human beings and other vertebrates, and causing substantial morbidity and mortality ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Before orally ingested enteric pathogens such as Salmonella can reach their target host cells, they must first survive their encounter with the low pH of the human stomach-∼2.0 following a fast ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Lorne Stained Febrile Antigens are for the detection of certain Salmonella, Richettsiae and Brucellae pathogens. (lornelabs.com)
  • In addition to actively infected individuals, shedding of S. Typhi also occurs in the stool of chronic carriers, those that continue to carry the disease and may or may not exhibit symptoms. (ufl.edu)
  • Both ill persons and carriers shed S. Typhi in their feces (stool). (marlerblog.com)
  • Increasing numbers of S. Typhi with resistance to ciprofloxacin have been reported from different parts of the world. (ovid.com)
  • Reduced ciprofloxacin-susceptible (22% [n = 11]) S. Typhi were isolated only in Kenya. (ovid.com)
  • In the last decade S. enterica serovar Typhi has rapidly developed resistance to antibiotics such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole, and also to ciprofloxacin [1,2]. (who.int)
  • High level ciprofloxacin resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from blood. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Despite this, the protection conferred by immunization of mice with porin proteins from Salmonella , which induce Ab-mediated protection, was reduced postinfection with Vi-expressing Salmonella , although protection was not totally abrogated. (jimmunol.org)
  • All the proteins encoded by S. Typhi SPI-9 were located at the membrane fraction, consistent with their putative role as T1SS. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Expression of OMPs in anaerobic S. Typhi showed a distinct induction of five outer membrane proteins . (bvsalud.org)
  • Understand the role of the quorum sensing signal molecules autoinducer-2 and autoinducer-3 in the biology and pathogenicity of S. Typhi. (usda.gov)
  • This proposal will provide novel insights in to the combined action of bacterial autoinducers and host-derived hormones on the biology and pathogenicity of S.Typhi. (usda.gov)
  • Detection of S. Typhi in a clinical specimen using a culture-independent diagnostic test (CIDT). (cdc.gov)
  • Sixty-six of the 650 clinical blood samples collected have turned out to be positive for S. typhi . (alliedacademies.org)
  • Entric fever and paralyphoid are from other species of salmonella, this infect all domestic animals and also human. (ipl.org)
  • 2005), this species is a later heterotypic synonym of Salmonella enterica ( ex Kauffmann and Edwards 1952) Le Minor and Popoff 1987 . (dsmz.de)
  • Salmonella typhi is the correct name if this species is regarded as a separate species within a separate genus Salmonella . (dsmz.de)
  • Major emphasis must be put on intensive therapy for salmonella bacteremia and prevention of its complications. (oup.com)
  • Complete Genome Sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. (asm.org)
  • We report here the complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica subsp. (asm.org)
  • The genome sequences of S. Typhi P-stx-12 have been deposited in GenBank under accession numbers CP003278 (chromosome) and CP003279 (plasmid). (asm.org)
  • Here we investigate the role of two gtr operons that we identified in the S. Typhi genome. (osti.gov)
  • The complete genome of S. typhi CT 18 has been sequenced recently ( 137 ). (antimicrobe.org)
  • The causative agent Salmonella Typhi is known to have significant genome plasticity. (jidc.org)
  • Typhi cases for 2020 compared with 39 states for 2019. (cdc.gov)