Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Salmonella Infections, Animal: Infections in animals with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Salmonella enteritidis: A serotype of Salmonella enterica which is an etiologic agent of gastroenteritis in man and other animals.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Salmonella Food Poisoning: Poisoning caused by ingestion of food harboring species of SALMONELLA. Conditions of raising, shipping, slaughtering, and marketing of domestic animals contribute to the spread of this bacterium in the food supply.Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Salmonella paratyphi A: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA that causes mild PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Salmonella arizonae: Gram-negative rods widely distributed in LIZARDS and SNAKES, and implicated in enteric, bone (BONE DISEASES), and joint infections (JOINT DISEASES) in humans.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Salmonella paratyphi B: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Eggs: Animal reproductive bodies, or the contents thereof, used as food. The concept is differentiated from OVUM, the anatomic or physiologic entity.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Genomic Islands: Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".Paratyphoid Fever: A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by several Paratyphi serotypes of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. It is similar to TYPHOID FEVER but less severe.Poultry Diseases: Diseases of birds which are raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption and are usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc. The concept is differentiated from BIRD DISEASES which is for diseases of birds not considered poultry and usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Salmonella paratyphi C: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is an agent of PARATYPHOID FEVER in Asia, Africa, and southern Europe.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Shigella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Tetrathionic Acid: A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Mice, Inbred BALB CConjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Poultry Products: Food products manufactured from poultry.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Integrons: DNA elements that include the component genes and insertion site for a site-specific recombination system that enables them to capture mobile gene cassettes.Gastroenteritis: INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bacterial Shedding: The expelling of bacteria from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Escherichia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Food Inspection: Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Bacteriophage P22: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P22-like viruses, family PODOVIRIDAE, that infects SALMONELLA species. The genome consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Enteritis: Inflammation of any segment of the SMALL INTESTINE.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Bacterial Secretion Systems: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Enterocolitis: Inflammation of the MUCOSA of both the SMALL INTESTINE and the LARGE INTESTINE. Etiology includes ISCHEMIA, infections, allergic, and immune responses.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Housing, AnimalCampylobacter: A genus of bacteria found in the reproductive organs, intestinal tract, and oral cavity of animals and man. Some species are pathogenic.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Polymyxin B: A mixture of polymyxins B1 and B2, obtained from Bacillus polymyxa strains. They are basic polypeptides of about eight amino acids and have cationic detergent action on cell membranes. Polymyxin B is used for infections with gram-negative organisms, but may be neurotoxic and nephrotoxic.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.Frozen FoodsDNA Gyrase: A bacterial DNA topoisomerase II that catalyzes ATP-dependent breakage of both strands of DNA, passage of the unbroken strands through the breaks, and rejoining of the broken strands. Gyrase binds to DNA as a heterotetramer consisting of two A and two B subunits. In the presence of ATP, gyrase is able to convert the relaxed circular DNA duplex into a superhelix. In the absence of ATP, supercoiled DNA is relaxed by DNA gyrase.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Foodborne Diseases: Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.Mice, Inbred C57BLRhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.3-Phosphoshikimate 1-Carboxyvinyltransferase: An enzyme of the shikimate pathway of AROMATIC AMINO ACID biosynthesis, it generates 5-enolpyruvylshikimate 3-phosphate and ORTHOPHOSPHATE from PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE and shikimate-3-phosphate. The shikimate pathway is present in BACTERIA and PLANTS but not in MAMMALS.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.CobamidesBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Antimutagenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.ArabinoseHot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Polymyxins: Basic lipopeptide antibiotic group obtained from Bacillus polymyxa. They affect the cell membrane by detergent action and may cause neuromuscular and kidney damage. At least eleven different members of the polymyxin group have been identified, each designated by a letter.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Shigella flexneri: A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Meat-Packing Industry: The aggregate enterprise of technically producing packaged meat.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hedgehogs: The family Erinaceidae, in the order INSECTIVORA. Most are true hedgehogs possessing a coat of spines and a very short tail. Those members of the family found in Southeast Asia (moonrats or gymnures) have normal body hair and a long tail.Cephalosporin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of an organism to the action of the cephalosporins.

Components of the Salmonella flagellar export apparatus and classification of export substrates. (1/3075)

Until now, identification of components of the flagellar protein export apparatus has been indirect. We have now identified these components directly by establishing whether mutants defective in putative export components could translocate export substrates across the cytoplasmic membrane into the periplasmic space. Hook-type proteins could be exported to the periplasm of rod mutants, indicating that rod protein export does not have to precede hook-type protein export and therefore that both types of proteins belong to a single export class, the rod/hook-type class, which is distinct from the filament-type class. Hook-capping protein (FlgD) and hook protein (FlgE) required FlhA, FlhB, FliH, FliI, FliO, FliP, FliQ, and FliR for their export to the periplasm. In the case of flagellin as an export substrate, because of the phenomenon of hook-to-filament switching of export specificity, it was necessary to use temperature-sensitive mutants and establish whether flagellin could be exported to the cell exterior following a shift from the permissive to the restrictive temperature. Again, FlhA, FlhB, FliH, FliI, and FliO were required for its export. No suitable temperature-sensitive fliQ or fliR mutants were available. FliP appeared not to be required for flagellin export, but we suspect that the temperature-sensitive FliP protein continued to function at the restrictive temperature if incorporated at the permissive temperature. Thus, we conclude that these eight proteins are general components of the flagellar export pathway. FliJ was necessary for export of hook-type proteins (FlgD and FlgE); we were unable to test whether FliJ is needed for export of filament-type proteins. We suspect that FliJ may be a cytoplasmic chaperone for the hook-type proteins and possibly also for FliE and the rod proteins. FlgJ was not required for the export of the hook-type proteins; again, because of lack of a suitable temperature-sensitive mutant, we were unable to test whether it was required for export of filament-type proteins. Finally, it was established that there is an interaction between the processes of outer ring assembly and of penetration of the outer membrane by the rod and nascent hook, the latter process being of course necessary for passage of export substrates into the external medium. During the brief transition stage from completion of rod assembly and initiation of hook assembly, the L ring and perhaps the capping protein FlgD can be regarded as bona fide export components, with the L ring being in a formal sense the equivalent of the outer membrane secretin structure of type III virulence factor export systems.  (+info)

Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of three Salmonella rapid detection kits using fresh and frozen poultry environmental samples versus those of standard plating. (2/3075)

To reduce human exposure to Salmonella spp. in poultry products, broiler chicken flocks have been tested by culture methods. Since the standard techniques may take 3 to 5 days, rapid detection methods have been developed. In this study we tested the performance of three rapid tests originally developed for food samples by using environmental samples obtained from poultry houses. These rapid tests were Reveal, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from Neogen Corp.; BIND, a bacterial ice nucleation detection method from Idetek Corp.; and a filter monitor method from Future Medical Technologies, Inc. For the standard culture, brilliant green with novabiocin and xylose-lysine-tergitol-4 agar were used for presumptive identification, and identities were confirmed by using poly-O antisera. Environmental samples were collected from farms belonging to an integrated poultry company prior to chick placement and 1 week before slaughter. Sensitivities, specificities, and predictive values with 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Statistical differences were determined by using McNemar's chi square test. The sensitivities of the different tests were not stable, varying widely between sample times, and were affected by freezing of the samples. All of the rapid tests had low sensitivities, which led to many false-negative results. All tests were able to detect Salmonella spp. at a concentration of 10 CFU/ml in at least one of four trials. The BIND and Reveal tests were simple to use with multiple samples and reduced laboratory time by up to 1 day. Based on our results, we do not recommend that any of these rapid tests, in their present state of development, be utilized with environmental samples collected with drag swabs.  (+info)

The Salmonella invasin SipB induces macrophage apoptosis by binding to caspase-1. (3/3075)

Recently, Salmonella spp. were shown to induce apoptosis in infected macrophages. The mechanism responsible for this process is unknown. In this report, we establish that the Inv-Spa type III secretion apparatus target invasin SipB is necessary and sufficient for the induction of apoptosis. Purified SipB microinjected into macrophages led to cell death. Binding studies show that SipB associates with the proapoptotic protease caspase-1. This interaction results in the activation of caspase-1, as seen in its proteolytic maturation and the processing of its substrate interleukin-1beta. Caspase-1 activity is essential for the cytotoxicity. Functional inhibition of caspase-1 activity by acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethyl ketone blocks macrophage cytotoxicity, and macrophages lacking caspase-1 are not susceptible to Salmonella-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the data demonstrate that SipB functions as an analog of the Shigella invasin IpaB.  (+info)

Evaluation of accuracy and repeatability of identification of food-borne pathogens by automated bacterial identification systems. (4/3075)

The performances of five automated microbial identification systems, relative to that of a reference identification system, for their ability to accurately and repeatedly identify six common food-borne pathogens were assessed. The systems assessed were the MicroLog system (Biolog Inc., Hayward, Calif.), the Microbial Identification System (MIS; MIDI Inc., Newark, Del.), the VITEK system (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, Mo.), the MicroScan WalkAway 40 system (Dade-MicroScan International, West Sacramento, Calif.), and the Replianalyzer system (Oxoid Inc., Nepean, Ontario, Canada). The sensitivities and specificities of these systems for the identification of food-borne isolates of Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and verotoxigenic Escherichia coli were determined with 40 reference positive isolates and 40 reference negative isolates for each pathogen. The sensitivities of these systems for the identification of these pathogens ranged from 42.5 to 100%, and the specificities of these systems for the identification of these pathogens ranged from 32.5 to 100%. Some of the systems had difficulty correctly identifying the reference isolates when the results were compared to those from the reference identification tests. The sensitivity of MIS for the identification of S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, and C. jejuni, for example, ranged from 47.5 to 72. 5%. The sensitivity of the Microlog system for the identification of E. coli was 72.5%, and the sensitivity of the VITEK system for the identification of B. cereus was 42.5%. The specificities of four of the five systems for the identification of all of the species tested with the available databases were greater than or equal to 97.5%; the exception was MIS for the identification of C. jejuni, which displayed a specificity of 32.5% when it was tested with reference negative isolates including Campylobacter coli and other Campylobacter species. All systems had >80% sensitivities for the identification of Salmonella species and Listeria species at the genus level. The repeatability of these systems for the identification of test isolates ranged from 30 to 100%. Not all systems included all six pathogens in their databases; thus, some species could not be tested with all systems. The choice of automated microbial identification system for the identification of a food-borne pathogen would depend on the availability of identification libraries within the systems and the performance of the systems for the identification of the pathogen.  (+info)

How intracellular bacteria survive: surface modifications that promote resistance to host innate immune responses. (5/3075)

Bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence factors in response to environmental signals. In the case of salmonellae, many virulence factors are regulated via PhoP/PhoQ, a two-component signal transduction system that is repressed by magnesium and calcium in vitro. PhoP/PhoQ-activated genes promote intracellular survival within macrophages, whereas PhoP-repressed genes promote entrance into epithelial cells and macrophages by macropinocytosis and stimulate epithelial cell cytokine production. PhoP-activated genes include those that alter the cell envelope through structural alterations of lipopolysaccharide and lipid A, the bioactive component of lipopolysaccharide. PhoP-activated changes in the bacterial envelope likely promote intracellular survival by increasing resistance to host cationic antimicrobial peptides and decreasing host cell cytokine production.  (+info)

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of oral black-pigmented bacteria induce tumor necrosis factor production by LPS-refractory C3H/HeJ macrophages in a way different from that of Salmonella LPS. (6/3075)

Some lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations from S- or R-form members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and oral black-pigmented bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia) are known to activate LPS-refractory C3H/HeJ macrophages. When contaminating proteins are removed from R-form LPS of Enterobacteriaceae by repurification, however, this ability is lost. In the present study, we investigated the capacity of LPS from P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, Salmonella minnesota, and Salmonella abortusequi to induce production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in gamma interferon-primed C3H/HeJ macrophages before and after repurification. P. abortusequi S-LPS was fractionated by centrifugal partition chromatography into two LPS forms: SL-LPS, having homologous long O-polysaccharide chains, and SS-LPS having short oligosaccharide chains. Prior to repurification, all LPS forms except SL-LPS induced TNF production in both C3H/HeJ and C3H/HeN macrophages. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that repurification removed contaminating protein from the preparations, and repurified SS-LPS and S. minnesota Ra-LPS no longer stimulated TNF production in C3H/HeJ macrophages, although C3H/HeN macrophages remained responsive. In contrast, repurified oral bacterial LPS retained the capacity to induce TNF production in C3H/HeJ macrophages. Oral bacterial LPS preparations also were not antagonized by excess inactive, repurified SL-LPS; Ra-LPS; Rhodobacter sphaeroides lipid A, a competitive LPS antagonist, or paclitaxel, an LPS agonist, and they were comparatively resistant to polymyxin B treatment. Nevertheless, oral bacterial LPS was less toxic to D-galactosamine-treated C3H/HeN mice than was LPS from Salmonella. These findings indicate that the active molecule(s) and mode of action of LPS from P. gingivalis and P. intermedia are quite different from those of LPS from Salmonella.  (+info)

The cyclic structure of microcin J25, a 21-residue peptide antibiotic from Escherichia coli. (7/3075)

Microcin J25 (MccJ25) is the single representative of the immunity group J of the microcin group of peptide antibiotics produced by Enterobacteriaceae. It induces bacterial filamentation in susceptible cells in a non-SOS-dependent pathway [R. A. Salomon and R. Farias (1992) J. Bacteriol. 174, 7428-7435]. MccJ25 was purified to homogeneity from the growth medium of a microcin-overproducing Escherichia coli strain by reverse-phase HPLC. Based on amino acid composition and absolute configuration determination, liquid secondary ion and electrospray mass spectrometry, extensive two-dimensional NMR, enzymatic and chemical degradations studies, the structure of MccJ25 was elucidated as a 21-residue peptide, cyclo(-Val1-Gly-Ile-Gly-Thr- Pro-Ile-Ser-Phe-Tyr-Gly-Gly-Gly-Ala-Gly-His-Val-Pro-Glu-Tyr-Phe21- ). Although MccJ25 showed high resistance to most of endoproteases, linearization by thermolysin occurred from cleavage at the Phe21-Val1 bond and led to a single peptide, MccJ25-L. While MccJ25 exhibited remarkable antibiotic activity towards Salmonella newport and several E. coli strains (minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 0.2 microgram.mL-1), the thermolysin-linearized microcin showed a dramatic decrease of the activity, indicating that the cyclic structure is essential for the MccJ25 biological properties. As MccJ25 is ribosomally synthesized as a larger peptide precursor endowed with an N-terminal extremity, the present study shows that removal of this extension and head-tail cyclization of the resulting propeptide are the only post-translational modifications involved in the maturation of MccJ25, that appears as the first cyclic microcin.  (+info)

Presence of Campylobacter and Salmonella in sand from bathing beaches. (8/3075)

The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. in sand from non-EEC standard and EEC standard designated beaches in different locations in the UK and to assess if potentially pathogenic strains were present. Campylobacter spp. were detected in 82/182 (45%) of sand samples and Salmonella spp. in 10/182 (6%). Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 46/92 (50%) of samples from non-EEC standard beaches and 36/90 (40%) from EEC standard beaches. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was greater in wet sand from both types of beaches but, surprisingly, more than 30% of samples from dry sand also contained these organisms. The major pathogenic species C. jejuni and C. coli were more prevalent in sand from non-EEC standard beaches. In contrast, C. lari and urease positive thermophilic campylobacters, which are associated with seagulls and other migratory birds, were more prevalent in sand from EEC standard beaches. Campylobacter isolates were further characterized by biotyping and serotyping, which confirmed that strains known to be of types associated with human infections were frequently found in sand on bathing beaches.  (+info)

  • Since many strains of Salmonella are resistant to one or more antibiotics, a patient may be treated initially with one antibiotic, then switched to a second antibiotic if it doesn't work. (exampleessays.com)
  • A petition to USDA's Food Safety and Inspection Service asking for the listing of 31 Salmonella strains as meat and poultry adulterants raises a question. (lexblog.com)
  • That someone was the Center for Science in the Public Interest, which spent much of the past decade trying to persuade FSIS to declare four Salmonella strains as adulterants because they are antibiotic-resistant (ABR) strains. (lexblog.com)
  • After thoroughly reviewing the available data, FSIS has concluded that the data do not support giving the four strains of ABR Salmonella identified in the petition a different status as an adulterant in raw ground meat and raw ground poultry than Salmonella strains that are susceptible to antibiotics," FSIS said in response to the CSPI petition. (lexblog.com)
  • The CSPI tried to make the argument that the ABR Salmonella strains had "distinguishing characteristics" that support its classification as an adulterant in raw ground meat and poultry. (lexblog.com)
  • CSPI leaders thought the human involvement in antibiotic-resistant would help lift ABR Salmonella strains over the others, but FSIS found the petition lacked a definition of "antibiotic resistance. (lexblog.com)
  • Thus, the issue is whether ABR Salmonella strains are more virulent than susceptible strains. (lexblog.com)
  • FSIS also found ABR Salmonella strains are no more heat resistant than other Salmonella strains. (lexblog.com)
  • Finally, FSIS said international Codex Guidelines do not require listing Salmonella as an adulterant, and there is no reason to believe that raw meat and raw poultry containing specific strains of ABR Salmonella is unfit for human consumption. (lexblog.com)
  • We report here on the results from multiple field and microcosm experiments examining the potential for Salmonella contamination of produce crops via splash water, and the effect of soil moisture content on Salmonella survival in soil and concentration in splash water. (barfblog.com)
  • Salmonella is worldwide and can contaminate almost any food type, but outbreaks of the disease have highly involved raw eggs, raw meat, egg products, and contaminated water. (exampleessays.com)
  • The potential for the risk of splash should be further explored in agricultural regions in which Salmonella and other pathogens are present in soil. (barfblog.com)
  • A comparative study was performed to evaluate best practice culture media and enrichment broths for recovering Salmonella species from human stool samples. (scirp.org)
  • Presently, the data suggest that the use of MSRV over MAC, HE, and XLD agars for isolation nontyphi Salmonella species from human stools is more efficacious. (scirp.org)
  • Additionally, use of MSRV in combination with MAC and HE agars following enrichment in RV broth enhances recovery of nontyphi Salmonella species. (scirp.org)
  • However, RV broth is inhibitory to typhi Salmonella , thus use of MSRV medium in combination with MAC, HE or XLD agars in direct plating following enrichment in non-selective BPW is an alternate method for recovery of both typhi and nontyphi Salmonella species contaminated in human stool samples. (scirp.org)
  • Srijan, A. , Wongstitwilairoong, B. , Bodhidatta, L. and Mason, C. (2015) Efficiency of Plating Media and Enrichment Broths for Isolating Salmonella Species from Human Stool Samples: A Comparison Study. (scirp.org)
  • Further, most Salmonella species are pathogenic in that they can cause disease, " the 9-page FSIS ruling continued. (lexblog.com)
  • 2002) An Evaluation of the Performance of XLD, DCA, MLCB, and ABC Agars as Direct Plating Media for Isolation of Salmonella Enteric from Faeces. (scirp.org)
  • To detect Salmonella , investigators may expect a 62.5% sensitivity for culture of EBP of five, relative to individual fecal sample enrichment and culture. (peerj.com)
  • A total 299/1297 stools samples were Salmonella -positive on at least one plating medium after enrichment procedure were 77.3% (177/299) for SB, 86.0% (197/299) and 78.6% (180/299) for RV and BPW respectively. (scirp.org)
  • Salmonella has also the potential to cause clinical disease in pigs. (mitacs.ca)
  • The objective of this proposal is to evaluate and compare the immune responses produced by these two Salmonella vaccines in pigs. (mitacs.ca)
  • The tomatoes were rinsed 10 s with 195 ml of D/E neutralizer broth (rinse solution), then combined with 20 ml of D/E neutralizer (residual wash solution) and rubbed by hand to remove residual Salmonella . (allenpress.com)
  • Treatment with PW resulted in reductions in the number of Salmonella 2 to 4 logs greater than those achieved with the sterile water or D/E neutralizer broth controls. (allenpress.com)
  • A secondary objective was to estimate and compare the relative sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) for pools of 5 and 10 enriched broth cultures of fecal samples for Salmonella sp. (peerj.com)
  • Salmonella is commonly found on Ontario swine farms. (mitacs.ca)
  • This research can provide a better understanding of pig immune responses against Salmonella attenuated vaccines and will help to develop new vaccines for controlling Salmonella on Ontario swine farms. (mitacs.ca)
  • Fecal samples were frozen until testing for Salmonella . (peerj.com)
  • A total of 249 cull cows were enrolled into the study and their fecal samples tested for Salmonella . (peerj.com)