Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Protein domains that are enriched in PROLINE. The cyclical nature of proline causes the peptide bonds it forms to have a limited degree of conformational mobility. Therefore the presence of multiple prolines in close proximity to each other can convey a distinct conformational arrangement to a peptide chain.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A group of small, histidine-rich, cationic peptides in human SALIVA which are antibacterial and antifungal.
A family of proline-rich proteins that constitute the majority of the protein component of SALIVA. Salivary proline-rich proteins occur as acidic, basic and glycosylated basic proteins. They perform a variety of functions such as adhering to the acquired ENAMEL PELLICLE, acting as lubricants and precipitating TANNINS.
Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.
A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.
Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.
Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
A group of closely-related cystatins found in SALIVA.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.
A lipocalin that was orignally characterized from human TEARS. It is expressed primarily in the LACRIMAL GLAND and the VON EBNER GLANDS. Lipocalin 1 may play a role in olfactory transduction by concentrating and delivering odorants to the ODORANT RECEPTORS.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS) of the Old World. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.

Amphotericin B- and fluconazole-resistant Candida spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, and other newly emerging pathogenic fungi are susceptible to basic antifungal peptides. (1/916)

The present study shows that a number of basic antifungal peptides, including human salivary histatin 5, a designed histatin analog designated dhvar4, and a peptide from frog skin, PGLa, are active against amphotericin B-resistant Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Aspergillus fumigatus strains and against a fluconazole-resistant Candida glabrata isolate.  (+info)

The cellular target of histatin 5 on Candida albicans is the energized mitochondrion. (2/916)

Histatin 5 is a human basic salivary peptide with strong fungicidal properties in vitro. To elucidate the mechanism of action, the effect of histatin 5 on the viability of Candida albicans cells was studied in relation to its membrane perturbing properties. It was found that both the killing activity and the membrane perturbing activity, studied by the influx of a DNA-specific marker propidium iodide, were inhibited by high salt conditions and by metabolic inhibitors, like sodium azide. In addition, exposure to histatin 5 resulted in a loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential in situ, measured by the release of the potential-dependent distributional probe rhodamine 123. Localization studies using tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate-labeled histatin 5 or fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled histatin 5 showed a granular intracellular distribution of the peptide, which co-localized with mitotracker orange, a permeant mitochondria-specific probe. Like the biological effects, uptake of labeled histatin 5 was inhibited by mitochondrial inhibitors and high salt conditions. Our data indicate that histatin 5 is internalized, and targets to the energized mitochondrion.  (+info)

Endogenous mucosal antiviral factors of the oral cavity. (3/916)

The oral cavity represents a unique site for mucosal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Unlike other mucosal sites, the oral cavity is rarely a site of HIV transmission despite detectable virus in saliva and oropharyngeal tissues of infected persons. One reason for this apparent paradox is the presence of endogenous mucosal antiviral factors. Innate inhibitory molecules, such as virus-specific antibodies, mucins, thrombospondin, and soluble proteins, have been identified and partially characterized from saliva. A recent addition to the growing list is secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), an approximately 12-kDa non-glycosylated protein found in serous secretions. Physiologic concentrations of SLPI potently protect adherent monocytes and activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells against HIV-1 infection. SLPI levels in saliva and semen but not breast milk approximate levels required for inhibition in vitro. Characterization of SLPI and other endogenous antiviral molecules may enhance our understanding of factors influencing mucosal HIV-1 transmission.  (+info)

Interactions of Streptococcus mutans fimbria-associated surface proteins with salivary components. (4/916)

Streptococcus mutans has been implicated as the major causative agent of human dental caries. S. mutans binds to saliva-coated tooth surfaces, and previous studies suggested that fimbriae may play a role in the initial bacterial adherence to salivary components. The objectives of this study were to establish the ability of an S. mutans fimbria preparation to bind to saliva-coated surfaces and determine the specific salivary components that facilitate binding with fimbriae. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) established that the S. mutans fimbria preparation bound to components of whole saliva. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot techniques were used to separate components of whole saliva and determine fimbria binding. SDS-PAGE separated 15 major protein bands from saliva samples, and Western blot analysis indicated significant binding of the S. mutans fimbria preparation to a 52-kDa salivary protein. The major fimbria-binding salivary protein was isolated by preparative electrophoresis. The ability of the S. mutans fimbria preparation to bind to the purified salivary protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and ELISA. Incubation of the purified salivary protein with the S. mutans fimbria preparation significantly neutralized binding of the salivary protein-fimbria complex to saliva-coated surfaces. The salivary protein, whole saliva, and commercial amylase reacted similarly with antiamylase antibody in immunoblots. A purified 65-kDa fimbrial protein was demonstrated to bind to both saliva and amylase. These data indicated that the S. mutans fimbria preparation and a purified fimbrial protein bound to whole-saliva-coated surfaces and that amylase is the major salivary component involved in the binding.  (+info)

Strains of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces viscosus exhibit structurally variant fimbrial subunit proteins and bind to different peptide motifs in salivary proteins. (5/916)

Oral strains of Actinomyces spp. express type 1 fimbriae, which are composed of major FimP subunits, and bind preferentially to salivary acidic proline-rich proteins (APRPs) or to statherin. We have mapped genetic differences in the fimP subunit genes and the peptide recognition motifs within the host proteins associated with these differential binding specificities. The fimP genes were amplified by PCR from Actinomyces viscosus ATCC 19246, with preferential binding to statherin, and from Actinomyces naeslundii LY7, P-1-K, and B-1-K, with preferential binding to APRPs. The fimP gene from the statherin-binding strain 19246 is novel and has about 80% nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity to the highly conserved fimP genes of the APRP-binding strains (about 98 to 99% sequence identity). The novel FimP protein contains an amino-terminal signal peptide, randomly distributed single-amino-acid substitutions, and structurally different segments and ends with a cell wall-anchoring and a membrane-spanning region. When agarose beads with CNBr-linked host determinant-specific decapeptides were used, A. viscosus 19246 bound to the Thr42Phe43 terminus of statherin and A. naeslundii LY7 bound to the Pro149Gln150 termini of APRPs. Furthermore, while the APRP-binding A. naeslundii strains originate from the human mouth, A. viscosus strains isolated from the oral cavity of rat and hamster hosts showed preferential binding to statherin and contained the novel fimP gene. Thus, A. viscosus and A. naeslundii display structurally variant fimP genes whose protein products are likely to interact with different peptide motifs and to determine animal host tropism.  (+info)

Molecular interactions of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae with host proteins: kinetic analyses based on surface plasmon resonance. (6/916)

Fimbriae of Porphyromonas gingivalis are thought to play an important role in the colonization and invasion of periodontal tissues. In this study, we analyzed the interactions of P. gingivalis fimbriae with human hemoglobin, fibrinogen, and salivary components (i.e., proline-rich protein [PRP], proline-rich glycoprotein [PRG], and statherin) based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy with a biomolecular interaction analyzing system (BIAcore). The real-time observation showed that the fimbriae interacted more quickly with hemoglobin and PRG than with other proteins and more intensely with fibrinogen. The significant association constant (ka) values obtained by BIAcore demonstrated that the interactions between fimbriae and these host proteins are specific. These estimated Ka values were not too different; however, the Ka values for hemoglobin (2.43 x 10(6)) and fibrinogen (2.16 x 10(6)) were statistically greater than those for the salivary proteins (1.48 x 10(6) to 1.63 x 10(6)). The Ka value of anti-fimbriae immunoglobulin G for fimbriae was estimated to be 1. 22 x 10(7), which was 6.55-fold higher than the mean Ka value of the host proteins. Peptide PRP-C, a potent inhibitor of PRP-fimbriae interaction, dramatically inhibited fimbrial association to PRP and PRG and was also inhibitory against other host proteins by BIAcore. The binding of fimbriae to these proteins was also evaluated by other methods with hydroxyapatite beads or polystyrene microtiter plates. The estimated binding abilities differed considerably, depending on the assay method that was used. It was noted that the binding capacity of PRP was strongly diminished by immobilization on a polystyrene surface. Taken together, these findings suggest that P. gingivalis fimbriae possess a strong ability to interact with the host proteins which promote bacterial adherence to the oral cavity and that SPR spectroscopy is a useful method for analyzing specific protein-fimbriae interactions.  (+info)

A critical comparison of the hemolytic and fungicidal activities of cationic antimicrobial peptides. (7/916)

The hemolytic and fungicidal activity of a number of cationic antimicrobial peptides was investigated. Histatins and magainins were inactive against human erythrocytes and Candida albicans cells in phosphate buffered saline, but displayed strong activity against both cell types when tested in 1 mM potassium phosphate buffer supplemented with 287 mM glucose. The HC50/IC50 ratio, indicative of the therapeutic index, was about 30 for all peptides tested. PGLa was most hemolytic (HC50 = 0.6 microM) and had the lowest therapeutic index (HC50/IC50 = 0.5). Susceptibility to hemolysis was shown to increase with storage duration of the erythrocytes and also significant differences were found between blood collected from different individuals. In this report, a sensitive assay is proposed for the testing of the hemolytic activities of cationic peptides. This assay detects subtle differences between peptides and allows the comparison between the hemolytic and fungicidal potency of cationic peptides.  (+info)

Kinetic analysis on nitric oxide binding of recombinant Prolixin-S, a nitric oxide transport protein from the bloodsucking bug, Rhodnius prolixus. (8/916)

Kinetics of the NO binding and removal reaction of recombinant Prolixin-S (rProlixin-S) were analyzed using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The reaction was observed as a biphasic process. The rate constant of the fast phase increased linearly as NO concentration increased. The rate constant at the slow phase increased as NO concentrations increased at low NO concentration, then reached a plateau at high NO concentration. These NO dependencies of the reaction are characteristic of a bimolecular two-step consecutive reaction. The reaction consisted of the fast NO binding reaction of rProlixin-S and the following slow structural change of NO-protein complex. Kinetic studies revealed that the NO binding rate constant was independent of pH, but the rate constant of the NO removal reaction increased as pH increased. The apparent NO dissociation constant (Kd) of rProlixin-S was also calculated from the values of the kinetic parameters obtained in this work. The Kd value increased as pH and temperature increased. The Kd value of rProlixin-S and NO was 10-300 nM in regular physiological condition, which is 103 higher and 103 lower than those of the other ferric and ferrous hemoproteins and NO, respectively. These results indicate that Prolixin-S is one of NO transport proteins regulating blood pressure.  (+info)

Aim: Glycosylation of serum proteins is affected with prolonged heavy drinking, and carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) is well established and highly specific biomarker of sustained alcohol consumption. However, total amount of sialic acid is not the only glycoepitope that may be altered as a result of the disease. This work is focused on glycan structures altered in salivary glycoproteins of alcoholics, indicating the most efficient carriers of such marker glycoepitopes. Methods: Salivary glycoproteins of 31 alcohol-dependent patients and 21 healthy controls were studied by means of lectin ELISA and lectin blotting with the lectins specific for core and antennary fucose, α2,3-bound sialic acid as well as T and Tn antigens in O-glycans. Results: In direct lectin ELISA, core fucosylation, α2,3 sialylation and expression of T-antigen were significantly lowered in the saliva of alcohol-dependent patients. In lectin blotting ten glycoprotein bands were analyzed. The profile of ...
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Salp15 is a tick saliva protein that inhibits CD4(+) T cell differentiation through its interaction with CD4. The protein inhibits early signaling events during T cell activation and IL-2 production. Because murine Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis development is mediated by central nervous system-infiltrating CD4(+) T cells that are specific for myelin-associated proteins, we sought to determine whether the treatment of mice with Salp15 during EAE induction would prevent the generation of proinflammatory T cell responses and the development of the disease. Surprisingly, Salp15-treated mice developed more severe EAE than control animals. The treatment of EAE-induced mice with the tick saliva protein did not result in increased infiltration of T cells to the central nervous system, indicating that Salp15 had not affected the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Salp15 treatment did not affect the development of antibody responses against the eliciting peptide or the presence of IFNγ ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The overall goal of our study was to compare the proteins found in the saliva proteomes of three mammals: human, mouse and rat. Our first objective was to compare two human proteomes with very different analysis depths. The 89 shared proteins in this comparison apparently represent a core of highly-expressed human salivary proteins. Of the proteins unique to each proteome, one-half to 2/3 lack signal peptides and probably are contaminants instead of less highly-represented salivary proteins. We recently published the first rodent saliva proteomes with saliva collected from the genome mouse (C57BL/6) and the genome rat (BN/SsNHsd/Mcwi). Our second objective was to compare the proteins in the human proteome with those we identified in the genome mouse and rat to determine those common to all three mammals, as well as the specialized rodent subset. We also identified proteins unique to each of the three mammals, because differences in the secreted protein constitutions can provide clues to differences in
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
The present invention relates to the identification of novel oral cancer and periodontal disease biomarkers. Further, the present invention provides novel methods of diagnosing and for providing a pro
Ticks are obligate blood sucking parasites which transmit a wide range of pathogens worldwide including protozoa, bacteria and viruses. Additionally, tick feeding alone may result in anemia, dermatosis and toxin-induced ...
Mosquitoes are able to adapt to feed on blood by the salivary glands which created a protein that works against the haemostasis process. This study aims to investigate the salivary glands proteins expression of 50 adult female An. dirus A mosquitoes, a main vector of malaria in Thailand, each group with an age of 5 days which were artificial membrane fed on sugar, normal blood, blood infected with P. vivax, and blood infected with P. falciparum. Then mosquito salivary gland proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE on days 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 after feeding. The findings revealed that the major salivary glands proteins had molecular weights of 62, 58, 43, 36, 33, 30, and 18 kDa. One protein band of approximately 13 kDa was found in normal blood and blood infected with P. vivax fed on day 0. A stronger protein band, 65 kDa, was expressed from the salivary glands of mosquitoes fed with P. vivax- or P. falciparum-infected blood on only day 0, but none on days 1 to 4. The study shows that salivary glands proteins
TY - JOUR. T1 - The crystal structure of nitrophorin 2. A trifunctional antihemostatic protein from the saliva of Rhodnius prolixus. AU - Andersen, John F.. AU - Montfort, William R.. PY - 2000/9/29. Y1 - 2000/9/29. N2 - Nitrophorin 2 (NP2) (also known as prolixin-S) is a salivary protein that transports nitric oxide, binds histamine, and acts as an anticoagulant during blood feeding by the insect Rhodnius prolixus. The 2.0-Å crystal structure of NP2 reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel containing a ferric heme coordinated through His57, similar to the structures of NP1 and NP4. All four Rhodnius nitrophorins transport NO and sequester histamine through heme binding, but only NP2 acts as an anticoagulant. Here, we demonstrate that recombinant NP2, but not recombinant NP1 or NP4, is a potent anticoagulant; recombinant NP3 also displays minor activity. Comparison of the nitrophorin structures suggests that a surface region near the C terminus and the loops between β strands B-C and ...
Occurrence of gustducin-immunoreactive cells in von Ebners glands of guinea pigs. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Objectives: the aim of this study was the development of techniques deriving from capillary electrophoresis (CE), which can be utilized for the analysis of salivary proteins. Methods: the CE apparatus utilized were either a P/ACE MDQ system equipped by diode array detector or a P/ACE 2100 system. Separation of whole salivary samples performed by classical zonal CE in acidic buffer (80 mmol/l sodium phosphate buffer, pH 2.65) did not provided high resolution results, even with a use of a capillary coated by a polyacrylamide monolayer. Results: several peaks pertaining to basic and acidic proline-rich proteins (PRP) are detectable, but neither histatins, nor statherin, nor cystatins were detectable, probably due to their low concentration and their high interaction with the inner capillary wall. When the separation is performed in neutral environment using sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and entangled polymers, therefore according to protein dimensions, several peaks pertaining to histatins, PRP, ...
Saliva of the blood feeding sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis was previously shown to inhibit the alternative pathway (AP) of the complement system. Here, we have identified Lufaxin, a protein component in saliva, as the inhibitor of the AP. Lufaxin inhibited the deposition of C3b, Bb, Properdin, C5b and C9b on agarose-coated plates in a dose dependent manner. It also inhibited the activation of factor B in normal serum, but had no effect on the components of the membrane attack complex. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments demonstrated that Lufaxin stabilizes the C3b-B proconvertase complex when passed over a C3b surface in combination with factor B. Lufaxin was also shown to inhibit the activation of factor B by factor D in a reconstituted C3b-B, but did not inhibit the activation of C3 by reconstituted C3b-Bb. Proconvertase stabilization does not require the presence of divalent cations, but addition of Ni2+ increases the stability of complexes formed on SPR surfaces. Stabilization of the C3b-B
Histatins are antimicrobial and antifungal proteins, and have been found to play a role in wound-closure.[2][3] A significant source of histatins is found in the serous fluid secreted by Ebners glands, salivary glands at the back of the tongue, and produced by Acinus cells.[4] Here they offer some early defense against incoming microbes.[5] The three major histatins are 1, 3, and 5. Histatin 2 is a degradation product of histatin 1, and all other histatins are degradation products of histatin 3. Therefore there are only two genes, HTN1 and HTN3. Histatins antifungal properties has been seen with fungus such as Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Cryptococcus neoformans.[6] Histatins also precipitate tannins from solution - thus preventing alimentary adsorption.[7] ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Human salivary glands and the oral mucosa secrete a wide spectrum of antimicrobial agents which are believed to be essential for the protection and maintenance of a healthy oral environment. Histatins are believed to play a key role in controlling opportunistic fungal pathogens, such as Candida albicans, in the oral cavity. An increase in the immunocompromised population over the last few decades has established Candida spp. as clinically important oral fungal pathogens. Widespread use of the limited numbers of antifungal agents available to treat candidal infections has led to the rapid development of drug-resistant strains, which are the main cause for antifungal treatment failures. Histatins are naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides which have potent anticandidal activity at physiological concentrations, are non-toxic to mammalian cells, and do not induce resistance. Their mechanism of action is distinct from that of the azole-based antifungal drugs, and they are fungicidal against both ...
A gel-based proteomics approach was used to screen for proteins of differential abundance between the saliva of smokers and those who had never smoked. Subjecting precipitated proteins from whole human saliva of healthy non-smokers to two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) generated typical profiles comprising more than 50 proteins. While 35 of the proteins were previously established by other researchers, an additional 22 proteins were detected in the 2-DE saliva protein profiles generated in the present study. When the 2-DE profiles were compared to those obtained from subjects considered to be heavy cigarette smokers, three saliva proteins, including interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, thioredoxin and lipocalin-1, showed significant enhanced expression. The distribution patterns of lipocalin-1 isoforms were also different between cigarette smokers and on-smokers. The three saliva proteins have good potential to be used as biomarkers for the adverse effects of smoking and the risk for inflammatory and
The macrophage and tick vaccine laboratory studies the interaction between athropod vectors, infectious microorganisms and their mammalian hosts. The laboratory is primarily focused on ticks of the genus Ixodes, which transmit several medically important pathogens, such as the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, Borrelia burgdorferi.. The lab participates in a large multicenter project funded by the EU (ANTIDotE) that seeks to identify tick salivary antigens that could be used as potential vaccine candidates against tick bites and therefore, prevent the transmission of pathogens. They are also interested in the pharmacological activities exerted by tick saliva proteins, especially those that can modulate the immune response and that can have therapeutic applications in immune disorders.. Finally, the group is interested in understanding the regulation of the immune response pathways present in ticks that participate in the control of pathogens within the vector. On the other hand, the ...
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have long been studied for applications in biomolecule recognition and binding; compared with natural antibodies, they may offer advantages in cost and stability. We report on the development of MIPs that “self-report†concentrations of bound analytes via fluorescence changes in embedded quantum dots (QDots). Composite QDot/MIPs were prepared using phase inversion of poly(ethylene- co-vinyl alcohol) (EVAL) solutions with various ethylene mole ratios in the presence of salivary target molecules (e.g. amylase, lipase, and lysozyme). These major protein components of saliva have been implicated as possible biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. The optimum (highest imprinting effectiveness) ethylene mole ratios of the commercially available EVALs were found to be 32, 38, and 44 mol% for the imprinting of amylase, lipase, and lysozyme, respectively. QD fluorescence quenching was observed on binding of analytes to composite MIPs in a concentration-dependent ...
Davison, Glen, Allgrove, Judith and Gleeson, Michael (2009) Salivary antimicrobial peptides (LL-37 and alpha-defensins HNP1-3), antimicrobial and IgA responses to prolonged exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 106 (2). pp. 277-284. ISSN 1439-6319 (doi:10.1007/s00421-009-1020-y) ...
|p|Peptide YY|sub|3-36|/sub| is a satiation hormone released postprandially into the bloodstream from L-endocrine cells in the gut epithelia. In the current report, we demonstrate PYY|sub|3-36|/sub| is also present in murine as well as in human saliva. In mice, salivary PYY|sub|3-36|/sub| derives from plasma and is also synthesized in the taste cells in taste buds of the tongue. Moreover, the cognate receptor Y2R is abundantly expressed in the basal layer of the progenitor cells of the tongue epithelia and von Ebners gland. The acute augmentation of salivary PYY|sub|3-36|/sub| induced stronger satiation as demonstrated in feeding behavioral studies. The effect is mediated through the activation of the specific Y2 receptor expressed in the lingual epithelial cells. In a long-term study involving diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, a sustained increase in PYY|sub|3-36|/sub| was achieved using viral vector-mediated gene delivery targeting salivary glands. The chronic increase in salivary PYY|sub|3-36|/sub|
Saliva may be the key to explaining the age and sex bias exhibited by influenza and other diseases, according to a new study. Published in ACS Journal of
Ticks are obligate blood sucking parasites which transmit a wide range of pathogens worldwide including protozoa, bacteria and viruses. Additionally, tick feeding alone may result in anemia, dermatosis and toxin-induced ...
Practical advice, tutorials, and peer-reviewed research on liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), mass spectrometry (MS) and related techniques.
Histatins are peptides exclusively present in the saliva of higher primates. They are secreted by the salivary glands and play an important role in protection of the mouth. Recently it was found that one of the histatins, histatin 1 (Hst1), improves cellsubstrate adhesion as well as cell-cell adhesion, suggesting a role in maintenance of the epithelial architecture and barrier function. The effect of Hst1 on cell-substrate adhesion is very pronounced. In vitro studies show that even on glass, a substrate on which adherent cells not readily attach, cells attach rapidly in the presence of Hst1. Preliminary results also show that Hst1 improves cell adhesion on titanium.. Click here for more information on this collaboration opportunity. ...
BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
Because of the salt in the solution in the bottle, the child will usually spit the fluid out, or, at worst, be sick. If they are not sick, there should be no need to worry but a concerned parent can give the child a drink of milk. Because milk is a protein it will neutralise the Milton solution. The Milton Sterilising Fluid formula should be neutralised by the saliva proteins and break down into salt and water. However it is always best to seek medical advice or contact your GP to ensure complete safety.. ...
En CD4 oppregning metoden, α-test, er beskrevet som bruker hele spytt for å gi raske og nøyaktige CD4-tall. De α-test koster pennies og ...
Testing self-collected saliva samples could offer an easy and effective mass testing approach for detecting asymptomatic COVID-19.
Definition of salivary proline-rich proteins in the dictionary. Meaning of salivary proline-rich proteins. What does salivary proline-rich proteins mean? Information and translations of salivary proline-rich proteins in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web.
A family of proline-rich proteins that constitute the majority of the protein component of SALIVA. Salivary proline-rich proteins occur as acidic, basic and glycosylated basic proteins. They perform a variety of functions such as adhering to the acquired ENAMEL PELLICLE, acting as lubricants and precipitating TANNINS ...
Human saliva contains hundreds of small proline-rich peptides originated by the proteolytic cleavage of the salivary basic Proline-Rich Proteins.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of binding site loops in controlling nitric oxide release. T2 - Structure and kinetics of mutant forms of nitrophorin 4. AU - Maes, Estelle M.. AU - Weichsel, Andrzej. AU - Andersen, John F.. AU - Shepley, Donald. AU - Montfort, William R.. PY - 2004/6/1. Y1 - 2004/6/1. N2 - Nitrophorins are ferric heme proteins that transport nitric oxide (NO) from blood-sucking insects to victims. NO binding is tighter at lower pH values, as found in the insect salivary gland, and weaker at the pH of the victims tissue, facilitating NO release and subsequent vasodilation. Previous structural analyses of nitrophorin 4 (NP4) from Rhodnius prolixus revealed a substantial NO-induced conformational change involving the A-B and G-H loops, which rearrange to desolvate the distal pocket and pack nonpolar residues against the heme-ligated NO. Previous kinetic analyses revealed a slow, biphasic, and pH-dependent NO release, which was proposed to be associated with loop movements. In this study, we ...
Objective: The composition of the salivary interface (pellicle) between dental restorations and oral mucosa may be critical to the biocompatibility of the restoration. The purpose of this study was to examine the molecular composition of the salivary pellicle on nickel-chromium alloy in vivo. Method and materials: The molecular components of nickel-chromium pellicle was examined with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analyses. Results: Only limited numbers of salivary proteins were found to participate in the formation of nickel-chromium pellicle in vivo. Salivary amylase and secretory immunoglobulin A were among the proteins identified in the pellicle. Conclusion: In vivo, nickel-chromium pellicle consists of selectively adsorbed salivary proteins. Because both salivary amylase and secretory immunoglobulin A are antimicrobial proteins, it is possible that they play a role in modulating the microbial flora on the nickel-chromium prosthesis ...
article{f429a20c-cc6f-41ca-9f07-404d5d006fd6, abstract = {Cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3; also known as SGP28) was originally discovered in human neutrophilic granulocytes. We have recently developed a sensitive sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for CRISP-3 and demonstrated the presence of CRISP-3 in exocrine secretions. To investigate the subcellular localization and mobilization of CRISP-3 in human neutrophils, we performed subcellular fractionation of resting and activated neutrophils on three-layer Percoll density gradients, release-studies of granule proteins in response to different secretagogues, and double-labeling immunogold electron microscopy. CRISP-3 was found to be localized in a subset of granules with overlapping characteristics of specific and gelatinase granules and mobilized accordingly, thus confirming the hypothesis that peroxidase-negative granules exist as a continuum from specific to gelatinase granules regarding protein content and mobilization. ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Iron atom in PDB 1koi: Crystal Structure of Nitrophorin 4 From Rhodnius Prolixus Complexed With Nitric Oxide At 1.08 A Resolution
TY - JOUR. T1 - Membrane selectivity and biophysical studies of the antimicrobial peptide GL13K. AU - Balhara, Vinod. AU - Schmidt, Rolf. AU - Gorr, Sven Ulrik. AU - Dewolf, Christine. N1 - Funding Information: The authors would like to acknowledge the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) , the Canadian Foundation for Innovation (CFI) and the Centre for Self Assembled Chemical Structures (CSACS) for financial support. Dr. László Kálmán and Dr. Jack Kornblatt are acknowledged for their contributions to discussions and assistance with DPI and ITC, respectively. Copyright: Copyright 2013 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - GL13K is a short (13 amino acid) antimicrobial peptide derived from the parotid secretory protein. GL13K has been found to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities in physiological salt conditions. We investigated the mechanism of interaction of GL13K, with model membranes comprising 1, ...
Salivary secretions contain two distinct mucins, a high molecular weight mucin named MG1 and a low molecular weight mucin named MG2. Mucins protect oral surface...
7] Molecular basis of salivary proline-rich protein and peptide synthesis: cell-free translations and processing of human and macaque statherin mRNAs and partial amino acid sequence of their signal peptides. Oppenheim 3476566 ...
This graph shows the total number of publications written about Histatins by people in this website by year, and whether Histatins was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Leech antihemostatic proteins share the T-knot scaffold, a disulfide-reinforced structural motif. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
A study published online in The FASEB Journal delves into the mystifying fact that wounds in your mouth heal faster and more efficiently than wounds elsewhere. Until now, it was understood that saliva played a part in the wound healing process, though the extent of its role was unknown. The study examined the effects of salivary peptide histatin-1 on angiogenesis (blood vessel formation), which is critical to the efficiency of wound healing. Researchers found that histatin-1 promotes angiogenesis, as well as cell adhesion and migration. (more…). Read More ...
The self-assembling properties of thermally-sensitive amphiphilic elastin-like multiblock recombinamers have been combined with the capacities of calcium phosphate binding of the SN(A)15 epitope inspired by the salivary protein statherin. In this regard, the interaction between calcium and phosphate ions was examined in the presence of two hybrid recombinamers. The first recombinamer comprised a simple amphiphilic diblock in which the SN(A)15 epitopes were combined, at the gene level, to the hydrophilic end. This recombinamer can self-assemble into nanoparticles that can control the transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) into a fibre-like hydroxyapatite structure. In the other recombinamer, the SN(A)15 domains are distributed along the monomer chain, with the hydrophilic blocks being distributed amongst the hydrophobic ones. In this case, the resulting nanohybrid ACP/recombinamer organises into neuron-like structures. Thus, combining the amphiphilic elastin-like recombinamers to the ...
Human saliva contains a natural painkiller called opiorphin. Due to its powerful painkilling ability, scientists are trying to synthesize a new natural painkiller from opiorphin. It is great, because it doesnt have the same addicting attributes that morphine does and would work better with the body. In a study, 1 milligram of opiorphin gave the same results as 3 milligrams of morphine did. In another study, involving rats standing on pins, they needed 6 times more morphine than opiorphin to make them oblivious to the pain. Opiorphin works in the nerve cells of the spine. It stops the usual destruction of natural pain killing opiates in the spine called enkephalins. It is such a simple molecule, that scientists believe itll be possible to synthesize it and produce large quantities of it without needing to isolate it from saliva. Another approach is to find a drug that will make the body produce more opiorphin to manage pain.. (Source). ...
9. Feeling of warmth. Mosquito Facts. Mosquitoes are flying insects that tend to be more prevalent where there is standing water. They are more active early in the morning and early in the evening. Female mosquitoes lay their eggs in stagnant water. Only the female mosquito bites and feeds on human blood, as they need this blood in order to produce their eggs. Male mosquitoes feed on water and nectar. When a person is bitten, the mosquito injects its saliva into the skin which contains proteins that prevent the human blood from clotting. This allows the blood to be transferred to the mosquitos mouth. The typical localized itching, swelling, and/or redness of the skin that results from the bite is not directly due to the bite itself, but rather caused by the bodys immune response to the proteins in the mosquitos saliva. An allergic reaction to a mosquito bite is defined when there is a severe immune reaction against the salivary proteins of the mosquito, thus causing the more severe symptoms ...
Saliva is an important body fluid and can be used to monitor a patients health status. It contains multiple biomarkers, which gives it unique diagnostic potential. Different conditions, including some cancers, infectious diseases, and heart diseases, can be detected by testing your saliva.. Salivary diagnostics is not a new field in medicine. However, it has not been the bodily fluid of choice because the tested components appear in relatively small amounts when compared to blood serum. This makes routine diagnostics somewhat challenging. Some cutting-edge technology has recently been introduced that is changing this. A group of Indian scientists has been working on the oral fluid nanosensor test, which could non-invasively detect biomarkers for oral cancer. The nanosensor test is ultrasensitive and combines various techniques to detect salivary proteins and RNA biomarkers. Biochip technology is also being implemented in salivary diagnostics.. These point of care devices are miniature sensor ...
Moraes A de, Montoya BOA, Peña MS, Fisch A, Pupin MAF, Petta T, Almeida LGN de, Daher IP, Nascimento MO, Santos IKF de M, Ferreira BR. Heterologous production of salivary protein from the cattle tick in Pichia pastoris: expression and purification of the vaccine antigen Rm2067 [Internet]. Abstract Book. 2018 ;Available from: ...
Our research into the molecular mechanisms of charge-dependent transport across biological membranes is directed toward two classes of proton pumps (P-type and V-type), a family of proton-coupled potassium transporters (TRK proteins), and a peculiar group of potassium channels which form as intramembrane homodimers (TOKs). All of these are studied in microorganisms, especially fungi, made accessible by full-genome sequences and by advanced electrophysiological techniques. A new, completely unexpected, direction for this research as been the investigation of interactions between specific membrane proteins and the rapidly growing catalogue of small proteins known as host-defense peptides or Ribosomally synthesized AntiMicrobial peptides (RAMPs). Some of these kill microorganisms by directly forming membrane pores, but more act by stealth, subverting the functions of surface proteins by reaction from the cell interior. One group of RAMPs, the salivary histatins, kills each of our three current ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
1) INSERM U289, Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France; (2) CNRS UPR 640, Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France; (3) INRIA Epidaure, Sophia-Antipolis, France; (4) Neuroradiology Dept., Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France; (5) CIC, Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, ...
The purpose of this study is to better understand the genetic causes of cancer and the inherited tendency to develop cancer. To accomplish this, blood specimens and/or saliva samples and/or tumor and normal tissue blocks from patients and families of patients with cancer will be collected. Blood specimens will be frozen and stored for analysis at a later date. Tumor tissue and normal tissue will be stored for analysis at a later date. In order to perform this study, patients and members of their families will be asked to provide blood samples and/or saliva samples. Individuals will be asked to provide a history of cancer in their relatives at the time the blood sample is given. No relatives will be contacted before they have been asked by a family member if they wish to participate in this study. If they do wish to participate, the relatives should indicate this by returning the Family Member Consent for Contact Form After we receive this form, arrangements may be made for the family member to ...
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O. Zitka, S. Skalickova, S. Krizkova, M. Vlkova, V. Adam, R. Kizek Chromatographia (2013) 76:611-619 In this study, we optimized method for the isolation
WKP Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands. Human saliva comprises 99.5% mostly water, (...)
WKP Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands. Human saliva comprises 99.5% mostly water, (...)
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The collaboration of researchers of five universities reported on Tuesday that it has cataloged all 1,116 unique proteins found in human saliva glands, approximately 20 percent of which are also found in blood, said Fred Hagan, a researcher at the University of Rochester Medical Center in New York who worked on the study ...
and the saliva collected is screened for drugs of abuse. Samples are checked to verify the saliva is human and undiluted. It is important to ...
ANATOMIA SOLDULUI PDF - ANATOMIE,MEDICALE,OPERATII. Calin Todor; videos; views by dockamal Play next; Play now. Video Disectia soldului si coapsei. Croitor Gh, Anatomia
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இப்பக்கம் கடைசியாக 25 ஏப்ரல் 2017, 10:22 மணிக்குத் தொகுக்கப்பட்டது ...
The veinus plexuses in testis drain into testicular vein. On left side the testicular vein drain into left renal vein. On right side the right testicular vein drains into inferior vena cava. The Varicocele is common on left side because the pressure in renal vein is more as compared to inferior vena cava. ...
Shimada T (June 2006). "Salivary proteins as a defense against dietary tannins". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 32 (6): 1149-63. ... Khurshid Z, Najeeb S, Mali M, Moin SF, Raza SQ, Zohaib S, Sefat F, Zafar MS (January 2017). "Histatin peptides: Pharmacological ... A significant source of histatins is found in the serous fluid secreted by Ebner's glands, salivary glands at the back of the ... The structure of histatin is unique depending on whether the protein of interest is histatin 1, 3 or 5. Nonetheless, histatin ...
Basic salivary proline-rich protein 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRB4 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... PRB4 is post-translationally cleaved into three different mature peptides: Protein N1 Glycosylated protein A Peptide P-D (also ... is a proline-rich salivary protein. This gene and five other genes that also encode salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs), as ... Bennick A (1982). "Salivary proline-rich proteins". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 45 (2): 83-99. doi:10.1007/BF00223503. PMID 6810092. ...
Oppenheim FG, Hay DI, Smith DJ, Offner GD, Troxler RF (1987). "Molecular basis of salivary proline-rich protein and peptide ... and proline-rich salivary proteins in humans and macaques". J. Dent. Res. 68 (7): 1138-45. doi:10.1177/00220345890680070101. ... "Pellicle precursor protein crosslinking characterization of an adduct between acidic proline-rich protein (PRP-1) and statherin ... Statherin is a protein in humans that is encoded by the STATH gene. It prevents the precipitation of calcium phosphate in ...
"Detection of Grb-2-related adaptor protein gene (GRAP) and peptide molecule in salivary glands of MRL/lpr mice and patients ... GRB2-related adapter protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRAP gene. This gene encodes a member of the GRB2/ ... Feng GS, Ouyang YB, Hu DP, Shi ZQ, Gentz R, Ni J (May 1996). "Grap is a novel SH3-SH2-SH3 adaptor protein that couples tyrosine ... This protein also associates with the Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS1 (son of sevenless homolog 1) through its N- ...
... this reduction may also impair the secretion of antimicrobial proteins and peptides. Considering presence of many proteins and ... Salivary gland diseases (SGD) are multiple and varied in cause. There are three paired major salivary glands in humans - (the ... Frey's syndrome Salivary gland neoplasm A salivary diverticulum (plural diverticuli) is a small pouch or out-pocketing of the ... Congenital disorders of the salivary glands are rare, but may include: Aplasia Atresia Ectopic salivary gland tissue Stafne ...
"The amino acid sequence of a salivary proline-rich peptide, P-C, and its relation to a salivary proline-rich phosphoprotein, ... Kim HS, Maeda N (May 1986). "Structures of two HaeIII-type genes in the human salivary proline-rich protein multigene family". ... Proline-rich protein HaeIII subfamily 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRH2 gene. ENSG00000275679, ... "The primary structures of six human salivary acidic proline-rich proteins (PRP-1, PRP-2, PRP-3, PRP-4, PIF-s and PIF-f)". The ...
Basic salivary proline-rich protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRB1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... Saitoh E, Isemura S, Sanada K (1984). "Further fractionation of basic proline-rich peptides from human parotid saliva and ... is a proline-rich salivary protein. This gene and five other genes that also encode salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs), as ... Bennick A (1982). "Salivary proline-rich proteins". Mol. Cell. Biochem. 45 (2): 83-99. doi:10.1007/BF00223503. PMID 6810092. ...
The salivary glands of some species are modified to produce proteins - salivary amylase is found in many, but by no means all, ... Antimicrobial peptides such as histatins inhibit the growth of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. Salivary ... The proteins (statherin and proline-rich proteins) within the salivary pellicle inhibit demineralisation and promote ... are salivary gland specific proteins with highest level of expression. Examples of other specifically expressed proteins ...
The salivary glands of some species are modified to produce proteins - salivary amylase is found in many, but by no means all, ... Antimicrobial peptides such as histatins inhibit the growth of Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans. Salivary ... The proteins (statherin and proline-rich proteins) within the salivary pellicle inhibit demineralisation and promote ... salivary glands are often used to produce biologically important proteins like silk or glues, whilst fly salivary glands ...
The primary protein encoded by HTN3 is histatin 3. Histatins are a family of small, histidine-rich, salivary proteins, encoded ... Dickinson DP, Ridall AL, Levine MJ (1988). "Human submandibular gland statherin and basic histidine-rich peptide are encoded by ... Li XS, Reddy MS, Baev D, Edgerton M (2003). "Candida albicans Ssa1/2p is the cell envelope binding protein for human salivary ... Sabatini LM, Azen EA (1989). "Histatins, a family of salivary histidine-rich proteins, are encoded by at least two loci (HIS1 ...
The protein has a signal peptide sequence at its N-terminus. The signal peptide sequence is highly conserved in orthologs. The ... Vertebrate TATA binding protein factor (VTBP) C5orf46 is largely expressed in salivary glands and skin tissue, though some ... "Protein BLAST: search protein databases using a protein query". Retrieved 2020-03-02. "Genomatix - NGS ... Highly conserved regions include the signal peptide sequence found towards the N-terminus of the protein. There are no paralogs ...
"Association of the salivary triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells/its ligand peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 axis ... A peptide from human PGLYRP1 (amino acids 163-175) also inhibits the cytotoxic effects of TNF-α and PGLYRP1-Hsp70 complexes. ... Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 Peptidoglycan recognition protein 2 Peptidoglycan recognition protein 3 Peptidoglycan ... PGLYRP3 (peptidoglycan recognition protein 3) and PGLYRP4 (peptidoglycan recognition protein 4) are constitutively expressed in ...
Human salivary gland ductal and acinar cells have been successfully grown on a bioactive peptide containing a sequence repeated ... By expressing a recombinant form of the N-terminal domain I of the protein and demonstrating that digestion of the peptide with ... Pradhan S, Zhang C, Jia X, Carson DD, Witt R, Farach-Carson MC (April 2009). "Perlecan domain IV peptide stimulates salivary ... This is not evidence that MMP-2 and MMP-9 directly cleave perlecan protein in vivo but shows that the proteins clearly modulate ...
Function of heat-shock proteins in immunity is based on their ability to bind not only whole proteins, but also peptides. The ... Tissières A, Mitchell HK, Tracy UM (April 1974). "Protein synthesis in salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster: relation to ... Borges JC, Ramos CH (April 2005). "Protein folding assisted by chaperones". Protein and Peptide Letters. 12 (3): 257-61. doi: ... Heat shock proteins often function as chaperons in the refolding of proteins damaged by heat stress. Heat shock proteins have ...
Fel d 4 and Fel d 7 are one of the most common cat allergens after Fel d 1. Fel d 4 is produced in the submandibular salivary ... The remaining cat allergens are Fel d 2-8, with Fel d 4, a major urinary protein found in the saliva of cats, occurring the ... As the allergen enters through the nose or mouth, antigen cells analyze the allergen and present antigenic peptides to helper T ... It is less commonly secreted through the salivary gland, lacrimal glands, skin and anal glands. Fel d 4 and Fel d 7 are cat ...
In larval tissues, expression is highest in the salivary gland, but in adults the highest expression by far is in the male ... In most forms and orthologs, it is predicted that CHID1 has a signal peptide that varies in length by sequence. Structure ... Chitinase domain-containing protein 1 (CHID1) is a highly conserved protein of unknown function located on the short (p) arm of ... CHID1 is only strongly suggested to interact with one other protein. The transmembrane protein stabilin-1 has been detected as ...
... salivary proteins and aprotinin type protease inhibitors". The EMBO Journal. 9 (2): 385-93. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1990. ... "Characterization of three constituent chains of collagen type VI by peptide sequences and cDNA clones". European Journal of ... Collagen alpha-3(VI) chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the COL6A3 gene. This protein is an alpha chain of type VI ... mRNA and protein variants of the alpha 3 chain generated by alternative splicing of an additional 5-end exon". The Journal of ...
The Mup found in pigs, named salivary lipocalin (SAL), is expressed in the salivary gland of males where it tightly binds ... peptides also implicated in individual recognition in mice Proteins produced and secreted by the liver In that year Richard ... Major urinary proteins (Mups), also known as α2u-globulins, are a subfamily of proteins found in abundance in the urine and ... Along with other members of the lipocalin protein family, major urinary proteins can be potent allergens to humans. The reason ...
Snake venoms contain a variety of peptide toxins, including proteases, which hydrolyze protein peptide bonds, nucleases, which ... Snake venom may have originated with duplication of genes that had been expressed in the salivary glands of ancestors. Venom is ... The toxins are composed of peptides and proteins. They are used for prey acquisition and to deter predators by causing pain, ... Mass spectrometry showed that the mixture of proteins present in their venom is as complex as the mixture of proteins found in ...
A signal peptide, which is predicted to direct the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum for secretion, is cleaved from the ... Experimental microarray data, however, reveals additional regions of C6orf58 expression, namely in the salivary gland, thyroid ... Analysis of the mutated protein sequence for a signal peptide shows cleavability at the regular amino acid 20 is lost. DUF781's ... DUF781 is the singular domain of the protein and spans 318 of the protein's 330 amino acids. DUF781 has been linked to liver ...
The protein is not predicted to have an N-terminal signal peptide, but there are predicted nuclear localization signals (NLS) ... Expression is moderate in the placenta, prostate, testis, lung, salivary glands and dendritic cells. It is low in the brain, ... suggests the INAVA protein interacts with 14-3-3 protein sigma, which is an adaptor protein. INAVA is well conserved in ... The proteins in the MSA are all predicted to localize to the nucleus. A comparison of the physical properties of the proteins ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DEFB3 gene. HBD-3 was first isolated from human lesional ... RT-PCR showed HBD-3 to be expressed highly in skin, trachea, tongue and tonsils, with lower levels found salivary glands, ... Dhople V, Krukemeyer A, Ramamoorthy A (September 2006). "The human beta-defensin-3, an antibacterial peptide with multiple ...
1 signal peptide, 1 arginine and lysine cleavage site, and multiple O-BetaGlcNac sites. The table below lists predicted post ... salivary gland; a polyclonal rabbit TMEM151A antibody from Sigma Aldrich was used to get these results. These results were ... Transmembrane protein 151A has three transmembrane domains. The N-terminus of the protein is located in the cytosol and the C- ... Transmembrane protein 151A, also known as TMEM151A, is a protein that is encoded by the TMEM151A gene. The gene encoding ...
Pepsin breaks down the protein in the food into smaller particles, such as peptide fragments and amino acids. Protein digestion ... Salivary amylase: Carbohydrate digestion also initiates in the mouth. Amylase, produced by the salivary glands, breaks complex ... Proteases and peptidases split proteins into small peptides and amino acids. Amylases split carbohydrates such as starch and ... Of note is the diversity of the salivary glands. There are two types of salivary glands: serous glands: These glands produce a ...
... to proteins of various sizes (20-900 kDa). The molecules secreted vary in size from the small Escherichia coli peptide colicin ... Saliva, a liquid secreted by the salivary glands, contains salivary amylase, an enzyme which starts the digestion of starch in ... It is a simple system, which consists of only three protein subunits: the ABC protein, membrane fusion protein (MFP), and outer ... It serves primarily as a site for acid hydrolysis of microbial and dietary protein, preparing these protein sources for further ...
"Human salivary agglutinin binds to lung surfactant protein-D and is identical with scavenger receptor protein gp-340". Biochem ... DMBT1 has been shown to interact with Surfactant protein D. DMBT1-derived peptides also interacts with nucleic acids. GRCh38: ... Deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DMBT1 gene. Loss of sequences from ... "Identification of the bacteria-binding peptide domain on salivary agglutinin (gp-340/DMBT1), a member of the scavenger receptor ...
This truncated form of the MSMB protein lacks the fungicidal peptide identified in 2012. The expression of MSMB is found to be ... salivary glands, fallopian tube, corpus uteri, bulbourethral glands and cervix. This list corresponds closely to the sites from ... For historical reasons, the scientific literature may also refer to this protein as Prostate secretory protein 94 (PSP94), ... "Peptides of postulated inhibin activity. Lack of in vitro inhibin activity of a 94-residue peptide isolated from human seminal ...
The main challenge, however, is to deliver protein to the nerve cells as proteins usually are not applicable as pills. The ... The glands that secrete the zootoxins are a modification of the parotid salivary glands found in other vertebrates, and are ... Compounds with low molecular weight (up to 1.5 KDa) include metals, peptides, lipids, nucleosides, carbohydrates, amines, and ... Venoms contain more than 20 different compounds, mostly proteins and polypeptides. A complex mixture of proteins, enzymes, and ...
Similar to the salivary glands, most pancreas-specific genes encode for secreted proteins. Corresponding pancreas-specific ... This is converted to proinsulin and cleaved by C-peptide to insulin which is then stored in granules in beta cells. Glucose is ... 10,000 protein coding genes (50% of all genes) are expressed in the normal human pancreas. Less than 100 of these genes are ... Enzymes that break down proteins begin with activation of trypsinogen to trypsin. The free trypsin then cleaves the rest of the ...
After the bacteria migrate from the midgut to the salivary glands, OspC binds to Salp15, a tick salivary protein that appears ... a whole-cell sonicate enzyme immunoassay followed by a VlsE C6 peptide enzyme immunoassay". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 53 (6 ... A hexavalent (OspA) protein subunit-based vaccine candidate VLA15 was granted fast track designation by the U.S. Food and Drug ... Within the tick midgut, the Borrelia's outer surface protein A (OspA) binds to the tick receptor for OspA, known as TROSPA. ...
... spores are useful for the expression of recombinant proteins and in particular for the surface display of peptides and proteins ... Small acid-soluble proteins (SASPs) are found in endospores. These proteins tightly bind and condense the DNA, and are in part ... The dipicolinic acid helps stabilize the proteins and DNA in the endospore.[14]:141 Next the peptidoglycan cortex forms between ... In Bacillus subtilus endospores, the spore coat is estimated to contain more than 70 coat proteins, which are organized into an ...
protein binding. • protease binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • identical protein binding ... regulation of branching involved in salivary gland morphogenesis. • positive regulation of phagocytosis. • negative regulation ... positive regulation of protein complex assembly. • protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of cytokine production. • ... protein localization to plasma membrane. • positive regulation of protein catabolic process. • regulation of receptor activity ...
There are three pairs of main salivary glands and between 800 and 1,000 minor salivary glands, all of which mainly serve the ... A peptide hormone, gastrin, produced by G cells in the gastric glands, stimulates the production of gastric juice which ... Saliva also contains a glycoprotein called haptocorrin which is a binding protein to vitamin B12.[17] It binds with the vitamin ... The presence of salivary lipase is of prime importance in young babies whose pancreatic lipase has yet to be developed.[14] ...
CENP-E is a 312kDa protein from the kinesin motor protein family. CENP-F is a 367kDa protein from the nuclear matrix that ... and La antigens are expressed on the surface of cells undergoing apoptosis and may cause the inflammation within the salivary ... 54kDa and 60kDa proteins and RNA. The 60kDa DNA/RNA binding protein and 52kDa T-cell regulatory protein are the best ... The retroviral gag protein shows similarity to the La protein and is proposed as a possible example for molecular mimicry in ...
protein binding. • identical protein binding. • chemoattractant activity. • protein heterodimerization activity. • growth ... regulation of branching involved in salivary gland morphogenesis by mesenchymal-epithelial signaling. • positive regulation of ... "The procognitive and synaptogenic effects of angiotensin IV-derived peptides are dependent on activation of the hepatocyte ... positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • positive regulation of protein phosphorylation. • cytokine-mediated ...
"Interactions of Grape Seed Tannins with Salivary Proteins". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 47 (1): 42-7. doi: ... The study showed that tannins suppressed production of the peptide responsible for hardening arteries. To support their ... This is due to the tendency of tannins to react with proteins, such as the ones found in saliva.[14] In food and wine pairing, ... proteins and lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/20061". EFSA Journal. 8 (2): ...
A virus that causes enlargement of the salivary glands, salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), is spread among houseflies ... The antimicrobial peptides produced by housefly maggots are of pharmacological interest.[70] ... which is regulated by the transformer protein in many different insects.[68] Mdmd causes male development by negatively ... and possibly other proteins and polysaccharides of medical value.[41] ...
... a non-ribosomal peptide synthesized by Lysobacter sp. RH2180-5[17] and GPI0363[18] are among the notable antibiotics discovered ... and enclose themselves in a cocoon made up of raw silk produced by the salivary glands. The final molt from larva to pupa takes ... in the place of silk proteins. Bombyx mori females are also one of the few organisms with homologous chromosomes held together ... Research on the genome also raises the possibility of genetically engineering silkworms to produce proteins, including ...
The peptide chain can be cross-linked to the peptide chain of another strand forming the 3D mesh-like layer.[1] Peptidoglycan ... Penicillin binding protein forming cross-links in newly formed bacterial cell wall. ... Penicillin-binding proteins form the bonds between oligopeptide crosslinks in peptidoglycan. For a bacterial cell to reproduce ... Attached to the N-acetylmuramic acid is a peptide chain of three to five amino acids. ...
peptide cross-linking. • positive regulation of cell adhesion. • branching involved in salivary gland morphogenesis. • positive ... protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • metal ion binding. • GTP binding. • ... phospholipase C-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • salivary gland cavitation. • negative regulation of ... ProteinEdit. TG2 is a multifunctional enzyme that belongs to transglutaminases which catalyze the crosslinking of proteins by ...
Persons with aphthous stomatitis also have circulating lymphocytes which react with peptides 91-105 of heat shock protein 65-60 ... Salivary gland fistula. *Salivary gland hyperplasia. *Salivary gland hypoplasia. *Salivary gland neoplasms *Benign: Basal cell ...
The fusion proteins were a way to spread the infection to other cells by simply merging them with the infected one (HIV does ... Activated CTL then travels throughout the body searching for cells that bear that unique MHC Class I + peptide.[citation needed ... "RNA interference-based antiviral immune response against the salivary gland hypertrophy virus in Glossina pallidipes". BMC ... T cells recognize their cognate antigen in a processed form - as a peptide in the context of an MHC molecule,[2] whereas B ...
Signaling peptide/protein receptor modulators. Cytokine receptor modulators. Retrieved from " ... Salivary gland Stimulate the growth of sensory nerve 7 Insulin like growth factor Serum Stimulate incorporation of sulfates ... Wnt-protein binding. • GO:0001948 protein binding. • growth factor activity. • Wnt-activated receptor activity. • protein ... positive regulation of protein ubiquitination involved in ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process. • angiogenesis. • Wnt ...
The oxytocin peptide is synthesized as an inactive precursor protein from the OXT gene.[18][19][20] This precursor protein also ... Huffmeijer R, Alink LR, Tops M, Grewen KM, Light KC, Bakermans-Kranenburg MJ, Ijzendoorn MH (2012). "Salivary levels of ... neurophysin is a large peptide fragment of the larger precursor protein molecule from which oxytocin is derived by enzymatic ... Oxytocin (Oxt; /ˌɒksɪˈtoʊsɪn/) is a peptide hormone and neuropeptide. Oxytocin is normally produced by the paraventricular ...
"Drosophila pipe protein activity in the ovary and the embryonic salivary gland does not require heparan sulfate ... As an aminoacyltransferase, it catalyzes the transfer of a peptide to an aminoacyl-tRNA, following this reaction: peptidyl- ... "1aqy Summary". Protein Data Bank in Europe Bringing Structure to Biology. The European Bioinformatics Institute. Retrieved 11 ... A prominent kinase is cyclin-dependent kinase (or CDK), which comprises a sub-family of protein kinases. As their name implies ...
submandibular salivary gland formation. • viral RNA genome replication. • small GTPase mediated signal transduction. • protein ... Stevens WK, Vranken W, Goudreau N, Xiang H, Xu P, Ni F (May 1999). "Conformation of a Cdc42/Rac interactive binding peptide in ... protein binding. • thioesterase binding. • protein kinase binding. • nucleotide binding. • GTP binding. • identical protein ... "Protein Data Bank in Europe. EMBL-EBI. Retrieved 2016-04-22.. *^ "CDC42 (cell division cycle 42 (GTP binding protein, 25kDa))" ...
Gastric inhibitory peptide. Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) decreases both gastric acid release and motility. ... Gene and protein expressionEdit. Further information: Bioinformatics § Gene and protein expression ... Venturi S.; Venturi M. (2009). "Iodine in evolution of salivary glands and in oral health". Nutrition and Health. 20 (2): 119- ... Pepsin breaks down proteins into polypeptides. AbsorptionEdit. Although the absorption in the human digestive system is mainly ...
... bombesin-like peptides (gastrin-releasing peptide, neuromedin B and C), and neurotensin, and inhibited by hypothalamic dopamine ... Cleaved from the precursor proopiomelanocortin protein, and include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and beta-endorphin, and ... vasoactive intestinal peptide, angiotensin II, neuropeptide Y, galanin, substance P, ...
Similar to the salivary glands, most of the pancreas specific genes encode for secreted proteins. Corresponding pancreas ... This is converted to proinsulin and cleaved by C-peptide to insulin which is then stored in granules in beta cells. Glucose is ... Gene and protein expressionEdit. Further information: Bioinformatics § Gene and protein expression ... 10,000 protein coding genes (50% of all genes) are expressed in the normal human pancreas.[11][12] Less than 100 of these genes ...
Sensory neurons in the uterus of female D. melanogaster respond to a male protein, sex peptide, which is found in semen.[22] ... The mature larva has giant chromosomes in the salivary glands called polytene chromosomes, "puffs", which indicate regions of ... Calcium binds to proteins such as calmodulin (CaM) and an eye-specific protein kinase C (PKC) known as InaC. These proteins ... However, in vertebrates, the G protein is transducin, while the G protein in invertebrates is Gq (dgq in Drosophila). When ...
Surfactant immune function is primarily attributed to two proteins: SP-A and SP-D. These proteins can bind to sugars on the ... These include secretory immunoglobulins (IgA), collectins, defensins and other peptides and proteases, reactive oxygen species ... A small amount of carbon dioxide is carried on the protein portion of the hemoglobin molecules as carbamino groups. The total ...
"The salivary glands of the vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, express a novel member of the amylase gene family"។ Insect Molecular ... They need sugar for energy, which is taken from sources such as nectar, and they need blood as a source of protein for egg ... Aminoptidase activity is also luminal in the posterior midgut, but cellular aminopeptidases are required for peptide processing ... The salivary glands are a major target to most pathogens, whence they find their way into the host via the stream of saliva. ...
It is a simple system, which consists of only three protein subunits: the ABC protein, membrane fusion protein (MFP), and outer ... Saliva, a liquid secreted by the salivary glands, contains salivary amylase, an enzyme which starts the digestion of starch in ... Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) - is in the duodenum and decreases the stomach churning in turn slowing the emptying in the ... Protein digestion. Protein digestion occurs in the stomach and duodenum in which 3 main enzymes, pepsin secreted by the stomach ...
Peptides, polypeptides and proteins - small peptide hormones include TRH and vasopressin. Peptides composed of scores or ... Sweat glands and salivary glands are examples of exocrine glands whose products are released outside the body. ... Peptide hormone[change , change source]. Peptide hormones are hormones with a short chain of amino acids. ... Examples of protein hormones include insulin and growth hormone. More complex protein hormones bear carbohydrate side-chains ...
Fibrin and fibronectin cross-link together and form a plug that traps proteins and particles and prevents further blood loss.[ ... are also important for the innate immune defense of skin wounds by stimulation of the production of antimicrobial peptides and ... Bartkova J, Grøn B, Dabelsteen E, Bartek J (February 2003). "Cell-cycle regulatory proteins in human wound healing". Archives ... Keratinocytes themselves also produce and secrete factors, including growth factors and basement membrane proteins, which aid ...
Both structures serve to mediate binding to nuclear transport proteins.[5]. Most proteins, ribosomal subunits, and some DNAs ... Drawing of a Chironomus salivary gland cell published by Walther Flemming in 1882. The nucleus contains polytene chromosomes. ... The molecules or peptides are ubiquitinated before being released from the nucleus of the cells. The ubiquitinated molecules ... The nuclear lamina is composed mostly of lamin proteins. Like all proteins, lamins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and later ...
Jin L, Guo X, Shen C, Hao X, et al «Salivary factor LTRIN from Aedes aegypti facilitates the transmission of Zika virus by ... Dai L, Song J, Lu X, Deng YQ, et al «Structures of the Zika Virus Envelope Protein and Its Complex with a Flavivirus Broadly ... Yu Y, Deng YQ, Zou P, Wang Q, et al «A peptide-based viral inactivator inhibits Zika virus infection in pregnant mice and ... Liang, Q; Luo, Z; Zeng, J; Chen, W; et al «Zika Virus NS4A and NS4B Proteins Deregulate Akt-mTOR Signaling in Human Fetal ...
Amino acid-based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via ... In contrast, exocrine glands, such as salivary glands, sweat glands, and glands within the gastrointestinal tract, tend to be ... peptides, and proteins). The glands that secrete hormones comprise the endocrine system. The term hormone is sometimes extended ... Hormones affect distant cells by binding to specific receptor proteins in the target cell resulting in a change in cell ...
The salivary protein statherin is an inhibitor of spontaneous and secondary precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HAp). It is also ... A Synthetic Peptide Based on a Natural Salivary Protein Reduces Demineralisation in Model Systems for Dental Caries and Erosion ... The salivary protein statherin is an inhibitor of spontaneous and secondary precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HAp). It is also ... A peptide (StN21) was designed with a 21 amino acid sequence identical to the N-terminus of statherin. The aim was to measure ...
The signal sequence trap method was used to isolate cDNAs corresponding to proteins containing secretory leader peptides and ... Moreover, three salivary gland-specific cDNA fragments that do not show similarity to known proteins in the databases were ... Trapping cDNAs encoding secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Bruno Arcà, ... rpS7, ribosomal protein S7. The specificity of expression is annotated as follows: ●, specifically in female salivary glands ...
"Salivary Proteins and Peptides" by people in this website by year, and whether "Salivary Proteins and Peptides" was a major or ... Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but ... "Salivary Proteins and Peptides" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Salivary Proteins and Peptides" by people in Profiles. ...
Bioactive peptides are small protein fragments that promote metabolic health by exerting a positive influence on biological ... Proteolytic Cleavage of Human Salivary Proteins. Human salivary proteins, including statherin, histatin 3, histatin 1, proline- ... Marine-derived bioactive peptides, such as jellyfish collagen peptides, protein hydrolysates from muscles of goby fish and ... Bioactive peptides hidden in human salivary proteins. Journal of Oral Biosciences. 2017 May;59(2):71-9.( https://www. ...
... were overexpressed in the infected salivary glands. Eighteen peptides were designed from these proteins and were found ... was used to identify the overexpressed salivary proteins in infected salivary glands compared to uninfected An. gambiae ... falciparum in salivary glands modulates the expression of several salivary proteins and also appeared to induce post- ... gambiae salivary proteins as potential candidate biomarkers of human exposure to P. falciparum-infective bites. Experimental ...
The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of CT on salivary function in breast cancer patients during and after ... per se imposes adverse effects on salivary gland function. ... Salivary Proteins and Peptides / analysis * Salivation / drug ... It is an open question if chemotherapy (CT) per se imposes adverse effects on salivary gland function. The aim of the present ... Adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients induces temporary salivary gland hypofunction Oral Oncol. 2008 Feb;44(2):162-73 ...
... namely reducing plaque and gingival inflammation without altering basic salivary parameters. ... Salivary Proteins and Peptides / analysis * Secretory Rate Substances * Anti-Infective Agents, Local ... Salivary pH and flows were not altered. Total protein reduced only in the test group. Alkaline phosphatase did not change in ... total protein and alkaline phosphatase salivary levels. The following statistics were used: ANOVA, Students t-test, chi(2) and ...
Salivary Proteins and Peptides/chemistry. *Salivary Proteins and Peptides/metabolism*. *Salivary Proteins and Peptides/ ... Candida albicans Ssa1/2p is the cell envelope binding protein for human salivary histatin 5.. Li XS1, Reddy MS, Baev D, ... Salivary histatins are a family of small histidine-rich peptides with potent antifungal activity. We previously identified a 70 ... Ssa protein and Hst 5-binding protein were found to be co-localized on immunoblots of yeast beta-mercaptoethanol cell wall ...
It is possible that the salivary proteins absent in CT but present in FT are required for tick fitness in nature and possibly ... Our results suggest that differences in the salivary proteins between CT-SGE and FT-SGE may explain the differential immune ... In the present study, we explore differences in the salivary gland extract (SGE) protein content of Amblyomma americanum ticks ... We hypothesize that differences in the salivary proteins between CT and FT may explain the differential immune responses ...
Conclusion: Antibodies against salivary peptides from An. darlingi salivary gland proteins may be used as biomarkers for ... Methods: We used human IgG antibodies against mosquito salivary gland proteins as a measure of disease risk. Whole salivary ... apyrase and a peroxidase as the two most abundant proteins. Detection of IgG antibodies against salivary antigens by ELISA ... double-membrane-spanning protein called NSm. Here, we examined the relevance of each M-segment non-structural proteins in virus ...
Interactions of salivary mucins and saliva with food proteins: a review. Hilal Yilmaz Çelebioğlu, Seunghwan Lee, Ioannis S. ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Interactions of salivary mucins and saliva with food proteins: a review. ...
The protein contains a signal peptide predicted to be cleaved between residues AEA-DI, suggesting that it is secreted in the ... The signal peptide was removed from the protein sequence, and the structure was homology modeled using Swiss-Model Automated ... 2011) A tick salivary protein targets cathepsin G and chymase and inhibits host inflammation and platelet aggregation. Blood ... However, direct blockade of neutrophil function by salivary proteins has not been shown to interfere with thrombosis in vivo, ...
... homogenates followed by tryptic digestion of selected protein bands and MS/MS analysis revealed the expression of 24 proteins. ... To expand our knowledge on the salivary cocktail of Ædes ægypti, a vector of dengue and yellow fevers, we analyzed a set of ... An unexpected finding is the occurrence of four protein families specific to SG that were probably a product of horizontal ... Most of the 55 proteins coded by these SG transcripts have no known function and represent high-priority candidates for ...
0/MUC7 protein, human; 0/Mucins; 0/Salivary Proteins and Peptides; 131-48-6/N-Acetylneuraminic Acid; EC 2.4.99.-/ ... Salivary Proteins and Peptides / analysis*, physiology. Sialyltransferases / genetics. Sinusitis / etiology*, metabolism, ...
... saliva during blood feeding and previous studies have shown the existence of IgG4 antibodies against mosquito salivary ... saliva during blood feeding and previous studies have shown the existence of IgG4 antibodies against mosquito salivary ... salivary gland protein-6 peptide 1; HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; Ig, immunoglobulin G (IgG) or E (IgE).; L, Leishmania; ... is the salivary gland protein 6 (gSG6), a small proteins exclusively expressed in adult female salivary glands that plays a ...
Protein Coding), Cystatin S, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... Suggested Antigen Peptide Sequences for CST4 Gene. GenScript: Design optimal peptide antigens:. *Salivary acidic protein 1 ( ... Protein differential expression in normal tissues from HIPED for CST4 Gene This gene is overexpressed in Skin (32.6), Salivary ... Protein Symbol:. P01036-CYTS_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Cystatin-S. Protein Accession:. P01036. Secondary Accessions: *Q9UBI5 ...
The pooled samples were trypsinized and the peptides labeled with iTRAQ reagent. Specimens were analyzed using an LC-MS/MS mass ... There were 34 up-regulated proteins and 37 down-regulated proteins. The results of the study suggest salivary protein ... Salivary protein profiles for modeling breast cancer progression. 2nd International Conference on Translational & Personalized ... Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare the salivary protein profiles from individuals diagnosed with breast cancer ...
Another set of peptides was synthesized by deleting individual amino acid residues from the C and N termini of peptide F4 to ... Successive peptides in which pairs of amino acid residues were deleted starting at the N terminus of peptide F4 were ... Binding ability was gradually reduced with deletions from the peptides. Peptide C5 (amino acids 31 to 40) weakly affected ... Synthetic peptides representing statherin analogs were used to localize the binding domains of statherin. Peptide F4 (residues ...
... when referring to a protein or peptide, refers to a binding reaction that is determinative of the presence of the protein, ... The salivary protein found to be overexpressed in OSCC patients include Myc binding protein 2, angiomotin like 2, Ras-related ... Salivary Protein Biomarker Identification:. Subtractive proteomics was used for initial discovery of potential salivary ... IPI00013397 KRAB box family protein. IPI00218836 Acyl-CoA-binding protein. IPI00016342 Ras-related protein Rab-7. IPI00219365 ...
The N-terminal sequence of the protein is predicted by SignalP to be a signal peptide for an extracellular protein ( ... as identified in a salivary gland cDNA library. Here, we focus on a salivary protein we have arbitrarily designated Protein ... Protein C002 can, on the basis of our results, be considered a specialized, salivary gland protein, which does not exclude the ... Localization of Transcript c002 and Protein C002 Within Salivary Glands.. Most of the volume of aphid salivary glands is ...
Genes and proteins involved in key biological processes such as salivary sheath formation will be studied to develop novel ... Specific decameric peptide mixtures influenced psyllid mortality and behavior in artificial diet and may be incorporated into ... Salivary sheaths were composed of a specific carbohydrate polymer and key protein crosslinks, targets for disruption. ... The combinatorial library screen to identify peptide sequences is ongoing. Psyllid mortality can be induced by ingestion of ...
Other peptides in sucrose diet weakly but significantly showed similarities to putative dehydrogenase and RNA helicase ... William R. Cooper, Jack W. Dillwith, and Gary J. Puterka "Salivary Proteins of Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)," ... William R. Cooper, Jack W. Dillwith, Gary J. Puterka "Salivary Proteins of Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)," ... Salivary proteins were isolated and compared from three aphid probed diets: pure water, 15% sucrose, or amino acids (100 mM ...
The DTASelect 2.0 program assembles identified peptides into proteins and protein groups by using a parsimony principle in ... To increase confidence of our protein identifications, protein identities were deemed acceptable only when two unique peptides ... 2) host defense proteins were differentially expressed. Of the host defense proteins, only 9 proteins were expressed in both ... The abundance of antimicrobial proteins such as proline rich proteins, mucin-7 and bacterial permeability membrane proteins did ...
We found that ~25% of genes encode proteins with a typical secretion signal peptide. These secreted salivary gland proteins ( ... Title: Transcriptomic analyses of the secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the wheat midge larvae Author. AL-JBORY, ... From Hessian fly larvae, a large number of genes have been identified to encode Secreted Salivary Gland proteins (SSGPs), which ... Transcriptomic analyses of the secreted proteins from the salivary glands of the wheat midge larvae. Journal of Insect Science ...
The binding motif on the SRCR domains comprises an 11-mer peptide in which a few amino acids are essential for binding ( ... salivary agglutinin (DMBT1SAG), and lung glycoprotein-340 (DMBT1GP340) are three names for glycoproteins encoded by the same ... All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or ... Mucosal defense proteins like IgA, surfactant proteins and lactoferrin also bind to DMBT1s through their SRCR domains. ...
... tends to support the feasibility of development of an epidemiologic tool based on this antibody response to salivary proteins. ... or non-vectors of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense by detecting immunogenic proteins in humans residing in an area endemic for ... Isolation and characterization of the tsetse thrombin inhibitor: a potent antithrombotic peptide from the saliva of Glossina ... Human IgG1 and IgG4: the main antibodies against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) salivary gland proteins. Am J Trop ...
... with typical secretion signal peptides at the N-termini. We refer to these proteins as "small secreted salivary gland proteins ... deliver various effector proteins into host tissues [5-8]. Substantial evidence suggests that some of the salivary proteins ... A protein from the salivary glands of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, is essential in feeding on a host plant. Proc Natl ... Salivary secretions by aphids interacting with proteins of phloem wound responses. J Exp Bot. 2006;57:739-745. doi: 10.1093/jxb ...
... submandibular gland peptide-T(SGP-T), which reduces allergen-induced hypotension, wasexamined for effects on intestinal ... Cohen S: Purification of nerve-growth factor promoting protein from mouse salivary gland and its neurocytotoxic antiserum. Proc ... A novel peptide, submandibular gland peptide-T(SGP-T), which reduces allergen-induced hypotension, wasexamined for effects on ... Salivary and blood stream secretion products. Eur J Biochem 279:765-773, 1994Google Scholar ...
... one peptide specific for Anopheles gambiae saliva protein and five Plasmodium-specific recombinant proteins was developed for ... Novel peptide marker corresponding to salivary protein gSG6 potentially identifies exposure to Anopheles bites. PLoS One. 2008; ... An assay based on 14 Plasmodium-specific peptides, one peptide specific for Anopheles gambiae saliva protein and five ... In the present assay the use of peptides and recombinant proteins was combined. Fourteen Plasmodium-specific peptides (CSP, ...
... one-half to 2/3 lack signal peptides and probably are contaminants instead of less highly-represented salivary proteins. We ... The 89 shared proteins in this comparison apparently represent a core of highly-expressed human salivary proteins. Of the ... We also identified proteins unique to each of the three mammals, because differences in the secreted protein constitutions can ... Our second objective was to compare the proteins in the human proteome with those we identified in the genome mouse and rat to ...
  • Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. (
  • Glycosylation of secretory proteins in salivary glands and saliva studied by lectin-probes. (
  • Use of lectin-probes for correlative histochemical and biochemical assessments of the glycosylation patterns of secretory proteins, including kallikreins, in salivary glands and saliva. (
  • Also, salivary proteins may induce potent antibody responses that can be associated with the intensity of exposure to arthropod saliva and can be used as a proxy to measure the degree of vector-host interaction ( 14 , 15 ). (
  • Results: The results yielded approximately 71 differentially expressed proteins in the saliva specimens. (
  • Binding of Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae to proline-rich glycoproteins in parotid saliva via a domain shared by major salivary components. (
  • Here, we have identified Lufaxin, a protein component in saliva, as the inhibitor of the AP. (
  • The protein is an S-type cystatin, based on its high level of expression in saliva, tears and seminal plasma. (
  • There were differences in the amount of soluble salivary protein (watery saliva), with the greatest amount secreted in sucrose diet, followed by amino acid diet and pure water, respectively. (
  • Phosphatase was putatively identified from D. noxia saliva from a major protein band using gel electrophoresis and mass spectrophotometry. (
  • Hydrophobic charge interaction chromatography was used to separate high from low abundant proteins prior to characterization of the parotid saliva using multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). (
  • Our study reports the first quantitative analysis of differentially regulated proteins in ductal saliva collected from young and older female subjects. (
  • Saliva contains a large and diverse set of proteins which perform multiple functions such as lubrication, taste and digestion, maintenance of mucosal integrity, pH buffering, tooth mineralization and maintenance of general oral health by interacting with a complex collection of oral microbiota. (
  • In fact, some studies have reported no significant changes with age in the composition 6 , salivary flow, and buffering capacity 7 of saliva. (
  • No such age-associated changes in parotid saliva were observed for total protein content, amylase, lactoferrin, secretory IgA and proline-rich proteins 12 - 14 . (
  • However, other studies reported an increase in total protein, secretory IgA and lactoferrin 13 , 15 and a reduction in amylase activity with age in parotid saliva 13 . (
  • Recent comprehensive studies using mass spectrometry have reported nearly two thousand proteins in saliva 18 , 19 , suggesting that it has the complexity to serve as a diagnostic fluid. (
  • In particular, they demonstrated that calcium-binding proteins of aphid saliva may undermine a calcium-requiring mechanism of plant defense. (
  • that is, we aim to access, and then study, individual proteins of saliva through salivary gland cDNA libraries. (
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the antibody (IgG) response to saliva from uninfected Glossina species, vectors, or non-vectors of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense by detecting immunogenic proteins in humans residing in an area endemic for human African trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo. (
  • The oral tissues, a part of the mucosal immune system, are constantly covered by saliva, which harbors a similar set of antimicrobial proteins as other mucosal fluids [ 2 ]. (
  • Specific proteins identified in whole saliva from patients with diffuse systemic sclerosis," The Journal of Rheumatology , vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 2063-2069, 2007. (
  • The overall goal of our study was to compare the proteins found in the saliva proteomes of three mammals: human, mouse and rat. (
  • Karn RC, Chung AG, Laukaitis CM. Shared and Unique Proteins in Human, Mouse and Rat Saliva Proteomes: Footprints of Functional Adaptation. (
  • An assay based on 14 Plasmodium -specific peptides, one peptide specific for Anopheles gambiae saliva protein and five Plasmodium -specific recombinant proteins was developed for the MAGPIX system, assessed for its performance, and applied on blood spots from 2000 individuals collected in the Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia. (
  • A reactivation procedure has been optimized and used to quantify GSTP1-1 in saliva of 30 healthy subjects with results of 42±4 mU/mg-protein.The present study represents a first indication that salivary GSTP1-1 may have a different and hitherto unknown function.In addition it fulfills the basis for future investigations finalized to check the salivary GSTP1-1 as a diagnostic biomarker for diseases. (
  • A reactivation procedure has been optimized and used to quantify GSTP1-1 in saliva of 30 healthy subjects with results of 42±4 mU/mg-protein. (
  • Saliva samples not supplemented with exogenous GSTP1-1, and treated with DTT, also disclosed a detectable GST activity ranging from 30 to 50 mU per mg of salivary proteins. (
  • Biomarkers in saliva (e.g., enzymes, protein markers, or oxidative stress markers) can be used for activity determination and for periodontal disease prognosis. (
  • The potential of saliva as a biomarker fluid has been transformed by the development of highly sensitive proteomic analysis, which has identified the presence of over 2,000 proteins, approximately 25-30% of which are shared with blood [ 2 ]. (
  • And so saliva became the topic of interest among experts in proteomics, research of sequential composition of individual proteins. (
  • Saliva influences rumen function in cattle, yet the biochemical role for most of the bovine salivary proteins (BSPs) has yet to be established. (
  • Two cDNAs (BSP30a and BSP30b) from bovine parotid salivary gland were cloned and sequenced, each coding for alternate forms of a prominent protein in bovine saliva. (
  • It's long been recognized that human saliva contains a host of antimicrobial proteins that are thought to control the growth of bacteria invading the oral cavity," says Gorr. (
  • Histatins are histidine-rich (cationic) antimicrobial proteins found in saliva. (
  • Saliva hosts a wide range of proteins and peptides that function to protect the oral cavity. (
  • Most important to enamel protection are salivary statherin and acidic proline-rich proteins, which aid in oral care by preserving the supersaturated state of calcium and phosphate ions in saliva. (
  • It is also suggested that fimbriae bind to saliva through the two distinct binding domains of receptory salivary components: (i) PRGs and PRPs and (ii) statherin. (
  • Human salivary PRPs (SPRPs) are composed of heterogeneous molecules that are rich in saliva from the parotid and submandibular and sublingual glands. (
  • However, the development of salivary diagnostics has required technical innovation to allow stabilization and detection of analytes in the complex molecular mixture that is saliva. (
  • Saliva comprises the secretions of the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands, hundreds of minor salivary glands and gingival crevice fluid. (
  • My research to date has been based on the physiological control of salivary secretion and the role of saliva in the maintenance of the healthy mouth in children and adults. (
  • The acidic proline-rich proteins (PRPs), encoded by the PRH1 and PRH2 loci on chromosome 12p13.2 ( 4 ), are major saliva proteins ( 15 ). (
  • This provides a rationale for creating vaccines against mosquito salivary proteins, rather than against only the virus proteins contained within the saliva. (
  • Recently, we discovered the presence of the gut satiation peptide YY (PYY) in saliva of mice and humans and defined its role in the regulation of food intake and body weight maintenance. (
  • 2,491 proteins and endogenous peptides were found in the saliva of healthy dogs with no periodontal disease. (
  • All dog phylogeny groups' saliva was rich in proteins and peptides with antimicrobial functions. (
  • Needless to say, many of the proteins in saliva are also important for digestion, although dogs seem to wolf down their food without giving saliva much time to act. (
  • To address this need, we conducted proteomic and bioinformatic analyses of immunogenic candidate proteins present in the saliva of uninfected Anopheles albimanus from two separate colonies-one originating from Central America (STECLA strain) and one originating from South America (Cartagena strain). (
  • One of those is saliva, which is convenient and cost-effective to draw from patients and has the useful characteristic of providing significant commonality in protein composition to plasma. (
  • By combining studies to date, more than 2000 proteins have been identified in saliva, fewer than plasma or urine but still a notable number to examine when looking for proteins and peptides that might indicate the onset or existence of disease. (
  • However, the use of saliva is not altogether straightforward as there are a number of factors which influence the protein pool and could skew the results. (
  • Compounds such as citric acid are often added to the mouth to stimulate saliva production for collection but it is unclear how that might affect the salivary proteome. (
  • Saliva was collected from five men and five women using a syringe after an hour of abstention from food and drink, which might contain acids and other compounds that could alter the protein composition. (
  • Some of these matched proteins identified in earlier studies of the effects of gender on the proteins in saliva. (
  • 6] "Complete covalent structure of statherin, a tyrosine-rich acidic peptide which inhibits calcium phosphate precipitation from human parotid saliva. (
  • The two most deviating binding groups deviated in type-1 fimbriae mediated binding to milk and saliva protein ligands.In conclusion, differences in bacterial adhesins and their ability to utilise salivary proteins may render bacteria tropism for different niches. (
  • The paired salivary glands in the cockroach are composed of acini with ion-transporting peripheral P-cells and protein-secreting central C-cells, and a duct system for the modification of the primary saliva. (
  • The salivary glands in the cockroach Periplaneta americana are of the acinar type and can produce two different qualities of saliva, either with or without proteins ( Just and Walz, 1996 ). (
  • Dopamine induces the production of saliva without proteins, whereas serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) leads to the exocytosis of secretory granules and the secretion of a protein-rich saliva ( Just and Walz, 1996 ). (
  • The belief that additional ANS markers will be found in saliva is bolstered by the knowledge that both the composition and flow of saliva from the major human salivary glands are controlled by dual innervation from the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). (
  • Saliva flow is largely controlled by the PNS and its main neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), which binds to muscarinic receptors on the salivary cells. (
  • Proctor & Carpenter, 2007) Additionally, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves release a number of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) peptide transmitters such as vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), which also help regulate saliva flow and composition. (
  • If changes related to the PNS (e.g., saliva flow rates, pH, neuropeptides associated with PNS) can be separated from those related to the SNS (e.g., secretion of serous proteins, neuropeptides associated with SNS), then it may be possible to gain useful information about activity in both systems through a common saliva sample. (
  • Information on the best methods to collect and handle saliva samples for the analysis of novel protein and peptide markers of ANS activity is limited. (
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate early and late effects of radiation and a-tocopherol on the secretion rate of saliva and on selected saliva salivary parameters in oral cavity cancer patients. (
  • Saliva proteins of vector Culicoides modify structure and infectivity of bluetongue virus particles. (
  • The saliva proteins from C. sonorensis (a competent BTV vector), cleaved BTV-VP2 more efficiently than those from C. nubeculosus (a less competent/non-vector species). (
  • Incubating purified BTV-1 with C. sonorensis saliva proteins also increased their infectivity for KC cells ∼10 fold, while infectivity for BHK cells was reduced by 2-6 fold. (
  • Treatment of an 'eastern' strain of EHDV-2 with saliva proteins of either C. sonorensis or C. nubeculosus cleaved VP2, but a 'western' strain of EHDV-2 remained unmodified. (
  • These results indicate that temperature, strain of virus and protein composition of Culicoides saliva (particularly its protease content which is dependent upon vector species), can all play a significant role in the efficiency of VP2 cleavage, influencing virus infectivity. (
  • Bio-chemically, saliva is a clear liquid with an average protein concentration of 1.5 to 2.0 mg/ml. (
  • Saliva specimen preparation is simple involving centrifugation prior to storage and the addition of a cocktail of protease inhibitors to reduce protein degradation for long-term storage. (
  • Since serum possesses more proteins than saliva, assaying trace amounts of "factors" ( e . g ., oncogenes, etc.), may result in a greater risk of non-specific interference and a greater chance for hydrostatic (and other) interactions between the factors and the abundant serum proteins. (
  • The signal sequence trap method was used to isolate cDNAs corresponding to proteins containing secretory leader peptides and whose genes are expressed specifically in the salivary glands of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae . (
  • Expression analysis by reverse transcription-PCR showed that at least six cDNA fragments were expressed specifically in the salivary glands. (
  • RNA in situ hybridization to whole female salivary glands showed patterns of expression that overlap only in part those observed in the culicine mosquito A. aegypti . (
  • Haemocoel sporozoites selectively invade salivary glands, where they may be transmitted to a vertebrate host on the next blood feeding ( 5 , 6 ). (
  • The strategy is to produce a transgenic mosquito in which parasite development is blocked at one, or better, two different stages: for example, at the midgut level, interfering with ookinete invasion or oocyst differentiation, and at the salivary gland level, blocking invasion of gland cells or the transmission of infective sporozoites from the glands. (
  • We have focused our initial efforts on the salivary glands of Anopheles gambiae , the most efficient malaria vector in sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • The mechanisms by which haemocoel sporozoites locate, recognize, and penetrate salivary glands are presently unknown. (
  • Specific recognition is suggested by the refractoriness to sporozoite invasion of salivary glands exhibited by some mosquito species, presumably because they lack the appropriate receptor ( 7 ). (
  • Five salivary proteins (gSG6, gSG1b, TRIO, SG5 and long form D7) were overexpressed in the infected salivary glands. (
  • Moreover, the results showed that the presence of wild P. falciparum in salivary glands modulates the expression of several salivary proteins and also appeared to induce post-translational modifications. (
  • A preliminary transcriptome of adult female salivary glands (SG) has been previously reported [ 3 ] where 32 full-length transcripts have been described based on an analysis of 456 expressed sequence tags (EST). (
  • By using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, the transcript and the protein were localized to a subset of secretory cells in principal salivary glands. (
  • Insect salivary glands are the main organs for producing proteins that are injected into hosts [ 1 ]. (
  • In this study, we did an analysis of genes expressed in the salivary glands of larvae during feeding. (
  • We discovered that approximately 25% of ~3,500 cDNA clones obtained from dissected salivary glands encoded SSGPs. (
  • Early expression of E-selectin, tumor necrosis factor α , and mast cell infiltration in the salivary glands of patients with systemic sclerosis," Arthritis & Rheumatology , vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 1161-1165, 1996. (
  • These results emphasize that modulationof immediate hypersensitivity reactions is only one ofseveral gastrointestinal activities that are affected bygrowth factors and peptides released from salivary glands. (
  • This study shows that GSTP1-1 is the most abundant salivary GST isoenzyme, mainly coming from salivary glands. (
  • A significant source of histatins is found in the serous fluid secreted by Ebner's glands, salivary glands at the back of the tongue, and produced by Acinus cells. (
  • We previously found that salivary components from the submandibular and sublingual glands bind to P. gingivalis fimbriae and that acidic proline-rich protein (PRP) and statherin function as receptor molecules for fimbriae. (
  • In this study we examine the expression of the NF-κB inhibitory protein termed IκBα in salivary glands epithelial cells (SGEC) comparing it with SGEC from healthy controls, to test the hypothesis that an altered expression of IκBα occurs in SGEC from SS biopsies. (
  • Azuma M, Motegi K, Aota K, Hayashi Y, Sato M (1997) Role of cytokines in the destruction of acinar structure in Sjogren's syndrome salivary glands. (
  • Kapsogeorgou EK, Dimitriou ID, Abu-Helu RF, Moutsopoulos HM, Manoussakis MN (2001) Activation of epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the salivary glands of patients with Sjögren's syndrome: high expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM.1) in biopsy specimens and cultured cells. (
  • When the mosquito bites another vertebrate host, transmission is completed by release of sporozoites from the salivary glands (not shown). (
  • Autonomic regulation of anti-inflammatory activities from salivary glands. (
  • Role of submandibular salivary glands in LPS-induced lung inflammation in rats. (
  • In particular, a great deal of attention is being given to the numerous proteins and peptides synthesized locally in the salivary glands and to the complex roles they play in the body. (
  • And, because the secretion of alpha-amylase from the salivary glands is directly controlled by nervous signals, it appears that it can also serve as a valuable indicator of activity in the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • Molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between malarial sporozoites and putative receptor(s) on the salivary glands of Anopheles gambiae remain largely unknown. (
  • Using affinity purification we purified the target of this mAb from extracts of female A. gambiae salivary glands and it was found to be a novel protein by tandem mass spectrometric analysis. (
  • If Saglin is indeed involved in the process of invasion of A. gambiae salivary glands by sporozoites of Plasmodium, it could provide a novel target for future investigations aimed at interruption of malaria transmission. (
  • A weak extraprostatic expression of the protein has been noted in small intestine mucosa, brain, salivary glands, and a subset of renal proximal tubules (11, 12) . (
  • The paired salivary glands consists of three main cell types with different functions ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • Physiological studies of isolated salivary glands have further shown that these cell types differ in their sensitivity to aminergic secretagogues. (
  • A) The salivary glands are paired and consist of several lobules of secretory acini. (
  • Immunostaining for Tβ 4 and Tβ 10 was performed on minor salivary glands of patients with pSS and ss. (
  • Moreover, at the immunohistochemical level in patients with pSS, minor salivary glands showed a peculiar pattern characterized by immunostaining for Tβ 10 in acinar cells in the absence of any reactivity for Tβ 4 . (
  • Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands, including salivary and lachrymal glands, leading to qualitatively altered and diminished or absent glandular secretion. (
  • The characteristic involvement of salivary and lachrymal glands, clinically evidenced by dry mouth (xerostomia) and/or dry eyes (xerophthalmia), makes pSS an interesting application field for salivary proteomic analysis. (
  • Mass spectrometry-based proteome profile may be useful to differentiate adenoid cystic carcinoma from polymorphous adenocarcinoma of salivary glands. (
  • Also, the invasion-blocking activity exhibited by antisalivary gland antibodies and by some lectins suggests that sporozoites may interact with glycosylated salivary gland receptor molecules ( 8 ). (
  • Secretion of functional salivary peptide by Streptococcus gordonii which inhibits fimbria-mediated adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis. (
  • To be able to blood feed on a vertebrate host, the sand fly salivary secretion contains proteins, peptides, and small molecules aimed at modulating hemostatic responses of the host, including coagulation, vasoconstriction, and platelet aggregation, as well as inflammation and immune responses ( 1 ). (
  • Among its related pathways are Salivary secretion . (
  • Protein C002, whose sequence contains an N-terminal secretion signal, is injected into the host plant during aphid feeding. (
  • We found that ~25% of genes encode proteins with a typical secretion signal peptide. (
  • Histatins, a novel family of histidine-rich proteins in human parotid secretion. (
  • After secretion, the acidic PRPs are rapidly enriched on tooth surfaces and degraded into potential innate-immunity peptides by dental plaque proteolysis ( 22 ). (
  • Fig. 4: Motility, secretion and SPZ-specific wounding proteins play a critical role in the death mediated by the cytotoxic antibody. (
  • Key mechanisms in the control of salivation, such as the identity and physiological characteristics of receptor proteins for aminergic secretagogues and the signalling cascades that mediate between activated receptors and ion transporters and the molecular machinery involved in protein secretion, respectively, are as yet poorly understood. (
  • Dawes, 2008) Secretion of salivary proteins is largely controlled by the SNS through release of noradrenaline (NAd), which binds to adrenergic receptors on the salivary cells. (
  • The PNS also controls some protein secretion either by itself (mucins from mucous cells), or in conjunction with the SNS (proteins from serous cells). (
  • salivary proteins as potential candidate biomarkers of human exposure to P. falciparum -infective bites. (
  • Proteomic identification of salivary biomarkers of type-2 diabetes," Journal of Proteome Research , vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 239-245, 2009. (
  • Enzymes, specific and nonspecific proteins, antibodies, and other substances are among the potential salivary biomarkers of periodontal and certain distant tissue diseases. (
  • In this article, we review recent advances in the identification of salivary biomarkers using these approaches, and the implications for diagnostic applications. (
  • Salivary biomarkers, whether produced by healthy individuals or by individuals affected by specific diseases, are sentinel molecules that could be used to scrutinize health and disease surveillance. (
  • The visionary investment by the US National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, the discovery of salivary biomarkers, and the ongoing development of salivary diagnostic technologies have addressed its diagnostic value for clinical applications. (
  • Several salivary biomarkers have been characterized to determine exposure intensity to Old World Anopheles mosquito species. (
  • In this issue of the Salivary Bioscience Bulletin we feature three articles that involve examples of salivary proteins that are currently under consideration as biomarkers related to autonomic nervous activity: chromogranin A, and the neuropeptides VIP and NPY. (
  • The study underscores the potential role of salivary neuropeptides as non-invasive biomarkers for integrated therapies in pediatrics. (
  • The confirmation of concentration changes in these proteins during the progression of dental caries may discover valuable disease progression biomarkers. (
  • In previous studies on the salivary proteome in patients with pSS, researchers identified a number of proteins as possible pSS biomarkers. (
  • proteome assuming a 20,000-protein set, and to the best-described sialome of any blood-feeding insect. (
  • Of the proteins unique to each proteome, one-half to 2/3 lack signal peptides and probably are contaminants instead of less highly-represented salivary proteins. (
  • Our second objective was to compare the proteins in the human proteome with those we identified in the genome mouse and rat to determine those common to all three mammals, as well as the specialized rodent subset. (
  • indicated that heterogeneity of the salivary proteome and antigenic proteins was lower among closely related anopheline species and increased with phylogenetic distance. (
  • In addition, fifty-one host-derived proteins were identified in the proteome of the virus particle, thirteen of which were verified to be incorporated into the mature virion using a proteinase K protection assay. (
  • To provide an in-depth catalog of the salivary proteome and endogenous peptidome of healthy dogs , evaluate proteins and peptides with antimicrobial properties, and compare the most common salivary proteins and peptides between different breed phylogeny groups. (
  • Some of these proteins had also been discovered in previous work by the authors on the gender effects on the urinary proteome, particularly those involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. (
  • The salivary protein statherin is an inhibitor of spontaneous and secondary precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HAp). (
  • A peptide (StN21) was designed with a 21 amino acid sequence identical to the N-terminus of statherin. (
  • Human salivary proteins, including statherin, histatin 3, histatin 1, proline-rich proteins and musin 7 can generate bioactive peptides with anti-microbial, anti-viral, and other therapeutic activities. (
  • Binding sites of salivary statherin for Porphyromonas gingivalis recombinant fimbrillin. (
  • We investigated the binding sites of salivary statherin involved in the interaction with Porphyromonas gingivalis recombinant fimbrillin (r-Fim). (
  • Synthetic peptides representing statherin analogs were used to localize the binding domains of statherin. (
  • Peptide F4 (residues 29 to 43) significantly bound to r-Fim and inhibited r-Fim binding to statherin-coated hydroxyapatite beads. (
  • Fusobacterium nucleatum envelope protein FomA is immunogenic and binds to the salivary statherin-derived peptide. (
  • Active domains of salivary statherin on apatitic surfaces for binding to Fusobacterium nucleatum cells. (
  • The authors report the use of a salivary statherin protein inspired dendrimer, for use as an antibacterial coating for implanted biomaterials. (
  • The peptides analogous to the binding regions of PRP and statherin (i.e. (
  • The peptide did not affect the binding of fimbriae to statherin, whereas the STN-C showed no effect on the fimbrial binding to PRPs or PRGs. (
  • In the overlay assay, the PRP-C clearly diminished the interactions between the fimbriae and the various salivary components, including PRPs, the PRGs, and the components with smaller molecular sizes but not statherin. (
  • These results strongly suggest that fimbriae bind to salivary components (except statherin) via common peptide segments. (
  • We found that fimbriae strongly bind to acidic proline-rich protein (PRP) and statherin that had been immobilized onto nitrocellulose membranes or hydroxyapatite (HAP) beads. (
  • Chimeric peptides of statherin and osteopontin that bind hydroxyapatite and mediate cell adhesion. (
  • 2] "Human submandibular gland statherin and basic histidine-rich peptide are encoded by highly abundant mRNA's derived from a common ancestral sequence. (
  • 3] "Structure and sequence determination of the gene encoding human salivary statherin. (
  • 7] "Molecular basis of salivary proline-rich protein and peptide synthesis: cell-free translations and processing of human and macaque statherin mRNAs and partial amino acid sequence of their signal peptides. (
  • 8] "HPLC-MS characterization of cyclo-statherin Q-37, a specific cyclization product of human salivary statherin generated by transglutaminase 2. (
  • Immunization against full-length protein and peptides from the Lutzomyia longipalpis sand fly salivary component maxadilan protects against Leishmania major infection in a murine model. (
  • Immunity to distinct sand fly salivary proteins primes the anti-Leishmania immune response towards protection or exacerbation of disease. (
  • As proof of principle, immunization with sand fly salivary antigens to prevent leishmania infection has shown promising results in animal models. (
  • This sub-field of proteomics involves developing novel bioactive peptides and generation of peptide databases for industries that produce dairy products. (
  • The study of salivary components proteomics clearly shows the relationship of periodontal diseases and diseases of distant systems, organs, or tissues. (
  • In this study, salivary gland protein repertoires (sialomes) from several Anopheles species were compared using in silico analysis and proteomics. (
  • Label-free multidimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS) proteomics on two mass spectrometry platforms were used to determine peptide mass differences between control and stomatitis groups. (
  • Implications of salivary proteomics in drug discovery and development: a focus on cancer drug discovery. (
  • Salivary proteomics of healthy dogs: An in-depth catalog " by Torres et al. (
  • Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics is moving beyond the simple generation of protein inventories of biological samples. (
  • Proteomics is the investigation of gene products (proteins), their various different forms and interacting partners and the dynamics (time) of their regulation and processing. (
  • In short, proteomics is the study of proteins as they function in their native environment with the overall intention of gaining a further, if not complete, understanding of their biological function. (
  • Technologies currently employed in proteomics are only able to overcome this fundamental problem by first fractionating the entire biological media using the relatively old technology of two-dimensional (2D) sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), wherein numerous proteins are simultaneously migrated using a gel medium, in two dimensions as a function of isoelectric point and molecular size. (
  • Present day state-of-the-art proteomics involves the identification of the proteins separated using 2D-PAGE. (
  • In addition it fulfills the basis for future investigations finalized to check the salivary GSTP1-1 as a diagnostic biomarker for diseases. (
  • Subsequently, de novo transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches [ 5 - 8 , 14 - 17 ] have allowed the discovery and validation of salivary biomarker profiles for breast, oral, pancreatic and lung cancers, and periodontitis. (
  • This review presents current salivary biomarker research and technology developmental efforts for clinical applications. (
  • In this issue of The Spit Report we focus on current research involving salivary alpha-amylase, with the hope that it will draw attention to the importance of this novel salivary biomarker. (
  • Salivary alpha-amylase as a non-invasive biomarker for the sympathetic nervous system: Current state of research. (
  • Proteomic study of salivary peptides and proteins in patients with Sjögren's syndrome before and after pilocarpine treatment," Arthritis & Rheumatology , vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 2216-2222, 2007. (
  • Salivary proteomic profiles of patients with denture stomatitis were found to be uniquely different from controls. (
  • Novel protein stabilization methods have also facilitated improved proteomic analyses. (
  • Here, we review recent developments in salivary diagnostics that have been accomplished using genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic approaches. (
  • Proteomic analyses of varying body fluids are propelling the field of medical research forward at unprecedented rates due to its consistent ability to identify proteins that are at the fentomole level in concentration. (
  • Isolation of Hst 5-binding protein followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry analysis identified this protein as the heat shock protein Ssa1p. (
  • Immunoblot testing revealed a set of different immunogenic bands for each group of ticks and mass spectrometry data revealed differences in at 19 proteins specifically identified in the CT-SGE group and 20 from the FT-SGE group. (
  • Although salivary α-defensins are also able to inhibit the enzyme causing a peculiar half-site inactivation, a number of approaches (mass spectrometry, site directed mutagenesis, chromatographic and spectrophotometric data) indicated that hypothiocyanite is the main salivary inhibitor of GSTP1-1. (
  • In this study, we used mass spectrometry of peptide mixtures to suggest turnover of acidic PRPs into innate-immunity-like peptides by commensal Streptococcus and Actinomyces species. (
  • Using "start-of-the-art" mass spectrometry protein analysis, the author will demonstrate the use of salivary protein profiles to recognize individuals at risk for carcinoma of the breast. (
  • Fragments showing a high degree of similarity to D7 and apyrase, two salivary gland-specific genes previously found in Aedes aegypti , were identified. (
  • Genes and proteins involved in key biological processes such as salivary sheath formation will be studied to develop novel control strategies that block these processes. (
  • In most protein-coding genes, greater sequence variation is observed in noncoding regions (introns and untranslated regions) than in coding regions due to selective constraints. (
  • During characterization of genes and transcripts encoding small secreted salivary gland proteins (SSSGPs) from the Hessian fly, we found exactly the opposite pattern of conservation in several families of genes: the non-coding regions were highly conserved, but the coding regions were highly variable. (
  • Except for SSSGP-1A2 , a gene that encodes a protein identical to that encoded by SSSGP-1A1 , the other six genes consist of a highly diversified, mature protein-coding region as well as highly conserved regions including the promoter, 5'- and 3'-UTRs, a signal peptide coding region, and an intron. (
  • The identification of the genes encoding SSGPs provides a foundation for further studies on the biological and biochemical functions of these proteins as well as for comparative analyses among different insects that share similar feeding mechanisms. (
  • From Hessian fly larvae, a large number of genes have been identified to encode Secreted Salivary Gland proteins (SSGPs), which are presumably critical for the insect to feed on and manipulate host plants. (
  • This and five other genes that encode salivary proline-rich proteins (PRPs)form a PRP gene cluster in the chromosomal 12p13 region. (
  • The genes for FimA major subunit proteins of type-2 fimbriae were sequenced from A. naeslundii genospecies 1 and 2 and Actinomyces odontolyticus, each with unique carbohydrate binding specificities (III). (
  • These secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) can be classified into 97 groups based on their sequence similarity. (
  • StN21 has been shown to be a potent and stable peptide that has potential as a preventive/therapeutic agent in the treatment of enamel erosion and dental caries. (
  • As polymorphic and multifunctional proteins ( 4 , 15 , 20 ), they are potential determinants of host susceptibility to dental caries ( 23 , 24 ). (
  • Histatins (HST) and defensins are antibacterial proteins of the oral cavity, and their biological activity is directed toward the protection against infectious diseases, including dental caries. (
  • It seems that these proteins may be involved in preventing numerous diseases such as dental caries, and because these proteins naturally occur in the oral cavity they should be clinically well tolerated. (
  • Protein is hydrolyzed by culturing bacteria or yeast on the protein substrates. (
  • These bacteria or yeast secrete their proteolytic enzymes in due course to release peptides from the proteins. (
  • At a time when bacteria are increasingly developing an ability to stand up to antibiotics, U-M School of Dentistry scientists have developed an antimicrobial peptide that kills drug resistant bacteria without causing new resistance behaviors. (
  • The new peptide is even effective against bacterial biofilms, a sticky mass of bacteria that are difficult to kill with traditional antibiotics. (
  • The research team, consisting of faculty and students from the School of Dentistry, found that bacteria that can defend themselves against one version of the new peptide (termed left-handed) are unable to defend themselves against the mirror image of the new peptide (termed right-handed). (
  • The new peptide also killed vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, drug-resistant bacteria that are associated with infections of blood, urinary tract, heart valves and brain in susceptible individuals. (
  • Our new antimicrobial peptides might represent an alternative treatment for killing bacteria, and one that may be less susceptible to bacterial resistance. (
  • In the new work , they used the left-handed and right-handed versions (scientists call these L- and D-enantiomers) of the new peptide and tested them against the Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus gordonii to understand the role of bacterial enzymes and cell wall modifications in bacterial resistance. (
  • One of the significant challenges in killing bacteria is that they have a variety of defense mechanisms that can prevent antimicrobial peptides from reaching the bacterial cell membrane. (
  • If the peptide makes it past the enzymes, it encounters a thick cell wall that protects the bacteria. (
  • The enzymes could not destroy the right-handed peptide and the peptide was also able to slip past the cell wall defenses and kill the bacteria. (
  • Most important, the bacteria do not seem to gain resistance to the new peptide" Gorr is quick to add that investigations to-date have been done in a test tube where experimental variables could be controlled. (
  • Acidic PRPs have been reported to act as salivary receptors for several plaque-forming bacteria ( 4 , 10 , 13 ). (
  • The synthetic Arg 106 Gly 107 Arg 108 Pro 109 Gln 110 peptide desorbed bound bacteria and counteracted sucrose-induced decrease of dental plaque pH in vitro. (
  • Thirty-seven per cent of the peptides were identifiable only at the level of cellular organisms or bacteria. (
  • Peptides derived from protein receptors, such as RGRPQ, may be important modulators of biofilm formation, giving commensal bacteria a competitive edge in the bacterial community. (
  • Recently, a continuous growth of interest has been observed in antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in the light of an alarming increase in resistance of bacteria and fungi against antibiotics. (
  • The adhesion of streptococcal bacteria to host epithelial cells, connective tissue matrix and serum proteins, salivary components, and other bacterial cells in the environment is mediated for the most part by cell surface proteins ( 26 , 38 ). (
  • In addition, gram-positive bacteria express surface proteins that are lipid modified at the N terminus and that are associated with the outer face of the cytoplasmic membrane ( 36 ). (
  • SPRPs comprise about 75 to 80% of the parotid salivary components ( 5 ) and are classified into three groups: acidic (molecular mass, ≤16 kDa), basic (molecular mass, 6 to 9 kDa), and glycosylated (molecular mass, 39 kDa) ( 31 ). (
  • The tyrosine residue is an important structural motif that is required for the opioid peptide to bind with its corresponding receptor. (
  • Purpose: The objective of this study was to compare the salivary protein profiles from individuals diagnosed with breast cancer that were either HER2/neu receptor positive or negative in order to determine if altered salivary protein profiles could be used to study breast cancer progression. (
  • The results of the study suggest salivary protein alterations secondary to HER2 receptor status. (
  • All these proteins belong to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily of proteins: a superfamily of secreted or membrane-bound proteins with SRCR domains that are highly conserved down to sponges, the most ancient metazoa. (
  • A high degree of medication-induced dryness, resulting from salivary hypofunction, is associated with anticholinergic muscarinic receptor blockers used to treat, for example, irritable bladders. (
  • So-called scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) proteins comprise one of the families involved in non-self recognition by the innate immune system and represent one of the best examined examples of pattern recognition molecules (PRMs). (
  • These data suggest that PS-1 may associate with a PDZ-like domain-containing protein in vivo and thus may participate in receptor or channel clustering and intracellular signaling events in the brain. (
  • Hormone peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) is secreted into circulation from the gut L-endocrine cells in response to food intake, thus inducing satiation during interaction with its preferred receptor, Y 2 R. Clinical applications of systemically administered PYY for the purpose of reducing body weight were compromised as a result of the common side effect of visceral sickness. (
  • 3 H-thymidine]-labeled streptococci were incubated with HA noncoated or coated with salivary components or salivary agglutinin peptide (SRCRP2), a receptor for streptococcal surface proteins. (
  • This study suggests degradation of salivary acidic proline-rich proteins (PRPs) into potential innate-immunity-like peptides by oral Streptococcus and Actinomyces species. (
  • In oral biofilm formation, primary Actinomyces and Streptococcus colonizers adhere to salivary pellicle proteins such as proline-rich proteins (PRPs) as well as to mucosal surfaces. (
  • In paper IV, multiple PRP binding patterns for Actinomyces and Streptococcus strains were mapped using a hybrid peptide construct. (
  • In Streptococcus gordonii , which colonizes tooth and mucosal surfaces, the LraI protein is a prominent surface antigen ( 2 ) and is designated ScaA (approximate molecular mass, 35 kDa). (
  • In Streptococcus parasanguis , protein homolog FimA is a candidate vaccinogen against endocarditis ( 37 ), while in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) the PsaA protein is a virulence determinant ( 6 ). (
  • Anopheles gambiae salivary protein expression modulated by wild Plasmodium falciparum infection: highlighting of new antigenic peptides as candidates of An. (
  • A recent approach, based on the human antibody response to Anopheles salivary proteins, has been shown to be efficient in evaluating human exposure to Anopheles bites. (
  • Subsequently, a peptide design of each potential candidate was performed in silico and their antigenicity was tested by an epitope-mapping technique using blood from individuals exposed to Anopheles bites. (
  • Eighteen peptides were designed from these proteins and were found antigenic in children exposed to the Anopheles bites. (
  • Antibody responses against Anopheles salivary proteins can indicate individual exposure to bites of malaria vectors. (
  • The antigenic diversity of salivary gland proteins among different Anopheles species was also examined. (
  • displayed a higher degree of similarity compared to salivary proteins from closely related Anopheles species. (
  • This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. (
  • The involvement of these proteins as antigenic candidates for genus-, subgenus- or species-specific immunological evaluation of individual exposure to Anopheles bites is discussed. (
  • The Anopheles gambiae gSG6 is an anopheline-specific salivary protein which helps female mosquitoes to efficiently feed on blood. (
  • The Anopheles stephensi SG6 protein also shares 80% identity with gSG6, suggesting the attractive possibility that the A. gambiae protein may also be useful to assess human exposure to several Asian malaria vectors. (
  • Detection of human antibodies recognizing the Anopheles gambiae salivary gland protein 6 (gSG6) or the gSG6-P1 peptide in residents of Africa, South America and Southeast Asia suggested the potential for these antibodies to serve as a universal marker to estimate human biting rates. (
  • Typical opioid peptides have the same N-terminal sequence of Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe, while atypical opioid peptides have varying amino acid sequences at their N-terminal region with conserved tyrosine residue. (
  • To expand our knowledge on the salivary cocktail of Ædes ægypti , a vector of dengue and yellow fevers, we analyzed a set of 4,232 expressed sequence tags from cDNA libraries of adult female mosquitoes. (
  • Among the SSGP-encoding transcripts, 235 encoded unique proteins with no sequence similarity to any known protein. (
  • The amino acid sequence of a salivary proline-rich peptide, P-C, and its relation to a salivary proline-rich phosphoprotein, protein C". Journal of Biochemistry. (
  • Notice: statistical significance is estimated under the assumption that the equivalent of one entire reading frame in the query sequence codes for protein and that significant alignments will involve only coding reading frames. (
  • Gorr's new antimicrobial peptide is based on the sequence of the human salivary protein BPIFA2. (
  • A peptide sequence was coupled to the surface of a G4 PAMAM dendrimer, by Michael addition. (
  • Adherence is mediated mainly by adhesins, including the hyphal wall protein 1 (Hwp1) and members of the agglutinin-like sequence (Als) family [8] . (
  • The amino acid sequence of Saglin contains a signal peptide suggesting that Saglin is a secreted protein. (
  • Many of these proteins are anchored to the cell wall via a specialized C-terminal amino acid sequence ( 33 ). (
  • 10 kDa) are effective anti-hypertensive, anti-oxidative agents that find commercial application to produce peptides in bulk than high molecular weight peptides. (
  • However, the molecular mechanism by which the vector salivary gland modulates parasite/host interactions is not understood. (
  • Identification and characterization of SSGPs in wheat midge larvae provide a foundation for future work to reveal molecular mechanisms behind wheat midge - wheat interactions and the role of these putative effector proteins in insect virulence. (
  • This work demonstrates that a molecular diversity is exhibited among salivary proteins from closely related species despite their common pharmacological activities. (
  • The present article aims to provide an introduction into the biological context, processes, proteins, and general mechanisms of molecular pattern recognition in humans and, by using selected examples, to identify potential areas in nanomedicine for the exploitation of these mechanisms. (
  • Biochemical and molecular characterization of the 100 kDa protein showed that this molecule, designated Saglin, exists as a disulphide-bonded homodimer of 50 kDa subunits. (
  • In paper II, a more sophisticated quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study, using statistical molecular design (SMD) and multivariate modelling (partial least squares projections to latent structures, PLS), further narrowed down the RGRPQ peptide motifs. (
  • The resulting fragments are then subjected to high-accuracy mass analysis using either electrospray ionization (ESI) or matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometries (MS). The resulting data, in the form of absolute molecular weights of the fragments, and knowledge of the enzyme specificity are used in silico to search genomic or protein databases for information correlating to the empirical data on the fragments. (
  • CT also induced compositional changes by slightly increasing salivary sodium and chloride concentrations as well as decreasing inorganic phosphate concentrations in spite of lower or unchanged flow rates, implying that ductal modification mechanisms are affected. (
  • Mechanisms by which salivary calcium, phosphate and fluoride interact with salivary proteins on the tooth surface to both prevent demineralisation and promote remineralisation of deciduous and permanent enamel with Dr Paul Anderson and Jelena Kosoric. (
  • Epithelial cells express antimicrobial proteins in response to invading pathogens, although little is known regarding epithelial defense mechanisms during healthy conditions. (
  • Synthetic analogs of these KDAMPS showed rapid bactericidal activity against multiple pathogens and protected epithelial cells against bacterial virulence mechanisms, while a scrambled peptide showed no bactericidal activity. (
  • These results are consistent with alternate MHC-I Ag processing mechanisms that involve binding of peptides to MHC-I within acidic vacuolar compartments. (
  • Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins increase a biological system's repertoire of regulatory tools to control cellular mechanisms. (
  • Although the cationic peptides are subdivided into several structural classes ( 10 ), they are, in general, amphipathic molecules that preferentially bind to acidic phospholipids, acidic polysaccharides, and lipopolysaccharides on the exterior of the lipid bilayer of invading microbes rather than to the cholesterol-rich and neutral plasma membrane surfaces of mammalian host cells. (
  • Circumsporozoite proteins of human malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax . (
  • Ishino, T., Chinzei, Y. & Yuda, M. A Plasmodium sporozoite protein with a membrane attack complex domain is required for breaching the liver sinusoidal cell layer prior to hepatocyte infection. (
  • This gene encodes a precursor for proline-rich salivary proteins. (
  • This is a first step toward a better understanding of the close interactions between the parasite and the salivary gland of mosquitoes. (
  • An unexpected finding is the occurrence of four protein families specific to SG that were probably a product of horizontal transfer from prokaryotic organisms to mosquitoes. (
  • To achieve fast blood feeding, adult female mosquitoes inject a complex salivary mixture into their hosts while probing for blood. (
  • A similar approach using salivary proteins of important vector mosquitoes, such as Aedes aegypti, might protect against multiple mosquito-borne viral infections. (
  • The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) is the major surface protein of malaria sporozoites (SPZs), the motile and invasive parasite stage inoculated in the host skin by infected mosquitoes. (
  • In previous studies, a salivary gland protein of ∼100 kDa was identified as a putative target based on recognition of the protein by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2A3 that caused a ≥ 70% reduction in the average number of sporozoites per infected salivary gland when fed to mosquitoes. (
  • Recombinant plant-expressed tumour-associated MUC1 peptide is immunogenic and capable of breaking tolerance in MUC1. (
  • A ~65 kDa band was identified by IgG antibodies in serum samples from healthy volunteers living in a malaria endemic area in Colombia, and a total of five peptides were designed from the sequences of two immunogenic candidate proteins that were shared by both strains. (
  • This gene is located in the cystatin locus and encodes a type 2 salivary cysteine peptidase inhibitor. (
  • CST4 (Cystatin S) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • Here, we further characterize the protein, its transcript, and its gene, and we study the feeding process of knockdown aphids. (
  • Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors-1 protein (DMBT1), salivary agglutinin (DMBT1 SAG ), and lung glycoprotein-340 (DMBT1 GP340 ) are three names for glycoproteins encoded by the same DMBT1 gene. (
  • Proline-rich protein HaeIII subfamily 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PRH2 gene. (
  • SMR3B (Submaxillary Gland Androgen Regulated Protein 3B) is a Protein Coding gene. (
  • Vcsa1 gene peptides for the treatment of inflammatory and allergic reactions. (
  • We here describe an updated analysis of the epiplasmin family of the ciliate P. tetraurelia , which regroups 51 proteins and attempt to correlate protein structure information obtained from Hydrophobic Cluster Analysis (HCA) [ 10 ] with both gene expression level and similarity tree analysis. (
  • The purpose of this study was to document the concentration range of salivary neuropeptides in healthy controls and in children with cancer, to explore correlations between serum and salivary measurements for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and to determine whether there is a change in these salivary neuropeptide levels in response to integrated mind-body therapies. (
  • Analytical methods and searching protocols, refined over the past seven years, have evolved to a point where only a few proteolytic fragments, determined with high mass accuracy, are needed to identify a gel-separated protein as being present in a certain gene. (
  • However, identification of the gene producing a protein of interest is only the first step in the overall, much larger process of determining protein structure/functionality. (
  • The scaC gene encodes an ATP-binding protein (251 amino acid [aa] residues), scaB encodes a transmembrane component (278 aa residues) which presumably dimerizes ( 22 ), and scaA encodes a lipoprotein (310 aa residues) ( 27 ). (
  • Effects of early life adversity on cortisol/salivary alpha-amylase symmetry in free-ranging juvenile rhesus macaques. (
  • One such protein is the salivary enzyme alpha-amylase. (
  • Determinants of salivary alpha-amylase in humans and methodological considerations. (
  • Developmental differences in infant salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responses to stress. (
  • Basal levels and response to stress differ for cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase in infants. (
  • Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responses to different stress tasks: Impact of sex. (
  • Salivary alpha-amylase as a longitudinal predictor of children's externalizing symptoms: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a moderator of effects. (
  • For example, salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) are often measured together as markers of activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and autonomic nervous system (ANS), respectively. (
  • Antidepressants can also cause salivary hypofunction as a result of the activation of alpha-2-adrenergic receptors in the central nervous system. (
  • Peptide hormones and their cognate receptors belonging to neuropeptide Y (NPY) family mediate diverse biological functions in a number of tissues. (
  • The application of a tumor-selective peptide requires enough binding sites, such as overexpressed receptors, high affinity of the ligand, and sufficient invivo stability. (
  • This protein strongly inhibits papain and ficin, partially inhibits stem bromelain and bovine cathepsin C, but does not inhibit porcine cathepsin B or clostripain. (
  • The Ixodes scapularis salivary protein Salp15 inhibits the activation of T cells through its interaction with the coreceptor CD4. (
  • A tick salivary protein targets cathepsin G and chymase and inhibits host inflammation and platelet aggregation. (
  • Accordingly, neutrophils phagocytose and kill intracellularly invading microorganisms in the phagosome by a mechanism involving reactive oxygen species, proteases, and antimicrobial peptides [4] - [8] . (
  • Every species of venomous snake usually carries several different active proteins in its venom, the principal effect of the venom may depend as much on the size and sensitivity of the victim as it does on the composition of the venom. (
  • The extent to which these salivary proteins are species-specific is not entirely resolved. (
  • Thus, a better knowledge of the diversity among salivary protein repertoires from various malaria vector species is necessary to select relevant genus-, subgenus- and/or species-specific salivary antigens. (
  • Additionally, computational hierarchical clustering allowed identification of genus-, subgenus- and species-specific salivary proteins. (
  • Through careful analysis of the structures of BPIFA2 and similar peptides from other species, and a fair amount of serendipity, they were able to design the new antimicrobial peptides. (
  • Analysis of candidal proteins suggests that multiple species of candidal organisms play a role in denture stomatitis. (
  • The cationic antimicrobial peptides are ribosomally synthesized, proteolytically processed species of 12 to ∼50 amino acids that comprise about 50% hydrophobic residues and that have a net excess of positive charge ( 9 ). (
  • Immunization with individual salivary proteins of two sand fly species protected mice from L. major infection. (
  • The SG6 protein is highly conserved within the A. gambiae species complex whereas the A. funestus homologue, fSG6, is more divergent (80% identity with gSG6). (
  • Comparative analysis of gSG6 and fSG6 immunogenicity to humans suggests the occurrence of a wide cross-reactivity, even though the two proteins carry species-specific epitopes. (
  • Eleven per cent of all peptides could be assigned to species. (
  • Several laboratories independently characterized similar surface proteins produced by different streptococcal species and implicated in bacterial cell adhesion to salivary glycoproteins ( 17 , 31 ), Actinomyces naeslundii ( 2 ), and fibrin ( 7 ). (
  • Members of this protein family, designated LraI ( 24 ), have now been identified in six species of streptococci ( 6 , 9 , 37 ) and Enterococcus faecalis ( 28 ). (
  • Salivary microbes appear to be actively engaged in protein synthesis, and the pathway analysis is consistent with the metabolism of salivary glycoproteins. (
  • There were 82 gender-specific proteins which were largely associated with immune function, inflammation and lipid metabolism. (
  • Lipocalin proteins are small regulatory peptides implicated in metabolism, inflammation, and immunity. (
  • Salivary histatins are a family of small histidine-rich peptides with potent antifungal activity. (
  • The majority of the proteins identified in the two age groups belonged to the defense and immune response category. (
  • Of note, several defense related proteins (e.g. lysozyme, lactoferrin and histatin-1) were significantly more abundant in group 2 as determined by G-test. (
  • Plant-feeding insects, especially those with sucking mouthparts, inject proteins and other substances into host plants to facilitate mouthpart penetration, partially digest food before ingestion, and suppress plant defense [ 2 - 4 ]. (
  • Substantial evidence suggests that some of the salivary proteins injected into host plants by insects also act as effectors to suppress defense and/or reprogram physiological pathways of host plants [ 3 , 5 , 9 - 12 ]. (
  • Mucosal defense proteins like IgA, surfactant proteins and lactoferrin also bind to DMBT1s through their SRCR domains. (
  • However, it became evident that some of the proteins participating in these host defense processes may simultaneously function as regulators of tissue regeneration when in the extracellular matrix, thus coupling defense functions with regulation of stem cells. (
  • In humans some SRCR proteins specialized to particular functions, while others may have maintained a broad role in various physiological processes, e.g., participating in defense and regenerative processes. (
  • Cationic peptides produced by multicellular organisms are an evolutionarily ancient and rapidly mobilized primary defense against infections caused by a broad range of microbes ( 8 ). (
  • Here we report that epithelial cytokeratins have innate defense properties because they constitutively produce cytoprotective antimicrobial peptides. (
  • These data suggest that epithelial cytokeratins function as endogenous antimicrobial peptides in the host defense against infection and that keratin-derived antimicrobials may serve as effective therapeutic agents. (
  • We previously searched for submandibular and sublingual salivary components that specifically interact with P. gingivalis fimbriae ( 4 ). (
  • Candida albicans Ssa1/2p is the cell envelope binding protein for human salivary histatin 5. (
  • The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions. (
  • The 89 shared proteins in this comparison apparently represent a core of highly-expressed human salivary proteins. (
  • Inactivation of human salivary glutathione transferase P1-1 by hypothiocyanite: a post-translational control system in search of a role. (
  • Potential uses of human salivary protein and peptide analysis in the diagnosis of disease. (
  • It was found that APE1 stimulates DNA synthesis catalyzed by DNA polymerase β, and a human X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 protein (XRCC1) stimulates APE1 3′-5′ exonuclease activity on 3′-recessed DNA duplex. (
  • Zhang Y, McCormick L, Gilliam A. Latency-associated peptide prevents skin fibrosis in murine sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease, a model for human scleroderma. (
  • ELISA-based testing of human IgG antibody levels against the peptides revealed that the transferrin-derived peptides, TRANS-P1, TRANS-P2 and a salivary peroxidase peptide (PEROX-P3) were able to distinguish between malaria-infected and uninfected groups. (
  • This study used those data to carry out the first metaproteomic analysis of the human salivary microbiota. (
  • The identified peptides were searched against a human protein database to identify the proteins present, a total of 1770 being found in total from the four sample classes. (
  • Of these, several have vaccines and therapeutics must be evaluated for their advanced beyond pre-clinical studies in animals and en- efficacy in human trials, yet the design of efficacy trials tered phase 1 human trials [3, 4], with two candidates and the appropriate selection of clinical endpoints pose a challenge. (
  • The recombinant pFN protein fragment was isolated from inclusion bodies, and subjected to folding and autocatalytic degradation in the presence of Ca2+, and yielded an active enzyme capable of digesting gelatin, helical type II and type IV collagen, alpha- and beta-casein, insulin b-chain, and a synthetic Mca-peptide. (
  • We have now analyzed the signaling pathways that are inhibited by the tick salivary protein in CD4 + T cells. (
  • Detecting changes in the salivary concentrations of these molecules has allowed the detection of oral and systemic diseases. (
  • The changes in the salivary protein pattern induced by acid were more pronounced than those caused by gender. (
  • Moreover, three salivary gland-specific cDNA fragments that do not show similarity to known proteins in the databases were identified, and the corresponding full length cDNAs were cloned and sequenced. (
  • Bioactive peptides are small protein fragments that promote metabolic health by exerting a positive influence on biological responses within the body. (
  • Background: The aim of this work was to investigate if serum and salivary auto-antibodies, isotypes IgG and IgM, against HER2 and MUC1 tandem repeat fragments could play a role in breast cancer screening. (
  • This preliminary work tends to support the feasibility of development of an epidemiologic tool based on this antibody response to salivary proteins. (
  • The role of salivary proteins in denture stomatitis is not clear. (
  • Salivary secretions play critical roles in aphid- host plant interactions and are responsible for damage associated with aphid feeding. (
  • Studies of fimbrial adhesins of P. gingivalis have shown that protein interactions with salivary components are critical. (
  • These bindings occur via protein-protein interactions through definitive domains of the fimbriae ( 3 ) and salivary proteins, i.e. (
  • The fractions were separated by 12% SDS-PAGE followed by in-gel trypsin digestion and analysis of the tryptic peptides by LC-MS/MS. Using the MaxQuant program with Andromeda as a database search engine, a total of forty-five viral proteins were identified. (
  • After centrifuging off the debris, the proteins in the remaining liquid were digested with trypsin and each set was treated with one of four isotope-labelled iTRAQ reagents. (
  • The larger of the BTV outer-capsid proteins, 'VP2', can be cleaved by proteases (including trypsin or chymotrypsin), forming infectious subviral particles (ISVP) which have enhanced infectivity for adult Culicoides, or KC cells (a cell-line derived from C. sonorensis). (
  • In this process, gel spots containing separated proteins are excised from the gel medium and treated with a high-specificity enzyme (most commonly trypsin) to fragment the proteins. (
  • Precursor salivary PRPs are cleaved multiple times to produce a diversity of secreted peptides. (
  • Salivary gland contributes to the development of the parasite by creating a favorable environment for the infection and facilitating blood feeding and reproduction of the vector. (
  • Analysis of protein components suggests that certain salivary proteins may predispose some patients to denture stomatitis while others are believed to be involved in the reaction to fungal infection. (
  • Mice immunized with Phlebotomus papatasi salivary gland homogenate (SGH) or pre-exposed to uninfected bites were protected against Leishmania major infection delivered by needle inoculation with SGH or by infected sand fly bites. (
  • Here, we analyze the immune response to distinct salivary proteins from P. papatasi that produced contrasting outcomes of L. major infection. (
  • DNA immunization with distinct DTH-inducing salivary proteins from P. papatasi modulates L. major infection. (
  • Immunization with two salivary proteins from P. papatasi, PpSP15 and PpSP44, produced distinct immune profiles that correlated with resistance or susceptibility to Leishmania infection. (
  • This mechanism might enable phagocytes to efficiently damage proteins when they destroy microbial proteins during infection or damage host tissue during inflammation. (
  • The right-handed peptide defeated both of these bacterial defenses. (
  • KDAMP activity involved bacterial binding and permeabilization, but the activity was unaffected by peptide charge or physiological salt concentration. (
  • A further aim was to study the function of the salivary PRP proteins and an innate peptide derived thereof on bacterial adhesion, proliferation and regulation of pH, i.e. key factors in biofilm formation.In paper I and II, adhesion, proliferation and pH affecting features of the RGRPQ (arginine-glycine-arginine-proline-glutamine) peptide, derived from PRP-1, were demonstrated. (
  • The salivary components on the membrane were allowed to interact with fimbriae purified from P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, and the interacted fimbriae were probed with anti-fimbria antibodies. (
  • Variable Major Proteins as Targets for Specific Antibodies against Borrelia miyamotoi. (
  • Validating the utility of this approach requires concurrent comparisons of anopheline biting rates with antibodies to the gSG6 protein to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for monitoring changes in vector populations. (
  • Identification of protein coding regions by database similarity search. (
  • Some protein markers were selected for identification, and relevant ELISA assays sought. (
  • The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain multiple cystatin-like sequences. (
  • Three proteins including carbonic anhydrase 6, cystatin C, and cystatin SN were found to be the same as previous study. (
  • They are usually found on epithelial cell surfaces and in phagocytic cells at sites of microbial invasion, and only a few instances of constitutive or induced resistance to cationic peptides have been detected (for a review, see reference 44 ). (
  • The bound cationic peptides are then thought to kill target microbes, including fungi ( 4 ), by forming assemblies that alter the lipid bilayer structure and disrupt the functional properties of the microbial membrane. (
  • The type of N- and C-terminal amino acid, the peptide chain length, charge character, and composition of the amino acids determines the biological activity of bioactive peptides. (
  • For example, opioid peptides are short amino acid sequences with similar pharmacological activity as opium. (
  • Protein constituents secreted into sucrose and amino acid diets were compared using gel electrophoresis using standardized amounts of protein. (
  • More protein bands and bands of greater intensity were visualized from probed sucrose diet compared with probed amino acid diet, indicating qualitative differences. (
  • If we estimate an average of 250 amino acids per protein or peptide, three bases per amino acid codon, and four bits per DNA letter, that amounts to 7.5 megabits of CSI in dog spit! (
  • Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals. (
  • Alterations in salivary protein composition can be monitored using diagnostics techniques and compared with other clinical parameters (serum, urine, and biopsy) 2 - 4 . (
  • Several organic compounds and enzymes injected into host plants by galling insects have been identified, including amino acids, auxin, proteases, oxidases, and pectinases [ 13 ], but the general composition of the proteins delivered into host plants by gall midges has not yet been fully characterized. (
  • Here, structural components, protein composition and associated aspects of GpSGHV morphogenesis and cytopathology were investigated. (
  • Age, gender and circadian rhythm have all been shown to affect the protein composition. (
  • CF subjects showed higher salivary IgA concentration (11.27±0.5 μg) than HC individuals (1.71±0.2μg) (p=0.001).Salivary composition in high caries experience and cariesfree young adults seems to differ in terms of the type and amount of proteins . (
  • There was a correlation between serum and salivary VIP in the mixed cancer group, though not between serum and salivary CGRP. (
  • This study found that salivary CgA and sAA seem to be regulated differently during high-intensity exercise. (