Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.
The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.
A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.
The response of cells in sensing a difference in OSMOTIC PRESSURE between the inside and outside of the cell. This response includes signaling from osmotic sensors to activate transcription factors, which in turn regulate the expression of osmocompensatory genes, all functioning to maintain CELL VOLUME and the water concentration inside the cells.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
A plant genus of the family AIZOACEAE. It is a native of Africa and widely planted for erosion control to stabilize soil along roadsides and beaches.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
A plant family of the order Rhizophorales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, that includes mangrove trees.
A family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with about 60 genera and more than 800 species of plants, with a few shrubs, trees, and vines. The leaves usually have nonindented edges.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.
A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.
A plant genus of the family Acanthaceae. Members contain NAPHTHOQUINONES. Black mangroves (common name for the genus) are distinguished from other mangroves by their spike-like aerial roots called pneumatophores that project from the soil or water surrounding the plants.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A genus of gram-negative, moderately halophilic bacteria in the family HALOMONADACEAE. They are chemoorganotrophic and grow optimally in media containing 8-10% salt.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. The leaves are usually opposite and the flowers usually have four sepals, four petals, two stamens, and two fused carpels that form a single superior ovary.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.

Ocean climate prior to breeding affects the duration of the nestling period in the Atlantic puffin. (1/586)

Time-series covering 23 years for a long-lived seabird, the Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica L.) at Rost, northern Norway, was used to explore any indirect effects of climatic variations on chick production. By fitting statistical models on the duration of the nestling period, we found that it may be estimated using the average sea temperature and salinity at 0-20 m depth in March (having a positive and a negative effect, respectively). We propose that when the phytoplankton bloom occurs in early spring, adverse oceanographic conditions, i.e. low temperature and high salinity in March, have a negative effect on puffin reproduction by degradation of the prey availability (mainly Clupea harengus) for chick-feeding adults three months later.  (+info)

Effect of temperature, light and salinity on seed germination and radicle growth of the geographically widespread halophyte shrub Halocnemum strobilaceum. (2/586)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The small leafy succulent shrub Halocnemum strobilaceum occurs in saline habitats from northern Africa and Mediterranean Europe to western Asia, and it is a dominant species in salt deserts such as those of north-west China. The effects of temperature, light/darkness and NaCl salinity were tested on seed germination, and the effects of salinity were tested on seed germination recovery, radicle growth and radicle elongation recovery, using seeds from north-west China; the results were compared with those previously reported on this species from 'salt steppes' in the Mediterranean region of Spain. METHODS: Seed germination was tested over a range of temperatures in light and in darkness and over a range of salinities at 25 degrees C in the light. Seeds that did not germinate in the NaCl solutions were tested for germination in deionized water. Seeds from which radicles had barely emerged in deionized water were transferred to NaCl solutions for 10 d and then back to deionized water for 10 d to test for radicle growth and recovery. KEY RESULTS: Seeds germinated to higher percentages in light than in darkness and at high than at low temperatures. Germination percentages decreased with an increase in salinity from 0.1 to 0.75 M NaCl. Seeds that did not germinate in NaCl solutions did so after transfer to deionized water. Radicle elongation was increased by low salinity, and then it decreased with an increase in salinity, being completely inhibited by > or = 2.0 M NaCl. Elongation of radicles from salt solutions < 3.0 M resumed after seedlings were transferred to deionized water. CONCLUSIONS: The seed and early seedling growth stages of the life cycle of H. strobilaceum are very salt tolerant, and their physiological responses differ somewhat between the Mediterranean 'salt steppe' of Spain and the inland cold salt desert of north-west China.  (+info)

Sodium ion concentration vs. sweat rate relationship in humans. (3/586)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of active heat acclimation on the sweat osmolality and sweat sodium ion concentration vs. sweat rate relationship in humans. Eight healthy male volunteers completed 10 days of exercise in the heat. The mean exercising heart rate and core temperature were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by 18 beats/min and 0.6 degrees C, respectively, following heat acclimation. Furthermore, sweat osmolality and the sweat sodium ion concentration vs. sweat rate relationships were shifted to the right. Specifically, the slopes of the relationships were not affected by heat acclimation. Rather, heat acclimation significantly reduced the y-intercepts of the sweat osmolality and sweat sodium relationships with sweat rate by 28 mosmol/kgH(2)O and 15 mmol/l, respectively. Thus there was a significantly lower sweat sodium ion concentration for a given sweat rate following heat acclimation. These results suggest that heat acclimation increases the sodium ion reabsorption capacity of the human eccrine sweat gland.  (+info)

Differential gene expression and Hog1 interaction with osmoresponsive genes in the extremely halotolerant black yeast Hortaea werneckii. (4/586)

BACKGROUND: Fluctuations in external salinity force eukaryotic cells to respond by changes in the gene expression of proteins acting in protective biochemical processes, thus counteracting the changing osmotic pressure. The high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway is essential for the efficient up-regulation of the osmoresponsive genes. In this study, the differential gene expression of the extremely halotolerant black yeast Hortaea werneckii was explored. Furthermore, the interaction of mitogen-activated protein kinase HwHog1 and RNA polymerase II with the chromatin in cells adapted to an extremely hypersaline environment was analyzed. RESULTS: A cDNA subtraction library was constructed for H. werneckii, adapted to moderate salinity or an extremely hypersaline environment of 4.5 M NaCl. An uncommon osmoresponsive set of 95 differentially expressed genes was identified. The majority of these had not previously been connected with the adaptation of salt-sensitive S. cerevisiae to hypersaline conditions. The transcriptional response in hypersaline-adapted and hypersaline-stressed cells showed that only a subset of the identified genes responded to acute salt-stress, whereas all were differentially expressed in adapted cells. Interaction with HwHog1 was shown for 36 of the 95 differentially expressed genes. The majority of the identified osmoresponsive and HwHog1-dependent genes in H. werneckii have not been previously reported as Hog1-dependent genes in the salt-sensitive S. cerevisiae. The study further demonstrated the co-occupancy of HwHog1 and RNA polymerase II on the chromatin of 17 up-regulated and 2 down-regulated genes in 4.5 M NaCl-adapted H. werneckii cells. CONCLUSION: Extremely halotolerant H. werneckii represents a suitable and highly relevant organism to study cellular responses to environmental salinity. In comparison with the salt-sensitive S. cerevisiae, this yeast shows a different set of genes being expressed at high salt concentrations and interacting with HwHog1 MAP kinase, suggesting atypical processes deserving of further study.  (+info)

Transcriptional profiling of chickpea genes differentially regulated in response to high-salinity, cold and drought. (5/586)

BACKGROUND: Cultivated chickpea (Cicer arietinum) has a narrow genetic base making it difficult for breeders to produce new elite cultivars with durable resistance to major biotic and abiotic stresses. As an alternative to genome mapping, microarrays have recently been applied in crop species to identify and assess the function of putative genes thought to be involved in plant abiotic stress and defence responses. In the present study, a cDNA microarray approach was taken in order to determine if the transcription of genes, from a set of previously identified putative stress-responsive genes from chickpea and its close relative Lathyrus sativus, were altered in chickpea by the three abiotic stresses; drought, cold and high-salinity. For this, chickpea genotypes known to be tolerant and susceptible to each abiotic stress were challenged and gene expression in the leaf, root and/or flower tissues was studied. The transcripts that were differentially expressed among stressed and unstressed plants in response to the particular stress were analysed in the context of tolerant/susceptible genotypes. RESULTS: The transcriptional change of more than two fold was observed for 109, 210 and 386 genes after drought, cold and high-salinity treatments, respectively. Among these, two, 15 and 30 genes were consensually differentially expressed (DE) between tolerant and susceptible genotypes studied for drought, cold and high-salinity, respectively. The genes that were DE in tolerant and susceptible genotypes under abiotic stresses code for various functional and regulatory proteins. Significant differences in stress responses were observed within and between tolerant and susceptible genotypes highlighting the multiple gene control and complexity of abiotic stress response mechanism in chickpea. CONCLUSION: The annotation of these genes suggests that they may have a role in abiotic stress response and are potential candidates for tolerance/susceptibility.  (+info)

Plasma membrane composition of Debaryomyces hansenii adapts to changes in pH and external salinity. (6/586)

Debaryomyces hansenii is a marine yeast that has to cope with different stress situations. Since changes in membrane properties can play an important function in adaptation, we have examined the fluidity and lipid composition of purified plasma membranes of D. hansenii grown at different external pH values and salt concentrations. Growth at low pH caused an increase in the sterol-to-phospholipid ratio and a decrease in fatty acid unsaturation which was reflected in decreased fluidity of the plasma membrane. High levels of NaCl increased the sterol-to-phospholipid ratio and fatty acid unsaturation, but did not significantly affect fluidity. The sterol-to-phospholipid ratios obtained in D. hansenii grown under any of these conditions were similar to the ratios that have been reported for halophilic/halotolerant black yeasts, but much smaller than those observed in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  (+info)

Control of electrostatic interactions between F-actin and genetically modified lysozyme in aqueous media. (7/586)

The aim for deterministic control of the interactions between macroions in aqueous media has motivated widespread experimental and theoretical work. Although it has been well established that like-charged macromolecules can aggregate under the influence of oppositely charged condensing agents, the specific conditions for the stability of such aggregates can only be determined empirically. We examine these conditions, which involve an interplay of electrostatic and osmotic effects, by using a well defined model system composed of F-actin, an anionic rod-like polyelectrolyte, and lysozyme, a cationic globular protein with a charge that can be genetically modified. The structure and stability of actin-lysozyme complexes for different lysozyme charge mutants and salt concentrations are examined by using synchrotron x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. We provide evidence that supports a structural transition from columnar arrangements of F-actin held together by arrays of lysozyme at the threefold interstitial sites of the actin sublattice to marginally stable complexes in which lysozyme resides at twofold bridging sites between actin. The reduced stability arises from strongly reduced partitioning of salt between the complex and the surrounding solution. Changes in the stability of actin-lysozyme complexes are of biomedical interest because their formation has been reported to contribute to the persistence of airway infections in cystic fibrosis by sequestering antimicrobials such as lysozyme. We present x-ray microscopy results that argue for the existence of actin-lysozyme complexes in cystic fibrosis sputum and demonstrate that, for a wide range of salt conditions, charge-reduced lysozyme is not sequestered in ordered complexes while retaining its bacterial killing activity.  (+info)

Differential expression of the TFIIIA regulatory pathway in response to salt stress between Medicago truncatula genotypes. (8/586)

Soil salinity is one of the most significant abiotic stresses for crop plants, including legumes. These plants can establish root symbioses with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria and are able to grow in nitrogen-poor soils. Medicago truncatula varieties show diverse adaptive responses to environmental conditions, such as saline soils. We have compared the differential root growth of two genotypes of M. truncatula (108-R and Jemalong A17) in response to salt stress. Jemalong A17 is more tolerant to salt stress than 108-R, regarding both root and nodulation responses independently of the nitrogen status of the media. A dedicated macroarray containing 384 genes linked to stress responses was used to compare root gene expression during salt stress in these genotypes. Several genes potentially associated with the contrasting cellular responses of these plants to salt stress were identified as expressed in the more tolerant genotype even in the absence of stress. Among them, a homolog of the abiotic stress-related COLD-REGULATEDA1 gene and a TFIIIA-related transcription factor (TF), MtZpt2-1, known to regulate the former gene. Two MtZpt2 TFs (MtZpt2-1 and MtZpt2-2) were found in Jemalong A17 plants and showed increased expression in roots when compared to 108-R. Overexpression of these TFs in the sensitive genotype 108-R, but not in Jemalong A17, led to increased root growth under salt stress, suggesting a role for this pathway in the adaptive response to salt stress of these M. truncatula genotypes.  (+info)

The goal of the present study was to evaluate yield and fruit quality of two strawberry cultivars grown in a greenhouse on semi-closed soilless culture, irrigated with four different salinity levels. The experiment was carried out in Almería, Spain, and was set as a 4×2 factorial design with 3 replicates. The treatments consisted of four different salinity levels on the nutrient solution applied during the generative stage in two different cultivars, Primoris and Albion. Fruits were harvested from December through May, and pH, total soluble solids (°Brix), dry matter, weight, firmness, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and total phenolic compounds were analyzed. In both cultivars, the salinity increased fruit dry matter, total soluble solids content and titratable acidity. There were no significant differences among the salinity levels on fruit yield and concentration of phenolic compounds. The salinity effect on Vitamin C and carotenoids content was not clear. The results ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anthropogenic and tidal influences on salinity levels of the Shatt al-Arab River, Basra, Iraq. AU - Abdullah, Ali Dinar. AU - Karim, Usama F.A.. AU - Masih, Ilyas. AU - Popescu, Ioana. AU - van der Zaag, Pieter. PY - 2016/7/2. Y1 - 2016/7/2. N2 - ABSTRACT: Understanding the salinity variation caused by a combination of anthropogenic and marine sources is important for water resource management in heavily used rivers impacted by tidal influence. A quantitative analysis of intra-annual variability of salinity levels was conducted in the Shatt al-Arab River. Based on hourly records during 2014, the results showed high spatiotemporal variability in the range of 0.2-40.0 ppt. Similarities in salinity dynamics were used to divide the river course into four distinct spatial units to guide respective management actions. Salinity dynamics are influenced by different sources of saline water inflows and withdrawals associated with irrigation, industrial and municipal waste, marshes and by ...
Temporal Coherence in Real-Time Rendering, 978-3-639-09196-0, Real-time rendering imposes the challenging task of creating a new rendering of an input scene at least 60 times per second. Although computer graphics hardware has made staggering advances in terms of speed and freedom of programmability in recent years, there still exists a number of algorithms that are just too expensive to be calculated in this time budget, like for instance exact shadows or an exact global illumination solution. One way to circumvent this hard time limit is to capitalize on temporal coherence to formulate algorithms incremental in time. To this end, three algorithms which successfully incorporate temporal coherence are analysed in detail. To highlight the benefits which are provided by these new practical algorithms, this book also includes the respective previous work. This includes not only the field of temporal coherence, but also the fields of real-time hard and soft shadows and discrete LOD blending. This book
The study was conducted to determine the optimum salinity levels (24 ppt, 28 ppt, 32 ppt, 36 ppt and 40 ppt) for the survival and settlement rates of H. asinina in a complete randomized design with three replicates each. The experimental animals were reared in 15 glass aquaria for the first run and in plexiglass for the second run. Feeding of Navicula spp. was done once a day. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were monitored throughout the experiment. Data were analyzed using One-Way ANOVA to determine significant difference among treatments at 0.05 level of significance using Social Package for Social Science. Result of the first run showed that 32 ppt had the highest mean survival (1.50%) and mean settlement rate (1.84%). Similar result was also observed in 32 ppt with highest mean survival (9.72%) and mean settlement rate (16.42%). Significant difference existed among treatments during the second run of the experiment. Results showed that 28 ppt and 32 ppt were the optimum salinity levels for ...
Salinity stress in both NaCl concentrations tested severely altered plant growth, gas exchange attributes, leaf water status and membrane injury responses of both pepper genotypes [particularly the salt-sensitive Demre, and especially under the higher (150 mm) salinity]. The exogenous application of 2 mm Si significantly ameliorated NaCl toxicity in both genotypes. However, this influence was more pronounced for the salt-sensitive pepper at both salinity concentrations, especially in counteracting effects on biomass production and photosynthesis. Si additions either increased resistance to salt stress at 75 mm salinity or prevented a complete collapse at 150 mm salinity. Leaf area was reduced under salinity stress because in an attempt by the plant to minimize water loss via evapotranspiration. However, plants subjected to salinity stress but provided amendments of Si, acquired higher leaf area and shoot and root biomass (dry). Enhancement of plant growth under salinity stress have also been ...
Rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food that feeds more than half the world population. As rice is highly sensitive to soil salinity, current trends in soil salinization threaten global food security. To better understand the mechanistic basis of salinity tolerance in rice, three contrasting rice cultivars - Reiziq (tolerant), Doongara (moderately tolerant), and Koshihikari (sensitive) - were examined and the differences in operation of key ion transporters mediating ionic homeostasis in these genotypes were evaluated. Tolerant varieties had reduced Na+ translocation from roots to shoots. Electrophysiological and quantitative reverse transcription PCR experiments showed that tolerant genotypes possessed 2-fold higher net Na+ efflux capacity in the root elongation zone. Interestingly, this efflux was only partially mediated by the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (OsSOS1), suggesting involvement of some other exclusion mechanisms. No significant difference in Na+ exclusion from the mature root ...
Copepods are one of the most abundant and diverse live food sources for mesopelagic and bathypelagic fishes and crustaceans. They could contribute to the overlap of the transition period from live feed to an artificial weaning diet in marine larvae production. However, the culture conditions still need optimization to provide sufficient production to cover the increasing demand for marine hatcheries. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of different salinity levels (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 ppt) on the population growth, growth rate, and population composition (males, females, copepodite, and nauplii ratio) of the marine copepod, Oithona nana. The experiment continued for 15 days, under laboratory-controlled conditions of temperature (27 ± 1 °C), pH (7.7 ± 0.15), and continuous gentle aeration in 30 L glass aquaria. The copepod culture aquaria were supplemented with a mixture of soybean and yeast (0.5 g 10−6 individual−1 24-h−1) as a feed source. The highest significant
I found that processes such as growth, respiration and N transformation rates were strongly negatively reduced in response to acute salt exposure. However, increased salt tolerance of the microbial community could be induced quickly, combined with a partial recovery of process rates. A strong relationship between soil salinity and community salt tolerance was also found along natural gradients of salinity. Higher community salt tolerance was reflected in shifts in the composition of the bacterial community. Fungi were less sensitive to salt exposure than bacteria, which manifested in less inhibition of fungal growth both after short-term and long-term exposure to salinity. When salinity was combined with drying of soils, the effects of the individual factors were exacerbated. Increased soil salinity also modified the microbial response to rewetting of died soil ...
نسخه قابل چاپ خلاصه مقاله Low Salinity Water flooding and Combination of Low Salinity Water flooding with Surfactant and Alkaline Injection to Improve Oil Recovery - Core Flooding Experiments - گواهی پذیرش مقاله در کنفرانس
In the present study, transgenic rice plants ectopically expressing the PDH45 gene (TR), were tested under early-induced salinity stress conditions and compared with the wild type rice genotype IR64 (WT) and the empty vector control (EV). The TR plants are resistant to salinity stress and represent a valid system for testing the genes and miRNAs expression patters in comparison with the WT plants. The short-term response to salinity stress may be particularly relevant to better understand the biological significance of stress status in plant responses to salinity.. A preliminary characterization of the stress response in rice was carried out by measuring the chlorophyll content and the free proline levels. The damage caused by salt stress was evident from the degree of bleaching observed in the leaf tissues, along with a decrease in chlorophyll content. However, the reduction in chlorophyll content was significantly higher in WT plants, compared with TR plants. Since the goal of this study was ...
The aim of this study is to discover the activity of extracellular enzymes (amidase , alkaline phosphatase and Arylsulphatase) in vertical and horizontal developing directions of rhizosphere (0-5 and 5-10) cm . The plot experiment is performed in college of Agriculture / Al-Qadissiya University for the spring season 2013 ,the loamy sand soil was used to cultivate Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum mill) and Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) plants under salinity levels (without salted the natural salinity) , 6 , 8 and 10 ds.m-1 and compost levels (0,10 ,20)T.h-1 , and their interactions randomized complete design (RCD) is used with three replicates used with L.S.D test 5% level .The laboratory experiment is performed to determine the all enzymes activity above for all treatments . The results are summarized as : 1- Enzyme activity decreases with increasing the salinity levels for all enzymes used in this study and the salinity level 10 ds.m-1 is the lowest. The arrangement of activity values as Alkaline
A laboratory experiment was undertaken to analyze the effects of salinity on growth, body composition, oxygen consumption, and ammonia excretion of anadromous American shad (Alosa sapidissima) juveniles. Results showed the best survival rate occurred at 5‰ and 15‰. The relative weight gain and the specific growth rate declined as salinity increased. However, feed conversion rate increased with increasing salinity. Oxygen consumption rates showed a parabolic relationship in relation to salinity. From the quadratic relationship (y= -0.0004x2+0.0166x+0.319; R2=0.801; ...
Salinity imposes a major constraint over the productivity of rice. A set of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs), derived from a cross between the japonica type cultivar (cv.) Nipponbare (salinity sensitive) and the indica type cv. 9311 (moderately tolerant), was scored using a hydroponics system for their salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. Two of the CSSLs, which share a ~1.2 Mbp stretch of chromosome 4 derived from cv. Nipponbare, were as sensitive to the stress as cv. Nipponbare itself. Fine mapping based on an F2 population bred from a backcross between one of these CSSLs and cv. 9311 narrowed this region to 95 Kbp, within which only one gene (OsHAK1) exhibited a differential (lower) transcript abundance in cv. Nipponbare and the two CSSLs compared to in cv. 9311. The gene was up-regulated by exposure to salinity stress both in the root and the shoot, while a knockout mutant proved to be more salinity sensitive than its wild type with respect to its growth at both the ...
Soil salinity is the dominant process in the degradation of arid and semi-arid soils, which in turn reduces crop yields, increases erosion, and exacerbates desertification. In recent years, soil salinity has affected much of the land in the Atabieh area located in the west of Khuzestan province...
So Ive been reading up... and Im going to ask lots and lots of questions to the point you are annoyed with me. So in a couple books Ive seen mention a short freshwater dip or using a lower salinity in your QT tank with marine fish. Apparently parasitic organisms do not handle low salinity well whereas the fish are more adaptable. Now granted my books are not exactly the most current, but Ive not seen too much talk on this here, so is this actually fairly common? I saw one post that
Elastic turbulence, which is sensitive to geometry and polymer rheology, has shown great potential for improving the performance of mixing, heat transfer, and even oil recovery. Recent studies showed the importance of the rheological properties of polymer solutions on the onset of elastic turbulence. However, variations of rheological properties based on polymer sensitivities such as salinity and its corresponding effects on the elastic turbulence have not been revealed. This work investigated systematically the effects of salinity on the onset of elastic turbulence in both swirling flow and curvilinear microchannels. The variations of statistical properties, such as probability distribution functions (PDFs) and power spectral density of injected power (PSD), were analyzed for characterization. The onset conditions of elastic turbulence are postponed by high salinity, which is consistent with the mixing performance in a curvilinear microchannel. A salinity independent power-law exponent at a ...
Calcium is one of the essential nutrients for growth and development of plants. It is an important component of various structures in cell wall and membranes. Besides some fundamental roles under normal condition, calcium functions as a major secondary-messenger molecule in plants under different developmental cues and various stress conditions including salinity stress. Also changes in cytosolic pH, pHcyt, either individually, or in coordination with changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]cyt, evoke a wide range of cellular functions in plants including signal transduction in plant-defense responses against stresses. It is believed that salinity stress, like other stresses, is perceived at cell membrane, either extra cellular or intracellular, which then triggers an intracellular-signaling cascade including the generation of secondary messenger molecules like Ca2+ and protons. The variety and complexity of Ca2+ and pH signaling result from the nature of the stresses as well as the ...
The effects of polarization, sea water salinity, and temperature on top of atmosphere radiances and water leaving radiances (WLRs) are discussed using radiative transfer simulations for MEdium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) channels from 412 to 900 nm. A coupled system of an aerosol-free atmosphere and an ocean bulk containing chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) (case 1 waters) was simulated. A simple, but realistic, bio-optical model was set up to relate chlorophyll concentration and wavelength to scattering matrices and absorption coefficients for chlorophyll and colored CDOM. The model of the optical properties of the sea water accounts for the salinity, temperature, and wavelength dependence of the relative refractive index, as well as the absorption and the bulk scattering coefficient. The results show that the relative difference of WLRs at zenith for a salinity of 5 practical salinity units (PSUs) and 35 PSU can reach values of 16% in the 412 nm channel, ...
Saveer offers Salinity/Salt Tolerance Screening Facility. Features are Salinity levels in soils can range from very slight to very severe within a few meters.
The experiment was conducted in pot culture from November 1998 to March 1999 at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Eighteen B. campestris hybrids and their 6 parents were tested for saline tolerance. The genotypes were grown in earthen pots. Mixture of soil and cowdung in 3:1 ratio was the growth media. Sodium chloride was used as the sources of salt. Two salinity levels viz., 1.43 and 12.00 dS m1 EC were maintained. There were three replications in each treatment. The genotypes were grown up to maturity and the characters germination percentage, days to germination, plant height at 25, 35 and 45 days, days to flowering, plant height at harvest, days to maturity and seed yield/ plant were studied. The analysis of variance showed that variation due to salinity levels, genotypes and interaction between salinity levels and genotypes were significant for the experiment. Comparing the mean values of 12 dS m1EC with that of the control i.e., ...
Rice is mainly produced in deltas, where paddy fields decrease the usual soil salinity in these areas.. In Ebro Delta, the Apple Snail pest is destroying the rice seedlings, damaging the rice production. Some of the methods used to control that invasive species are to flood the paddy fields with sea water and dry seeding. However, those methods increase the field salinity.. IRTA researcher Mar Català explains in this video how the Neurice project might help to solve that problem.. ...
The Hanna Instruments Marine Salinity and Temperature Tester (HI98319) was designed to simplify testing your salt mix`s salinity and temperature in seconds, with reading results in parts per thousand (ppt), Practical Salinity Units (PSU), or specific gravity (S.G.).. This waterproof tester uses a graphite amperometric conductivity probe, which is resistant to oxidation, improving the measurement repetition to determine the salt content in the water. The use of a graphite probe also reduces the polarization effect common with testers that use two stainless steel pins.. Calibration is performed by pressing the dedicated calibration button. Once in calibration mode, the probe is placed in 35.00 ppt calibration standard. When the standard value is recognized and stability reached, the meter will automatically accept and store the value.. The Hanna Marine Salinity Tester displays the readings along with temperature on an easy to read large LCD screen.. Better Features for Better Testing. ...
Salinity and priming induced changes in electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were analyzed using SDSPAGE. Wheat (Auqab-2000) seeds were grown under saline (150 mM NaCl) and non-saline (H2O) conditions after five priming treatments i.e. hydropriming, freezing (-20°C), 100 mM CaCl2.2H2O, 0.28 mM ascorbate (AsA) and 0.36 mM salicylic acid (SA). Salinity caused the induction of a new protein with molecular weight of 38 kDa which was not observed in the control. This protein (38 kDa) was not repressed by priming treatments. Salinity also induced a 29 kDa protein which was completely repressed by priming treatments. Two peptides (27 and 25 kDa) disappeared under salinity. However, these peptides did not disappear on AsA, SA and CaCl2.2H2O priming. Most prominent priming induced protein (PIP) was a 36.7 kDa peptide which was expressed by all priming treatments under non-saline condition. The intensity of this peptide was higher in case of freezing and hydropriming. Priming with AsA, CaCl2.2H2O ...
This salinity meter is an ion-selective meter which uses a sodium electrode to read directly the salt (NaCl) content of a solution. There are 4 measurement ranges spanning a wide spectrum from 0.150 g/L all the way to 300 g/L! A separate temperature probe provides temperature readings in Centigrade from 0 to 80ºC in 0.1ºC steps. Both NaCl and ºC measurements are shown simultaneously on a large LCD display. The meter is completely water and dust-proof for the best protection in industrial environments and humid conditions. Measures salinity content and temperature Rugged and waterproof for harsh processing environments 4 ranges of measurement for salinity All operations are microprocessor-controlled and calibration is easy and automatic. Once the CAL key is pressed, graphic prompts appear on the display to guide the user through the calibration process which is automatic at 2 points; the first calibration point is at 3.0 g/L, while the second can be either at 0.30 (low range) or at 30.0 g/L (high
Instrument performance verification is necessary so that effective existing technologies can be recognized, and so that promising new technologies can become available to support coastal science, resource management, and ocean observing systems. The Alliance for Coastal Technologies (ACT) has therefore completed an evaluation of commercially available in situ salinity sensors. While the sensors evaluated have many potential applications, the focus of this Performance Verification was on nearshore moored and profiled deployments and at a performance resolution of between 0.1 - 0.01 salinity units. In this Verification Statement, we present the performance results of the CS547A salinity probe evaluated in the laboratory and under diverse environmental conditions in moored field tests. In addition the OBS-3A salinity probe was tested in a vertical profiling application. A total of one laboratory site and five different field sites were used for testing, including tropical coral r ...
Osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR), which integrates forward osmosis (FO) with biological treatment, has been developed to advance wastewater treatment and reuse. OMBR is superior to conventional MBR, particularly in terms of higher effluent quality, lower membrane fouling propensity, and higher membrane fouling reversibility. Nevertheless, advancement and future deployment of OMBR are hindered by salinity build-up in the bioreactor (e.g., up to 50 mS/cm indicated by the mixed liquor conductivity), due to high salt rejection of the FO membrane and reverse diffusion of the draw solution. This review comprehensively elucidates the relative significance of these two mechanisms towards salinity build-up and its associated effects in OMBR operation. Recently proposed strategies to mitigate salinity build-up in OMBR are evaluated and compared to highlight their potential in practical applications. In addition, the complementarity of system optimization and modification to effectively manage salinity build-up
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Devaleraea ramentacea represents one of the few red macroalgal species endemic to the Arctic. Previous unifactorial experiments revealed a generally high tolerance of D. ramentacea to variation in abiotic conditions. Although in the field the effects of photosynthetically active (PAR) and UV-radiation, temperature and salinity are usually interconnected, studies on interactive effects on its physiology are scarce. Mesocosm-experiments under natural solar radiation as well as laboratory set-ups under defined, artificial radiation conditions, at three different water temperatures and at different salinities were conducted at Spitsbergen in order to reveal physiological responses of D. ramentacea under multiple abiotic stresses. Photosynthetic measurements confirm the high tolerance of adult sporophytes of D. ramentacea towards single and combined stress factors. Experimentally induced changes in the content of UV-screening mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA) and the enzymatic activity of ...
Fish held in hypo or hyperosmotic environments would show additional energy requirements for osmoregulation that could hamper growth when compared to those kept at an isosmotic environment (Boeuf & Payan, 2001; Tsuzuki et al., 2007; Herrera et al., 2009; Pérez-Robles ., 2012Pérez-Robles, J., A. D. Re, I. Giffard-Mena & F. Díaz. 2012. Interactive effects of salinity on oxygen consumption, ammonium excretion, osmoregulation and Na+/K+-ATPase expression in the bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus, Jenyns 1842). Aquaculture Research, 43: 1372-1383.). Energy cost associated with osmoregulation may vary at the different ontogenetic developmental stages. In addition, response to salinity has shown to be highly variable among fish species. This variation is likely associated with the interaction between osmoregulatory mechanisms with other physiological processes (Jobling, 1994; Imsland et al., 2002Imsland, A. K., A. Foss, S. W. Bonga, E. V. Ham & S. O. Stefansson. 2002. Comparison of growth and ...
Since the application of poor-quality irrigation water is frequently the cause of the salinization of the soils given over to the cultivation of roses in Tenerife we carried out an irrigation trial with two waters of high salinity at concentrations of 15,70 meq/l of Cl-, and 13,60 meq/l of CO$H- respectively. Both types of water caused a significant reduction in the yields of the cultivar Sonia, which was greater in the treatment with chlorinated water. The quality of the flower (expressed as a percentage of extra flowers) decreased considerably in the plants treated with bicarbonated water, and was reduced by 50% in relation to the control, in the case of rose bushes treated with chlorinated water. In neither of the two cases were visible symptoms of salt toxicity noticed ...
Soil salinity affects large areas of cultivated land, causing significant reductions in crop yield globally. The Na+ toxicity of many crop plants is correlated with overaccumulation of Na+ in the shoot. We have previously suggested that the engineering of Na+ exclusion from the shoot could be achieved through an alteration of plasma membrane Na+ transport processes in the root, if these alterations were cell type specific. Here, it is shown that expression of the Na+ transporter HKT1;1 in the mature root stele of Arabidopsis thaliana decreases Na+ accumulation in the shoot by 37 to 64%. The expression of HKT1;1 specifically in the mature root stele is achieved using an enhancer trap expression system for specific and strong overexpression. The effect in the shoot is caused by the increased influx, mediated by HKT1;1, of Na+ into stelar root cells, which is demonstrated in planta and leads to a reduction of root-to-shoot transfer of Na+. Plants with reduced shoot Na+ also have increased salinity ...
Closely spaced drip tape emitters can enhance salt management for seed germination, leach salts in permanent crops, dilute soil salinity for salt-sensitive crops and manipulate the wetting pattern - all with less cost and more efficiency than widely spaced emitters. Read the full article…. ...
Buy or Rent Integrated Management of Salt Affected Soils in Agriculture: Incorporation of Soil Salinity Control Methods as an eTextbook and get instant access.
Salinity gradient technologies generate electricity from the chemical pressure differential created by differences in ionic concentration between freshwater and saltwater. Seawater has a higher osmotic pressure than freshwater due to its high concentration of salt. Two main technology types, Reverse Electrodialysis (RED) and Pressure-Retarded Osmosis (PRO), make use of semi-permeable membranes which generate an osmotic potential that can be used to generate electricity using turbines in deltas or fjords.
Read CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE G2 regulates salinity stress response and salt mediated flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Salinity measurements and definitions throughout history== [[Image:DittmarTbl.PNG ,thumb,400px,align:right, Constant composition of seawater (Dittmar, 1884)]] Since as far as Ancient Greece times, attempts have been made to try to measure the saltiness of seawater. However, methods efficiency was very incipient and their sensitivity and repeatability was very limited. During the Modern History more precise methodologies were developed: weighing after evaporation (Boyle,1693; Birch, 1965), solvent extraction (Lavoisier, 1772) and precipitation (Bergman, 1784). In 1865, Forchhammer introduced the term salinity and dedicated himself to measure individual components of seasalt rather than the total salinity. He found that the ratio of major salts in samples of seawater from various locations was constant. This constant ratio is known as Forchhammers Principle, or the Principle of Constant Proportions. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, William Dittmar, following the work of Forchhammer, ...
The Istek battery powered portable Multi 90i Multi Meter covers pH, ISE, ORP, DO, O2, Air, Conductivity, TDS, Salinity, Temperature and includes a Multi Probe (pH, ORP, DO, EC and Temperature). The Istek Laboratory Multi Meter CP-500L covers pH, ORP, ISE, EC, TDS, Salinity and Temperature. The Laboratory Multi Meter PD-600L covers pH, ORP, ISE, DO, O2, Air, Temperature. Both the VanLondon CP-500L and the VanLondon PD-600L offer Dual Channel productivity. The Laboratory Multi Meter PD-700L covers pH, ORP, ISE, DO, O2, Air, EC, TDS, Salinity, Temperature in a compact Triple Channel package.
The Latest and Greatest from Salinity Gear. Throw out those annoying buffs and apply less sunscreen when you switch to a Salinity Gear Performance Hoodie. The Best in Performance Fishing Apparel.
Read The woody plant poplar has a functionally conserved salt overly sensitive pathway in response to salinity stress, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance in quinoa is determined by differential control of xylem Na|sup|+|/sup| loading and stomatal density
This thesis investigates the influence of salinity on the mechanical behavior of smectitic rich high plasticity soils resedimented with pore fluid salinities ranging from 0 to 256 g/L. An extensive laboratory testing program involving Constant Rate of Strain (CRS) and K₀ consolidated undrained shear in compression triaxial testing (CK₀UC) was undertaken. Specimens tested in the modified CRS device reached axial effective stresses between 30 and 40 MPa. Triaxial testing was performed over a very wide range of effective stresses from 0.125 to 10 MPa, with one test consolidated to 63 MPa. Behavior is examined at pore fluid salinities of 4, 64, and 256 g/L. The shear behavior of all specimens was obtained in the normally consolidated region. Six different soils from the Gulf of Mexico region, ranging in liquid limit from 62 % to 90 %, were tested to determine the impact of varying salinity on one dimensional consolidation and permeability properties. The majority of testing was carried out on ...
Article: Martinez-Palacios CA, Salgado-Garcia RL, Racotta IS & Ross L (2008) Effects of salinity on eggs, larvae, and juveniles of blacknose silversides from Lake Chapala, Mexico. |i|North American Journal of Aquaculture|/i|, 70 (1), pp. 12-19.
Salt OUT The solution to your salinity issues! - Agriculture - Crop Cultivation by Terawet Green Technologies, Inc. (TGT). Salt Out™ reduces or eliminates salinity stress in plant growth by sequestering sodium and chloride ions from penetrating plant...
Salinity is a global issue and main problem in most area of world. There are three basic types of salty soils,. 1. Saline soils: the soils which have electrical conductivity (EC) ,4 dS m-1; exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) ,15%; pH below 8.5 and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of 0-12.. 2. Saline-sodic soils: these have EC ,4 dS m-1, pH below 8.5, ESP ,15%, SAR ,12. and. 3. Sodic soils: have EC less than 4 dS m-1, pH above 8.5, ESP is ,15% and SAR above 12. These types of soils may cause abiotic stress in plants known as saline stress. There are various abiotic stress factors that affect growth and productivity of plants in earth planet. On regular basis, plants are in continuous exposure to pressure conditions such as water shortage, saltiness, higher temperature, heavy rainfall and heavy metal toxic levels. Salt stress characterized by higher accumulation of salts is a serious threat and a main restraint to growth and productivity of crop plants. Salinity incurs drastic changes in plants ...
Completely mixed water column with full salinity A water column which is completely and actively mixed, not influenced by freshwater, so that the salinity is the same as that in adjacent seawater. This habitat type is usually found in relatively shallow, coastal situations, without river inflow or ice melt.
Challenge Water extracted from a neighbouring coal mine which has traditionally provided for much of the power stations process needs had become increasingly saline causing operational problems.. Solution This includes partial treatment of the source water in a clarifier which has been provided by a third party and is located upstream from the Osmoflo plant. Tenders for both the filtration and reverse osmosis stages were issued separately, however Osmoflo won both on the strength of its overall capability including its ability to provide a fit for purpose integrated design. The desaliantion process reduces the salinity of the source water from around 2,000 mg/l total dissolved solids (TDS) to between 45-65 mg/l TDS. Reject water from the desaliantion process is disposed of utilising existing Verve Energy facilities at Collie Power Station.. Result The outputs of both the clarifier and desalination plant are blended to provide the right quality and quantity of water for Verves operational ...
Conductivity / TDS / Resistivity / Salinity Series Vagadziri, Fekitori, Vatengesi Kubva kuChina, Tinogamuchirwa kutishanyira chero nguva yehukama hwebhizinesi hwakagadzwa.
The authors present ideas and strategies for dealing with these problems. It describes ways in which Aboriginal people can be involved and how their values can be included in strategies to deal with salinity. The books core message is that the management of natural and cultural heritage needs to be linked and that there needs to be a better understanding of the relationship between peoples sense of place and the condition of the environment around them. It is intended to be a resource for environmental planners and land managers and it is anticipated that it will be instrumental in bringing this aspect of salinity to the attention of many people for the first time.. ...
With most saltwater fish, there looks to be this good flexibility on having your salinity be between 1020-1025. I have my tanks at 1023-1024. Is there an ideal salinity that fish like?
With the view of preparing the strategy for the calibration/validation of future L-band satellite radiometers, we examine the salinity variability recorded
History of the salinity determination Practical Salinity Scale 1978. Salinity calculator Lewis, E. L. 1982. The practical ... soil salinity control Sodium adsorption ratio Measuring salinity Salinometer Salinity by biologic context In organisms ... The salinity of euhaline seas is 30 to 35 ‰. Brackish seas or waters have salinity in the range of 0.5 to 29 ‰ and metahaline ... The degree of salinity in oceans is a driver of the world's ocean circulation, where density changes due to both salinity ...
Primary salinity (natural salinity) and secondary salinity (induced salinity). (, 2013) Primary salinity ... Dryland salinity - causes and impacts [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013]. Dryland Salinity [Accessed: 15 Oct 2013]. Types of salinity [ ... dryland salinity refers to salinity in unirrigated landscapes. Salinity processes extend from local to regional scales and are ... Dryland salinity is a natural process for soil, just like other processes such as wind erosion. Salinity degrades land by an ...
... can be reduced by leaching soluble salts out of soil with excess irrigation water. Soil salinity control involves ... Adaptation to high salinity Salinity in Australia Salt tolerance of crops Sodium in biology - Use of Sodium by organisms Water ... Salinity in drylands can occur when the water table is between two and three metres from the surface of the soil. The salts ... Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization. Salts occur ...
In oceanography, temperature-salinity diagrams, sometimes called T-S diagrams, are used to identify water masses. In a T-S ... Temperature and salinity combine to determine the potential density of seawater; contours of constant potential density are ... is plotted versus salinity (on the horizontal axis). As long as it remains isolated from the surface, where heat or fresh water ... a water parcel's potential temperature and salinity are conserved. Deep water masses thus retain their T-S characteristics for ...
... including the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1980s and the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1990s. The Great Salinity Anomalies ... the value calculated as salinity is actually the Practical Salinity, which is a proxy for the true salinity. The new seawater ... the difference in salinity compared to a reference salinity is used in order to identify the anomaly, and salinity is measured ... The Great Salinity Anomalies of the 1970s and 1980s were well-documented decadal-scale events, where minima in salinity (and ...
Soil salinity and dryland salinity are two problems degrading the environment of Australia. Salinity is a concern in most ... Salinity is classified as a dissolved salt content of a substance like soil or water. Salinity can prevent crops and other ... Estimating the extent of salinity. Western Australian Department of Agriculture and Food.[2] "Salinity - Overview - South ... information/Salinity+and+water+quality State Natural Resource Management Office 2010 National Action Plan for Salinity andWater ...
The Messinian salinity crisis (MSC), also referred to as the Messinian event, and in its latest stage as the Lago Mare event, ... Messinian salinity crisis regulated by competing tectonics and erosion at the Gibraltar Arc. Nature, 2011-12-15 pdf here Link ... The high level of salinity cannot be tolerated by many known organisms, a factor in reducing the biodiversity of much of the ... About 5.96 million years ago this gap closed, initiating what is known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis, which lasted for more ...
After one or two years, the soil salinity is decreased so much, that the salinity of the drainage water has come down to a ... Assuming that one wishes to avoid the soil salinity to increase and maintain the soil salinity Cu at a desired level Cd we have ... Soil salinity control relates to controlling the problem of soil salinity and reclaiming salinized agricultural land. The aim ... On line: [9] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations on soil salinity US Salinity Laboratory at Riverside, ...
... refers to measurements of surface salinity made by remote sensing satellites. The radiative ... The depth of the water column that a satellite surface salinity measurement is sensitive to depends on the frequency (or ... The emissivity of sea water has been modeled as a function of its temperature, salinity, and radiant energy frequency. Studies ... Figure 1 shows an example of the brightness temperature curves associated with sea surface salinity, as a function of sea ...
Alfalfa, barley, sugar beets, and cotton are tolerant crops that can often be grown where salinity is a problem. The Salinity ... The U.S. Salinity Laboratory is a National Laboratory for research on salt-affected soil-plant-water systems. It resorts under ... On line: [1] USDA-ARS, History of the Salinity Lab. On line L. A. Richards, Editor, 1954. Diagnosis and Improvement of Saline ... U.S. Salinity Laboratory, United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, USSL Research Databases. On ...
... (1998). Salinity Management in Agriculture. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute. ... Central Soil Salinity Research Institute. OCLC 8753432. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (1998). Twenty five years of ... Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (1998). 50 Years of Natural Resource Management Research. Central Soil Salinity ... Central Soil Salinity Research Institute. Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (1997). Vision-2020, CSSRI perspective plan ...
Ocean salinity is crucial to the understanding of the role of the ocean in climate through the global water cycle. Salinity in ... Additionally, ocean salinity is one of the variables that regulate CO2 uptake and release and therefore has an effect on the ... Project Aquarius will attempt to monitor sea surface salinity with an accuracy of 0.1 psu (10- to 30-day average and a spatial ... Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) is a satellite which forms part of ESA's Living Planet Programme. It is intended to ...
High salinity increases the activity of the enzyme PLD1, which causes the accumulation of phosphatidic acid. PA activates MPK6 ... Boursiac, Y.; Chen, S.; Luu, D. T.; Sorieul, M.; Van Den Dries, N.; Maurel, C. (2005). "Early Effects of Salinity on Water ... On the other side, some plants show adaptations to changes in soil salinity, in that the plant's exposure to salt initiates ... Looking at plants responses to salinity might help us distinguish the plants that show the best responses, that is plants that ...
Making global measurements of ocean temperature and salinity (T-S) quickly and easily accessible to users is the primary goal ... The Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) is a cooperative international project that seeks to develop and ... Continuously Managed Database (CMD): Maintains the up-to-date global temperature-salinity data, replaces near real-time records ... Maintains the global database of temperature and salinity data and provides online access to the data. Adds real-time data ...
The SCA has been amended five times: Public Law 98-569, "An Act to Amend the Salinity Control Act, enacted 30 October 1984; ... The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act, Public Law 93-320, and the laws authorizing three other conservation cost- ... Until it was replaced, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program provided cost-sharing assistance to producers to ... Public Law 98-569 amendments included: (1) authorization of construction of two new salinity control units, Stage 1 of the ...
The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program was authorized in the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act and was ... The Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation administers its own Colorado River Salinity control Program. This ... it was used to implement salinity control measures, primarily to manage irrigation water using financial and technical ...
This is a list of bodies of water by salinity that is limited to natural bodies of water that have a stable salinity above 0.05 ... Water salinity often varies by location and season, particularly with hypersaline lakes in arid areas, so the salinity figures ... "Ocean salinity". Science Learning Hub. Retrieved 2 July 2017. A. Anati, David (March 1999). "The salinity of hypersaline brines ... Some bays have considerably lower salinity. Deeper water areas of lake Issyk Kul have higher salinity Johanna Laybourn-Parry; ...
Salinity. A salinity sensor (specifically, a highly accurate pair of conductivity and temperature sensors) is used to measure ... Additional sensors can be added such as sea surface temperature, barometric pressure, salinity, wave height, wind speed and ... They can also measure other parameters like sea surface temperature, salinity, barometric pressure, and wave height. Modern ... and ocean salinity, and a transmitter that relays the position of the drifting buoy and data collected by the instruments on ...
... salinity = , shore = , elevation = , temperature_high = , temperature_low = , frozen = , islands = 12 , islands_category = , ...
With Bigelow, Sears published papers on the salinity and the zooplankton of the area from Cape Cod to Chesapeake Bay, and ... Salinity. Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Bigelow, Henry B.; Sears, Mary (1939 ...
... a salinity of 35 ‰. The Mediterranean Sea is slightly higher at 38 ‰, while the salinity of the northern Red Sea can reach 41 ... the effects of diversion of external salinity sources and the probable chemical composition of the internal salinity sources". ... Salinity is usually measured in parts per thousand (‰ or per mil), and the open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) solids per ... Salinity varies widely, being lower near the surface and the mouths of large rivers and higher in the depths of the ocean; ...
The scheme was abandoned in 1930 by Great Britain due to natural soil salinity and a cause of further dryland salinity. The ... "Soil salinity". The Western Mail. Vol. XLVI, no. 2, 345. Perth, Western Australia. 22 January 1931. p. 41. Retrieved 3 December ... "A History of Salinity in Western Australia Important (and some unimportant) Dates". Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 1 ...
"Figure 1. Map of the Chesapeake Bay and salinity zones. Salinity zones..." ResearchGate. "The Big Freeze". Time. 1977-01-31. ... Salinity there ranges from 1.07% to 1.8%. The polyhaline zone is the saltiest zone, and some of the water can be as salty as ... The salinity ranges from 1.87% to 3.6%. (3.6% is as salty as the ocean.) The climate of the area surrounding the Bay is ... While the bay's salinity is ideal for oysters and the oyster fishery was at one time the bay's most commercially viable, the ...
Salinity increases with depth in red regions and decreases in blue regions. Annual mean sea surface salinity, measured in 2009 ... However these processes which increase salinity are continually counterbalanced by processes that decrease salinity, such as ... Ocean salinity is derived mainly from the weathering of rocks and the transport of dissolved salts from the land, with lesser ... Salinity varies with temperature, evaporation, and precipitation. It is generally low at the equator and poles, and high at mid ...
1961) "Salinity and size in marine fishes." Copeia 1961(2):234- 235. (1961) "Biological investigations of the St. Lucie Estuary ... 1957) "Salinity." Chapter 7. In: "Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleoecology." Vol. 1 Ecology. Memoir 67, Geological Society ... 1967) "A review of salinity problems of organisms in United States coastal areas subject to the effects of engineering works." ... Gunter and G.E. Hall). (1963) "Some relations of salinity to population distributions of motile estuarine organisms, with ...
Salinity Tolerance". Herpetological Review. 46 (2): 237-238. Lever 2001, p. 3 Barker, Grigg & Tyler 1995, p. 380 Zug & Zug 1979 ... and recent field observations found living tadpoles and toadlets at salinities of 27.5‰ on Coiba Island, Panama. The cane toad ...
The salt content must be 2-3% NaCl, which is slightly lower than ocean salinity - seawater is generally 3.5% NaCl, or 35 parts ... "Sensing salinity". European Space Agency. "Endozoicomonas gorgoniicola - NCBI". 12 March 2019. Ding, Jiun ...
Modern day salinities are all within 0.5 psu of the global average salinity of 34.7 psu, whereas salinities during the last ... There may exist proxies for salinity, but to date the main way that salinity has been measured has been by directly measuring ... From Bjerrum plots, it is found that a decrease in the salinity of an aqueous fluid will act to increase the value of the ... Adkins' study found that global salinity increased with a global sea level drop of 120 m. Analyzing 18O data they also found ...
Salinity control. In: H.P. Ritzema (ed.), Drainage Principles and Applications. Publication 16, International Institute for ... and changes of salinity), or pathogenic organisms. Contaminants may include organic and inorganic substances. Heat can also be ...
Sanders, Dale (2020). "The salinity challenge". New Phytologist. 225 (3): 1047-1048. doi:10.1111/nph.16357. ISSN 1469-8137. PMC ...
The Salinity of Rivers. Rivers normally wash into the ocean the salts dissolved out of rock. When the flow is held up by ...
Spatial and temporal changes in groundwater salinity in South Florida. Authors:. Blanco, R.I.;Naja, G.M.;Rivero, R.;Price, R.M. ...
While salt naturally occurs in soil, high levels of salinity make it difficult for plants to grow and it can damage plants, ... Soil salinity refers to the amount of salt trapped in the soil. ... ... ... Perform this test in other areas to find the salinity of a larger area. If youre trying to get a sense for the salinity levels ...
Salinity at C-MAN station MISM1 (43.784N 68.855W) - Matinicus Rock, ME. ...
a) Farms managing for salinity and/or with land showing signs of salinity.. 5 AREA AFFECTED BY SALINITY, COMPARISON OF SURVEY ... New ABS survey shows farmers are combating salinity (Media Release). INTRODUCTION. The publication Salinity on Australian Farms ... The most common salinity management practices employed were: *Crops, pastures and fodder plants for salinity management, 3.2 ... Farms with land showing signs of salinity Farms with land showing signs of salinity ...
Salinity FAQ. (Read-only) 10 Topics. 13 Posts. Last post. by vtsontos Thu Mar 03, 2016 3:46 pm ... Availability and access to regional Aquarius Salinity data by vtsontos » Tue Oct 14, 2014 5:54 pm 1 Replies. 8800 Views. Last ...
The salinity of the ocean also varies from place to place, because evaporation varies based on the sea surface temperature and ... wind, rivers and rain storms inject fresh water into the ocean, and melting or freezing sea ice affects the salinity of polar ... GCMD >> Earth Science >> Oceans >> Salinity/Density >> Salinity GCMD >> Earth Science >> Oceans >> Salinity/Density >> Salt ... SVS >> Salinity SVS >> Salt GCMD keywords can be found on the Internet with the following citation: Olsen, L.M., G. Major, K. ...
FOAM 1/4° Antarctic model output plots of salinity output for 01 2008 are presented. ... Salinity (psu-35)/1000 at 00:00Z on 01 2008 FOAM salinity output at 5 m for 01 2008 © ...
... MEMBER SECTION. If you are a member, please login using the orange button at the top of the page to view the full ...
Natural or primary salinity. Primary salinity results from the accumulation of salts over long periods of time, through natural ... Measuring soil salinity. Soil salinity is measured by its electrical conductivity. The SI unit of electrical conductivity (EC) ... Figure 3. Categories for classifying crop tolerance to salinity according to the USDA Salinity Lab. Note that the ECe is more ... This transient salinity fluctuates in depth, due mainly to seasonal rainfall patterns. Transient salinity is extensive in many ...
As the salinity balance of Lake Van is almost at steady-state, these salinity changes indicate major lake-level changes in the ... We observed strong changes in the vertical salinity profiles of the pore water of the uppermost 100 m of the sediments in Lake ... Here we show that the salinity measured in the sediment pore water of Lake Van (Turkey) allows straightforward reconstruction ... However, until now, porewater salinity profiles did not allow quantitative estimates of past lake-level changes because, in ...
All the latest science news about ocean salinity from ... News tagged with ocean salinity. * Date 6 hours 12 hours 1 day ...
Explore properties of liquids and how temperature and salinity effect surface tension of liquids in this fun- filled science ... Salinity & Water Density Determine how salinity affects the circulation of warm and cold water. Note whether the warm water ... How Does Salinity and Temperature Affect the Density of Water? The objective of this science fair project is to analyze the ...
We also found evidence for parasitism-salinity interactions. Our results suggest that ongoing increases in salinity in ... In adult corixids (S. lateralis and Corixa affinis) fitness was reduced at high salinities and in individuals infected by H. ... Here we studied the relationships between infection by ectoparasitic water mites and salinity variation, on survival and ... and that their interactions with ectoparasites may modify salinity effects. ...
Metrology for ocean salinity and acidity Short Name: Ocean, Project Number: ENV05 Crashing ocean wave against blue sky in ... Improved NMI speed of sound in water calibration facilities leading to an improved understanding of the effect of salinity and ... A standardised method for determining ocean salinity with reduced uncertainties and traceability to the SI for typical ocean ... It established a link between oceanographers practical salinity measurements and the SI, enabling the International ...
Measuring Salinity (6)*Question Set: Using a Hydrometer to Determine Density and Salinity (1) ... Density, Temperature, and Salinity (8)*Weird Science: Macroscopic Changes in Liquid Water Volume (1) ...
Enter key is pressed - Moves one cell down in "multiplecellsadvanced" selection mode. If the cell is in edit mode, saves the new value and moves one cell down. In the other selection modes, shows the selected cells editor. If the cell is in edit mode, hides the cells editor and saves the new value. The editors value is equal to the cells value ...
just checked my salinity and its way high like 1.032 high. I have the water here but how slowly do I qadd the water to drop it? ... I am guessing that a gallon will change your salinity by about .001. In my 10g tank an 8oz glass changed my salinity by .001. ... just checked my salinity and its way high like 1.032 high. I have the water here but how slowly do I qadd the water to drop it ... Ideally you want to bring your salinity down to about 1.025-1.026. And +1, dont top off with saltwater - just RO/DI. ...
We have previously reported that overexpression of the salinity-responsive DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 (DDF1) gene, encoding ... High-salinity stress affects plant growth and development. ... High-salinity stress affects plant growth and development. We ... Furthermore, the ga2ox7-2 mutant was less growth retarded than wild-type Col under high-salinity stress. These results ... The DDF1 transcriptional activator upregulates expression of a gibberellin-deactivating gene, GA2ox7, under high-salinity ...
The publication also includes an explanation of groundwater salinity and maps of water quality by salinity level throughout ... "Groundwater Salinity in Wyoming: Open File Report 2020-6," is available as a free download from the WSGS website. The report ... Although salinity provides a general measure of water quality, it does not specify the type or amounts of particular chemical ... Salinity, measured in milligrams per liter, is one constituent, among others, used by the Wyoming Department of Environmental ...
Messinian Salinity Crisis and Evidence of Late Miocene Eustatic Changes in World Ocean. Publication Status is Submitted Or ...
Salinity in surface waters is on the rise throughout much of the world. Many factors contribute to this change, including ... Salinity in surface waters is on the rise throughout much of the world. Many factors contribute to this change, including ... Salt of the Earth: Quantifying the Impact of Water Salinity on Global Agricultural Productivity. World Bank Policy Research ... The analysis trains a machine-learning model to predict salinity globally, to simulate average global food losses over 2000-13 ...
Drought, salinity has badly hit shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta -- Photo: SGGP ... High salinity has also killed vast oyster farming areas in the delta. ... the department has advised farmers to stop breeding at this time and wait until there will be rain to ease the salinity. ... said that salinity has reached 30‰ in many places, exceeding the permissible level for shrimp farming. ...
Abstract: M11.00003 : Salinity Effects on Superhydrophobic Coatings*. 8:26 AM-8:39 AM ... The present study sheds some light on how properties of a superhydrophobic coating could be influenced by water salinity. ...
Hach Pocket Pro and Pro+ are engineered to deliver accurate results. Calibration functions for ongoing testing, diagnostics with select models and a stabilized sample lock ensure you get the right reading.Portable conductivity meters run routine measurements in applications such as water analysis, chromatography, or biological research. Ideal to check water purity the conductivity meter measures total dissolved solids and are equipped with large LCD displays for accurate conductivity reading. Convenient pen or probe styles have multiple calibration settings to accurately check the water purity from stills, demineralizers, deionizers, or reverse osmosis equipment. The heavy-resistant housing maintains exceptional performance even in severe environments. Simple operating technology allows exportation of gathered information even after tool is powered off. The portable conductivity meters have various accuracy, range, operating temperatures, and resolution.
... Md Mizanur Rahman Sarker (UGent) , Marc Van ... Salinity is a main problem in the shallow aquifer systems, where Cl concentrations rise to nearly 8000 mg/l and the groundwater ... Salinity is a main problem in the shallow aquifer systems, where Cl concentrations rise to nearly 8000 mg/l and the groundwater ... Investigation of the Cl/Br ratios has shown that the source of the salinity in the deep aquifer is mixing with old connate ...
... salinities. Larval growth is rapid at a temperature of 15 °C in salinities from 25 to 35‰, at 20 °C in salinities from 20 to 35 ... The effects of salinity and temperature are significantly related only as the limits of tolerance of either factor are ... Survival of larvae at salinities from 15 to 40‰ is uniformly good (70% or better) at temperatures from 5° to 20°C, but is ... were studied and it is found that survival of larvae at salinities from 15 to 40‰ is uniformly good at temperatures from 5° to ...
Although plants can tolerate and even require certain levels of salinity for growth, excess salinity within the root zone ... For rice, a salinity level of 7.2 dS/m will result in a 50 percent yield loss, while it will have no effect at all on barley. ... embodied in form of irrigation-induced salinity. Irrigation-induced salinity has began to cause drastic reductions in ... The battle against salinity will have to be launched in three fronts. Governments have to commit to a policy of sound water ...
  • The salinity of the ocean also varies from place to place, because evaporation varies based on the sea surface temperature and wind, rivers and rain storms inject fresh water into the ocean, and melting or freezing sea ice affects the salinity of polar waters. (
  • How do temperature and salinity affect surface tension? (
  • A standardised method for determining ocean salinity with reduced uncertainties and traceability to the SI for typical ocean pressure and temperature conditions. (
  • Improved NMI speed of sound in water calibration facilities leading to an improved understanding of the effect of salinity and temperature on this fundamental seawater parameter and its inclusion in the Thermodynamic Equation of State for Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) - a key tool in oceanography. (
  • article{Brenko1969TheCE, title={The combined effects of salinity and temperature on larvae of the mussel Mytilus edulis}, author={M. Hrs. (
  • The effects of salinity and temperature are significantly related only as the limits of tolerance of either factor are approached. (
  • Combined effects of temperature, salinity and nutrition on larval survival and growth of the European oyster Ostrea edulis L. were studied over a period of seven days in the laboratory. (
  • The combined effects of temperature and salinity on embryos and larvae of the black-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera (L. (
  • The combined effects of temperature and salinity on embryonic development and growth and survival of black-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada margaritifera (L.) larvae were examined to find the optimal conditions for maximum survival and growth. (
  • It is suggested that northern bay scallop embryos and larvae be reared at their respective optimal temperature-salinity levels so as to increase efficiency of aquaculture operations. (
  • A response-surface approach to the combined effects of temperature and salinity on the larval development of Adula californiensis (Pelecypoda: Mytilidae). (
  • Temperature and salinity ranges for maximum survival were narrower than the ranges which occur within the estuary where the adult populations exist, and no statistically significant temperature-salinity interaction was found for either survival or growth. (
  • Does salinity increase with temperature? (
  • Psychrobacter 273-4 was isolated from a 20 000-40 000-year-old Siberian permafrost core, which is characterized by low temperature, low water activity, and high salinity. (
  • An extremely small, low mass Lagrangian buoy platform is under development to provide continuous and extended-duration monitoring of near-surface salinity (12 cm depth), near-surface temperature (3 cm depth) and directional sea state parameters (i.e., significant wave height, peak spectral period and mean wave direction). (
  • How are these changes in the ocean's surface temperature and saltiness-or salinity-affecting the ocean currents? (
  • NASA spacecraft are collecting information about ocean temperature and salinity all the time. (
  • Depends upon body's core temperature and salinity. (
  • Puget Sound non-profit uses HOBO loggers to measure water temperature and salinity at potential Olympia oyster bed restoration sites. (
  • The glider successfully navigated 242.8 nautical miles, completed 3612 dives, and sampled salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, sunlight, and fluorescence at a frequency of approximately 3 dives per hour. (
  • It has been continuously providing brightness temperature data in L-Band since January 2010, which are used to retrieve Soil Moisture (SM) and Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) data over land and ocean, respectively. (
  • The kinetics and metabolism of cadmium are reviewed in the third section, which concentrates on the many environmental variables, such as temperature, salinity, pH, and the chemical composition of water and soil, that influence cadmium uptake in different aquatic and terrestrial systems and determine the toxic impact on organisms and microorganisms. (
  • Although the present-day Mediterranean-Atlantic water exchange has been extensively studied, little is known about the dynamics of the Betic and Rifian corridors that existed before the Messinian Salinity Crisis. (
  • The Messinian deposits of the Adana Basin record all the main steps of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) that affected the Mediterranean area at the end of the Miocene. (
  • Get an electrical conductivity (EC) meter designed for testing salinity in soil. (
  • Oakton® Conductivity, TDS and Salinity in one meter. (
  • Farmers can ask for electrical conductivity (EC) tests with their soil samples as a test of salinity, but farmers do not usually take soil samples from saline areas. (
  • Electrical conductivity of a soil, measured in deciSiemens per metre (dS/m), is an indicator of salinity levels. (
  • Groundwater Salinity in Wyoming: Open File Report 2020-6 ," is available as a free download from the WSGS website. (
  • Russ, Jason Daniel and Zaveri, Esha Dilip and Damania, Richard and Desbureaux, Sebastien Gael and Escurra, Jorge Jose and Rodella, Aude-Sophie, Salt of the Earth: Quantifying the Impact of Water Salinity on Global Agricultural Productivity (February 10, 2020). (
  • Artemisia herba-alba's drought tolerance makes it an ideal candidate on low salinity sites with low to moderate soil moistures. (
  • Now a 20-year drought is pushing salinity levels further towards untenable levels, Wurtbaugh said. (
  • USU researchers modeled and tested a modification to the berm here to rebalance salinity in separate portions of the lake amid drought conditions. (
  • A farmer visits his rice field, which suffers from drought and salinity intrusion. (
  • From that, breed super crops which gather the most excellent characteristics: high yield (possible 25-30 tons/ha), good quality, strong tolerance to environmental stresses (drought, sub-emergence, salinity, pests and diseases). (
  • Biomass energy, Development of crops tolerant to climate change (salinity, drought, sub-emergence), Crop breeding (Molecular markers assisted breeding). (
  • First I'd recommend asking your LFS to test your salinity with a refractometer before you start to bring it down - it might not in fact be as high as your hydrometer is reading it. (
  • Second, I'd recommend buying a refractometer (they run about $50), which will be far more accurate to test your salinity! (
  • Salinity Refractometer for Seawater and Marine Fishkeeping A. (
  • Atago MASTER S10α (Alpha) 0-10% Salinity Refractometer Cat No.2471 Tahan Air , dijual dengan harga murah dan bermutu. (
  • It established a link between oceanographers' practical salinity measurements and the SI, enabling the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean defined standard seawater (a primary reference solution) to be assessed for stability over time and future-proofing salinity standards against increasing global seawater dilution as the polar ice caps melt. (
  • Investigation of the Cl/Br ratios has shown that the source of the salinity in the deep aquifer is mixing with old connate seawater and that the saline waters in the more shallow aquifers do not originate from old connate water or direct seawater intrusion, but are derived from the dissolution of evaporite salts. (
  • Other factors being constant, increasing salinity of seawater causes its density to increase. (
  • Moreover, different crops exhibit varying degrees of tolerance to salinity. (
  • These findings suggest that B. zanthoxyli HS1 stain inhibits disease development and confers tolerance to salinity stress on vegetable plants. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Salinity tolerance of Gambusia affinis--a larvivorous fish. (
  • His first step, is to measure the heritability of low-salinity tolerance and make sure he can reach his goal. (
  • Then he will identify genetic markers (e.g. genes) of low-salinity tolerance that can aid or accelerate breeding of a low-salinity line with his partners at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science's Aquaculture Genetics and Breeding Technology Center. (
  • Salinity in surface waters is on the rise throughout much of the world. (
  • Chemical dispersant formulations typically provide maximum oil dispersion in waters between 30-40 ppt (parts per thousand) salt content, which encompasses typical ocean salinity (~34 ppt). (
  • Ocean salinity can vary locally from below 20 ppt during ice and snow melt, to extremely high (over 100 ppt) during freeze up periods or within natural brine pools in deeper waters. (
  • Hypersaline waters are also found along the GoM seafloor where sediments overlie Jurassic-age Louann and Campeche salt deposits, allowing salt-tectonics to form brine pools or lakes with salinity upwards of 150 ppt ( U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 1979 ). (
  • Salinity at the surface increases by the loss of water to ice or evaporation, or decreased by the input of fresh waters, such as from the rivers. (
  • so they must be pretty hardy as the shallow waters of the Qatar-Ruwais-Das island has warm temperatures and 44+ppt salinity. (
  • Central Soil Salinity Research Institute (CSSRI) is a premier research institute dedicated to pursue interdisciplinary research on salinity/ alkalinity management and use of poor quality irrigation waters in different agro-ecological zones of the country. (
  • Recently, he has been working to develop a line of oysters that excels in low-salinity waters to support the growing aquaculture industry in Maryland. (
  • Oysters typically grow well in high-salinity waters, but they are more prone to diseases that also thrive in higher salinities. (
  • The results of this study show that naturally occurring groundwater salinity varies widely within individual geologic formations, at different depths, and throughout the state," says Karl Taboga, WSGS hydrogeologist. (
  • The publication also includes an explanation of groundwater salinity and maps of water quality by salinity level throughout Wyoming. (
  • While salt naturally occurs in soil, high levels of salinity make it difficult for plants to grow and it can damage plants, cables, bricks, and pipes that are located in the soil. (
  • Warm colors (orange to yellow) are areas of high salinity/hot tropics. (
  • just checked my salinity and its way high like 1.032 high. (
  • Everthing checked out good except the salinity and the nitrate was a little high. (
  • High-salinity stress affects plant growth and development. (
  • Furthermore, the ga2ox7-2 mutant was less growth retarded than wild-type Col under high-salinity stress. (
  • High salinity has also killed vast oyster farming areas in the delta. (
  • Survival of larvae at salinities from 15 to 40‰ is uniformly good (70% or better) at temperatures from 5° to 20°C, but is reduced drastically at 25 °C, particularly at high (40‰) and low (20‰) salinities. (
  • Further, comparing data from LSS experiments to high salinity surfactant (HSS) injection experiments at similar capillary numbers showed lower residual oil saturations for the LSS experiments. (
  • 10 μm) was twice as high at 35ppt than at the other salinities in the presence of dispersant at 25°C. Treatments without dispersant did not vary significantly as a function of salinity. (
  • These results provide a more comprehensive picture pertaining to the influence of salinity on dispersant usage at high salinities. (
  • Forage grasses like wild rye and some wheat grasses are the best choices for areas with very high salinity. (
  • Root and shoot growths are also increased in B. zanthoxyli HS1-treated cabbage, cucumber, and tomato plants, compared with those in mock-treated plants, after application of high salinity solution. (
  • Moreover, the pretreatment of B. zanthoxyli HS1 on cabbage plants inhibits the degradation of chloroplast pigments caused by high salinity stresses, whereas the inhibitory effect is not observed in cucumber plants. (
  • Materials of construction for high-salinity geothermal brines. (
  • This data visualization shows sea surface salinity (i.e., ocean salt concentration) over a ten year period (2011 to 2021). (
  • However, until now, porewater salinity profiles did not allow quantitative estimates of past lake-level changes because, in contrast to the oceans, significant salinity changes (e.g., local concentration minima and maxima) had never been observed in lacustrine sediments. (
  • A transfer of salt into the north arm has allowed the south arm (Gilbert Bay) to stay at a concentration range that allows brine shrimp and brine flies to tolerate the salinity. (
  • Irrigation-Induced Salinity - A Growing Problem for Development and the Environment (WB, 1993, 94 p. (
  • The expanded dependence on irrigation has not been without cost: salinity and waterlogging, soil erosion and sedimentation, the spread of disease-carrying organisms, and water pollution are a few of the serious problems that have gone hand-inhand with irrigation. (
  • This report describes the process by which irrigation-induced salinity develops and the extent of the problem in various countries. (
  • It explores the role that: farmers, the government and donor agencies can play in dealing with the problem of irrigation-induced salinity. (
  • Irrigation-induced salinity can arise as a result of the use of any irrigation water, irrigation of saline soils, and rising levels of saline ground water. (
  • The impact of irrigation-related salinity is not restricted to the production areas alone. (
  • Very limited research has been done to empirically quantify the economic impact of irrigation induced salinity. (
  • If this wicking action and evaporation of surface water exceeds the downward movement of water - or "infiltration" - from rainfall or irrigation for significant periods of time, the result is increased salinity. (
  • Tile drainage is one thing that can actually fix salinity," Riekman says, but notes it can take a decade or more to see major improvement unless you also have irrigation to increase water infiltration. (
  • The major problem here is the salinity of surface and ground water that we rely on for irrigation purposes. (
  • Thus, this study was conducted in order to predict the effect of drainage control factors on irrigation efficiency, irrigation sufficiency, root zone salinity, and drain discharge using SaltMod simulation. (
  • Salinity naturally occurs in Australia, but the clearing of native vegetation and use of water for irrigated agriculture, domestic and other uses has caused the salt stored beneath the ground to surface in many areas. (
  • Sea Surface Salinity (i.e., ocean salt) colorbar. (
  • When injecting LS water that holds a significantly lower salinity than the formation water salinity, it is believed that destabilization of oil layers adhering to mineral surfaces making the surface more water-wet could be a contributing mechanism to EOR. (
  • Wet years bring the water table closer to the roots, and salinity wicks up to the soil surface. (
  • New study supported by COM, CVP, and GOMO partnership quantifies and characterizes the sampling error for satellite observations of sea surface salinity to be used for Earth system applications. (
  • For example, the NASA mission SMAP -short for Soil Moisture Active Passive-has an instrument that measures the salinity on the surface of the sea. (
  • Salinity is a main problem in the shallow aquifer systems, where Cl concentrations rise to nearly 8000 mg/l and the groundwater is mostly brackish NaCl water. (
  • Once salinity concentrations passed the threshold, survival decreased dramatically from 80% at 30 g salt per kg soil to 60% at 70 g salt per kg soil. (
  • Paper III: Johannessen, A., M. and Spildo, K. (2014) Can Lowering the Injection Brine Salinity Further Increase Oil Recovery by Surfactant Injection under Otherwise Similar Conditions? (
  • Potential oil exploration and production activities located in close proximity to brackish (low salinity) and hypersaline water bodies, such as Arctic brine channels or brine pools in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), necessitate characterization of dispersion effectiveness (DE) of chemical dispersants with oil over a wide range of salinities. (
  • These results demonstrate that, under salinity stress, Arabidopsis plants actively reduce endogenous GA levels via the induction of GA 2-oxidase, with the result that growth is repressed for stress adaptation. (
  • The data is obtained in thixotropic loop tests and mainly contains shear stress, shear rate in different salinities. (
  • Inner coastal wetland ecosystems are generally eutrophic and are often exposed to both salinity stress and Escherichia coli pollution . (
  • In closed-basin lakes, sediment porewater salinity can potentially be used as a conservative tracer to reconstruct past fluctuations in lake level. (
  • According to the agreed technical program, ICBA will provide technology-based solutions to tackle soil erosion, soil and water salinity, water scarcity, desertification, and climate change in Palestine. (
  • Salinity occurs through natural or human-induced processes that result in the accumulation of dissolved salts in the soil water to an extent that inhibits plant growth. (
  • Sodicity is a secondary result of salinity in clay soils, where leaching through either natural or human-induced processes has washed soluble salts into the subsoil, and left sodium bound to the negative charges of the clay. (
  • Primary salinity results from the accumulation of salts over long periods of time, through natural processes, in the soil or groundwater. (
  • As density increases, the amount of salts in the water-also known as salinity, increases. (
  • One measure of water quality is its "salinity," or TDS, which is the amount of dissolved material that remains as residue after the liquid portion of a water sample evaporates. (
  • The genetic analysis indicated substantial genetic variation in larval length measured 16 days after fertilization, as well as significant genetic interaction with salinity interpreted as the presence of genes influencing larval growth which depend on salinity for their expression and may be related to the past selective influence of a fluctuating environment. (
  • Ophryotrocha diadema is stenohaline and the complete life cycle has only been observed at salinities of 30, 35 and 40 ‰, where reproduction occurs between 11 and 27 °c and growth rate was observed at 30 and 35 ‰ salinity and 25°C. (
  • However these "salinity raising" factors are continually counterbalanced by processes that decrease salinity such as the continuous input of fresh water from rivers, precipitation of rain and snow, and melting of ice. (
  • In this study, however, we investigated whether combining the two processes of low salinity injection with surfactant (LSS) injection would be more efficient than either of them applied alone. (
  • These and other experiments are used to characterize the influence of physical processes (such as bubble plumes and rainfall) on salinity measurement. (
  • Newly revised data products from one buoy deployed during the Salinity Processes Upper-ocean Regional Study in the tropical Pacific (SPURS-2) field campaign are highlighted, including analysis of several rain events and the buoy drift velocity characteristics. (
  • Nearly 30,000 farms have implemented salinity management practices. (
  • Speaking of the positive impact of this cooperation and ICBA's contribution over the years to fighting salinity, Dr. Sultan said: "Saline areas in Palestine stretch over 30,000 ha. (
  • Dryland salinity is far more widespread but, in both types of salinity, it is water imbalances that are the fundamental cause of salinisation. (
  • Mr. Tran Quang Cui, deputy director of the Agriculture and Rural Development Department in Kien Giang Province, said that salinity has reached 30‰ in many places, exceeding the permissible level for shrimp farming. (
  • Now, shrimp harvest in the south arm is also being threatened by increasing salinities. (
  • The characterisation of the status of the oceans and their circulation requires world-wide monitoring of a wide variety of physical and chemical parameters over long time periods and over the full range of pressures and salinities present in the ocean. (
  • As a result, most laboratory studies of oil dispersion effectiveness (DE) are conducted at low to average ocean salinity. (
  • For comparison, ocean water has a salinity of around 35 grams per liter. (
  • Evaporation of ocean water and formation of sea ice both increase the salinity of the ocean. (
  • The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission was launched on 2nd November 2009 as the second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission within ESA's Living Planet programme. (
  • There are other ways to measure salinity in soil, but this is the easiest way to do it without laboratory equipment or multiple instruments. (
  • The USDA Salinity Laboratory defines a saline soil as having an EC e of 4 dS/m or more. (
  • Although plants can tolerate and even require certain levels of salinity for growth, excess salinity within the root zone reduces plant growth. (
  • Salinity, measured in milligrams per liter, is one constituent, among others, used by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality to determine if groundwater resources are suited for human consumption, agricultural application, or livestock watering. (
  • Over just 20 years, diversions caused Urmia's salinity to jump from 190 grams of salt per liter of water to over 350 grams, said Sima. (
  • Several approaches to generate electrical power directly from salinity gradient energy using capacitive electrodes have recently been developed, but power densities have remained low. (
  • Soil salinity refers to the amount of salt trapped in the soil. (
  • The Great Salt Lake and Lake Urmia in Iran were once remarkably similar in size, depth, salinity, and geographic setting. (
  • Salinity at depth is very much fixed, because there is no way that water is 'lost', or the salt is 'added. (
  • Salinity is not a salt problem, it's a water problem," says Marla Riekman, soil management specialist with Manitoba Agriculture and Resource Development. (
  • Therefore, we need solutions for the salinity problem to grow new salt-tolerant varieties. (
  • 2) Get a scale to measure salt in lbs, or just keep adding a little until the salinity is in the sweet. (
  • We have previously reported that overexpression of the salinity-responsive DWARF AND DELAYED FLOWERING 1 (DDF1) gene, encoding an AP2 transcription factor of the DREB1/CBF subfamily, causes dwarfism mainly by levels of reducing bioactive gibberellin (GA) in transgenic Arabidopsis. (
  • But salinities in the south are now also increasing to levels stressful for even those hardy species. (
  • The salinity levels are expected to be less dangerous at the end of March, the Vietnam News Agency reported. (
  • After that, the salinity levels will reduce gradually. (
  • Effects of Escherichia pollution and salinity on nutrient levels in submerged vegetated wetlands: Insights into benthic community stability and metabolisms. (
  • If we didn't have plants susceptible to soil salinity, we wouldn't have a salinity problem. (
  • This spatial dataset identifies land where development implications exist due to the presence of salinity, to ensure the effects of development are minimised and mitigated, as. (
  • Physiological short-term response to sudden salinity change in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). (
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  • Boron is adsorbed onto soil particles, with the degree of adsorption depending on the type of soil, pH, salinity, organic matter content, iron and aluminium oxide content, iron- and aluminium-hydroxy content, and clay content. (
  • The statewide salinity report supplements the recently released USGS report, Brackish Groundwater in the United States . (
  • Benchtop experiments were conducted with Alaskan North Slope (ANS) crude oil in the presence or absence of chemical dispersant at 5 and 25°C and varying salinities (0.2 to 125 ppt). (
  • Flume tank experiments over a range of salinities support the lab scale results of DSD. (
  • To do so, it utilizes several local and global data sets on water quality and agricultural productivity and a model that isolates the impact of exogenous changes in water salinity on yields. (
  • The publication Salinity on Australian Farms 2002 presents the first results of the Land Management and Salinity Survey which was conducted in May 2002 as a supplement to the 2001 Agricultural Census. (
  • The results presented in this publication only refer to the activities specifically identified for salinity management by farmers. (
  • This paper reports the results of a study that has mapped the salinity distribution in different aquifer layers up to a depth of 300 m in a region bordering the Bay of Bengal based on the main hydrochemistry and has investigated the origin of the salinity using Cl/Br ratios of the samples. (
  • Results indicate that in the presence of dispersant, maximum DE occurred at 25ppt, and decreases above and below this salinity. (
  • The 2002 Land Management and Salinity Survey collected information from farmers on the extent of land showing signs of salinity as well as the strategies used by farmers to manage and prevent salinity. (
  • Farmer assessments of the extent of salinity may differ from assessments made by scientific means, but are an indication of the level of salinity occurring on farms that can be provided rapidly and cost-effectively. (
  • Several of the strategies used to manage salinity as reported in this publication are also used by farmers for other reasons. (
  • A little under 20,000 farms and 2 million hectares of agricultural land were reported by farmers as showing signs of salinity. (
  • Therefore, the department has advised farmers to stop breeding at this time and wait until there will be rain to ease the salinity. (