Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).DMF Index: "Decayed, missing and filled teeth," a routinely used statistical concept in dentistry.Dental Caries Activity Tests: Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Root Caries: Dental caries involving the tooth root, cementum, or cervical area of the tooth.Diet, Cariogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Oral Hygiene: The practice of personal hygiene of the mouth. It includes the maintenance of oral cleanliness, tissue tone, and general preservation of oral health.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Fluoridation: Practice of adding fluoride to water for the purpose of preventing tooth decay and cavities.Pit and Fissure Sealants: Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Dental Care for Children: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of children, including the prevention of tooth diseases and instruction in dental hygiene and dental health. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Fluorosis, Dental: A chronic endemic form of hypoplasia of the dental enamel caused by drinking water with a high fluorine content during the time of tooth formation, and characterized by defective calcification that gives a white chalky appearance to the enamel, which gradually undergoes brown discoloration. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Cariogenic Agents: Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Insurance, Dental: Insurance providing coverage for dental care.Fluorides, Topical: Fluorides, usually in pastes or gels, used for topical application to reduce the incidence of DENTAL CARIES.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Dentition, Permanent: The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Streptococcus sobrinus: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from the human tooth surface. Strains have been shown to be cariogenic in experimental animals and may be associated with human dental caries.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Dental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Oral Hygiene Index: A combination of the debris index and the dental calculus index to determine the status of oral hygiene.Dental Care for Aged: The giving of attention to the special dental needs of the elderly for proper maintenance or treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.School Dentistry: Preventive dental services provided for students in primary and secondary schools.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Dental Hygienists: Persons trained in an accredited school or dental college and licensed by the state in which they reside to provide dental prophylaxis under the direction of a licensed dentist.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Periodontal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PERIODONTIUM including the gum (GINGIVA), the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS), the DENTAL CEMENTUM, and the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT.Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Dental Care for Disabled: Dental care for the emotionally, mentally, or physically disabled patient. It does not include dental care for the chronically ill ( = DENTAL CARE FOR CHRONICALLY ILL).Dental Fissures: Deep grooves or clefts in the surface of teeth equivalent to class 1 cavities in Black's classification of dental caries.Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Dental Anxiety: Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.Saliva, Artificial: A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Dental Arch: The curve formed by the row of TEETH in their normal position in the JAW. The inferior dental arch is formed by the mandibular teeth, and the superior dental arch by the maxillary teeth.Dental Records: Data collected during dental examination for the purpose of study, diagnosis, or treatment planning.Dental Offices: The room or rooms in which the dentist and dental staff provide care. Offices include all rooms in the dentist's office suite.Dental Plaque Index: An index which scores the degree of dental plaque accumulation.Transillumination: Passage of light through body tissues or cavities for examination of internal structures.Tooth DiseasesDentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Mouthwashes: Solutions for rinsing the mouth, possessing cleansing, germicidal, or palliative properties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Dentists: Individuals licensed to practice DENTISTRY.Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Dietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Dental Staff: Personnel who provide dental service to patients in an organized facility, institution or agency.Dental Equipment: The nonexpendable items used by the dentist or dental staff in the performance of professional duties. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p106)Dental Atraumatic Restorative Treatment: Treatment modality for DENTAL CARIES that uses manual excavation method and GLASS IONOMER CEMENTS. Because of its noninvasiveness and no need for expensive equipment and anesthesia it is promoted as an approach in places where dental care is not readily available.Mouth, Edentulous: Total lack of teeth through disease or extraction.Dental Service, Hospital: Hospital department providing dental care.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Xylitol: A five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.Dental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Dental Pellicle: A thin protein film on the surface of DENTAL ENAMEL. It is widely believed to result from the selective adsorption of precursor proteins present in SALIVA onto tooth surfaces, and to reduce microbial adherence to the TEETH.Dental Assistants: Individuals who assist the dentist or the dental hygienist.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Periodontal Index: A numerical rating scale for classifying the periodontal status of a person or population with a single figure which takes into consideration prevalence as well as severity of the condition. It is based upon probe measurement of periodontal pockets and on gingival tissue status.Education, Dental, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform dentists of recent advances in their fields.Gingivitis: Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.Dental Implants: Biocompatible materials placed into (endosseous) or onto (subperiosteal) the jawbone to support a crown, bridge, or artificial tooth, or to stabilize a diseased tooth.Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Dental Devices, Home Care: Devices used in the home by persons to maintain dental and periodontal health. The devices include toothbrushes, dental flosses, water irrigators, gingival stimulators, etc.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Radiography, Bitewing: Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.Mouth DiseasesGroup Practice, Dental: Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.Stomatognathic Diseases: General or unspecified diseases of the stomatognathic system, comprising the mouth, teeth, jaws, and pharynx.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Dentistry: The profession concerned with the teeth, oral cavity, and associated structures, and the diagnosis and treatment of their diseases including prevention and the restoration of defective and missing tissue.Ethics, Dental: The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Technology, Dental: The field of dentistry involved in procedures for designing and constructing dental appliances. It includes also the application of any technology to the field of dentistry.Licensure, Dental: The granting of a license to practice dentistry.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Dental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Diagnosis, Oral: Examination of the mouth and teeth toward the identification and diagnosis of intraoral disease or manifestation of non-oral conditions.Dental Calculus: Abnormal concretion or calcified deposit that forms around the teeth or dental prostheses.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Specialties, Dental: Various branches of dental practice limited to specialized areas.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Dental Deposits: Accumulations of microflora that lead to pathological plaque and calculus which cause PERIODONTAL DISEASES. It can be considered a type of BIOFILMS. It is subtly distinguished from the protective DENTAL PELLICLE.Radiography, Dental, Digital: A rapid, low-dose, digital imaging system using a small intraoral sensor instead of radiographic film, an intensifying screen, and a charge-coupled device. It presents the possibility of reduced patient exposure and minimal distortion, although resolution and latitude are inferior to standard dental radiography. A receiver is placed in the mouth, routing signals to a computer which images the signals on a screen or in print. It includes digitizing from x-ray film or any other detector. (From MEDLINE abstracts; personal communication from Dr. Charles Berthold, NIDR)Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.BrazilCuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesTooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Dental Restoration Repair: The process of repairing broken or worn parts of a PERMANENT DENTAL RESTORATION.Dentifrices: Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Social Marginalization: Individuals or groups, excluded from participation in the economic, social, and political activities of membership in a community.Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Dental Sac: Dense fibrous layer formed from mesodermal tissue that surrounds the epithelial enamel organ. The cells eventually migrate to the external surface of the newly formed root dentin and give rise to the cementoblasts that deposit cementum on the developing root, fibroblasts of the developing periodontal ligament, and osteoblasts of the developing alveolar bone.Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Evidence-Based Dentistry: An approach or process of practicing oral health care that requires the judicious integration of systematic assessments of clinical relevant scientific evidence, relating to the patient's oral and medical condition and history, with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences. (from J Am Dent Assoc 134: 689, 2003)Pediatric Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with the dental problems of children, proper maintenance, and treatment. The dental care may include the services provided by dental specialists.Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Dentition, Mixed: The complement of teeth in the jaws after the eruption of some of the permanent teeth but before all the deciduous teeth are absent. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Comprehensive Dental Care: Providing for the full range of dental health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up, and rehabilitation of patients.Jaw, Edentulous, Partially: Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Esthetics, Dental: Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)Photography, Dental: Photographic techniques used in ORTHODONTICS; DENTAL ESTHETICS; and patient education.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.IndiaTooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Dental Alloys: A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions for use in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.Salivation: The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.Dental Prosthesis: An artificial replacement for one or more natural teeth or part of a tooth, or associated structures, ranging from a portion of a tooth to a complete denture. The dental prosthesis is used for cosmetic or functional reasons, or both. DENTURES and specific types of dentures are also available. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p244 & Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p643)Actinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Telepathy: The knowledge or communication by one person with the mental processes of another through channels other than known physical or perceptual processes.Binomial Distribution: The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Schools, Nursery: Schools for children usually under five years of age.Infection Control, Dental: Efforts to prevent and control the spread of infections within dental health facilities or those involving provision of dental care.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Dental Occlusion: The relationship of all the components of the masticatory system in normal function. It has special reference to the position and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth for the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p556, p472)Dental Informatics: The application of computer and information sciences to improve dental practice, research, education and management.Streptococcus sanguis: A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Dental Pulp Exposure: The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Mobile Health Units: Movable or portable facilities in which diagnostic and therapeutic services are provided to the community.Parotid Gland: The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Dental Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of dental care.Dentistry, Operative: That phase of clinical dentistry concerned with the restoration of parts of existing teeth that are defective through disease, trauma, or abnormal development, to the state of normal function, health, and esthetics, including preventive, diagnostic, biological, mechanical, and therapeutic techniques, as well as material and instrument science and application. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 2d ed, p237)Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Dental Waste: Any waste product generated by a dental office, surgery, clinic, or laboratory including amalgams, saliva, and rinse water.Dental Implantation: The grafting or inserting of a prosthetic device of alloplastic material into the oral tissue beneath the mucosal or periosteal layer or within the bone. Its purpose is to provide support and retention to a partial or complete denture.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Economics, Dental: Economic aspects of the dental profession and dental care.Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)Northern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Periapical Abscess: Acute or chronic inflammation of tissues surrounding the apical portion of a tooth, associated with the collection of pus, resulting from infection following pulp infection through a carious lesion or as a result of an injury causing pulp necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Malocclusion: Such malposition and contact of the maxillary and mandibular teeth as to interfere with the highest efficiency during the excursive movements of the jaw that are essential for mastication. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Dental Scaling: Removal of dental plaque and dental calculus from the surface of a tooth, from the surface of a tooth apical to the gingival margin accumulated in periodontal pockets, or from the surface coronal to the gingival margin.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Dental Facilities: Use for material on dental facilities in general or for which there is no specific heading.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.American Dental Association: Professional society representing the field of dentistry.
  • Once erosive tooth wear is established, prevention of further loss of dental tissue is important, not only because of the high cost of the necessary dental work, but also because of the common sequelae of oral hypersensitivity, functional and aesthetic impairment. (beds.ac.uk)
  • To the best of our knowledge, no systematic study relating to the prevention of progression of erosive tooth wear caused by GERD has been reported, except a small pilot project examining optical coherence tomography as a tool for quantifying dental reflux damage [ 6 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 1 This flow of saliva at rest is in the region of 0.4-0.5mL/minute in healthy subjects. (nature.com)
  • as well as by oral microflora and host factors (e.g., genetic susceptibility and the composition and flow of saliva). (nap.edu)
  • When the parotid glands malfunction or stop working, the flow of saliva is decreased and can cause a host of problems. (verywellhealth.com)
  • This function, controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system, may be compromised by some physiological conditions such as seniority, causes no pathological or by more complex diseases, for which the flow of saliva becomes insufficient. (hubpages.com)
  • Human saliva comprises 99.5⁠% water plus electrolytes , mucus , white blood cells , epithelial cells (from which DNA can be extracted), enzymes (such as amylase and lipase ), antimicrobial agents such as secretory IgA and lysozyme . (wikipedia.org)
  • Produced in salivary glands , human saliva is 99.5% water, but also contains many important substances, including electrolytes , mucus , antibacterial compounds and various enzymes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Salivary agglutinin (also known as gp340) is a high-molecular-weight glycoprotein in human saliva that mediates the adhesion and aggregation of S. mutans ( 4 , 14 , 18 ) via the cell wall-associated adhesin P1 (a member of the AgI/II family of cell surface proteins), encoded by spaP ( 14 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Amylase is the most prevalent enzyme in human saliva and helps break down starches, according to the Archives of Oral Biology . (colgate.com)
  • Jensen B, Bratthall D. A new method for the estimation of mutans Streptococci in human saliva. (medigraphic.com)
  • Origin, structure, and biological activities of peroxidases in human saliva. (springer.com)
  • Widespread use of fluoride has been a major factor in the decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries (i.e., tooth decay) in the United States and other economically developed countries. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1966, the National Institute of Dental Research (NIDR) began planning a targeted research program to identify interventions for widespread application to eradicate dental caries (tooth decay) within a decade. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Industry tactics included the following: funding research in collaboration with allied food industries on enzymes to break up dental plaque and a vaccine against tooth decay with questionable potential for widespread application, cultivation of relationships with the NIDR leadership, consulting of members on an NIDR expert panel, and submission of a report to the NIDR that became the foundation of the first request for proposals issued for the NCP. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Tooth decay (dental caries) is the leading chronic disease of children and adolescents. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Dentists can detect tooth decay before it causes toothache through visual examination or by taking dental X-rays, and can treat the condition by removing the decay and plugging the hole with a "dental filling. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The newly recruited professor and acting associate dean at the University of Saskatchewan's College of Dentistry quickly turned serious when it came to discussing the potential benefits of his research, which is focused on two areas: using saliva to prevent conditions like tooth decay and gum disease, and testing saliva for indicators of other conditions affecting the body. (vancouversun.com)
  • Inadequate amounts of saliva may also lead to gum disease and tooth decay too. (colgate.com)
  • Fluoridation of community drinking water is a major factor responsible for the decline in dental caries (tooth decay) during the second half of the 20th century. (whale.to)
  • All Smiles Dental Group says that a primary reason for this excessive tooth decay in infants, is that bottles filled with formula can cause liquid pooling in the baby's mouth. (health2blog.com)
  • It is generally accepted, however, that saliva secretion and salivary components secreted in saliva are important for dental health. (utu.fi)
  • The function and secretion of saliva can be disturbed after radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, by auto-immune diseases affecting glandular tissues such as Sjögren's syndrome [ 3 , 4 ] or as a side-effect of numerous drugs. (mdpi.com)
  • Saliva definitely promotes oral health and hence lack of its secretion contributes to the disease process [2, (indmedica.com)
  • Under normal circumstances, around 0.5 ml of saliva, almost entirely of the mucus type, is secreted every minute, except during sleep, when the secretion becomes very scanty. (wizzley.com)
  • These glands are responsible for production and secretion of saliva. (dermnetnz.org)
  • The major salivary glands, parotid, submandibular and sublingual, together with numerous other minor glands are positioned in the oral cavity that have the function of production and secretion of saliva which participates in the digestive process. (hubpages.com)
  • In the study we used the generally accepted index of the presence or absence of a Klein - Palmer index caries process, designated as DMFT. (edu.mk)
  • Oral hygiene and caries were assessed using the simplified oral hygiene index and dft/DMFT index, respectively. (quintpub.com)
  • Those in the normal BMI range had a significantly higher prevalence of caries (57%) and DMFT score (1.92) compared with the overweight and obese groups (P (who.int)
  • Application of the DMFT index in epidemiologic surveys throughout the United States in the 1930s and 1940s allowed quantitative distinctions in dental caries experience among communities--an innovation that proved critical in identifying a preventive agent and evaluating its effects. (whale.to)
  • Within the limitation of this study, we can conclude that, alterations in the physicochemical properties of saliva such as decreased salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium and increased total proteins and total antioxidant capacity play a major role in the development of caries. (indmedica.com)
  • In turn, the mucin-glycoproteins present in saliva play a dominating role in the maintenance of oral health [ 9 ]. (medsci.org)
  • Collectively, these reports conclude that biomarkers of different biological origin may be adequately assessed in saliva samples and support the concept that the biological composition of saliva reflects individual oral health status. (peerj.com)
  • Saliva plays a significant role in maintaining oral health, helping to build and maintain the health of soft and hard tissues. (nature.com)
  • When saliva flow is reduced, oral health problems such as dental caries and oral infections can develop. (nature.com)
  • Oral health is an essential component of wellbeing, and dental emergencies may pose a big challenge to volunteers in developing countries. (themediaconsortium.com)
  • Dental health neglected by over 60 % of Indians ( Oral health is something that should oc. (bio-medicine.org)
  • According to research 8 presented at the April 2017 National Oral Health Conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico, 57 percent of youth between the ages of 6 and 19 years have dental fluorosis, a condition in which your tooth enamel becomes progressively discolored and mottled. (fluoridealert.org)
  • Our geriatric dental professionals provide care for seniors with a variety of oral health programs, whether simply for maintenance or for more serious conditions. (bumrungrad.com)
  • The aim was to compare the oral health status of patients with eating disorders (EDs), with sex-and age-matched controls, with a view to identify self-reported and clinical parameters that might alert the dental healthcare professional to the possibility of EDs. (diva-portal.org)
  • The ED patients with vomiting/binge eating behaviors reported worse perceived oral health (OR = 6.0) and had more dental erosion (OR = 5.5) than those without such behavior. (diva-portal.org)
  • 2 The Salivary Flow (SF) index is a parameter allowing stimulated and unstimulated saliva flow to be classified as normal, low or very low (hyposalivation). (nature.com)
  • ABSTRACT The prevalence of obesity is increasing in Saudi Arabia and although caries is associated with obesity, this association has not been investigated in Medina. (who.int)
  • However, knowledge of the proteins and glycoproteins present in saliva is only fragmentary. (medsci.org)
  • In our previous studies, we demonstrated a significant association between salivary acidic proline-rich proteins (APRP-1/2) and the severity of caries [ 8 ]. (medsci.org)
  • The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically with LysC and trypsin. (peerj.com)
  • The oral tissues, a part of the mucosal immune system, are constantly covered by saliva, which harbors a similar set of antimicrobial proteins as other mucosal fluids [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • It will use a method called salivary proteomics to identify multiple proteins in saliva and discover if there are protein patterns unique to specific diseases. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Saliva contains many proteins, some of which are altered in various disease states. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Siqueira explained that saliva contains proteins, along with elements like calcium and phosphate, that help maintain and repair tooth enamel. (vancouversun.com)
  • We created a method to use the saliva to identify the peptides, the proteins of the virus in saliva that is more reliable than what is in the blood, or to use any other body fluid. (vancouversun.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the physicochemical properties of saliva such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium, total proteins and total antioxidant capacity in caries free and caries active children. (indmedica.com)
  • It has been long recognized that saliva serves as a mirror of the body's health as it contains proteins, hormones, antibodies and other molecules that are frequently measured in standard blood tests to monitor health and disease. (indmedica.com)
  • Our results now show that this correlation is accurate for approximately four out of five individuals, who have a small-to-moderate risk of developing caries because their composition of salivary innate immunity proteins make them relatively resistant to caries. (umu.se)
  • However, we have shown that so-called high-risk individuals, which are about one in five individuals, carry a genetically different composition of the same salivary innate immunity proteins, making them highly susceptible to caries independent of eating- or oral hygiene habits or S. mutans -infection. (umu.se)
  • According to the clinical trial data, we determined the intensity (presence / absence) of dental caries (WHO, Geneve, 1997). (edu.mk)
  • This warning was made mandatory for fluoride-containing dental products by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in April, 1997. (fluoridealert.org)
  • 1997). New frontiers in dental anthropology: creative approaches to diet and stress in prehistory. (wikipedia.org)
  • The digestive functions of saliva include moistening food and helping to create a food bolus. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutans streptococci and lactobacilli following treatment of early childhood caries: a 1-year follow-up. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Materials and Methods: Seventy-four school children were divided into a caries-free group and a caries group. (ovid.com)
  • The lower age limit will be determined by the ability to cooperate with saliva collection methods: i.e. 6 months to 100 years old. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • METHODS: Saliva-derived polymicrobial biofilms were grown for 96 h in a cariogenic environment and treated every 12 h with 2% CPP-ACP or vehicle control. (bristol.ac.uk)
  • Leads to increased caries risk, particularly root caries due to natural progression of gingival recession as part of the aging process, along with other dental problems such as attrition and toothbrush abrasion. (avroarrow.org)
  • The triathletes had much lower levels of saliva and increased pH (more alkaline) during exercise. (trainingpeaks.com)
  • Most of these studies suggest that the use of cheese as the final food in a meal will help to reduce caries. (nih.gov)
  • The present tests are useful for estimating the caries activity due to bad dietary habits (salivary lactobacilli), establishing the presence of infection (salivary mutans streptococci), and identification of salivary yeasts for the determination of the medical condition of the patient. (semanticscholar.org)
  • [ 7 ] Dietary habits and the risk of caries in children may also be confounded by maternal educational level. (medscape.com)
  • This study aimed to determine the association between dental caries, body mass index (BMI) and dietary habits of 12-year-old boys from four geographically distinct schools in Medina. (who.int)
  • The children had poor dietary habits and there were no significant associations between dietary variables and caries. (who.int)
  • Dietary concerns become a factor when discussing dental caries. (avroarrow.org)
  • FDA also mention the representatives from 'underserved communities, who expressed concern about the cumulative effect of mercury vapor exposure from dental amalgam, as well as from other (dietary and environmental) sources. (melisa.org)
  • 3 Among 6- to 8-year-olds and 15-year-olds, caries experience and untreated dental decay remained mostly unchanged between 1988-1994 and 1999-2004. (aappublications.org)