Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.
Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.
Gram-negative rods widely distributed in LIZARDS and SNAKES, and implicated in enteric, bone (BONE DISEASES), and joint infections (JOINT DISEASES) in humans.
Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA that causes mild PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.
Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
A family of the order Anura, distinguished by the lack of a tongue. It includes four living genera of aquatic "toads". Two of the most familiar pipids are the popularly called Surinam "toad" (Pipa pipa) and XENOPUS LAEVIS.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.
Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by several Paratyphi serotypes of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. It is similar to TYPHOID FEVER but less severe.
An antibacterial agent that has been used in veterinary practice for treating swine dysentery and enteritis and for promoting growth. However, its use has been prohibited in the UK following reports of carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p125)
Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Animals kept by humans for companionship and enjoyment, as opposed to DOMESTIC ANIMALS such as livestock or farm animals, which are kept for economic reasons.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
##### I apologize, but the term "turtles" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It is commonly referred to as a group of reptiles with a shell, and does not have any direct relevance to medical definition.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
A pattern recognition receptor that binds FLAGELLIN. It mediates cellular responses to certain bacterial pathogens.
An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A focal infection is a localized infection that can potentially lead to the development of systemic infectious or non-infectious diseases once it spreads to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.
Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Cell surface receptors for INTERLEUKIN-12. They exist as dimers of beta 1 and beta 2 subunits. Signaling from interleukin-12 receptors occurs through their interaction with JANUS KINASES.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
A long pro-domain caspase that has specificity for the precursor form of INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. It plays a role in INFLAMMATION by catalytically converting the inactive forms of CYTOKINES such as interleukin-1beta to their active, secreted form. Caspase 1 is referred as interleukin-1beta converting enzyme and is frequently abbreviated ICE.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in Asia, Africa, and southern Europe.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Inbred C3H mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to maintain a high degree of genetic uniformity and share specific genetic characteristics, including susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes them valuable for biomedical research purposes.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).
Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.

Risk factors for the occurrence of sporadic Salmonella enterica serotype enteritidis infections in children in France: a national case-control study. (1/1754)

To determine risk factors associated with the occurrence of sporadic cases of Salmonella enteritidis infections among children in France, we conducted a matched case-control study. Cases were identified between 1 March and 30 September 1995. One hundred and five pairs of cases and controls matched for age and place of residence were interviewed. In the 1-5 years age group, illness was associated with the consumption of raw eggs or undercooked egg-containing foods (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8). Storing eggs more than 2 weeks after purchase was associated with Salmonella enteritidis infection (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.4-10.2), particularly during the summer period (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.3-26.8). Cases were more likely to report a case of diarrhoea in the household 10-3 days before the onset of symptoms, particularly in the age group < or = 1 year (P = 0.01). This study confirms the link between eggs and the occurrence of sporadic cases of Salmonella enteritidis among children, highlights the potential role of prolonged egg storage and underlines the role of person-to-person transmission in infants.  (+info)

Salmonella infections in Norway: descriptive epidemiology and a case-control study. (2/1754)

The epidemiological progression of human salmonellosis in Norway is parallel to trends noted elsewhere in Europe. During the past two decades, the number of reported cases has increased steadily, with a special sharp rise in the early 1980s due to the emergence of Salmonella enteritidis, followed by a levelling off in recent years. However, in contrast to the situation in most other European countries, about 90% of the cases from whom a travel history is available, have acquired their infection abroad. The incidence of indigenous salmonella infections as well as the prevalence of the microorganism in the domestic food chain, are both comparatively low. In 1993-4, a national case-control study of sporadic indigenous salmonella infections was conducted to identify preventable risk factors and guide preventive efforts. Ninety-four case patients and 226 matched population controls were enrolled. The study failed to demonstrate any statistically significant association between salmonellosis and consumption of domestically produced red meat, poultry or eggs. The only factor which remained independently associated with an increased risk in conditional logistic regression analysis, was consumption of poultry purchased abroad during holiday visits to neighbouring countries. A separate analysis of Salmonella typhimurium infections incriminated food from catering establishments and foreign travel among household members, in addition to imported poultry.  (+info)

Automated outbreak detection: a quantitative retrospective analysis. (3/1754)

An automated early warning system has been developed and used for detecting clusters of human infection with enteric pathogens. The method used requires no specific disease modelling, and has the potential for extension to other epidemiological applications. A compound smoothing technique is used to determine baseline 'normal' incidence of disease from past data, and a warning threshold for current data is produced by combining a statistically determined increment from the baseline with a fixed minimum threshold. A retrospective study of salmonella infections over 3 years has been conducted. Over this period, the automated system achieved > 90% sensitivity, with a positive predictive value consistently > 50%, demonstrating the effectiveness of the combination of statistical and heuristic methods for cluster detection. We suggest that quantitative measurements are of considerable utility in evaluating the performance of such systems.  (+info)

Multidrug-resistant human and animal Salmonella typhimurium isolates in France belong predominantly to a DT104 clone with the chromosome- and integron-encoded beta-lactamase PSE-1. (4/1754)

Epidemiologic relationships were investigated in 187 ampicillin-resistant Salmonella typhimurium strains (86 human, 101 animal) from >2000 strains isolated in 1994. Of 23 resistance patterns, the most frequent (ampicillin [Am], chloramphenicol [Cm], tetracycline [Tc], streptomycin and spectinomycin [Sm], and sulfonamides [Su]) was found in 69.5% of human and 64.8% of animal isolates. Four beta-lactamase genes were identified, blaTEM (24%), blaPSE-1 (78%), and blaSHV and oxa-2 (each <3%). blaPSE-1 and the integrase gene, intI1, but not blaTEM, blaSHV or oxa-2, were chromosomeborne and found almost exclusively in the AmCmTcSmSu strains. In these, polymerase chain reaction mapping revealed two distinct integrons carrying blaPSE-1 or aadA2. Lysotypes, plasmid profiles, and restriction fragment length polymorphisms (IS200) were determined for 50 representative isolates and for 3 DT104 strains from the United Kingdom (UK). The phage type of the PSE-1-producing AmCmTcSmSu strains was 12 atypic, indistinguishable from that of the DT104 strains. The combined data indicate that the same multiresistant clone has spread through human and animal ecosystems in the UK and France.  (+info)

Integron- and carbenicillinase-mediated reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in isolates of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium DT104 from French patients. (5/1754)

Fifty-seven Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. typhimurium) isolates were collected from human patients in two French hospitals, Hopital Antoine Beclere (Clamart, France) and Hopital Bicetre (Le Kremlin-Bicetre, France), between 1996 and 1997. Thirty of them (52 percent) were resistant to amino-, carbeni-, and ureidopenicillins, had reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, were susceptible to cephalothin, and were resistant to sulfonamides, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracyclines. All these strains possessed a blaPSE-1-like gene and were of phage type DT104. Ten of them were studied in more detail, which revealed that blaPSE-1 is located on the variable region of a class 1 integron. This integron was found to be chromosomally located, as was another class 1 integron containing aadA2, a streptomycin-spectinomycin resistance gene. The reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (and to ticarcillin-clavulanic acid) may result from the high level of hydrolysis of the beta-lactam rather than to the clavulanic acid resistance properties of PSE-1 in these clonally related S. typhimurium isolates.  (+info)

Zidovudine therapy protects against Salmonella bacteremia recurrence in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (6/1754)

Fifty-five human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with Salmonella bacteremia were studied to assess the rate of and causes for recurrence and to determine the influence on relapse of zidovudine, cotrimoxazole, and antimicrobial suppressive therapy according to the susceptibility of the isolates. Overall, 22% of patients relapsed in a median time of 87 days, independent of CD4 cell count, Salmonella serotype, or duration of antibiotic therapy. The use of zidovudine was associated with the lowest rate of recurrences compared with cotrimoxazole or amoxicillin as suppressive therapy. In the microbiologic assay, zidovudine showed bactericidal effect on Salmonella species at current dosages, and resistance to zidovudine was uncommon (2 cases, 4%). Due to its direct effect on Salmonella species, a zidovudine-containing regimen may protect against the recurrence of the disease.  (+info)

Typing of Salmonella enterica serotype paratyphi C isolates from various countries by plasmid profiles and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. (7/1754)

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of 61 Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi C isolates from six countries gave five distinct clusters. Twenty-four isolates from five countries were susceptible to 10 antimicrobials tested and gave similar restriction endonuclease digest patterns of the 38-MDa plasmid. In contrast, plasmid and PFGE profiles of 37 multidrug-resistant isolates from Zaire were different from those from other countries.  (+info)

Characteristics of septic arthritis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected haemophiliacs versus other risk groups. (8/1754)

The cases are presented of four haemophiliacs infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with septic arthritis among the 340 patients followed at our centre. The data of these cases and 39 additional HIV-infected haemophiliacs with septic arthritis, identified in a literature search, are reviewed. The spectrum of bacterial pathogens is limited and somewhat different from that in other risk groups. The localization is exclusively to joints affected by haemophilic arthropathy. The laboratory picture is characterized by the absence of peripheral leucocytosis, varying CD4-helper cell counts, a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fever. The clinical picture mimics that of haemarthrosis, often causing a delay in diagnosis. Treatment with systemic antibiotics is often sufficient, obviating the need for arthrotomy and open drainage. Prognosis related to the joint function is relatively good, but poor when related to the medium- to long-term survival of the patient.  (+info)

Salmonella infections, also known as salmonellosis, are a type of foodborne illness caused by the Salmonella bacterium. These bacteria can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans, animals, and birds, especially poultry. People typically get salmonella infections from consuming contaminated foods or water, or through contact with infected animals or their feces. Common sources of Salmonella include raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, and milk products; contaminated fruits and vegetables; and improperly prepared or stored food.

Symptoms of salmonella infections usually begin within 12 to 72 hours after exposure and can include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, vomiting, and headache. Most people recover from salmonella infections without treatment within four to seven days, although some cases may be severe or even life-threatening, especially in young children, older adults, pregnant women, and people with weakened immune systems. In rare cases, Salmonella can spread from the intestines to the bloodstream and cause serious complications such as meningitis, endocarditis, and arthritis.

Prevention measures include proper food handling, cooking, and storage practices; washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom, changing diapers, or touching animals; avoiding cross-contamination of foods during preparation; and using pasteurized dairy products and eggs. If you suspect that you have a Salmonella infection, it is important to seek medical attention promptly to prevent complications and reduce the risk of spreading the infection to others.

A Salmonella infection in animals refers to the presence and multiplication of Salmonella enterica bacteria in non-human animals, causing an infectious disease known as salmonellosis. Animals can become infected through direct contact with other infected animals or their feces, consuming contaminated food or water, or vertical transmission (from mother to offspring). Clinical signs vary among species but may include diarrhea, fever, vomiting, weight loss, and sepsis. In some cases, animals can be asymptomatic carriers, shedding the bacteria in their feces and acting as a source of infection for other animals and humans. Regular monitoring, biosecurity measures, and appropriate sanitation practices are crucial to prevent and control Salmonella infections in animals.

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative bacteria that are facultative anaerobes and are motile due to peritrichous flagella. They are non-spore forming and often have a single polar flagellum when grown in certain conditions. Salmonella species are important pathogens in humans and other animals, causing foodborne illnesses known as salmonellosis.

Salmonella can be found in the intestinal tracts of humans, birds, reptiles, and mammals. They can contaminate various foods, including meat, poultry, eggs, dairy products, and fresh produce. The bacteria can survive and multiply in a wide range of temperatures and environments, making them challenging to control completely.

Salmonella infection typically leads to gastroenteritis, characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. In some cases, the infection may spread beyond the intestines, leading to more severe complications like bacteremia (bacterial infection of the blood) or focal infections in various organs.

There are two main species of Salmonella: S. enterica and S. bongori. S. enterica is further divided into six subspecies and numerous serovars, with over 2,500 distinct serotypes identified to date. Some well-known Salmonella serovars include S. Typhi (causes typhoid fever), S. Paratyphi A, B, and C (cause paratyphoid fever), and S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium (common causes of foodborne salmonellosis).

"Salmonella enterica" serovar "Typhimurium" is a subspecies of the bacterial species Salmonella enterica, which is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium. It is a common cause of foodborne illness in humans and animals worldwide. The bacteria can be found in a variety of sources, including contaminated food and water, raw meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products.

The infection caused by Salmonella Typhimurium is typically self-limiting and results in gastroenteritis, which is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting. However, in some cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body and cause more severe illness, particularly in young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

Salmonella Typhimurium is a major public health concern due to its ability to cause outbreaks of foodborne illness, as well as its potential to develop antibiotic resistance. Proper food handling, preparation, and storage practices can help prevent the spread of Salmonella Typhimurium and other foodborne pathogens.

"Salmonella enterica" is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a common cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide, often resulting in gastroenteritis, which is characterized by symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, and vomiting.

"Salmonella enterica" is further divided into several serovars or subspecies, with some of the most common ones causing human illness being Typhimurium and Enteritidis. These bacteria are typically transmitted to humans through contaminated food or water sources, such as raw or undercooked meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy products.

Once ingested, "Salmonella enterica" can colonize the gastrointestinal tract and release endotoxins that cause inflammation and damage to the intestinal lining. In some cases, the bacteria can spread to other parts of the body, leading to more severe and potentially life-threatening infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Preventing "Salmonella enterica" infections involves proper food handling and preparation practices, such as washing hands and surfaces thoroughly, cooking meats and eggs to appropriate temperatures, and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods.

Salmonella food poisoning, also known as salmonellosis, is an infection caused by the Salmonella enterica bacterium. It's typically contracted through the consumption of contaminated food or water, or by coming into contact with infected animals or their feces. The bacteria can cause gastrointestinal distress, including diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever, within 12 to 72 hours after exposure. Symptoms usually last for four to seven days, and most people recover without treatment. However, in severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage dehydration caused by excessive diarrhea. In rare instances, Salmonella can spread from the intestines to the bloodstream and cause life-threatening infections.

Salmonella Enteritidis is a specific strain of the Salmonella bacterium that primarily infects the intestinal tract, leading to a type of foodborne illness known as salmonellosis. This organism can be found in a variety of animals and their feces, including poultry and cattle. It can contaminate various foods, particularly eggs, raw meat, and unpasteurized dairy products.

Infection with Salmonella Enteritidis typically occurs when an individual ingests contaminated food or water. The bacteria then multiply within the digestive system, causing symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and vomiting. In some cases, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems, Salmonella Enteritidis infection can lead to more severe complications, including bacteremia (bloodstream infection) and invasive diseases affecting other organs.

Preventing Salmonella Enteritidis infection involves proper food handling, cooking, and storage practices, as well as maintaining good hygiene and sanitation standards in both residential and commercial settings.

Salmonella typhi is a bacterium that causes typhoid fever, a severe and sometimes fatal infectious disease. It is a human-specific pathogen, which means it only infects humans and is not carried in animals or birds. The bacteria are spread through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. Once ingested, Salmonella typhi can invade the intestinal tract, causing symptoms such as high fever, headache, abdominal pain, constipation, and rose-colored spots on the chest. If left untreated, typhoid fever can lead to serious complications, including intestinal perforation, bacteremia, and death.

Salmonella vaccines are immunizations that are developed to protect against Salmonella infections, which are caused by bacteria of the Salmonella enterica species. These vaccines typically contain antigens or weakened forms of the Salmonella bacteria that stimulate an immune response in the body, enabling it to recognize and fight off future Salmonella infections.

There are two main types of Salmonella vaccines:

1. Live Attenuated Vaccines: These vaccines contain weakened (attenuated) forms of the Salmonella bacteria that can still replicate but at a much slower rate and with reduced virulence compared to the wild-type bacteria. Examples include Ty21a, a live oral typhoid vaccine, and χ 144, an experimental live oral vaccine against nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars.
2. Inactivated (Killed) Vaccines: These vaccines contain killed Salmonella bacteria or their components, such as proteins or polysaccharides. They cannot replicate and are generally considered safer than live attenuated vaccines. However, they may not stimulate as strong an immune response compared to live vaccines. An example is the Vi polysaccharide vaccine against typhoid fever.

Salmonella vaccines are primarily used for preventing Salmonella infections in humans and animals, particularly those that cause typhoid fever and nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections. Vaccination is an essential component of controlling Salmonella infections, especially in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene, where the risk of exposure to Salmonella bacteria is higher.

"Salmonella arizonae" is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is motile and facultatively anaerobic. It is a species within the genus Salmonella, which are commonly associated with foodborne illnesses in humans and animals. However, "Salmonella arizonae" is primarily associated with reptiles and is rarely known to cause disease in humans. It can be found in the intestinal tracts of reptiles, amphibians, and birds, and can contaminate their environments, including water and soil. In rare cases, human infection may occur through direct contact with infected animals or their feces, consumption of contaminated food or water, or person-to-person transmission. The clinical presentation of "Salmonella arizonae" infection in humans is similar to other Salmonella infections, typically causing gastroenteritis characterized by diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Salmonella phages are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria of the genus Salmonella. These phages, also known as bacteriophages or simply phages, are composed of a protein capsid that encases the genetic material, which can be either DNA or RNA. They specifically target Salmonella bacteria, using the bacteria's resources to replicate and produce new phage particles. This process often leads to the lysis (breaking open) of the bacterial cell, resulting in the release of newly formed phages.

Salmonella phages have been studied as potential alternatives to antibiotics for controlling Salmonella infections, particularly in food production settings. They offer the advantage of being highly specific to their target bacteria, reducing the risk of disrupting beneficial microbiota. However, further research is needed to fully understand their safety and efficacy before they can be widely used as therapeutic or prophylactic agents.

Salmonella Paratyphi A is a bacterium that causes a type of enteric fever known as Paratyphoid fever. It's a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is motile and non-spore forming. This bacterium is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. The incubation period for paratyphoid fever can range from 5 to 10 days. Symptoms include high fever, headache, abdominal pain, and sometimes a rash. Paratyphoid fever is a systemic infection that can affect various organs in the body, including the liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It's treated with antibiotics, and prevention measures include good hygiene practices, safe food handling, and vaccination for high-risk populations.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

Typhoid fever is an acute illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. It is characterized by sustained fever, headache, constipation or diarrhea, rose-colored rash (in some cases), abdominal pain, and weakness. The bacteria are spread through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with an infected person's feces. If left untreated, typhoid fever can lead to severe complications and even be fatal. It is diagnosed through blood, stool, or urine tests and treated with antibiotics. Vaccination is available for prevention.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Reptiles" is not a medical term. It is a term used in biology to describe a class of cold-blooded, scaly-skinned animals that include snakes, lizards, alligators, crocodiles, turtles, and tortoises. They are characterized by having lungs for breathing, laying eggs on land, and having a three-chambered heart. If you have any medical questions or terms, I'd be happy to help clarify those!

Salmonella Paratyphi B, also known as Salmonella enterica serovar Java, is a gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic bacterium that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a human pathogen that can cause a systemic illness called paratyphoid fever, which is characterized by fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and headache. The infection typically spreads through the consumption of contaminated food or water.

Salmonella Paratyphi B has a characteristic bipolar staining pattern, giving it a "safety pin" appearance under the microscope. It is motile due to the presence of peritrichous flagella and can survive in a wide range of temperatures and environments. The bacterium produces several virulence factors that allow it to invade and colonize host cells, including fimbriae, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and type III secretion systems.

Paratyphoid fever caused by Salmonella Paratyphi B is generally less severe than typhoid fever caused by Salmonella Typhi, but it can still lead to serious complications such as bacteremia, meningitis, and intestinal perforation in some cases. The diagnosis of paratyphoid fever typically involves the isolation and identification of the bacterium from clinical samples such as blood or stool cultures. Treatment usually involves antibiotic therapy, with fluoroquinolones being the drug of choice for severe cases.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Poultry diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious disorders that affect domesticated birds, particularly those raised for meat, egg, or feather production. These diseases can be caused by various factors including viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, genetic predisposition, environmental conditions, and management practices.

Infectious poultry diseases are often highly contagious and can lead to significant economic losses in the poultry industry due to decreased production, increased mortality, and reduced quality of products. Some examples of infectious poultry diseases include avian influenza, Newcastle disease, salmonellosis, colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidiosis.

Non-infectious poultry diseases can be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, environmental stressors, and management issues. Examples of non-infectious poultry diseases include ascites, fatty liver syndrome, sudden death syndrome, and various nutritional deficiencies.

Prevention and control of poultry diseases typically involve a combination of biosecurity measures, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, good management practices, and monitoring for early detection and intervention. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of poultry diseases is crucial to implementing effective treatment and prevention strategies, and can help minimize the impact of disease outbreaks on both individual flocks and the broader poultry industry.

A disease outbreak is defined as the occurrence of cases of a disease in excess of what would normally be expected in a given time and place. It may affect a small and localized group or a large number of people spread over a wide area, even internationally. An outbreak may be caused by a new agent, a change in the agent's virulence or host susceptibility, or an increase in the size or density of the host population.

Outbreaks can have significant public health and economic impacts, and require prompt investigation and control measures to prevent further spread of the disease. The investigation typically involves identifying the source of the outbreak, determining the mode of transmission, and implementing measures to interrupt the chain of infection. This may include vaccination, isolation or quarantine, and education of the public about the risks and prevention strategies.

Examples of disease outbreaks include foodborne illnesses linked to contaminated food or water, respiratory infections spread through coughing and sneezing, and mosquito-borne diseases such as Zika virus and West Nile virus. Outbreaks can also occur in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and nursing homes, where vulnerable populations may be at increased risk of infection.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Pipidae" is not a medical term. It is actually a taxonomic category in the field of biology, specifically referring to a family of fully aquatic frogs known as the Pipid frogs or tropical frogs. These frogs are characterized by their lack of tongues and external ear drums. They are found primarily in Africa and South America.

If you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to define, I'd be happy to help!

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

The cecum is the first part of the large intestine, located at the junction of the small and large intestines. It is a pouch-like structure that connects to the ileum (the last part of the small intestine) and the ascending colon (the first part of the large intestine). The cecum is where the appendix is attached. Its function is to absorb water and electrolytes, and it also serves as a site for the fermentation of certain types of dietary fiber by gut bacteria. However, the exact functions of the cecum are not fully understood.

In the medical context, the term "eggs" is not typically used as a formal medical definition. However, if you are referring to reproductive biology, an egg or ovum is a female reproductive cell (gamete) that, when fertilized by a male sperm, can develop into a new individual.

In humans, eggs are produced in the ovaries and are released during ovulation, usually once per month. They are much larger than sperm and contain all the genetic information necessary to create a human being, along with nutrients that help support the early stages of embryonic development.

It's worth noting that the term "eggs" is also commonly used in everyday language to refer to chicken eggs or eggs from other birds, which are not relevant to medical definitions.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

Paratyphoid fever is an acute infectious disease, similar to typhoid fever, caused by the Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi bacteria. The illness is characterized by fever, headache, abdominal pain, and occasionally rash. It's spread through contaminated food and water, and it primarily affects the intestinal tract and sometimes the bloodstream. Symptoms typically appear within a week of exposure and may include sustained fever, malaise, muscle aches, headache, cough, and constipation or diarrhea. Paratyphoid fever can be prevented by practicing good sanitation and hygiene, such as frequent hand washing, and is treated with antibiotics.

Carbadox is a veterinary drug that belongs to the class of medications called antimicrobials. It is specifically an antimicrobial agent with both antibacterial and coccidiostat properties. Carbadox is used in the treatment and prevention of certain bacterial infections in swine (pigs). It works by inhibiting the growth of bacteria and killing coccidia, a type of parasite that can cause infection in pigs.

Carbadox is available as a feed additive and is typically administered to pigs through their food. It is important to note that carbadox is not approved for use in animals destined for human consumption in many countries, including the European Union, due to concerns about potential carcinogenicity and other safety issues.

It's worth mentioning that the use of carbadox in food-producing animals has been a topic of controversy and debate in recent years, with some experts calling for stricter regulations or a complete ban on its use due to concerns about antibiotic resistance and human health.

Enterocolitis is a medical condition that involves inflammation of the small intestine (enteritis) and large intestine (colitis). This condition can affect people of all ages, but it is most commonly seen in infants and young children. The symptoms of enterocolitis may include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, bloating, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration.

There are several types of enterocolitis, including:

1. Infectious Enterocolitis: This type is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection in the intestines. Common causes include Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and norovirus.
2. Antibiotic-Associated Enterocolitis: This type is caused by an overgrowth of harmful bacteria in the intestines following the use of antibiotics that kill off beneficial gut bacteria.
3. Pseudomembranous Enterocolitis: This is a severe form of antibiotic-associated enterocolitis caused by the bacterium Clostridioides difficile (C. diff).
4. Necrotizing Enterocolitis: This is a serious condition that primarily affects premature infants, causing inflammation and damage to the intestinal tissue, which can lead to perforations and sepsis.
5. Ischemic Enterocolitis: This type is caused by reduced blood flow to the intestines, often due to conditions such as mesenteric ischemia or vasculitis.
6. Radiation Enterocolitis: This type occurs as a complication of radiation therapy for cancer treatment, which can damage the intestinal lining and lead to inflammation.
7. Eosinophilic Enterocolitis: This is a rare condition characterized by an excessive buildup of eosinophils (a type of white blood cell) in the intestinal tissue, leading to inflammation and symptoms similar to those seen in inflammatory bowel disease.

Treatment for enterocolitis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. It may include antibiotics, antiparasitic medications, probiotics, or surgery in severe cases.

Anti-bacterial agents, also known as antibiotics, are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria. These agents work by either killing the bacteria or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. There are several different classes of anti-bacterial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and tetracyclines, among others. Each class of antibiotic has a specific mechanism of action and is used to treat certain types of bacterial infections. It's important to note that anti-bacterial agents are not effective against viral infections, such as the common cold or flu. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a significant global health concern.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poultry" is not a medical term. It is a agricultural and culinary term that refers to domestic birds (such as chickens, ducks, geese, and turkeys) that are kept for their eggs, meat, or feathers. The study and care of these birds would fall under the field of veterinary medicine, but "poultry" itself is not a medical term.

"Food handling" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in the context of public health and food safety, it generally refers to the activities involved in the storage, preparation, and serving of food in a way that minimizes the risk of contamination and foodborne illnesses. This includes proper hygiene practices, such as handwashing and wearing gloves, separating raw and cooked foods, cooking food to the correct temperature, and refrigerating or freezing food promptly. Proper food handling is essential for ensuring the safety and quality of food in various settings, including restaurants, hospitals, schools, and homes.

An abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered and processed for human consumption. It is also known as a slaughterhouse. The term "abattoir" comes from the French word "abattre," which means "to take down" or "slaughter." In an abattoir, animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and chickens are killed and then butchered into smaller pieces of meat that can be sold to consumers.

Abattoirs must follow strict regulations to ensure the humane treatment of animals and the safety of the meat products they produce. These regulations cover various aspects of the slaughtering and processing process, including animal handling, stunning, bleeding, evisceration, and inspection. The goal of these regulations is to minimize the risk of contamination and ensure that the meat is safe for human consumption.

It's important to note that while abattoirs play an essential role in providing a reliable source of protein for humans, they can also be controversial due to concerns about animal welfare and the environmental impact of large-scale animal agriculture.

Virulence, in the context of medicine and microbiology, refers to the degree or severity of damage or harm that a pathogen (like a bacterium, virus, fungus, or parasite) can cause to its host. It is often associated with the ability of the pathogen to invade and damage host tissues, evade or suppress the host's immune response, replicate within the host, and spread between hosts.

Virulence factors are the specific components or mechanisms that contribute to a pathogen's virulence, such as toxins, enzymes, adhesins, and capsules. These factors enable the pathogen to establish an infection, cause tissue damage, and facilitate its transmission between hosts. The overall virulence of a pathogen can be influenced by various factors, including host susceptibility, environmental conditions, and the specific strain or species of the pathogen.

Enteritis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the small intestine. The small intestine is responsible for digesting and absorbing nutrients from food, so inflammation in this area can interfere with these processes and lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Enteritis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial or viral infections, parasites, autoimmune disorders, medications, and exposure to toxins. In some cases, the cause of enteritis may be unknown. Treatment for enteritis depends on the underlying cause, but may include antibiotics, antiparasitic drugs, anti-inflammatory medications, or supportive care such as fluid replacement therapy.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Gastroenteritis is not a medical condition itself, but rather a symptom-based description of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, primarily involving the stomach and intestines. It's often referred to as "stomach flu," although it's not caused by influenza virus.

Medically, gastroenteritis is defined as an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, usually resulting in symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. This condition can be caused by various factors, including viral (like rotavirus or norovirus), bacterial (such as Salmonella, Shigella, or Escherichia coli), or parasitic infections, food poisoning, allergies, or the use of certain medications.

Gastroenteritis is generally self-limiting and resolves within a few days with proper hydration and rest. However, severe cases may require medical attention to prevent complications like dehydration, which can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pets" is not a medical term. In general, a pet is a domesticated animal, usually kept for companionship or pleasure. They are not typically associated with medical definitions or terminology. If you have any questions related to veterinary medicine or the care of pets as it relates to human health, I'd be happy to try and help answer those!

Flagellin is a protein that makes up the structural filament of the flagellum, which is a whip-like structure found on many bacteria that enables them to move. It is also known as a potent stimulator of the innate immune response and can be recognized by Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the host's immune system, triggering an inflammatory response. Flagellin is highly conserved among different bacterial species, making it a potential target for broad-spectrum vaccines and immunotherapies against bacterial infections.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "turtles" is not a medical term. It refers to the group of reptiles that have a shell and include various species such as tortoises and terrapins. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try to help with those!

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is a type of electrophoresis technique used in molecular biology to separate DNA molecules based on their size and conformation. In this method, the electric field is applied in varying directions, which allows for the separation of large DNA fragments that are difficult to separate using traditional gel electrophoresis methods.

The DNA sample is prepared by embedding it in a semi-solid matrix, such as agarose or polyacrylamide, and then subjected to an electric field that periodically changes direction. This causes the DNA molecules to reorient themselves in response to the changing electric field, which results in the separation of the DNA fragments based on their size and shape.

PFGE is a powerful tool for molecular biology research and has many applications, including the identification and characterization of bacterial pathogens, the analysis of genomic DNA, and the study of gene organization and regulation. It is also used in forensic science to analyze DNA evidence in criminal investigations.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Domestic animals, also known as domestic animals or pets, are species that have been tamed and kept by humans for various purposes. These purposes can include companionship, work, protection, or food production. Some common examples of domestic animals include dogs, cats, cows, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and chickens.

Domestic animals are distinguished from wild animals in that they are dependent on humans for their survival and are able to live in close proximity to people. They have often been selectively bred over generations to possess certain traits or characteristics that make them more suitable for their intended uses. For example, dogs may be bred for their size, strength, agility, or temperament, while cats may be bred for their coat patterns or behaviors.

It is important to note that the term "domestic animal" does not necessarily mean that an animal is tame or safe to handle. Some domestic animals, such as certain breeds of dogs, can be aggressive or dangerous if not properly trained and managed. It is always important to approach and handle any animal, domestic or wild, with caution and respect.

Peyer's patches are specialized lymphoid nodules found in the mucosa of the ileum, a part of the small intestine. They are a component of the immune system and play a crucial role in monitoring and defending against harmful pathogens that are ingested with food and drink. Peyer's patches contain large numbers of B-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, and macrophages, which work together to identify and eliminate potential threats. They also have a unique structure that allows them to sample and analyze the contents of the intestinal lumen, providing an early warning system for the immune system.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

In a medical context, "meat" generally refers to the flesh of animals that is consumed as food. This includes muscle tissue, as well as fat and other tissues that are often found in meat products. However, it's worth noting that some people may have dietary restrictions or medical conditions that prevent them from consuming meat, so it's always important to consider individual preferences and needs when discussing food options.

It's also worth noting that the consumption of meat can have both positive and negative health effects. On the one hand, meat is a good source of protein, iron, vitamin B12, and other essential nutrients. On the other hand, consuming large amounts of red and processed meats has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and certain types of cancer. Therefore, it's generally recommended to consume meat in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Bacterial translocation is a medical condition that refers to the migration and establishment of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to normally sterile sites inside the body, such as the mesenteric lymph nodes, bloodstream, or other organs. This phenomenon is most commonly associated with impaired intestinal barrier function, which can occur in various clinical settings, including severe trauma, burns, sepsis, major surgery, and certain gastrointestinal diseases like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and liver cirrhosis.

The translocation of bacteria from the gut to other sites can lead to systemic inflammation, sepsis, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which can be life-threatening in severe cases. The underlying mechanisms of bacterial translocation are complex and involve several factors, such as changes in gut microbiota, increased intestinal permeability, impaired immune function, and altered intestinal motility.

Preventing bacterial translocation is an important goal in the management of patients at risk for this condition, and strategies may include optimizing nutritional support, maintaining adequate fluid and electrolyte balance, using probiotics or antibiotics to modulate gut microbiota, and promoting intestinal barrier function through various pharmacological interventions.

Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) is a protein that plays a crucial role in the innate immune system. It is a type of transmembrane receptor located on the surface of various cells, including immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells. TLR5 recognizes and binds to a specific molecular pattern called flagellin, which is a structural protein found in the bacterial flagellum, a whip-like structure that some bacteria use for motility.

Once TLR5 binds to flagellin, it triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which in turn activate genes involved in inflammation, immune response, and cell survival. This activation results in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines that help to recruit other immune cells to the site of infection and initiate an effective immune response against the invading pathogen.

TLR5 has been implicated in various inflammatory and infectious diseases, including Crohn's disease, sepsis, and Legionnaires' disease. Understanding the role of TLR5 in the immune system can provide insights into the development of new therapies for these conditions.

Reactive arthritis is a form of inflammatory arthritis that occurs in response to an infection in another part of the body, such as the genitals, urinary tract, or gastrointestinal tract. It is also known as Reiter's syndrome. The symptoms of reactive arthritis include joint pain and swelling, typically affecting the knees, ankles, and feet; inflammation of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes; and urethritis or cervicitis. It is more common in men than women and usually develops within 1-4 weeks after a bacterial infection. The diagnosis is made based on the symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Treatment typically includes antibiotics to eliminate the underlying infection and medications to manage the symptoms of arthritis.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

A focal infection is a localized infection that can serve as a focus for the development of secondary systemic infections or diseases elsewhere in the body. The infection is typically caused by a bacterium, virus, or fungus and can occur in any organ or tissue.

The theory of focal infection suggests that microorganisms can spread from the initial site of infection to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system, leading to further complications and illnesses. This concept was widely accepted and studied in the early 20th century but has since been largely replaced by more modern understandings of infectious disease processes.

Nonetheless, the term "focal infection" is still used in medical contexts to describe localized infections that may have systemic consequences or require specific treatment to prevent further spread and complications. Examples of focal infections include dental abscesses, lung infections, and urinary tract infections.

The Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS) is a network of specialized immune cells distributed throughout the body, primarily consisting of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. These cells share a common bone marrow-derived precursor and play crucial roles in innate and adaptive immunity. They are involved in various functions such as:

1. Phagocytosis: engulfing and destroying foreign particles, microbes, and cellular debris.
2. Antigen presentation: processing and presenting antigens to T-cells to initiate an adaptive immune response.
3. Cytokine production: releasing pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines to regulate immune responses and maintain tissue homeostasis.
4. Immune regulation: modulating the activity of other immune cells, including T-cells, B-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

The MPS is essential for maintaining tissue integrity, fighting infections, and orchestrating immune responses. Its components are found in various tissues, including the liver (Kupffer cells), spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and connective tissues.

Innate immunity, also known as non-specific immunity or natural immunity, is the inherent defense mechanism that provides immediate protection against potentially harmful pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) without the need for prior exposure. This type of immunity is present from birth and does not adapt to specific threats over time.

Innate immune responses involve various mechanisms such as:

1. Physical barriers: Skin and mucous membranes prevent pathogens from entering the body.
2. Chemical barriers: Enzymes, stomach acid, and lysozyme in tears, saliva, and sweat help to destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
3. Cellular responses: Phagocytic cells (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages) recognize and engulf foreign particles and pathogens, while natural killer (NK) cells target and eliminate virus-infected or cancerous cells.
4. Inflammatory response: When an infection occurs, the innate immune system triggers inflammation to increase blood flow, recruit immune cells, and remove damaged tissue.
5. Complement system: A group of proteins that work together to recognize and destroy pathogens directly or enhance phagocytosis by coating them with complement components (opsonization).

Innate immunity plays a crucial role in initiating the adaptive immune response, which is specific to particular pathogens and provides long-term protection through memory cells. Both innate and adaptive immunity work together to maintain overall immune homeostasis and protect the body from infections and diseases.

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. They are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi that naturally infect non-human animals and can sometimes infect and cause disease in humans through various transmission routes like direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or vectors like insects. Some well-known zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, salmonellosis, and COVID-19 (which is believed to have originated from bats). Public health officials work to prevent and control zoonoses through various measures such as surveillance, education, vaccination, and management of animal populations.

Disease susceptibility, also known as genetic predisposition or genetic susceptibility, refers to the increased likelihood or risk of developing a particular disease due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations. These genetic factors can make an individual more vulnerable to certain diseases compared to those who do not have these genetic changes.

It is important to note that having a genetic predisposition does not guarantee that a person will definitely develop the disease. Other factors, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and additional genetic variations, can influence whether or not the disease will manifest. In some cases, early detection and intervention may help reduce the risk or delay the onset of the disease in individuals with a known genetic susceptibility.

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that play a crucial role in the immune response. IL-12 is a cytokine involved in the activation of immune cells, particularly T cells and natural killer (NK) cells. The IL-12 receptor is composed of two subunits, IL-12Rβ1 and IL-12Rβ2, which are expressed on the surface of T cells, NK cells, and other immune cells.

The binding of IL-12 to its receptor leads to the activation of several signaling pathways that result in the production of inflammatory cytokines, the proliferation and activation of T cells and NK cells, and the differentiation of naive T cells into Th1 cells. These responses are critical for the development of cell-mediated immunity and the clearance of intracellular pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

Defects in IL-12 receptor signaling have been associated with various immune disorders, including certain types of primary immunodeficiency diseases and autoimmune diseases. Additionally, IL-12 receptors are a target for the development of therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer and other diseases.

Multiple bacterial drug resistance (MDR) is a medical term that refers to the resistance of multiple strains of bacteria to several antibiotics or antimicrobial agents. This means that these bacteria have developed mechanisms that enable them to survive and multiply despite being exposed to drugs that were previously effective in treating infections caused by them.

MDR is a significant public health concern because it limits the treatment options available for bacterial infections, making them more difficult and expensive to treat. In some cases, MDR bacteria may cause severe or life-threatening infections that are resistant to all available antibiotics, leaving doctors with few or no effective therapeutic options.

MDR can arise due to various mechanisms, including the production of enzymes that inactivate antibiotics, changes in bacterial cell membrane permeability that prevent antibiotics from entering the bacteria, and the development of efflux pumps that expel antibiotics out of the bacteria. The misuse or overuse of antibiotics is a significant contributor to the emergence and spread of MDR bacteria.

Preventing and controlling the spread of MDR bacteria requires a multifaceted approach, including the judicious use of antibiotics, infection control measures, surveillance, and research into new antimicrobial agents.

Intestinal diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the function or structure of the small intestine, large intestine (colon), or both. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. They can be caused by infections, inflammation, genetic disorders, or other factors. Some examples of intestinal diseases include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), celiac disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and intestinal infections. The specific medical definition may vary depending on the context and the specific condition being referred to.

Microbial sensitivity tests, also known as antibiotic susceptibility tests (ASTs) or bacterial susceptibility tests, are laboratory procedures used to determine the effectiveness of various antimicrobial agents against specific microorganisms isolated from a patient's infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which antibiotics will be most effective in treating an infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance. The results of these tests can guide appropriate antibiotic therapy, minimize the potential for antibiotic resistance, improve clinical outcomes, and reduce unnecessary side effects or toxicity from ineffective antimicrobials.

There are several methods for performing microbial sensitivity tests, including:

1. Disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer test): A standardized paper disk containing a predetermined amount of an antibiotic is placed on an agar plate that has been inoculated with the isolated microorganism. After incubation, the zone of inhibition around the disk is measured to determine the susceptibility or resistance of the organism to that particular antibiotic.
2. Broth dilution method: A series of tubes or wells containing decreasing concentrations of an antimicrobial agent are inoculated with a standardized microbial suspension. After incubation, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is determined by observing the lowest concentration of the antibiotic that prevents visible growth of the organism.
3. Automated systems: These use sophisticated technology to perform both disk diffusion and broth dilution methods automatically, providing rapid and accurate results for a wide range of microorganisms and antimicrobial agents.

The interpretation of microbial sensitivity test results should be done cautiously, considering factors such as the site of infection, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antibiotic, potential toxicity, and local resistance patterns. Regular monitoring of susceptibility patterns and ongoing antimicrobial stewardship programs are essential to ensure optimal use of these tests and to minimize the development of antibiotic resistance.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Ceftriaxone is a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, which is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections. It works by inhibiting the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall. Ceftriaxone has a broad spectrum of activity and is effective against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including some that are resistant to other antibiotics.

Ceftriaxone is available in injectable form and is commonly used to treat serious infections such as meningitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. It is also used to prevent infections after surgery or trauma. The drug is generally well-tolerated, but it can cause side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and rash. In rare cases, it may cause serious side effects such as anaphylaxis, kidney damage, and seizures.

It's important to note that Ceftriaxone should be used only under the supervision of a healthcare professional, and that it is not recommended for use in individuals with a history of allergic reactions to cephalosporins or penicillins. Additionally, as with all antibiotics, it should be taken as directed and for the full duration of the prescribed course of treatment, even if symptoms improve before the treatment is finished.

Bacteriophage typing is a laboratory method used to identify and differentiate bacterial strains based on their susceptibility to specific bacteriophages, which are viruses that infect and replicate within bacteria. In this technique, a standard set of bacteriophages with known host ranges are allowed to infect and form plaques on a lawn of bacterial cells grown on a solid medium, such as agar. The pattern and number of plaques formed are then used to identify the specific bacteriophage types that are able to infect the bacterial strain, providing a unique "fingerprint" or profile that can be used for typing and differentiating different bacterial strains.

Bacteriophage typing is particularly useful in epidemiological studies, as it can help track the spread of specific bacterial clones within a population, monitor antibiotic resistance patterns, and provide insights into the evolution and ecology of bacterial pathogens. It has been widely used in the study of various bacterial species, including Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, among others.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are large molecules found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of a hydrophilic polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid portion known as Lipid A. The Lipid A component is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS, which can trigger a powerful immune response in animals, including humans. This response can lead to symptoms such as fever, inflammation, and septic shock, especially when large amounts of LPS are introduced into the bloodstream.

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

Bacterial drug resistance is a type of antimicrobial resistance that occurs when bacteria evolve the ability to survive and reproduce in the presence of drugs (such as antibiotics) that would normally kill them or inhibit their growth. This can happen due to various mechanisms, including genetic mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes from other bacteria.

As a result, bacterial infections may become more difficult to treat, requiring higher doses of medication, alternative drugs, or longer treatment courses. In some cases, drug-resistant infections can lead to serious health complications, increased healthcare costs, and higher mortality rates.

Examples of bacterial drug resistance include methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Preventing the spread of bacterial drug resistance is crucial for maintaining effective treatments for infectious diseases.

"Genomic Islands" are horizontally acquired DNA segments in bacterial and archaeal genomes that exhibit distinct features, such as different nucleotide composition (e.g., GC content) and codon usage compared to the rest of the genome. They often contain genes associated with mobile genetic elements, such as transposons, integrases, and phages, and are enriched for functions related to adaptive traits like antibiotic resistance, heavy metal tolerance, and virulence factors. These islands can be transferred between different strains or species through various mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), including conjugation, transformation, and transduction, contributing significantly to bacterial evolution and diversity.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

Animal feed refers to any substance or mixture of substances, whether processed, unprocessed, or partially processed, which is intended to be used as food for animals, including fish, without further processing. It includes ingredients such as grains, hay, straw, oilseed meals, and by-products from the milling, processing, and manufacturing industries. Animal feed can be in the form of pellets, crumbles, mash, or other forms, and is used to provide nutrients such as energy, protein, fiber, vitamins, and minerals to support the growth, reproduction, and maintenance of animals. It's important to note that animal feed must be safe, nutritious, and properly labeled to ensure the health and well-being of the animals that consume it.

Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug derived from the actinobacterium Streptomyces griseus. It belongs to the class of aminoglycosides and works by binding to the 30S subunit of the bacterial ribosome, thereby inhibiting protein synthesis and leading to bacterial death.

Streptomycin is primarily used to treat a variety of infections caused by gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, including tuberculosis, brucellosis, plague, tularemia, and certain types of bacterial endocarditis. It is also used as part of combination therapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB).

Like other aminoglycosides, streptomycin has a narrow therapeutic index and can cause ototoxicity (hearing loss) and nephrotoxicity (kidney damage) with prolonged use or high doses. Therefore, its use is typically limited to cases where other antibiotics are ineffective or contraindicated.

It's important to note that the use of streptomycin requires careful monitoring of drug levels and kidney function, as well as regular audiometric testing to detect any potential hearing loss.

Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that is used to treat various types of bacterial infections, including respiratory, urinary, and skin infections. It works by inhibiting the bacterial DNA gyrase, which is an enzyme necessary for bacterial replication and transcription. This leads to bacterial cell death. Ciprofloxacin is available in oral and injectable forms and is usually prescribed to be taken twice a day. Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, and headache. It may also cause serious adverse reactions such as tendinitis, tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects. It is important to note that ciprofloxacin should not be used in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to fluoroquinolones and should be used with caution in patients with a history of seizures, brain injury, or other neurological conditions.

Caspase-1 is a type of protease enzyme that plays a crucial role in the inflammatory response and programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. It is produced as an inactive precursor protein, which is then cleaved into its active form by other proteases or through self-cleavage.

Once activated, caspase-1 helps to process and activate several pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, which are involved in the recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage. Caspase-1 also contributes to programmed cell death by cleaving and activating other caspases, leading to the controlled destruction of the cell.

Dysregulation of caspase-1 has been implicated in various inflammatory diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate caspase-1 activity is an important area of research for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these diseases.

Microbial drug resistance is a significant medical issue that refers to the ability of microorganisms (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand or survive exposure to drugs or medications designed to kill them or limit their growth. This phenomenon has become a major global health concern, particularly in the context of bacterial infections, where it is also known as antibiotic resistance.

Drug resistance arises due to genetic changes in microorganisms that enable them to modify or bypass the effects of antimicrobial agents. These genetic alterations can be caused by mutations or the acquisition of resistance genes through horizontal gene transfer. The resistant microbes then replicate and multiply, forming populations that are increasingly difficult to eradicate with conventional treatments.

The consequences of drug-resistant infections include increased morbidity, mortality, healthcare costs, and the potential for widespread outbreaks. Factors contributing to the emergence and spread of microbial drug resistance include the overuse or misuse of antimicrobials, poor infection control practices, and inadequate surveillance systems.

To address this challenge, it is crucial to promote prudent antibiotic use, strengthen infection prevention and control measures, develop new antimicrobial agents, and invest in research to better understand the mechanisms underlying drug resistance.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It is a medical condition that occurs when bacteria from another source, such as an infection in another part of the body, enter the bloodstream. Bacteremia can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and rapid heart rate, and it can lead to serious complications such as sepsis if not treated promptly with antibiotics.

Bacteremia is often a result of an infection elsewhere in the body that allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream. This can happen through various routes, such as during medical procedures, intravenous (IV) drug use, or from infected wounds or devices that come into contact with the bloodstream. In some cases, bacteremia may also occur without any obvious source of infection.

It is important to note that not all bacteria in the bloodstream cause harm, and some people may have bacteria in their blood without showing any symptoms. However, if bacteria in the bloodstream multiply and cause an immune response, it can lead to bacteremia and potentially serious complications.

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Salmonella Paratyphi C is a bacterium that causes a type of enteric fever, also known as paratyphoid fever. This is a severe gastrointestinal infection characterized by fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea or constipation, vomiting, and headache. The bacteria is usually transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. It can also be spread through close contact with an infected person.

Salmonella Paratyphi C specifically causes a less severe form of paratyphoid fever compared to Salmonella Typhi, which causes typhoid fever. However, it can still lead to serious complications such as intestinal perforation, bacteremia (bacteria in the blood), and chronic carrier state if not properly treated with antibiotics.

It's important to note that Salmonella Paratyphi C is a relatively rare cause of enteric fever, with most cases occurring in developing countries where access to clean water and proper sanitation may be limited.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Probiotics are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." They are often referred to as "good" or "friendly" bacteria because they help keep your gut healthy. Probiotics are naturally found in certain foods such as fermented foods like yogurt, sauerkraut, and some cheeses, or they can be taken as dietary supplements.

The most common groups of probiotics are lactic acid bacteria (like Lactobacillus) and bifidobacteria. They can help restore the balance of bacteria in your gut when it's been disrupted by things like illness, medication (such as antibiotics), or poor diet. Probiotics have been studied for their potential benefits in a variety of health conditions, including digestive issues, skin conditions, and even mental health disorders, although more research is needed to fully understand their effects and optimal uses.

Anti-infective agents are a class of medications that are used to treat infections caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These agents work by either killing the microorganism or inhibiting its growth, thereby helping to control the infection and alleviate symptoms.

There are several types of anti-infective agents, including:

1. Antibiotics: These are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by either killing bacteria (bactericidal) or inhibiting their growth (bacteriostatic).
2. Antivirals: These are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by interfering with the replication of the virus, preventing it from spreading and causing further damage.
3. Antifungals: These are medications that are used to treat fungal infections. They work by disrupting the cell membrane of the fungus, killing it or inhibiting its growth.
4. Antiparasitics: These are medications that are used to treat parasitic infections. They work by either killing the parasite or inhibiting its growth and reproduction.

It is important to note that anti-infective agents are not effective against all types of infections, and it is essential to use them appropriately to avoid the development of drug-resistant strains of microorganisms.

Immunity, in medical terms, refers to the body's ability to resist or fight against harmful foreign substances or organisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. This resistance is achieved through various mechanisms, including the production of antibodies, the activation of immune cells like T-cells and B-cells, and the release of cytokines and other chemical messengers that help coordinate the immune response.

There are two main types of immunity: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is the body's first line of defense against infection and involves nonspecific mechanisms such as physical barriers (e.g., skin and mucous membranes), chemical barriers (e.g., stomach acid and enzymes), and inflammatory responses. Adaptive immunity, on the other hand, is specific to particular pathogens and involves the activation of T-cells and B-cells, which recognize and remember specific antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response). This allows the body to mount a more rapid and effective response to subsequent exposures to the same pathogen.

Immunity can be acquired through natural means, such as when a person recovers from an infection and develops immunity to that particular pathogen, or artificially, through vaccination. Vaccines contain weakened or inactivated forms of a pathogen or its components, which stimulate the immune system to produce a response without causing the disease. This response provides protection against future infections with that same pathogen.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

A carrier state is a condition in which a person carries and may be able to transmit a genetic disorder or infectious disease, but does not show any symptoms of the disease themselves. This occurs when an individual has a recessive allele for a genetic disorder or is infected with a pathogen, but does not have the necessary combination of genes or other factors required to develop the full-blown disease.

For example, in the case of cystic fibrosis, which is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, a person who carries one normal allele and one mutated allele for the disease is considered a carrier. They do not have symptoms of cystic fibrosis themselves, but they can pass the mutated allele on to their offspring, who may then develop the disease if they inherit the mutation from both parents.

Similarly, in the case of infectious diseases, a person who is infected with a pathogen but does not show any symptoms may still be able to transmit the infection to others. This is known as being an asymptomatic carrier or a healthy carrier. For example, some people who are infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) may not develop any symptoms of liver disease, but they can still transmit the virus to others through contact with their blood or other bodily fluids.

It's important to note that in some cases, carriers of certain genetic disorders or infectious diseases may have mild or atypical symptoms that do not meet the full criteria for a diagnosis of the disease. In these cases, they may be considered to have a "reduced penetrance" or "incomplete expression" of the disorder or infection.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Cation transport proteins are a type of membrane protein that facilitate the movement of cations (positively charged ions) across biological membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining ion balance and electrical excitability within cells, as well as in various physiological processes such as nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and signal transduction.

There are several types of cation transport proteins, including:

1. Ion channels: These are specialized protein structures that form a pore or channel through the membrane, allowing ions to pass through rapidly and selectively. They can be either voltage-gated or ligand-gated, meaning they open in response to changes in electrical potential or binding of specific molecules, respectively.

2. Ion pumps: These are active transport proteins that use energy from ATP hydrolysis to move ions against their electrochemical gradient, effectively pumping them from one side of the membrane to the other. Examples include the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) and calcium pumps (Ca2+ ATPase).

3. Ion exchangers: These are antiporter proteins that facilitate the exchange of one ion for another across the membrane, maintaining electroneutrality. For example, the sodium-proton exchanger (NHE) moves a proton into the cell in exchange for a sodium ion being moved out.

4. Symporters: These are cotransporter proteins that move two or more ions together in the same direction, often coupled with the transport of a solute molecule. An example is the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), which facilitates glucose uptake into cells by coupling its movement with that of sodium ions.

Collectively, cation transport proteins help maintain ion homeostasis and contribute to various cellular functions, including electrical signaling, enzyme regulation, and metabolic processes. Dysfunction in these proteins can lead to a range of diseases, such as neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, and kidney dysfunction.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

'C3H' is the name of an inbred strain of laboratory mice that was developed at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The mice are characterized by their uniform genetic background and have been widely used in biomedical research for many decades.

The C3H strain is particularly notable for its susceptibility to certain types of cancer, including mammary tumors and lymphomas. It also has a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases. The strain is often used in studies of immunology, genetics, and carcinogenesis.

Like all inbred strains, the C3H mice are the result of many generations of brother-sister matings, which leads to a high degree of genetic uniformity within the strain. This makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease susceptibility and other traits. However, it also means that they may not always be representative of the genetic diversity found in outbred populations, including humans.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

In the context of healthcare, "Information Services" typically refers to the department or system within a healthcare organization that is responsible for managing and providing various forms of information to support clinical, administrative, and research functions. This can include:

1. Clinical Information Systems: These are electronic systems that help clinicians manage and access patient health information, such as electronic health records (EHRs), computerized physician order entry (CPOE) systems, and clinical decision support systems.

2. Administrative Information Systems: These are electronic systems used to manage administrative tasks, such as scheduling appointments, billing, and maintaining patient registries.

3. Research Information Services: These provide support for research activities, including data management, analysis, and reporting. They may also include bioinformatics services that deal with the collection, storage, analysis, and dissemination of genomic and proteomic data.

4. Health Information Exchange (HIE): This is a system or service that enables the sharing of clinical information between different healthcare organizations and providers.

5. Telemedicine Services: These allow remote diagnosis and treatment of patients using telecommunications technology.

6. Patient Portals: Secure online websites that give patients convenient, 24-hour access to their personal health information.

7. Data Analytics: The process of examining data sets to draw conclusions about the information they contain, often with the intention of predicting future trends or behaviors.

8. Knowledge Management: The process of identifying, capturing, organizing, storing, and sharing information and expertise within an organization.

The primary goal of healthcare Information Services is to improve the quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness of patient care by providing timely, accurate, and relevant information to the right people in the right format.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Mutagenicity tests are a type of laboratory assays used to identify agents that can cause genetic mutations. These tests detect changes in the DNA of organisms, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, after exposure to potential mutagens. The most commonly used mutagenicity test is the Ames test, which uses a strain of Salmonella bacteria that is sensitive to mutagens. If a chemical causes an increase in the number of revertants (reversion to the wild type) in the bacterial population, it is considered to be a mutagen. Other tests include the mouse lymphoma assay and the chromosomal aberration test. These tests are used to evaluate the potential genotoxicity of chemicals and are an important part of the safety evaluation process for new drugs, chemicals, and other substances.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Flagella are long, thin, whip-like structures that some types of cells use to move themselves around. They are made up of a protein called tubulin and are surrounded by a membrane. In bacteria, flagella rotate like a propeller to push the cell through its environment. In eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus), such as sperm cells or certain types of algae, flagella move in a wave-like motion to achieve locomotion. The ability to produce flagella is called flagellation.

Typhoid-Paratyphoid vaccines are immunizations that protect against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers, which are caused by the Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi, respectively. These vaccines contain inactivated or attenuated bacteria or specific antigens that stimulate an individual's immune system to develop immunity against these diseases without causing the illness itself. There are several types of typhoid-paratyphoid vaccines available, including:

1. Ty21a (oral live attenuated vaccine): This is a live but weakened form of the Salmonella Typhi bacteria. It is given orally in capsule form and requires a series of 4 doses taken every other day. The vaccine provides protection for about 5-7 years.
2. Vi polysaccharide (ViPS) typhoid vaccine: This vaccine contains purified Vi antigens from the Salmonella Typhi bacterium's outer capsular layer. It is given as an injection and provides protection for approximately 2-3 years.
3. Combined typhoid-paratyphoid A and B vaccines (Vi-rEPA): This vaccine combines Vi polysaccharide antigens from Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A and B. It is given as an injection and provides protection for about 3 years against typhoid fever and paratyphoid fevers A and B.
4. Typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs): These vaccines combine the Vi polysaccharide antigen from Salmonella Typhi with a protein carrier to enhance the immune response, particularly in children under 2 years of age. TCVs are given as an injection and provide long-lasting protection against typhoid fever.

It is important to note that none of these vaccines provides 100% protection, but they significantly reduce the risk of contracting typhoid or paratyphoid fevers. Additionally, good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and safe food handling, can further minimize the risk of infection.

"O antigens" are a type of antigen found on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The "O" in O antigens stands for "outer" membrane. These antigens are composed of complex carbohydrates and can vary between different strains of the same species of bacteria, which is why they are also referred to as the bacterial "O" somatic antigens.

The O antigens play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria, as they help the bacteria evade the host's immune system by changing the structure of the O antigen, making it difficult for the host to mount an effective immune response against the bacterial infection.

The identification and classification of O antigens are important in epidemiology, clinical microbiology, and vaccine development, as they can be used to differentiate between different strains of bacteria and to develop vaccines that provide protection against specific bacterial infections.

Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are primarily responsible for causing shigellosis, also known as bacillary dysentery. These pathogens are highly infectious and can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in humans through the consumption of contaminated food or water, or direct contact with an infected person's feces.

There are four main species of Shigella: S. dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei. Each species has distinct serotypes that differ in their epidemiology, clinical presentation, and antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The severity of shigellosis can range from mild diarrhea to severe dysentery with abdominal cramps, fever, and tenesmus (the strong, frequent urge to defecate). In some cases, Shigella infections may lead to complications such as bacteremia, seizures, or hemolytic uremic syndrome.

Preventive measures include maintaining good personal hygiene, proper food handling and preparation, access to clean water, and adequate sanitation facilities. Antibiotic treatment is generally recommended for severe cases of shigellosis, but the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains has become a growing concern in recent years.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Epithelial cells are types of cells that cover the outer surfaces of the body, line the inner surfaces of organs and glands, and form the lining of blood vessels and body cavities. They provide a protective barrier against the external environment, regulate the movement of materials between the internal and external environments, and are involved in the sense of touch, temperature, and pain. Epithelial cells can be squamous (flat and thin), cuboidal (square-shaped and of equal height), or columnar (tall and narrow) in shape and are classified based on their location and function.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. They play a crucial role in various biological processes, including signal transduction, cell communication, and regulation of physiological functions.
2. Antigen: An antigen is a foreign substance (usually a protein) that triggers an immune response when introduced into the body. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. They are recognized by the immune system as non-self and stimulate the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells, like T-cells, to eliminate the threat.
3. T-Cell: T-cells, also known as T-lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. T-cells have receptors on their surface called T-cell receptors (TCRs) that enable them to recognize and respond to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). There are several types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells.
4. gamma-delta (γδ) T-Cell: Gamma-delta (γδ) T-cells are a subset of T-cells that possess a distinct T-cell receptor (TCR) composed of gamma and delta chains. Unlike conventional T-cells, which typically recognize peptide antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, γδ T-cells can directly recognize various non-peptide antigens, such as lipids, glycolipids, and small metabolites. They are involved in the early stages of immune responses, tissue homeostasis, and cancer surveillance.

Peritoneal macrophages are a type of immune cell that are present in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space within the abdomen that contains the liver, spleen, stomach, and intestines. These macrophages play a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and injury by engulfing and destroying foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms.

Macrophages are large phagocytic cells that originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter tissue, they can differentiate into macrophages, which have a variety of functions depending on their location and activation state.

Peritoneal macrophages are involved in various physiological processes, including the regulation of inflammation, tissue repair, and the breakdown of foreign substances. They also play a role in the development and progression of certain diseases, such as cancer and autoimmune disorders.

These macrophages can be collected from animals or humans for research purposes by injecting a solution into the peritoneal cavity and then withdrawing the fluid, which contains the macrophages. These cells can then be studied in vitro to better understand their functions and potential therapeutic targets.

An operon is a genetic unit in prokaryotic organisms (like bacteria) consisting of a cluster of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule, which then undergoes translation to produce multiple proteins. This genetic organization allows for the coordinated regulation of genes that are involved in the same metabolic pathway or functional process. The unit typically includes promoter and operator regions that control the transcription of the operon, as well as structural genes encoding the proteins. Operons were first discovered in bacteria, but similar genetic organizations have been found in some eukaryotic organisms, such as yeast.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Enterobacteriaceae is a family of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in the intestines of humans and animals. Many species within this family are capable of causing various types of infections, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. Some common examples of Enterobacteriaceae include Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Salmonella enterica.

These bacteria are typically characterized by their ability to ferment various sugars and produce acid and gas as byproducts. They can also be distinguished by their biochemical reactions, such as their ability to produce certain enzymes or resist specific antibiotics. Infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae can range from mild to severe, depending on the species involved and the overall health of the infected individual.

Some infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae include urinary tract infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and foodborne illnesses. Proper hygiene, such as handwashing and safe food handling practices, can help prevent the spread of these bacteria and reduce the risk of infection.

Passive immunization is a type of temporary immunity that is transferred to an individual through the injection of antibodies produced outside of the body, rather than through the active production of antibodies in the body in response to vaccination or infection. This can be done through the administration of preformed antibodies, such as immune globulins, which contain a mixture of antibodies that provide immediate protection against specific diseases.

Passive immunization is often used in situations where individuals have been exposed to a disease and do not have time to develop their own active immune response, or in cases where individuals are unable to produce an adequate immune response due to certain medical conditions. It can also be used as a short-term measure to provide protection until an individual can receive a vaccination that will confer long-term immunity.

Passive immunization provides immediate protection against disease, but the protection is typically short-lived, lasting only a few weeks or months. This is because the transferred antibodies are gradually broken down and eliminated by the body over time. In contrast, active immunization confers long-term immunity through the production of memory cells that can mount a rapid and effective immune response upon re-exposure to the same pathogen in the future.

Phagocytosis is the process by which certain cells in the body, known as phagocytes, engulf and destroy foreign particles, bacteria, or dead cells. This mechanism plays a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection and inflammation. Phagocytes, such as neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, have receptors on their surface that recognize and bind to specific molecules (known as antigens) on the target particles or microorganisms.

Once attached, the phagocyte extends pseudopodia (cell extensions) around the particle, forming a vesicle called a phagosome that completely encloses it. The phagosome then fuses with a lysosome, an intracellular organelle containing digestive enzymes and other chemicals. This fusion results in the formation of a phagolysosome, where the engulfed particle is broken down by the action of these enzymes, neutralizing its harmful effects and allowing for the removal of cellular debris or pathogens.

Phagocytosis not only serves as a crucial defense mechanism against infections but also contributes to tissue homeostasis by removing dead cells and debris.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

Mutagens are physical or chemical agents that can cause permanent changes in the structure of genetic material, including DNA and chromosomes, leading to mutations. These mutations can be passed down to future generations and may increase the risk of cancer and other diseases. Examples of mutagens include ultraviolet (UV) radiation, tobacco smoke, and certain chemicals found in industrial settings. It is important to note that not all mutations are harmful, but some can have negative effects on health and development.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a naturally occurring protein that is primarily produced by activated macrophages and dendritic cells, which are types of immune cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response, particularly in the development of cell-mediated immunity.

IL-12 is composed of two subunits, p35 and p40, which combine to form a heterodimer. This cytokine stimulates the differentiation and activation of naive T cells into Th1 cells, which are important for fighting intracellular pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. IL-12 also enhances the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells and CD8+ T cells, which can directly kill infected or malignant cells.

In addition to its role in the immune response, IL-12 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis. As a result, therapeutic strategies targeting IL-12 or its signaling pathways have been explored as potential treatments for these conditions.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Tetrathionic Acid is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound with the formula S4O62-. It's an acidic oxyanion of sulfur with the sulfur in the +5 oxidation state. It is not related to human health or medicine directly. If you have any questions about a medical topic, I'd be happy to help with that instead!

Treatment of salmonella infections depends on age and pre-disposition of the infected person and the severity of the symptoms. ... Salmonella Typhimurium Salmonella Centre for Disease Control "Salmonella in chicken salad kills 1, sickens 265 in 8 states". ... "Salmonella Infections". Johns Hopkins Medicine. Archived from the original on 2020-08-08. Retrieved 21 October 2020. "Diagnosis ... One of the side-effects from salmonella infection is dehydration, making the replacement of fluids and electrolytes the main ...
Researchers are currently working to understand asymptomatic infection with Salmonella species by studying infections in ... ISBN 978-0-8385-8529-0. Feasey NA, Gordon MA (2014). "Salmonella Infections". In Farrar J, Hotez P, Junghanss T, Kang G, Lalloo ... Gonzalez-Escobedo G, Marshall JM, Gunn JS (January 2011). "Chronic and acute infection of the gall bladder by Salmonella Typhi ... January 2019). "Emergence of Extensively Drug-Resistant Salmonella Typhi Infections Among Travelers to or from Pakistan - ...
Salmonella hadar, Salmonella heidelberg, or Salmonella montevideo to cause the systemic infection. Salmonella Enteritidis was ... osteomyelitis due to Salmonella infection is much more common than in the general population. Though Salmonella infection is ... "Salmonella Infections". MedlinePlus. Archived from the original on 30 April 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2017. "Salmonella (non- ... The United States has struggled to control salmonella infections, with the rate of infection rising from 2001 to 2011. In 1998 ...
Mackerras, I. M., & Mackerras, M. J. (1949). The bacteriological diagnosis of salmonella infections. The Medical Journal of ... Mackerras, M. J., & Mackerras, I. M. (1948). Salmonella Infections in Australian Cockroaches. Australian Journal of Science. 10 ... Mackerras, M. J., & Mackerras, I. M. (1948). Salmonella Infections in Australian Cockroaches. Australian Journal of Science. 10 ... Her work proved beneficial to reduce the incidence of infection in the armed forces, and delivered a scientific basis for ...
October 2019). "Salmonella Infection". mBio. 10 (5). doi:10.1128/mBio.02169-19. PMC 6786873. PMID 31594818. Hart T, ... 2017), who aimed to dissect the host factors associated with dengue and hepatitis C (HCV) infection (two viruses in family ... Considering that the standard protocol uses a multiplicity of infection of ~0.3, and a transduction efficiency of 30-40% the ... January 2020). "Genome-wide CRISPR screen identifies host dependency factors for influenza A virus infection". Nature ...
"Salmonella infection: Symptoms". 2011-04-16. Retrieved 2012-01-31. Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding at eMedicine ... "Symptoms of E. coli Infection , E. coli Food Poisoning". Retrieved 2012-01-31. "Diverticulitis: Diverticular ...
Salmonella infections: clinical, immunological, and molecular aspects. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. García-Álvarez, ... He undertook a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree in Cambridge's Department of Pathology on Salmonella infections and graduated ... His doctoral thesis was titled "Mechanisms of resistance and immunity to salmonella infections" and was submitted in 1985. ... Maskell, D. J. (1985). "Mechanisms of resistance and immunity to salmonella infections". E-Thesis Online Service. The British ...
"Salmonella infection data for Rhou". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Rhou". Wellcome Trust ...
"Salmonella infection data for Pdcd10". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Pdcd10". Wellcome Trust ...
"Salmonella infection data for Myd88". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: ... However, available evidence suggests that MYD88 is dispensable for human resistance to common viral infections and to all but a ... August 2008). "Pyogenic bacterial infections in humans with MyD88 deficiency". Science. 321 (5889): 691-6. Bibcode:2008Sci... ... Infection and Immunity. 70 (3): 1272-8. doi:10.1128/IAI.70.3.1272-1278.2002. PMC 127773. PMID 11854210. Radons J, Gabler S, ...
"Salmonella infection data for Ttll3". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Ttll3". Wellcome Trust ...
"Salmonella infection data for Trpc4ap". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Trpc4ap". Wellcome ...
"Salmonella infection data for Sqstm1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Sqstm1". Wellcome Trust ... "A novel interleukin-12 p40-related protein induced by latent Epstein-Barr virus infection in B lymphocytes". J Virol. 70 (2): ...
"Salmonella infection data for Ddx27". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Ddx27". Wellcome Trust ...
"Salmonella infection data for Efna1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Efna1". Wellcome Trust ...
"Salmonella infection data for Slc35f1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Slc35f1". Wellcome ...
"Salmonella infection data for Prmt8". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Prmt8". Wellcome Trust ...
"Salmonella infection data for 1700058C13Rik". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for 1700058C13Rik". ... Infection and Immunity. 76 (10): 4518-29. doi:10.1128/IAI.00525-08. PMC 2546852. PMID 18644885. "BPIFA3 Gene - GeneCards". www. ...
"Salmonella infection data for Tpd52l2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Gerdin, AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics ...
"Salmonella infection data for Stx8". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Stx8". Wellcome Trust ...
"Salmonella infection data for Dctn5". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Dctn5". Wellcome Trust ...
"Salmonella infection data for Gatc". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Gatc". Wellcome Trust ...
"Salmonella infection data for Spnb2". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Spnb2". Wellcome Trust ...
"Salmonella infection data for Ndufs3". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Ndufs3". Wellcome Trust ... The Journal of Infection. 24 (3): 317-20. doi:10.1016/S0163-4453(05)80037-4. PMID 1602151. Maruyama K, Sugano S (Jan 1994). " ...
"Salmonella infection data for Aste1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Citrobacter infection data for Aste1". Wellcome Trust ... females had an increased susceptibility to bacterial infection. "Asteroid homolog 1 (Drosophila)". Retrieved 2011-12-06. " ...
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Salmonella is a group of bacteria that is a common cause of foodborne illness. Learn the symptoms. Know when to, and who should ... Salmonella Infections (National Institutes of Health) * Typhoid Fever (National ... Infection can be more serious in older adults, infants, and people with chronic health problems. If Salmonella gets into the ... Salmonella (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) * Salmonella Questions and Answers (Department of Agriculture, Food ...
Salmonella Infections Linked to Pre-Cut Melon, 2018plus icon *Salmonella Infections Linked to Pre-Cut Melon en Español ... Salmonella Infections Linked to Pet Guinea Pigs, 2018plus icon *Salmonella Infections Linked to Pet Guinea Pigs en Español ... Human Salmonella Infections Linked to Small Turtles, 2015plus icon *Human Salmonella Infections Linked to Small Turtles en ... Salmonella Infections Linked to Contact with Live Poultry in Backyard Flocks, 2018plus icon *Salmonella Infections Linked to ...
This report presents the first documented outbreak of Salmonella originating in tofu, highlighting the need for awareness of ... An Outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium Infections Linked to Ready-To-Eat Tofu in Multiple Health Districts. Ontario, Canada, May ... investigated a spatiotemporal cluster of 38 patients with Salmonella Typhimurium infections across multiple public health ... Salmonella Typhimurium is a serovar commonly implicated in foodborne illnesses linked to animal product consumption. ...
The genus Salmonella, which belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae, was named after Daniel E. ... encoded search term (Salmonella Infection (Salmonellosis)) and Salmonella Infection (Salmonellosis) What to Read Next on ... Serotypes Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella newport, and Salmonella heidelberg most often are ... The genus Salmonella also contains the species Salmonella bongori and Salmonella subterranean, which was recognized in 2005. [3 ...
Salmonella infections can cause diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, belly cramps, fever, and headache. ... Infecciones por Salmonella. What Is Salmonella?. Salmonella is a bacteria (type of germ). Someone with a Salmonella infection ( ... How Are Salmonella Infections Treated?. Kids with a Salmonella infection should drink lots of fluids so that they dont get ... Can Salmonella Infections Be Prevented?. Some precautions can help prevent Salmonella infections. Be sure to:. *Cook poultry, ...
Epi Curves for Multistate Outbreak of Salmonella Saintpaul Infections Linked to Cucumbers ... Salmonella Infections Linked to Pre-Cut Melon, 2018plus icon *Salmonella Infections Linked to Pre-Cut Melon en Español ... Salmonella Infections Linked to Pet Guinea Pigs, 2018plus icon *Salmonella Infections Linked to Pet Guinea Pigs en Español ... Human Salmonella Infections Linked to Small Turtles, 2015plus icon *Human Salmonella Infections Linked to Small Turtles en ...
Salmonella infections can cause diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, belly cramps, fever, and headache. ... Salmonella Infections. What Is Salmonella?. Salmonella is a bacteria (type of germ). Someone with a Salmonella infection (or ... Can Salmonella Infections Be Prevented?. Some precautions can help prevent Salmonella infections. Be sure to:. *Cook poultry, ... How Are Salmonella Infections Treated?. Kids with a Salmonella infection should drink lots of fluids so that they dont get ...
... On May 7, ... Since 1999, CDC and FDA have recommended that persons at high risk for complications of infection with Salmonella and E. coli ... Alternative Text: The figure above shows the number of infections (N = 226*) with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul ... Alternative Text: The figure above shows the number of infections (N = 228*) with the outbreak strain of Salmonella Saintpaul, ...
When bacteria like salmonella infect and sicken people, they hijack a persons cell proteins to develop a defense against an ... Purdue scientists develop way to track salmonella infection in real time. W. Andy Tao and colleagues have developed a method to ... Salmonella bacteria fend off a cells immune defenses by creating a pocket within the cell, called a Salmonella-containing ... one hour and six hours after salmonella infected a cell and identified more than 400 proteins interacting with the salmonella ...
An outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type U292 has been ongoing in Denmark since 1 April, with 1,054 cases registered ... and extensive microbiological analysis of products have not provided clear indications of a specific source of infection but ... Large outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in Denmark in 2008 * S Ethelberg1,2 , A Wingstrand3 , T Jensen4 , G ... Large outbreaks of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in Denmark in 2008. Euro Surveill. 2008;13(44):pii=19023. ...
... J Am Soc Mass Spectrom ... Keywords: Salmonella infection; imaging mass cytometry; mass spectrometry imaging; multimodal data integration; network ... to study the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the liver of a mouse model using the S. Typhimurium strains SL3261 ... By developing an IMC marker for the detection of Salmonella LPS, we were further able to identify and characterize those cell ...
... the number of salmonella infections in Sweden was highest with 2,838 cases. ... "Number of salmonella infection cases in Sweden from 2013 to 2021." Chart. May 22, 2022. Statista. Accessed December 05, 2023. ... Number of syphilis infection cases in Sweden 2022, by age group. *Number of syphilis infection cases in Sweden 2022, by site of ... Number of salmonella infection cases in Sweden 2013-2021 Published by Juliette Gagliardi, ...
Salmonella enterica infections are common causes of bloodstream infection in low-resource areas, where they may be difficult to ... Salmonella enterica infections are common causes of bloodstream infection in low-resource areas, where they may be difficult to ... 3 Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of ... and Antimicrobial Management of Invasive Salmonella Infections Clin Microbiol Rev. 2015 Oct;28(4):901-37. doi: 10.1128/CMR. ...
Public health officials in several states are investigating outbreaks of Salmonella infections linked to contact with backyard ... Salmonella infection symptoms can mimic other illnesses, frequently leading to misdiagnosis.. Symptoms of Salmonella infection ... Salmonella outbreak numbers provided by the CDC as of May 20, 2021.. Interviews with those with Salmonella infections have ... About Salmonella infections. Food contaminated with Salmonella bacteria does not usually look, smell, or taste spoiled. It ...
Korean researchers evaluated the effect of feeding raw potato starch on reducing the severity of Salmonella infections in ... Growth performance and Salmonella fecal shedding. Although a Salmonella infections reduces body weight and average daily gain, ... Korean researchers evaluated the effect of feeding raw potato starch on reducing the severity of Salmonella infections in ... The authors concluded that feeding weaned pigs with raw potato starch could improve gut health and reduce Salmonella infections ...
What are the Long-Term Health Effects of Salmonella Infection?. Another dangerous complication is bacteremia, which affects ... Salmonella outbreaks and recalls. August 18, 2023. Food safety advocates support USDA proposal to protect consumers from ... If the Salmonella bacteria enters a persons bloodstream (bacteremia), it can infect tissues throughout the body. The bacteria ... For years CSPI and advocates like food safety lawyer Bill Marler have urged USDA to do a better job of controlling Salmonella ...
... that these proteins are able to induce immune response and a cross-protection in a murine model of infection by Salmonella and ... By targeting proteins SipD and IpaD belonging respectively to the injectisome of Salmonella and Shigella and necessary to their ... Developed vaccines are either not commercialized (for Shigella) or cover only a limited number of serotypes (for Salmonella). ... Such a candidate vaccine offers promising perspectives to control Salmonella and Shigella diseases. ...
The purchase of small turtles online has been linked to a Salmonella outbreak in multiple states across the U.S., including ... Salmonella outbreak in children due to tiny turtles causes infection in Kansas by: Matthew Self ... The CDC suspects that the true number of infections in the U.S. linked to this recent Salmonella outbreak are higher than what ... The other states that have reported Salmonella infections related to this recent outbreak include: Washington, Iowa, Tennessee ...
CDC reported on 7/19/17, that there was another multi-state outbreak linked to clinical, commercial and college microbiology teaching laboratories.
Researchers have found a significant increase in antibiotic-resistant salmonella strains, and consequently, longer hospital ... "Is salmonella evolving into a stronger, more dangerous infection?" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. ...
Salmonella Infections - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version ... Salmonella intestinal infection is treated with fluids given by mouth or, for severe infection, intravenously. Antibiotics do ... Symptoms of Salmonella Infections When the intestine is infected, symptoms usually start 12 to 48 hours after the bacteria are ... Diagnosis of Salmonella Infections *. Culture of stool, pus, blood, or a sample from the rectum ...
Freqüência de parasitas e infecção por Salmonella em lobos guará, Chrysocyon brachyurus, mantidos em zoológicos no Estado de ... Freqüência de parasitas e infecção por Salmonella em lobos guará, Chrysocyon brachyurus, mantidos em zoológicos no Estado de ... Somente um animal apresentava quadro de diarréia sugerindo que a capacidade de portar Salmonella spp. como flora ... 3,2%). Seis animais apresentaram infecção por Salmonella e quatro diferentes sorotipos foram identificados. ...
An outbreak of Salmonella infections linked to an outbreak in the United States is under investigation. ... Anyone can become sick with a Salmonella infection. If you think youre experiencing symptoms from a Salmonella infection, ... If you choose to feed your pet raw pet food, the following tips may help reduce the risk of a Salmonella infection:. *Always ... Most people who become ill from a Salmonella infection will recover fully after a few days without treatment, but it can also ...
... a total of 89 individuals with a matching strain of Salmonella serotype I 4,,12:i:- have been reported from 15 ... Infections Linked to Jimmy Johns Alfalfa Sprouts. 15 State Outbreak of Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- Infections Linked to Jimmy ... Salmonella Cantaloupe turns deadly - 3 dead, 162 Sick with 62 Hospitalized * Salmonella Cantaloupe Outbreak - States hardest ... to investigate a multistate outbreak of Salmonella serotype I 4,[5],12:i:- infections. ...
The case definition is illness in a person with a Salmonella Typhimurium infection with illness onset (or isolation, if onset ... CDC investigation : CDC investigation and interim recommendations : outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections -- United ... CDC investigation : CDC investigation and interim recommendations : outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections -- United ... Title : CDC investigation : CDC investigation and interim recommendations : outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections -- ...
Salmonella infections are a major cause of illness in the United States. The antimicrobial agents used to treat severe ... Estimated Incidence of Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections, United States, 2004-2012. ... To estimate the incidence of resistant culture-confirmed nontyphoidal Salmonella infections, we used Bayesian hierarchical ... "Estimated Incidence of Antimicrobial Drug-Resistant Nontyphoidal Salmonella Infections, United States, 2004-2012" vol. 23, no. ...
Salmonella Enteritidis infection rates clustered globally at a small distance band, suggesting clustering of high SIRs in small ... Enteritidis infection rates in the city of Toronto. Data on S. Enteritidis infections between January 1, 2007 and December 31, ... The non-smoothed FSA-level SIRs ranged from 0 to 16.9 infections per 100,000 person-years (mean = 6.6), whereas the smoothed ... Spatial heterogeneity of S. Enteritidis infection rates was detected across the city of Toronto. ...

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