Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
A plant genus in the CHENOPODIACEAE family.
The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.
A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.
The response of cells in sensing a difference in OSMOTIC PRESSURE between the inside and outside of the cell. This response includes signaling from osmotic sensors to activate transcription factors, which in turn regulate the expression of osmocompensatory genes, all functioning to maintain CELL VOLUME and the water concentration inside the cells.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
A plant genus of the family AIZOACEAE. It is a native of Africa and widely planted for erosion control to stabilize soil along roadsides and beaches.
Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.
Environments or habitats at the interface between truly terrestrial ecosystems and truly aquatic systems making them different from each yet highly dependent on both. Adaptations to low soil oxygen characterize many wetland species.
A plant family of the order Rhizophorales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida, that includes mangrove trees.
A family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with about 60 genera and more than 800 species of plants, with a few shrubs, trees, and vines. The leaves usually have nonindented edges.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.
A family of marine mollusks in the class BIVALVIA, commonly known as oysters. They have a rough irregular shell closed by a single adductor muscle.
A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.
A plant genus of the family Acanthaceae. Members contain NAPHTHOQUINONES. Black mangroves (common name for the genus) are distinguished from other mangroves by their spike-like aerial roots called pneumatophores that project from the soil or water surrounding the plants.
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A genus of gram-negative, moderately halophilic bacteria in the family HALOMONADACEAE. They are chemoorganotrophic and grow optimally in media containing 8-10% salt.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A genus of oysters in the family OSTREIDAE, class BIVALVIA.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of mosquitoes in the family CULICIDAE. A large number of the species are found in the neotropical part of the Americas.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)
The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A plant family of the order Lamiales. The leaves are usually opposite and the flowers usually have four sepals, four petals, two stamens, and two fused carpels that form a single superior ovary.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
The science that deals with the ocean and its phenomena. (Webster, 3d ed)
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.

Ocean climate prior to breeding affects the duration of the nestling period in the Atlantic puffin. (1/586)

Time-series covering 23 years for a long-lived seabird, the Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica L.) at Rost, northern Norway, was used to explore any indirect effects of climatic variations on chick production. By fitting statistical models on the duration of the nestling period, we found that it may be estimated using the average sea temperature and salinity at 0-20 m depth in March (having a positive and a negative effect, respectively). We propose that when the phytoplankton bloom occurs in early spring, adverse oceanographic conditions, i.e. low temperature and high salinity in March, have a negative effect on puffin reproduction by degradation of the prey availability (mainly Clupea harengus) for chick-feeding adults three months later.  (+info)

Effect of temperature, light and salinity on seed germination and radicle growth of the geographically widespread halophyte shrub Halocnemum strobilaceum. (2/586)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The small leafy succulent shrub Halocnemum strobilaceum occurs in saline habitats from northern Africa and Mediterranean Europe to western Asia, and it is a dominant species in salt deserts such as those of north-west China. The effects of temperature, light/darkness and NaCl salinity were tested on seed germination, and the effects of salinity were tested on seed germination recovery, radicle growth and radicle elongation recovery, using seeds from north-west China; the results were compared with those previously reported on this species from 'salt steppes' in the Mediterranean region of Spain. METHODS: Seed germination was tested over a range of temperatures in light and in darkness and over a range of salinities at 25 degrees C in the light. Seeds that did not germinate in the NaCl solutions were tested for germination in deionized water. Seeds from which radicles had barely emerged in deionized water were transferred to NaCl solutions for 10 d and then back to deionized water for 10 d to test for radicle growth and recovery. KEY RESULTS: Seeds germinated to higher percentages in light than in darkness and at high than at low temperatures. Germination percentages decreased with an increase in salinity from 0.1 to 0.75 M NaCl. Seeds that did not germinate in NaCl solutions did so after transfer to deionized water. Radicle elongation was increased by low salinity, and then it decreased with an increase in salinity, being completely inhibited by > or = 2.0 M NaCl. Elongation of radicles from salt solutions < 3.0 M resumed after seedlings were transferred to deionized water. CONCLUSIONS: The seed and early seedling growth stages of the life cycle of H. strobilaceum are very salt tolerant, and their physiological responses differ somewhat between the Mediterranean 'salt steppe' of Spain and the inland cold salt desert of north-west China.  (+info)

Sodium ion concentration vs. sweat rate relationship in humans. (3/586)

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of active heat acclimation on the sweat osmolality and sweat sodium ion concentration vs. sweat rate relationship in humans. Eight healthy male volunteers completed 10 days of exercise in the heat. The mean exercising heart rate and core temperature were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by 18 beats/min and 0.6 degrees C, respectively, following heat acclimation. Furthermore, sweat osmolality and the sweat sodium ion concentration vs. sweat rate relationships were shifted to the right. Specifically, the slopes of the relationships were not affected by heat acclimation. Rather, heat acclimation significantly reduced the y-intercepts of the sweat osmolality and sweat sodium relationships with sweat rate by 28 mosmol/kgH(2)O and 15 mmol/l, respectively. Thus there was a significantly lower sweat sodium ion concentration for a given sweat rate following heat acclimation. These results suggest that heat acclimation increases the sodium ion reabsorption capacity of the human eccrine sweat gland.  (+info)

Differential gene expression and Hog1 interaction with osmoresponsive genes in the extremely halotolerant black yeast Hortaea werneckii. (4/586)

BACKGROUND: Fluctuations in external salinity force eukaryotic cells to respond by changes in the gene expression of proteins acting in protective biochemical processes, thus counteracting the changing osmotic pressure. The high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway is essential for the efficient up-regulation of the osmoresponsive genes. In this study, the differential gene expression of the extremely halotolerant black yeast Hortaea werneckii was explored. Furthermore, the interaction of mitogen-activated protein kinase HwHog1 and RNA polymerase II with the chromatin in cells adapted to an extremely hypersaline environment was analyzed. RESULTS: A cDNA subtraction library was constructed for H. werneckii, adapted to moderate salinity or an extremely hypersaline environment of 4.5 M NaCl. An uncommon osmoresponsive set of 95 differentially expressed genes was identified. The majority of these had not previously been connected with the adaptation of salt-sensitive S. cerevisiae to hypersaline conditions. The transcriptional response in hypersaline-adapted and hypersaline-stressed cells showed that only a subset of the identified genes responded to acute salt-stress, whereas all were differentially expressed in adapted cells. Interaction with HwHog1 was shown for 36 of the 95 differentially expressed genes. The majority of the identified osmoresponsive and HwHog1-dependent genes in H. werneckii have not been previously reported as Hog1-dependent genes in the salt-sensitive S. cerevisiae. The study further demonstrated the co-occupancy of HwHog1 and RNA polymerase II on the chromatin of 17 up-regulated and 2 down-regulated genes in 4.5 M NaCl-adapted H. werneckii cells. CONCLUSION: Extremely halotolerant H. werneckii represents a suitable and highly relevant organism to study cellular responses to environmental salinity. In comparison with the salt-sensitive S. cerevisiae, this yeast shows a different set of genes being expressed at high salt concentrations and interacting with HwHog1 MAP kinase, suggesting atypical processes deserving of further study.  (+info)

Transcriptional profiling of chickpea genes differentially regulated in response to high-salinity, cold and drought. (5/586)

BACKGROUND: Cultivated chickpea (Cicer arietinum) has a narrow genetic base making it difficult for breeders to produce new elite cultivars with durable resistance to major biotic and abiotic stresses. As an alternative to genome mapping, microarrays have recently been applied in crop species to identify and assess the function of putative genes thought to be involved in plant abiotic stress and defence responses. In the present study, a cDNA microarray approach was taken in order to determine if the transcription of genes, from a set of previously identified putative stress-responsive genes from chickpea and its close relative Lathyrus sativus, were altered in chickpea by the three abiotic stresses; drought, cold and high-salinity. For this, chickpea genotypes known to be tolerant and susceptible to each abiotic stress were challenged and gene expression in the leaf, root and/or flower tissues was studied. The transcripts that were differentially expressed among stressed and unstressed plants in response to the particular stress were analysed in the context of tolerant/susceptible genotypes. RESULTS: The transcriptional change of more than two fold was observed for 109, 210 and 386 genes after drought, cold and high-salinity treatments, respectively. Among these, two, 15 and 30 genes were consensually differentially expressed (DE) between tolerant and susceptible genotypes studied for drought, cold and high-salinity, respectively. The genes that were DE in tolerant and susceptible genotypes under abiotic stresses code for various functional and regulatory proteins. Significant differences in stress responses were observed within and between tolerant and susceptible genotypes highlighting the multiple gene control and complexity of abiotic stress response mechanism in chickpea. CONCLUSION: The annotation of these genes suggests that they may have a role in abiotic stress response and are potential candidates for tolerance/susceptibility.  (+info)

Plasma membrane composition of Debaryomyces hansenii adapts to changes in pH and external salinity. (6/586)

Debaryomyces hansenii is a marine yeast that has to cope with different stress situations. Since changes in membrane properties can play an important function in adaptation, we have examined the fluidity and lipid composition of purified plasma membranes of D. hansenii grown at different external pH values and salt concentrations. Growth at low pH caused an increase in the sterol-to-phospholipid ratio and a decrease in fatty acid unsaturation which was reflected in decreased fluidity of the plasma membrane. High levels of NaCl increased the sterol-to-phospholipid ratio and fatty acid unsaturation, but did not significantly affect fluidity. The sterol-to-phospholipid ratios obtained in D. hansenii grown under any of these conditions were similar to the ratios that have been reported for halophilic/halotolerant black yeasts, but much smaller than those observed in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  (+info)

Control of electrostatic interactions between F-actin and genetically modified lysozyme in aqueous media. (7/586)

The aim for deterministic control of the interactions between macroions in aqueous media has motivated widespread experimental and theoretical work. Although it has been well established that like-charged macromolecules can aggregate under the influence of oppositely charged condensing agents, the specific conditions for the stability of such aggregates can only be determined empirically. We examine these conditions, which involve an interplay of electrostatic and osmotic effects, by using a well defined model system composed of F-actin, an anionic rod-like polyelectrolyte, and lysozyme, a cationic globular protein with a charge that can be genetically modified. The structure and stability of actin-lysozyme complexes for different lysozyme charge mutants and salt concentrations are examined by using synchrotron x-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. We provide evidence that supports a structural transition from columnar arrangements of F-actin held together by arrays of lysozyme at the threefold interstitial sites of the actin sublattice to marginally stable complexes in which lysozyme resides at twofold bridging sites between actin. The reduced stability arises from strongly reduced partitioning of salt between the complex and the surrounding solution. Changes in the stability of actin-lysozyme complexes are of biomedical interest because their formation has been reported to contribute to the persistence of airway infections in cystic fibrosis by sequestering antimicrobials such as lysozyme. We present x-ray microscopy results that argue for the existence of actin-lysozyme complexes in cystic fibrosis sputum and demonstrate that, for a wide range of salt conditions, charge-reduced lysozyme is not sequestered in ordered complexes while retaining its bacterial killing activity.  (+info)

Differential expression of the TFIIIA regulatory pathway in response to salt stress between Medicago truncatula genotypes. (8/586)

Soil salinity is one of the most significant abiotic stresses for crop plants, including legumes. These plants can establish root symbioses with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria and are able to grow in nitrogen-poor soils. Medicago truncatula varieties show diverse adaptive responses to environmental conditions, such as saline soils. We have compared the differential root growth of two genotypes of M. truncatula (108-R and Jemalong A17) in response to salt stress. Jemalong A17 is more tolerant to salt stress than 108-R, regarding both root and nodulation responses independently of the nitrogen status of the media. A dedicated macroarray containing 384 genes linked to stress responses was used to compare root gene expression during salt stress in these genotypes. Several genes potentially associated with the contrasting cellular responses of these plants to salt stress were identified as expressed in the more tolerant genotype even in the absence of stress. Among them, a homolog of the abiotic stress-related COLD-REGULATEDA1 gene and a TFIIIA-related transcription factor (TF), MtZpt2-1, known to regulate the former gene. Two MtZpt2 TFs (MtZpt2-1 and MtZpt2-2) were found in Jemalong A17 plants and showed increased expression in roots when compared to 108-R. Overexpression of these TFs in the sensitive genotype 108-R, but not in Jemalong A17, led to increased root growth under salt stress, suggesting a role for this pathway in the adaptive response to salt stress of these M. truncatula genotypes.  (+info)

The goal of the present study was to evaluate yield and fruit quality of two strawberry cultivars grown in a greenhouse on semi-closed soilless culture, irrigated with four different salinity levels. The experiment was carried out in Almería, Spain, and was set as a 4×2 factorial design with 3 replicates. The treatments consisted of four different salinity levels on the nutrient solution applied during the generative stage in two different cultivars, Primoris and Albion. Fruits were harvested from December through May, and pH, total soluble solids (°Brix), dry matter, weight, firmness, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids and total phenolic compounds were analyzed. In both cultivars, the salinity increased fruit dry matter, total soluble solids content and titratable acidity. There were no significant differences among the salinity levels on fruit yield and concentration of phenolic compounds. The salinity effect on Vitamin C and carotenoids content was not clear. The results ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anthropogenic and tidal influences on salinity levels of the Shatt al-Arab River, Basra, Iraq. AU - Abdullah, Ali Dinar. AU - Karim, Usama F.A.. AU - Masih, Ilyas. AU - Popescu, Ioana. AU - van der Zaag, Pieter. PY - 2016/7/2. Y1 - 2016/7/2. N2 - ABSTRACT: Understanding the salinity variation caused by a combination of anthropogenic and marine sources is important for water resource management in heavily used rivers impacted by tidal influence. A quantitative analysis of intra-annual variability of salinity levels was conducted in the Shatt al-Arab River. Based on hourly records during 2014, the results showed high spatiotemporal variability in the range of 0.2-40.0 ppt. Similarities in salinity dynamics were used to divide the river course into four distinct spatial units to guide respective management actions. Salinity dynamics are influenced by different sources of saline water inflows and withdrawals associated with irrigation, industrial and municipal waste, marshes and by ...
Temporal Coherence in Real-Time Rendering, 978-3-639-09196-0, Real-time rendering imposes the challenging task of creating a new rendering of an input scene at least 60 times per second. Although computer graphics hardware has made staggering advances in terms of speed and freedom of programmability in recent years, there still exists a number of algorithms that are just too expensive to be calculated in this time budget, like for instance exact shadows or an exact global illumination solution. One way to circumvent this hard time limit is to capitalize on temporal coherence to formulate algorithms incremental in time. To this end, three algorithms which successfully incorporate temporal coherence are analysed in detail. To highlight the benefits which are provided by these new practical algorithms, this book also includes the respective previous work. This includes not only the field of temporal coherence, but also the fields of real-time hard and soft shadows and discrete LOD blending. This book
The study was conducted to determine the optimum salinity levels (24 ppt, 28 ppt, 32 ppt, 36 ppt and 40 ppt) for the survival and settlement rates of H. asinina in a complete randomized design with three replicates each. The experimental animals were reared in 15 glass aquaria for the first run and in plexiglass for the second run. Feeding of Navicula spp. was done once a day. Temperature and dissolved oxygen were monitored throughout the experiment. Data were analyzed using One-Way ANOVA to determine significant difference among treatments at 0.05 level of significance using Social Package for Social Science. Result of the first run showed that 32 ppt had the highest mean survival (1.50%) and mean settlement rate (1.84%). Similar result was also observed in 32 ppt with highest mean survival (9.72%) and mean settlement rate (16.42%). Significant difference existed among treatments during the second run of the experiment. Results showed that 28 ppt and 32 ppt were the optimum salinity levels for ...
Salinity stress in both NaCl concentrations tested severely altered plant growth, gas exchange attributes, leaf water status and membrane injury responses of both pepper genotypes [particularly the salt-sensitive Demre, and especially under the higher (150 mm) salinity]. The exogenous application of 2 mm Si significantly ameliorated NaCl toxicity in both genotypes. However, this influence was more pronounced for the salt-sensitive pepper at both salinity concentrations, especially in counteracting effects on biomass production and photosynthesis. Si additions either increased resistance to salt stress at 75 mm salinity or prevented a complete collapse at 150 mm salinity. Leaf area was reduced under salinity stress because in an attempt by the plant to minimize water loss via evapotranspiration. However, plants subjected to salinity stress but provided amendments of Si, acquired higher leaf area and shoot and root biomass (dry). Enhancement of plant growth under salinity stress have also been ...
Rice (Oryza sativa) is a staple food that feeds more than half the world population. As rice is highly sensitive to soil salinity, current trends in soil salinization threaten global food security. To better understand the mechanistic basis of salinity tolerance in rice, three contrasting rice cultivars - Reiziq (tolerant), Doongara (moderately tolerant), and Koshihikari (sensitive) - were examined and the differences in operation of key ion transporters mediating ionic homeostasis in these genotypes were evaluated. Tolerant varieties had reduced Na+ translocation from roots to shoots. Electrophysiological and quantitative reverse transcription PCR experiments showed that tolerant genotypes possessed 2-fold higher net Na+ efflux capacity in the root elongation zone. Interestingly, this efflux was only partially mediated by the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (OsSOS1), suggesting involvement of some other exclusion mechanisms. No significant difference in Na+ exclusion from the mature root ...
Copepods are one of the most abundant and diverse live food sources for mesopelagic and bathypelagic fishes and crustaceans. They could contribute to the overlap of the transition period from live feed to an artificial weaning diet in marine larvae production. However, the culture conditions still need optimization to provide sufficient production to cover the increasing demand for marine hatcheries. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of different salinity levels (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 ppt) on the population growth, growth rate, and population composition (males, females, copepodite, and nauplii ratio) of the marine copepod, Oithona nana. The experiment continued for 15 days, under laboratory-controlled conditions of temperature (27 ± 1 °C), pH (7.7 ± 0.15), and continuous gentle aeration in 30 L glass aquaria. The copepod culture aquaria were supplemented with a mixture of soybean and yeast (0.5 g 10−6 individual−1 24-h−1) as a feed source. The highest significant
I found that processes such as growth, respiration and N transformation rates were strongly negatively reduced in response to acute salt exposure. However, increased salt tolerance of the microbial community could be induced quickly, combined with a partial recovery of process rates. A strong relationship between soil salinity and community salt tolerance was also found along natural gradients of salinity. Higher community salt tolerance was reflected in shifts in the composition of the bacterial community. Fungi were less sensitive to salt exposure than bacteria, which manifested in less inhibition of fungal growth both after short-term and long-term exposure to salinity. When salinity was combined with drying of soils, the effects of the individual factors were exacerbated. Increased soil salinity also modified the microbial response to rewetting of died soil ...
نسخه قابل چاپ خلاصه مقاله Low Salinity Water flooding and Combination of Low Salinity Water flooding with Surfactant and Alkaline Injection to Improve Oil Recovery - Core Flooding Experiments - گواهی پذیرش مقاله در کنفرانس
In the present study, transgenic rice plants ectopically expressing the PDH45 gene (TR), were tested under early-induced salinity stress conditions and compared with the wild type rice genotype IR64 (WT) and the empty vector control (EV). The TR plants are resistant to salinity stress and represent a valid system for testing the genes and miRNAs expression patters in comparison with the WT plants. The short-term response to salinity stress may be particularly relevant to better understand the biological significance of stress status in plant responses to salinity.. A preliminary characterization of the stress response in rice was carried out by measuring the chlorophyll content and the free proline levels. The damage caused by salt stress was evident from the degree of bleaching observed in the leaf tissues, along with a decrease in chlorophyll content. However, the reduction in chlorophyll content was significantly higher in WT plants, compared with TR plants. Since the goal of this study was ...
The aim of this study is to discover the activity of extracellular enzymes (amidase , alkaline phosphatase and Arylsulphatase) in vertical and horizontal developing directions of rhizosphere (0-5 and 5-10) cm . The plot experiment is performed in college of Agriculture / Al-Qadissiya University for the spring season 2013 ,the loamy sand soil was used to cultivate Tomato (Lycopersicon Esculentum mill) and Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) plants under salinity levels (without salted the natural salinity) , 6 , 8 and 10 ds.m-1 and compost levels (0,10 ,20)T.h-1 , and their interactions randomized complete design (RCD) is used with three replicates used with L.S.D test 5% level .The laboratory experiment is performed to determine the all enzymes activity above for all treatments . The results are summarized as : 1- Enzyme activity decreases with increasing the salinity levels for all enzymes used in this study and the salinity level 10 ds.m-1 is the lowest. The arrangement of activity values as Alkaline
A laboratory experiment was undertaken to analyze the effects of salinity on growth, body composition, oxygen consumption, and ammonia excretion of anadromous American shad (Alosa sapidissima) juveniles. Results showed the best survival rate occurred at 5‰ and 15‰. The relative weight gain and the specific growth rate declined as salinity increased. However, feed conversion rate increased with increasing salinity. Oxygen consumption rates showed a parabolic relationship in relation to salinity. From the quadratic relationship (y= -0.0004x2+0.0166x+0.319; R2=0.801; ...
Salinity imposes a major constraint over the productivity of rice. A set of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs), derived from a cross between the japonica type cultivar (cv.) Nipponbare (salinity sensitive) and the indica type cv. 9311 (moderately tolerant), was scored using a hydroponics system for their salinity tolerance at the seedling stage. Two of the CSSLs, which share a ~1.2 Mbp stretch of chromosome 4 derived from cv. Nipponbare, were as sensitive to the stress as cv. Nipponbare itself. Fine mapping based on an F2 population bred from a backcross between one of these CSSLs and cv. 9311 narrowed this region to 95 Kbp, within which only one gene (OsHAK1) exhibited a differential (lower) transcript abundance in cv. Nipponbare and the two CSSLs compared to in cv. 9311. The gene was up-regulated by exposure to salinity stress both in the root and the shoot, while a knockout mutant proved to be more salinity sensitive than its wild type with respect to its growth at both the ...
Soil salinity is the dominant process in the degradation of arid and semi-arid soils, which in turn reduces crop yields, increases erosion, and exacerbates desertification. In recent years, soil salinity has affected much of the land in the Atabieh area located in the west of Khuzestan province...
So Ive been reading up... and Im going to ask lots and lots of questions to the point you are annoyed with me. So in a couple books Ive seen mention a short freshwater dip or using a lower salinity in your QT tank with marine fish. Apparently parasitic organisms do not handle low salinity well whereas the fish are more adaptable. Now granted my books are not exactly the most current, but Ive not seen too much talk on this here, so is this actually fairly common? I saw one post that
Elastic turbulence, which is sensitive to geometry and polymer rheology, has shown great potential for improving the performance of mixing, heat transfer, and even oil recovery. Recent studies showed the importance of the rheological properties of polymer solutions on the onset of elastic turbulence. However, variations of rheological properties based on polymer sensitivities such as salinity and its corresponding effects on the elastic turbulence have not been revealed. This work investigated systematically the effects of salinity on the onset of elastic turbulence in both swirling flow and curvilinear microchannels. The variations of statistical properties, such as probability distribution functions (PDFs) and power spectral density of injected power (PSD), were analyzed for characterization. The onset conditions of elastic turbulence are postponed by high salinity, which is consistent with the mixing performance in a curvilinear microchannel. A salinity independent power-law exponent at a ...
Calcium is one of the essential nutrients for growth and development of plants. It is an important component of various structures in cell wall and membranes. Besides some fundamental roles under normal condition, calcium functions as a major secondary-messenger molecule in plants under different developmental cues and various stress conditions including salinity stress. Also changes in cytosolic pH, pHcyt, either individually, or in coordination with changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, [Ca2+]cyt, evoke a wide range of cellular functions in plants including signal transduction in plant-defense responses against stresses. It is believed that salinity stress, like other stresses, is perceived at cell membrane, either extra cellular or intracellular, which then triggers an intracellular-signaling cascade including the generation of secondary messenger molecules like Ca2+ and protons. The variety and complexity of Ca2+ and pH signaling result from the nature of the stresses as well as the ...
The effects of polarization, sea water salinity, and temperature on top of atmosphere radiances and water leaving radiances (WLRs) are discussed using radiative transfer simulations for MEdium resolution imaging spectrometer (MERIS) channels from 412 to 900 nm. A coupled system of an aerosol-free atmosphere and an ocean bulk containing chlorophyll and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) (case 1 waters) was simulated. A simple, but realistic, bio-optical model was set up to relate chlorophyll concentration and wavelength to scattering matrices and absorption coefficients for chlorophyll and colored CDOM. The model of the optical properties of the sea water accounts for the salinity, temperature, and wavelength dependence of the relative refractive index, as well as the absorption and the bulk scattering coefficient. The results show that the relative difference of WLRs at zenith for a salinity of 5 practical salinity units (PSUs) and 35 PSU can reach values of 16% in the 412 nm channel, ...
Saveer offers Salinity/Salt Tolerance Screening Facility. Features are Salinity levels in soils can range from very slight to very severe within a few meters.
The experiment was conducted in pot culture from November 1998 to March 1999 at the Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Eighteen B. campestris hybrids and their 6 parents were tested for saline tolerance. The genotypes were grown in earthen pots. Mixture of soil and cowdung in 3:1 ratio was the growth media. Sodium chloride was used as the sources of salt. Two salinity levels viz., 1.43 and 12.00 dS m1 EC were maintained. There were three replications in each treatment. The genotypes were grown up to maturity and the characters germination percentage, days to germination, plant height at 25, 35 and 45 days, days to flowering, plant height at harvest, days to maturity and seed yield/ plant were studied. The analysis of variance showed that variation due to salinity levels, genotypes and interaction between salinity levels and genotypes were significant for the experiment. Comparing the mean values of 12 dS m1EC with that of the control i.e., ...
Rice is mainly produced in deltas, where paddy fields decrease the usual soil salinity in these areas.. In Ebro Delta, the Apple Snail pest is destroying the rice seedlings, damaging the rice production. Some of the methods used to control that invasive species are to flood the paddy fields with sea water and dry seeding. However, those methods increase the field salinity.. IRTA researcher Mar Català explains in this video how the Neurice project might help to solve that problem.. ...
The Hanna Instruments Marine Salinity and Temperature Tester (HI98319) was designed to simplify testing your salt mix`s salinity and temperature in seconds, with reading results in parts per thousand (ppt), Practical Salinity Units (PSU), or specific gravity (S.G.).. This waterproof tester uses a graphite amperometric conductivity probe, which is resistant to oxidation, improving the measurement repetition to determine the salt content in the water. The use of a graphite probe also reduces the polarization effect common with testers that use two stainless steel pins.. Calibration is performed by pressing the dedicated calibration button. Once in calibration mode, the probe is placed in 35.00 ppt calibration standard. When the standard value is recognized and stability reached, the meter will automatically accept and store the value.. The Hanna Marine Salinity Tester displays the readings along with temperature on an easy to read large LCD screen.. Better Features for Better Testing. ...
Salinity and priming induced changes in electrophoretic profiles of leaf proteins were analyzed using SDSPAGE. Wheat (Auqab-2000) seeds were grown under saline (150 mM NaCl) and non-saline (H2O) conditions after five priming treatments i.e. hydropriming, freezing (-20°C), 100 mM CaCl2.2H2O, 0.28 mM ascorbate (AsA) and 0.36 mM salicylic acid (SA). Salinity caused the induction of a new protein with molecular weight of 38 kDa which was not observed in the control. This protein (38 kDa) was not repressed by priming treatments. Salinity also induced a 29 kDa protein which was completely repressed by priming treatments. Two peptides (27 and 25 kDa) disappeared under salinity. However, these peptides did not disappear on AsA, SA and CaCl2.2H2O priming. Most prominent priming induced protein (PIP) was a 36.7 kDa peptide which was expressed by all priming treatments under non-saline condition. The intensity of this peptide was higher in case of freezing and hydropriming. Priming with AsA, CaCl2.2H2O ...
This salinity meter is an ion-selective meter which uses a sodium electrode to read directly the salt (NaCl) content of a solution. There are 4 measurement ranges spanning a wide spectrum from 0.150 g/L all the way to 300 g/L! A separate temperature probe provides temperature readings in Centigrade from 0 to 80ºC in 0.1ºC steps. Both NaCl and ºC measurements are shown simultaneously on a large LCD display. The meter is completely water and dust-proof for the best protection in industrial environments and humid conditions. Measures salinity content and temperature Rugged and waterproof for harsh processing environments 4 ranges of measurement for salinity All operations are microprocessor-controlled and calibration is easy and automatic. Once the CAL key is pressed, graphic prompts appear on the display to guide the user through the calibration process which is automatic at 2 points; the first calibration point is at 3.0 g/L, while the second can be either at 0.30 (low range) or at 30.0 g/L (high
Instrument performance verification is necessary so that effective existing technologies can be recognized, and so that promising new technologies can become available to support coastal science, resource management, and ocean observing systems. The Alliance for Coastal Technologies (ACT) has therefore completed an evaluation of commercially available in situ salinity sensors. While the sensors evaluated have many potential applications, the focus of this Performance Verification was on nearshore moored and profiled deployments and at a performance resolution of between 0.1 - 0.01 salinity units. In this Verification Statement, we present the performance results of the CS547A salinity probe evaluated in the laboratory and under diverse environmental conditions in moored field tests. In addition the OBS-3A salinity probe was tested in a vertical profiling application. A total of one laboratory site and five different field sites were used for testing, including tropical coral r ...
Osmotic membrane bioreactor (OMBR), which integrates forward osmosis (FO) with biological treatment, has been developed to advance wastewater treatment and reuse. OMBR is superior to conventional MBR, particularly in terms of higher effluent quality, lower membrane fouling propensity, and higher membrane fouling reversibility. Nevertheless, advancement and future deployment of OMBR are hindered by salinity build-up in the bioreactor (e.g., up to 50 mS/cm indicated by the mixed liquor conductivity), due to high salt rejection of the FO membrane and reverse diffusion of the draw solution. This review comprehensively elucidates the relative significance of these two mechanisms towards salinity build-up and its associated effects in OMBR operation. Recently proposed strategies to mitigate salinity build-up in OMBR are evaluated and compared to highlight their potential in practical applications. In addition, the complementarity of system optimization and modification to effectively manage salinity build-up
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Devaleraea ramentacea represents one of the few red macroalgal species endemic to the Arctic. Previous unifactorial experiments revealed a generally high tolerance of D. ramentacea to variation in abiotic conditions. Although in the field the effects of photosynthetically active (PAR) and UV-radiation, temperature and salinity are usually interconnected, studies on interactive effects on its physiology are scarce. Mesocosm-experiments under natural solar radiation as well as laboratory set-ups under defined, artificial radiation conditions, at three different water temperatures and at different salinities were conducted at Spitsbergen in order to reveal physiological responses of D. ramentacea under multiple abiotic stresses. Photosynthetic measurements confirm the high tolerance of adult sporophytes of D. ramentacea towards single and combined stress factors. Experimentally induced changes in the content of UV-screening mycosporine-like amino acids (MAA) and the enzymatic activity of ...
Fish held in hypo or hyperosmotic environments would show additional energy requirements for osmoregulation that could hamper growth when compared to those kept at an isosmotic environment (Boeuf & Payan, 2001; Tsuzuki et al., 2007; Herrera et al., 2009; Pérez-Robles ., 2012Pérez-Robles, J., A. D. Re, I. Giffard-Mena & F. Díaz. 2012. Interactive effects of salinity on oxygen consumption, ammonium excretion, osmoregulation and Na+/K+-ATPase expression in the bullseye puffer (Sphoeroides annulatus, Jenyns 1842). Aquaculture Research, 43: 1372-1383.). Energy cost associated with osmoregulation may vary at the different ontogenetic developmental stages. In addition, response to salinity has shown to be highly variable among fish species. This variation is likely associated with the interaction between osmoregulatory mechanisms with other physiological processes (Jobling, 1994; Imsland et al., 2002Imsland, A. K., A. Foss, S. W. Bonga, E. V. Ham & S. O. Stefansson. 2002. Comparison of growth and ...
Since the application of poor-quality irrigation water is frequently the cause of the salinization of the soils given over to the cultivation of roses in Tenerife we carried out an irrigation trial with two waters of high salinity at concentrations of 15,70 meq/l of Cl-, and 13,60 meq/l of CO$H- respectively. Both types of water caused a significant reduction in the yields of the cultivar Sonia, which was greater in the treatment with chlorinated water. The quality of the flower (expressed as a percentage of extra flowers) decreased considerably in the plants treated with bicarbonated water, and was reduced by 50% in relation to the control, in the case of rose bushes treated with chlorinated water. In neither of the two cases were visible symptoms of salt toxicity noticed ...
Soil salinity affects large areas of cultivated land, causing significant reductions in crop yield globally. The Na+ toxicity of many crop plants is correlated with overaccumulation of Na+ in the shoot. We have previously suggested that the engineering of Na+ exclusion from the shoot could be achieved through an alteration of plasma membrane Na+ transport processes in the root, if these alterations were cell type specific. Here, it is shown that expression of the Na+ transporter HKT1;1 in the mature root stele of Arabidopsis thaliana decreases Na+ accumulation in the shoot by 37 to 64%. The expression of HKT1;1 specifically in the mature root stele is achieved using an enhancer trap expression system for specific and strong overexpression. The effect in the shoot is caused by the increased influx, mediated by HKT1;1, of Na+ into stelar root cells, which is demonstrated in planta and leads to a reduction of root-to-shoot transfer of Na+. Plants with reduced shoot Na+ also have increased salinity ...
Closely spaced drip tape emitters can enhance salt management for seed germination, leach salts in permanent crops, dilute soil salinity for salt-sensitive crops and manipulate the wetting pattern - all with less cost and more efficiency than widely spaced emitters. Read the full article…. ...
Buy or Rent Integrated Management of Salt Affected Soils in Agriculture: Incorporation of Soil Salinity Control Methods as an eTextbook and get instant access.
Salinity gradient technologies generate electricity from the chemical pressure differential created by differences in ionic concentration between freshwater and saltwater. Seawater has a higher osmotic pressure than freshwater due to its high concentration of salt. Two main technology types, Reverse Electrodialysis (RED) and Pressure-Retarded Osmosis (PRO), make use of semi-permeable membranes which generate an osmotic potential that can be used to generate electricity using turbines in deltas or fjords.
Read CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE G2 regulates salinity stress response and salt mediated flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Salinity measurements and definitions throughout history== [[Image:DittmarTbl.PNG ,thumb,400px,align:right, Constant composition of seawater (Dittmar, 1884)]] Since as far as Ancient Greece times, attempts have been made to try to measure the saltiness of seawater. However, methods efficiency was very incipient and their sensitivity and repeatability was very limited. During the Modern History more precise methodologies were developed: weighing after evaporation (Boyle,1693; Birch, 1965), solvent extraction (Lavoisier, 1772) and precipitation (Bergman, 1784). In 1865, Forchhammer introduced the term salinity and dedicated himself to measure individual components of seasalt rather than the total salinity. He found that the ratio of major salts in samples of seawater from various locations was constant. This constant ratio is known as Forchhammers Principle, or the Principle of Constant Proportions. Towards the end of the nineteenth century, William Dittmar, following the work of Forchhammer, ...
The Istek battery powered portable Multi 90i Multi Meter covers pH, ISE, ORP, DO, O2, Air, Conductivity, TDS, Salinity, Temperature and includes a Multi Probe (pH, ORP, DO, EC and Temperature). The Istek Laboratory Multi Meter CP-500L covers pH, ORP, ISE, EC, TDS, Salinity and Temperature. The Laboratory Multi Meter PD-600L covers pH, ORP, ISE, DO, O2, Air, Temperature. Both the VanLondon CP-500L and the VanLondon PD-600L offer Dual Channel productivity. The Laboratory Multi Meter PD-700L covers pH, ORP, ISE, DO, O2, Air, EC, TDS, Salinity, Temperature in a compact Triple Channel package.
The Latest and Greatest from Salinity Gear. Throw out those annoying buffs and apply less sunscreen when you switch to a Salinity Gear Performance Hoodie. The Best in Performance Fishing Apparel.
Read The woody plant poplar has a functionally conserved salt overly sensitive pathway in response to salinity stress, Plant Molecular Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Genotypic difference in salinity tolerance in quinoa is determined by differential control of xylem Na|sup|+|/sup| loading and stomatal density
This thesis investigates the influence of salinity on the mechanical behavior of smectitic rich high plasticity soils resedimented with pore fluid salinities ranging from 0 to 256 g/L. An extensive laboratory testing program involving Constant Rate of Strain (CRS) and K₀ consolidated undrained shear in compression triaxial testing (CK₀UC) was undertaken. Specimens tested in the modified CRS device reached axial effective stresses between 30 and 40 MPa. Triaxial testing was performed over a very wide range of effective stresses from 0.125 to 10 MPa, with one test consolidated to 63 MPa. Behavior is examined at pore fluid salinities of 4, 64, and 256 g/L. The shear behavior of all specimens was obtained in the normally consolidated region. Six different soils from the Gulf of Mexico region, ranging in liquid limit from 62 % to 90 %, were tested to determine the impact of varying salinity on one dimensional consolidation and permeability properties. The majority of testing was carried out on ...
Article: Martinez-Palacios CA, Salgado-Garcia RL, Racotta IS & Ross L (2008) Effects of salinity on eggs, larvae, and juveniles of blacknose silversides from Lake Chapala, Mexico. |i|North American Journal of Aquaculture|/i|, 70 (1), pp. 12-19. https://doi.org/10.1577/A06-026.1
Salt OUT The solution to your salinity issues! - Agriculture - Crop Cultivation by Terawet Green Technologies, Inc. (TGT). Salt Out™ reduces or eliminates salinity stress in plant growth by sequestering sodium and chloride ions from penetrating plant...
Salinity is a global issue and main problem in most area of world. There are three basic types of salty soils,. 1. Saline soils: the soils which have electrical conductivity (EC) ,4 dS m-1; exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP) ,15%; pH below 8.5 and sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of 0-12.. 2. Saline-sodic soils: these have EC ,4 dS m-1, pH below 8.5, ESP ,15%, SAR ,12. and. 3. Sodic soils: have EC less than 4 dS m-1, pH above 8.5, ESP is ,15% and SAR above 12. These types of soils may cause abiotic stress in plants known as saline stress. There are various abiotic stress factors that affect growth and productivity of plants in earth planet. On regular basis, plants are in continuous exposure to pressure conditions such as water shortage, saltiness, higher temperature, heavy rainfall and heavy metal toxic levels. Salt stress characterized by higher accumulation of salts is a serious threat and a main restraint to growth and productivity of crop plants. Salinity incurs drastic changes in plants ...
Completely mixed water column with full salinity A water column which is completely and actively mixed, not influenced by freshwater, so that the salinity is the same as that in adjacent seawater. This habitat type is usually found in relatively shallow, coastal situations, without river inflow or ice melt.
Challenge Water extracted from a neighbouring coal mine which has traditionally provided for much of the power stations process needs had become increasingly saline causing operational problems.. Solution This includes partial treatment of the source water in a clarifier which has been provided by a third party and is located upstream from the Osmoflo plant. Tenders for both the filtration and reverse osmosis stages were issued separately, however Osmoflo won both on the strength of its overall capability including its ability to provide a fit for purpose integrated design. The desaliantion process reduces the salinity of the source water from around 2,000 mg/l total dissolved solids (TDS) to between 45-65 mg/l TDS. Reject water from the desaliantion process is disposed of utilising existing Verve Energy facilities at Collie Power Station.. Result The outputs of both the clarifier and desalination plant are blended to provide the right quality and quantity of water for Verves operational ...
Conductivity / TDS / Resistivity / Salinity Series Vagadziri, Fekitori, Vatengesi Kubva kuChina, Tinogamuchirwa kutishanyira chero nguva yehukama hwebhizinesi hwakagadzwa.
The authors present ideas and strategies for dealing with these problems. It describes ways in which Aboriginal people can be involved and how their values can be included in strategies to deal with salinity. The books core message is that the management of natural and cultural heritage needs to be linked and that there needs to be a better understanding of the relationship between peoples sense of place and the condition of the environment around them. It is intended to be a resource for environmental planners and land managers and it is anticipated that it will be instrumental in bringing this aspect of salinity to the attention of many people for the first time.. ...
With most saltwater fish, there looks to be this good flexibility on having your salinity be between 1020-1025. I have my tanks at 1023-1024. Is there an ideal salinity that fish like?
With the view of preparing the strategy for the calibration/validation of future L-band satellite radiometers, we examine the salinity variability recorded
Salinity[edit]. New York Harbor, between the Narrows and the George Washington Bridge, has a mix of fresh and ocean water, ... mixed by wind and tides to create an increasing gradient of salinity from the river's top to its bottom. This varies with ...
Salinity in Australia. References[edit]. *^ from "Soil salinity" in WaterWiki, the on-line Knowledge and Collaboration Tool of ... Dry land salinity[edit]. Salinity in drylands can occur when the water table is between two and three metres from the surface ... Salinity is an important land degradation problem. Soil salinity can be reduced by leaching soluble salts out of soil with ... Salinity due to irrigation[edit]. Rain or irrigation, in the absence of leaching, can bring salts to the surface by capillary ...
Salinity[edit]. Salinity plays a role in the growth and development of goslings. Moderate to high salinity concentrations ...
Due to the difference in salinity, by salinity permeation principle, a sub-surface layer of more saline water moving in the ... can survive at relatively low salinities but need higher salinities to breed, which therefore occurs in deeper parts of the ... The decreasing salinity along this path causes restrictions in both physiology and habitats.[51] At more than 600 species of ... In contrast, the salinity of the Danish straits, which connect the Baltic Sea and Kattegat, tends to be significantly higher, ...
The cysts will hatch at 2 to 3% salinity, but the greatest productivity is at salinities above about 10%. If the salinity drops ... Salinity[edit]. Most of the salts dissolved in the lake and deposited in the desert flats around it reflect the concentration ... The high salinity in parts of the lake makes them uninhabitable for all but a few species, including brine shrimp, brine flies ... The salinity of the lake's main basin, Gilbert Bay, is highly variable and depends on the lake's level; it ranges from 5 to 27 ...
Salinity[edit]. Changes in salinity may promote organism to seek out more suitable waters if they happen to be stenohaline or ... Areas that are impacted by tidal cycles accompanied by salinity changes, estuaries for example, may see vertical migration in ... like the salinity or minute pressure changes.[17] ...
Influencing ocean temperature and salinity[edit]. It has been suggested[14] that locally influencing salinity and temperature ...
... with an average salinity of less than 20.[2] ...
The salinity of the oceans is derived from erosion and transport of dissolved salts from the land. Cultural eutrophication of ... "Salinity , Science Mission Directorate". science.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 2018-01-15. Retrieved 2018-01-15. ... Research published in 2012 in Science based on surface ocean salinity over the period 1950 to 2000 confirm this projection of ... We show that ocean salinity patterns express an identifiable fingerprint of an intensifying water cycle. Our 50-year observed ...
Other sources give higher upper salinity limits for fresh water, e.g. 1000 ppm[2] or 3000 ppm.[3] ... 2007). "Salinity adaptation and gene profiling analysis in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) using microarray technology". ... During these migrations they undergo changes to adapt to the surroundings of the changed salinities; these processes are ... have a limited ability to regulate their osmotic balance and therefore can only live within a narrow range of salinity, ...
In the Black Sea the surface water is brackish with an average salinity of about 17-18 parts per thousand compared to 30 to 40 ... The Caspian Sea is the world's largest lake and contains brackish water with a salinity about one-third that of normal seawater ... Thus, brackish covers a range of salinity regimes and is not considered a precisely defined condition. It is characteristic of ... Further east, the salinity increases and the freshwater fish species are completely replaced by euryhaline marine ones, until ...
Average salinity for the world's seawater is ~35 ‰ on the Practical Salinity Scale, or PSU; that translates to 3.5% of actual ... SalinityEdit. The Red Sea is one of the saltiest bodies of water in the world, owing to high evaporation and low precipitation ... These physical factors reduce the effect of high salinity caused by evaporation in the north and relatively hot water in the ... Very high surface temperatures and high salinities make this one of the warmest and saltiest bodies of seawater in the world. ...
Main article: Soil salinity control. Salinity in soil is caused by irrigating with salty water. Water then evaporates from the ... Salinity is estimated to affect about one third of the earth's arable land.[8] Soil salinity adversely affects crop metabolism ... Dan Yaron, Salinity in Irrigation and Water Resources, Marcel Dekker, New York (1981) ISBN 0-8247-6741-1 ... Salinity occurs on drylands from overirrigation and in areas with shallow saline water tables. Over-irrigation deposits salts ...
Salinity of waterEdit. Freshwater and low salineEdit. Shipwrecks in some freshwater lakes, such as the Great Lakes of North ... In some sea areas, most notably in Gulf of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland, salinity is very low, and centuries-old wrecks have ... Vasa is one of the oldest and best-preserved ships salvaged in the world, owing to the cool temperatures and low salinity of ... These "sediments" are tightly linked to the type of currents, depth, and the type of water (salinity, pH, etc.), which implies ...
"Ocean salinity". Science Learning Hub. Retrieved 2 July 2017. A. Anati, David (March 1999). "The salinity of hypersaline brines ... a salinity of 35 ‰. The Mediterranean Sea is slightly higher at 38 ‰, while the salinity of the northern Red Sea can reach 41 ... the effects of diversion of external salinity sources and the probable chemical composition of the internal salinity sources". ... Salinity is usually measured in parts per thousand (‰ or per mil), and the open ocean has about 35 grams (1.2 oz) solids per ...
The scheme was abandoned in 1930 by Great Britain due to natural soil salinity and a cause of further dryland salinity. The ... "A History of Salinity in Western Australia Important (and some unimportant) Dates". Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 1 ... "Soil salinity". The Western Mail. XLVI (2, 345). Perth, Western Australia. 22 January 1931. p. 41. Retrieved 3 December 2018 - ...
"Figure 1. Map of the Chesapeake Bay and salinity zones. Salinity zones..." ResearchGate. "The Big Freeze". Time. 1977-01-31. ... Salinity there ranges from 1.07% to 1.8%. The polyhaline zone is the saltiest zone, and some of the water can be as salty as ... The salinity ranges from 1.87% to 3.6%. (3.6% is as salty as the ocean.) The climate of the area surrounding the Bay is ... While the Bay's salinity is ideal for oysters and the oyster fishery was at one time the Bay's most commercially viable, the ...
Salinity increases with depth in red regions and decreases in blue regions. Annual mean sea surface salinity, measured in 2009 ... However these processes which increase salinity are continually counterbalanced by processes that decrease salinity, such as ... Ocean salinity is derived mainly from the weathering of rocks and the transport of dissolved salts from the land, with lesser ... Salinity varies with temperature, evaporation, and precipitation. It is generally low at the equator and poles, and high at mid ...
1961) "Salinity and size in marine fishes." Copeia 1961(2):234- 235. (1961) "Biological investigations of the St. Lucie Estuary ... 1957) "Salinity." Chapter 7. In: "Treatise on Marine Ecology and Paleoecology." Vol. 1 Ecology. Memoir 67, Geological Society ... 1967) "A review of salinity problems of organisms in United States coastal areas subject to the effects of engineering works." ... Gunter and G.E. Hall). (1963) "Some relations of salinity to population distributions of motile estuarine organisms, with ...
Salinity Tolerance". Herpetological Review. 46 (2): 237-238. Lever 2001, p. 3 Barker, Grigg & Tyler 1995, p. 380 Zug & Zug 1979 ... and recent field observations found living tadpoles and toadlets at salinities of 27.5‰ on Coiba Island, Panama. The cane toad ...
"Sensing salinity". European Space Agency. "Endozoicomonas gorgoniicola - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Ding, Jiun-Yan; Shiu, Jia ... The salt content must be 2-3% NaCl, which is slightly lower than ocean salinity - seawater is generally 3.5% NaCl, or 35 parts ...
Modern day salinities are all within 0.5 psu of the global average salinity of 34.7 psu, whereas salinities during the last ... There may exist proxies for salinity, but to date the main way that salinity has been measured has been by directly measuring ... From Bjerrum plots, it is found that a decrease in the salinity of an aqueous fluid will act to increase the value of the ... Adkins' study found that global salinity increased with a global sea level drop of 120 m. Analyzing 18O data they also found ...
Salinity control. In: H.P. Ritzema (ed.), Drainage Principles and Applications. Publication 16, International Institute for ...
Sanders, Dale (2020). "The salinity challenge". New Phytologist. 225 (3): 1047-1048. doi:10.1111/nph.16357. ISSN 1469-8137. PMC ...
The Odem Bay extension is low in salinity and serves as a nursery for shrimp, which migrate to Nueces Bay in spring. Oyster ... "Nueces Bay Salinity". Division of Nearshore Research. Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi. Retrieved 1 July 2010. Yochem, ... increasing the bay's salinity, and hurting the natural oyster and shrimp habitat. In response, the City of Corpus Christi, ...
"Salinity and Brine". NSIDC. Mooney, Chris (30 September 2015). "Everything you need to know about the surprisingly cold 'blob' ... The evaporation of ocean water in the North Atlantic increases the salinity of the water as well as cooling it, both actions ... Formation of sea ice further increases the salinity and density, because salt is ejected into the ocean when sea ice forms. ... But freshwater decreases ocean water salinity, and through this process prevents colder waters sinking. This mechanism possibly ...
"Australia's Salinity Problem". National Action Plan for Salinity and Water Quality. Commonwealth of Australia. 2001. Archived ... Irrigation salinity is caused by water soaking through the soil level adding to the ground water below. This causes the water ... Overuse or poor management of irrigation is held responsible by some for environmental problems such as soil salinity and loss ... At Wakool in the Riverina region of New South Wales, irrigation salinity is mitigated through a salt interception scheme that ...
These programs aim to minimize the impact of selenium and salinity as unhealthy amounts of salinity lead to lower reproduction ... Elevated salinity concentrations are also a problem for the river and its users. Soils derived from the Mancos Shale, east of ... Salinity is being addressed by implementing local investments into the water use infrastructure by converting old systems to ... "Salinity Control in the Gunnison and Colorado River Basins". Gunnison River Basin. Retrieved 2020-12-17. "Bureau of Reclamation ...
This freshwater fish, notable for its ability to withstand the rising salinity of the Salton Sea, can survive salinities ... and the relatively high salinity of the inflow feeding the sea are all causing increasing salinity. The concentration has been ... and evaporites are another contributor to salinity, as is the recent lowering of lake levels raising the salinity, though ... Salinity rose so high that large fish kills occurred, often blighting the beaches of the sea with their carcasses. Tourism was ...
Assessing Salinity-Induced Chlorophyll Responses. To assess the effects of salinity stress on leaf senescence, plants were ... Genetic Architecture of Salinity-Induced Chlorophyll Responses. To identify loci associated with salinity-induced chlorophyll ... The development of image-based fluorescence traits for monitoring chlorophyll responses to salinity. A, Salinity-responsive ... of salinity stress (Rajendran et al., 2009). The effects of salinity on chlorophyll and other fluorophores can be monitored by ...
Salinity in Australia. References[edit]. *^ from "Soil salinity" in WaterWiki, the on-line Knowledge and Collaboration Tool of ... Dry land salinity[edit]. Salinity in drylands can occur when the water table is between two and three metres from the surface ... Salinity is an important land degradation problem. Soil salinity can be reduced by leaching soluble salts out of soil with ... Salinity due to irrigation[edit]. Rain or irrigation, in the absence of leaching, can bring salts to the surface by capillary ...
Salinity: The term salinity refers to the amount of dissolved salts that are present in water. Sodium and chloride are the ... Salinity in the oceans is constant but is more variable along the coast where seawater is diluted with freshwater from runoff ... Naturally occurring waters vary in salinity from the almost pure water, devoid of salts, in snowmelt to the saturated solutions ... Salinity. The term salinity refers to the amount of dissolved salts that are present in water. Sodium and chloride are the ...
... but it is not immediately obvious that the salinity of the surface waters varies around the world and with the seasons.Salinity ... Sea-surface salinity and ocean circulation. For example, as sea ice grows in polar regions during the winter, the freezing ... Salinity is expressed by the amount of salt found in 1000 g (about 1 litre) of water. The average concentration of dissolved ... Since salinity is one of the main drivers of ocean circulation and closely connected with the cycling of freshwater around the ...
New SPARROW modeling work is underway to estimate time-variable salinity loading from irrigated agricultural lands. Salinity of ... The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program implements and manages projects to reduce salinity loads, investing millions ... mitigation of salinity requires a sound understanding of the spatial distribution of salinity sources, load accumulation, and ... and tens of millions of dollars are spent annually on salinity control projects designed to reduce salinity loads in surface ...
... few know that even small variations in Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) can have dramatic effects on the water cycle and ocean ... Salinity. Although everyone knows that seawater is salty, few know that even small variations in ocean surface salinity (i.e., ... What can salinity tell us? Data from Aquarius has unveiled a world of varying salinity patterns. The Arabian Sea, nestled up ... Measuring Salinity Throughout most of history, global understanding of ocean surface salinity was difficult because sampling by ...
Get the best deals on salinity meter when you shop the largest online selection at eBay.com. Free shipping on many items , ... Digital Salinity&PH Meter Salinity&PH Monitor Tester for Aquarium Free Shipping. $67.02 ... Salinity Refractometer Meter Water Reader Marine 0~10% Salt Aquarium Test Tester. 5 out of 5 stars ... 2 in1 Digital Salinity + PH Meter Water Quality Monitor Test pH For Aquarium New. $63.65 ...
Groundwater salinity in the sandly alluvial aquifers of Cooper Creek are stronly influenced by their proximity to Billabongs ... Stratigraphy and groundwater salinity. View Original Image at Full Size. Figure 4. Groundwater salinity in the sandly alluvial ...
Water-quality in U.S. rivers: salinity among major trends. Human activities have markedly changed the water quality of rivers ... Combinations of these ions-sodium and chloride, for example-form salts, and salinity is another term commonly used to describe ... All natural waters contain some dissolved solids (salinity) from contact with soils, rocks, and other natural materials. Too ...
History of the salinity determination Practical Salinity Scale 1978. Salinity calculator Lewis, E. L. 1982. The practical ... The salinity of euhaline seas is 30 to 35 ppt. Brackish seas or waters have salinity in the range of 0.5 to 29 ppt and ... soil salinity control Sodium adsorption ratio Measuring salinity Salinometer Salinity by biologic context In organisms ... The degree of salinity in oceans is a driver of the worlds ocean circulation, where density changes due to both salinity ...
Complex responses to drought and salinity stresses in plants are quantitative... ... Drought and salinity are the most important environmental stress factors that limit agricultural production worldwide. ... Genetically Modify Salinity Tolerance Genetically Modify Crop Glycine Betaine Glycine Betaine These keywords were added by ... Zhang N, Si HJ, Wen G, Du HH, Liu BL, Wang D (2011) Enhanced drought and salinity tolerance in transgenic potato plants with a ...
With no salinity management lost revenues were estimated to be $150 million due to 1.2 million acres of slightly saline soils ... Enterprise budget analysis was extended to include the fixed costs of installing tile drainage to manage soil salinity in the ... Installing tile drainage to manage soil salinity decreased per acre crop profitability from 19-49% due to the large upfront ... "Significance of supply response for estimating agricultural costs of soil salinity," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 53(2- ...
Click the image to see an animation detailing why the salinity levels of the two oceans are different. ...
Primary salinity (natural salinity) and secondary salinity (induced salinity). (Nrm.qld.gov.au, 2013) Primary salinity ... Dryland salinity - causes and impacts [Accessed: 20 Oct 2013]. Dryland Salinity [Accessed: 15 Oct 2013]. Types of salinity [ ... dryland salinity refers to salinity in unirrigated landscapes. Salinity processes extend from local to regional scales and are ... Dryland salinity is a natural process for soil, just like other processes such as wind erosion. Salinity degrades land by an ...
Sustainable energy from salinity gradients. [Ana Cipollina; Giorgio Micale;] -- Salinity gradient energy, also known as blue ... Salinity gradient energy; 1.1. Some history on salinity gradient energy technologies; 1.2. Theoretical analysis of world ... Salinity gradient energy; 1.1. Some history on salinity gradient energy technologies; 1.2. Theoretical analysis of world ... Sustainable energy from salinity gradients. Author:. Ana Cipollina; Giorgio Micale. Publisher:. Amsterdam : Elsevier/Woodhead ...
Salinity is one of the well-known abiotic stresses which affects crop productivity through imposing ion imbalance and ... Munns R, Tester M (2008) Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Annu Rev Plant Biol 59:651-681PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Abiotic stress Salinity Aquaporins MIPs PIPs TIPs NIPs SIPs XIPs HIPs GIPs ... Sun H, Li L, Lou Y, Zhao H, Yang Y, Wang S, Gao Z (2017) The bamboo aquaporin gene PeTIP4;1-1 confers drought and salinity ...
Make research projects and school reports about salinity easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... salinity A measure of the total quantity of dissolved solids in water, in parts per thousand (per mille) by weight, when all ... salinity A measure of the total quantity of dissolved solids in water, in parts per thousand (per mille) by weight, when all ... salinity Measure of the total quantity of dissolved solids in sea water in parts per thousand by weight when all the carbonate ...
Salinity at buoy 46059 (38.094N 129.951W) - WEST CALIFORNIA - 357NM West of San Francisco, CA. ...
Salinity at buoy 51001 (24.417N 162.100W) - NORTHWESTERN HAWAII ONE - 170 NM West Northwest of Kauai Island. ...
Interestingly, there was no correlation between environmental salinity and IGF-I levels, although decreased salinity improves ... Temperature and salinity effects on plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations and growth in juvenile turbot ( ... The effects of temperature and salinity on plasma IGF-I levels and its interrelationship with growth, daily feed intake and ... IGF-I, Growth, Feed intake, Temperature, Salinity, Scophthalmus maximus, Turbot Ämneskategorier. Biologiska vetenskaper, ...
Features automatic temperature compensation, a double scale, salinity in parts per thousand, and specific gravity. Measures ... Place 1 or 2 drops of a sample on the prism and read the percentage of salinity in the sample! ... Other features include a double scale, salinity in parts per thousand, and specific gravity. It measures salt content in ... Salinity: 0 to 100 parts per thousand; Specific Gravity: 1.000 to 1.070. ...
Salinity Sensor, you can quickly, easily, and accurately measure the total dissolved salt content of environmental samples. ... NeuLog® Salinity Sensor. 1. Included. NeuLog® Connection Hardware Bundle (item #369733, #369500, #369510, or #369520). 1. ... With the NeuLog® Salinity Sensor, you can quickly, easily, and accurately measure the total dissolved salt content of ... With the NeuLog® Salinity Sensor, you can quickly, easily, and accurately measure the total dissolved salt content of ...
Dry land salinityEdit. Salinity in drylands can occur when the water table is between two and three metres from the surface of ... Salinity is an important land degradation problem. Soil salinity can be reduced by leaching soluble salts out of soil with ... Salinity due to irrigationEdit. Rain or irrigation, in the absence of leaching, can bring salts to the surface by capillary ... Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil; the process of increasing the salt content is known as salinization.[1] Salts ...
Surface salinity changes from 1950 to 2000. Red shows regions becoming saltier, blue regions becoming fresher: P.J. Durack, et ... A paper in Science today finds rapidly changing ocean salinities as a result of a warming atmosphere have intensified the ... Ocean Salinities Reveal Strong Global Water Cycle Intensification During 1950 to 2000. Science 2012. DOI:10.1126/science. ... Big Changes in Ocean Salinity Intensifying Water Cycle. * Julia Whitty. Bio , Follow ...
This publication is the outcome of an IAEA coordinated research project which addressed the problem of advancing salinity in ... Soil, Water, Landscape, Salinity, Water Management, Agriculture, Productivity, Irrigation, Soil Water Storage, Salt, CRP, ... The publication informs readers on ways to improve crop productivity and sustainability through water and salinity management ... INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Landscape Salinity and Water Management for Improving Agricultural Productivity, IAEA- ...
... all the data collected over land and ocean have been drawn together to show how moisture in the soil and salinity in the ocean ... The international salinity community will meet shortly to discuss developments in ocean salinity mapping after five years of ... show monthly differences in sea-surface salinity with respect to the average salinity - and show large deviations in the ... Five years of soil moisture, ocean salinity and beyond. 03/11/2014 7832 views 57 likes ...
A review on salinity adaptation of marine molluscs based on mainly Russian scientific literature is presented. The existence of ... A review on salinity adaptation of marine molluscs based on mainly Russian scientific literature is presented. The existence of ... The efficiency of resistance and tolerance adaptations to salinity changes may vary in different species and in different colour ... of the mollusc-host to extreme salinity changes without effecting the hosts capacity for adaptive changes in salinity tolerance ...
Salinity matters 18 December 2014 Measurements of salt held in surface seawater are becoming ever-more important for us to... ... Salinity matters. 18 December 2014. Measurements of salt held in surface seawater are becoming ever-more important for us to ... The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite, SMOS, is monitoring changes in the amount of water held in the surface layers ... Launched in 2009, SMOS has provided the longest continuous record of sea-surface salinity measurements from space. ...
As salinity also increases as evaporation occurs, we can generalize the relationship to state that water with an increased 18O ...
Purchase Plant Responses to Drought and Salinity stress, Volume 57 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780123876928, ... Recent Advances in Photosynthesis Under Drought and Salinity I. Introduction II. Studying Drought and Salinity Effects on ... Plant Responses to Drought and Salinity stress, Volume 57 1st Edition. Developments in a Post-Genomic Era. 0.0 star rating ... Recent Advances in Understanding the Regulation of Whole-Plant Growth Inhibition by Salinity, Drought and Colloid Stress I. ...
  • The use of electrical conductivity measurements to estimate the ionic content of seawater led to the development of the scale called the practical salinity scale 1978 (PSS-78). (wikipedia.org)
  • In practical terms, salinity is expressed as PSU (practical salinity units) which are based on water temperature and conductivity measurements 1 . (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • 1. Introduction The measurement of absolute salinity in the ocean during campaigns at sea is problematic because salinity is not obtained through direct measurement but instead is calculated from measurement of electrical conductivity. (ametsoc.org)
  • However, conductivity only slightly depends on salinity and mainly depends on temperature, the effect of which must then be filtered out very precisely. (ametsoc.org)
  • It uses a high-performance CPU chip to measure the salinity and convert it into a salinity value.It uses a high-performance CPU chip to measure conductivity and convert it to a salinity value. (environmental-expert.com)
  • It has the characteristics of simple maintenance, high stability, excellent repeatability and versatility, and can accurately measure the conductivity and salinity value in the solution. (environmental-expert.com)
  • It is widely used in the continuous monitoring of conductivity and salinity values in solutions such as thermal power, chemical fertilizer, metallurgy, environmental protection, pharmaceutical, biochemical, food and tap water. (environmental-expert.com)
  • This product is a conductivity salinity digital sensor and it can directly output RS485 signal. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Designed to bring simplicity to salinity testing, the Marine Salinity Tester measures conductivity (EC) to determine the salinity of natural and artificial seawater. (aquariumsupplies.ca)
  • Used to calibrate your Conductivity/Salinity Probe and PM2 for saltwater salinity monitoring applications. (aquariumsupplies.ca)
  • The current method to assess salinity measures the electrical conductivity (EC) of the water sample, which provides a measurement of the total salinity. (abc.net.au)
  • The conductivity of a salt solution is directly related to the salinity. (hawaii.edu)
  • In this experiment, you will use a Conductivity Probe to measure the salinity of salt water. (vernier.com)
  • Measure salinity of water sample using Conductivity Probe. (vernier.com)
  • The testers are available in a pin type or a cup style measuring sensor and measure conductivity, TDS and salinity all in one instrument. (coleparmer.com)
  • Measures conductivity (in a wide range of 0.1 S ~ 199mS), salinity, TDS (total dissolved solids), and temperature. (thomassci.com)
  • Measures conductivity, salinity and temperature Direct-reading digital display Meter uses forced-current measurement technology. (thomassci.com)
  • the European CE mark Meter determines conductivity, plus TDS, salinity and temperature. (thomassci.com)
  • Conductivity measurements, along with temperature, also allow for salinity values to be calculated through algorithms. (ysi.com)
  • Conductivity, Salinity, TDS and Temperature Handheld Instrument. (ysi.com)
  • Dissolved Oxygen/Conductivity/Salinity Temperature Handheld Instrument. (ysi.com)
  • Salinity in the oceans is constant but is more variable along the coast where seawater is diluted with freshwater from runoff or from the emptying of rivers. (britannica.com)
  • Everyone knows that seawater is salty, but it is not immediately obvious that the salinity of the surface waters varies around the world and with the seasons. (esa.int)
  • Although everyone knows that seawater is salty, few know that even small variations in ocean surface salinity (i.e., concentration of dissolved salts) can have dramatic effects on the water cycle and ocean circulation. (nasa.gov)
  • Deep below the surface, however, ocean circulation is primarily driven by changes in seawater density, which is determined by salinity and temperature. (nasa.gov)
  • Seawater typically has a mass salinity of around 35 g/kg, although lower values are typical near coasts where rivers enter the ocean. (wikipedia.org)
  • For practical reasons salinity is usually related to the sum of masses of a subset of these dissolved chemical constituents (so-called solution salinity), rather than to the unknown mass of salts that gave rise to this composition (an exception is when artificial seawater is created). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity satellite, SMOS, is monitoring changes in the amount of water held in the surface layers of soil and concentrations of salt in the top layer of seawater - both of which are a consequence of the continuous exchange of water between the oceans, the atmosphere and the land. (esa.int)
  • Absolute (or ideal) salinity is the mass fraction of salts in seawater 1 . (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • Salinity of estuaries usually increases away from a freshwater source such as a river (Figure 1 and 2), although evaporation sometimes causes the salinity at the head of the estuary to exceed seawater. (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • Seawater of lower salinity flows into the estuary over the top of this layer. (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • When you need absolutely accurate salinity conditions in your aquarium, you're going to need an H2 Ocean Seawater Refractometer. (aquariumsupplies.ca)
  • Red Sea's Seawater Refractometer offers exceptional accuracy, for measuring the absolute salinity of seawater at a temperature of 25C/77F. (aquariumsupplies.ca)
  • In water temperatures of over 28° C or with a salinity over and above natural seawater at about 34.5 this crab has been known to leave the water and perish if it is unable to find a favourable niche. (glaucus.org.uk)
  • The salinity readings taken by West Sussex County Council Rural Strategy Unit with the electronic meter measured 34.7 which is full strength seawater. (glaucus.org.uk)
  • Salinity stress occurs globally where irrigation is prevalent, where ground water supplies are salinized due to seawater intrusion and where soils are salinized due to mineral deposits. (biospace.com)
  • The salinity of the seawater sample can then be calculated using the formula given at the beginning of this topic. (hawaii.edu)
  • Shifts in microbial communities along the salinity gradient formed by the mixing of freshwater and seawater are commonly observed in estuaries [ 9 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • On average, seawater in the world's oceans has a salinity of about 3.5% (35 g/L). This means that every kilogram (roughly one liter by volume) of seawater has approximately 35 grams (1.2 oz) of dissolved salts (predominantly sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl−) ions). (earthscape.org)
  • As well as wind driving ocean surface currents, temperature and salinity are key variables affecting ocean circulation. (esa.int)
  • Temperature and salinity effects on plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations and growth in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). (gu.se)
  • The effects of temperature and salinity on plasma IGF-I levels and its interrelationship with growth, daily feed intake and feed conversion of juvenile turbot (initial mean weight 14 g) were investigated by rearing fish at 10, 14, 18 and 22 °C and 15, 25 and 33.5‰ for 3 months. (gu.se)
  • The plasma IGF-I levels increased with increasing temperatures reaching a plateau around 18 °C. Further, both temperature and salinity had a significant effect on growth, daily feed intake and feed conversion efficiency in juvenile turbot. (gu.se)
  • Sea surface density, a driving force in ocean circulation and a function of temperature and salinity will finally be measurable every month on a global scale. (nasa.gov)
  • determine the type of changes in temperature and salinity structure responsible for the variability between pairs of sections. (ametsoc.org)
  • This is the first study to show that as the length of the prawn increases, its heart rate declines, regardless of variations in pH, water temperature and salinity. (amnh.org)
  • Floyd (1977) tested the effects of temperature and salinity on the larval development of P. pugio . (amnh.org)
  • All test organisms were collected from San Pablo Bay, Calif. Temperature and salinity had highly significant effects on survival and responses to changes in temperature and salinity were strongly interdependent. (asce.org)
  • The interaction between effects of temperature and salinity appear to be an apparent inherent property of organisms. (asce.org)
  • Salinity in drylands can occur when the water table is between two and three metres from the surface of the soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since soil salinity makes it more difficult for plants to absorb soil moisture, these salts must be leached out of the plant root zone by applying additional water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil salinity can be reduced by leaching soluble salts out of soil with excess irrigation water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil salinity control involves watertable control and flushing in combination with tile drainage or another form of subsurface drainage . (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] [5] A comprehensive treatment of soil salinity is available from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization . (wikipedia.org)
  • High levels of soil salinity can be tolerated if salt-tolerant plants are grown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salinity (/səˈlɪnɪti/) is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water, called saline water (see also soil salinity). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dryland salinity is a natural process for soil, just like other processes such as wind erosion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salinity degrades land by an increase in soil salt concentration in the environment, watercourse or soil in unirrigated landscapes, being in excess of normal soil salt concentrations in dryland regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enterprise budget analysis was extended to include the fixed costs of installing tile drainage to manage soil salinity in the Red River Valley of North Dakota for corn, soybeans, wheat, sugar beets, and barley. (repec.org)
  • Installing tile drainage to manage soil salinity decreased per acre crop profitability from 19-49% due to the large upfront capital investment of tile drainage. (repec.org)
  • With no salinity management lost revenues were estimated to be $150 million due to 1.2 million acres of slightly saline soils and 275,000 acres of moderate soil salinity. (repec.org)
  • Managing the Economics of Soil Salinity ," Agribusiness & Applied Economics Report 115630, North Dakota State University, Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics. (repec.org)
  • Significance of supply response for estimating agricultural costs of soil salinity ," Agricultural Systems , Elsevier, vol. 53(2-3), pages 231-252. (repec.org)
  • Soil salinity is dramatically increasing throughout the world because of climate change, rise in sea levels, excessive irrigation, and natural leaching process. (springer.com)
  • The publication informs readers on ways to improve crop productivity and sustainability through water and salinity management and defines approaches and technologies to assess and monitor soil water content and salinity. (iaea.org)
  • Marking its fifth birthday, all the data collected over land and ocean have been drawn together to show how moisture in the soil and salinity in the ocean change over the year. (esa.int)
  • These images correspond to microwave radiation emitted from Earth's surface and can be related to soil moisture and ocean salinity - two key variables in Earth's water cycle. (esa.int)
  • Groundwater salinity occurs when saline groundwater is present in the upper layers of the soil . (ipl.org)
  • Irrigation salinity occurs when irrigation water accumulates in the upper layers of soil. (ipl.org)
  • Irrigation salinity is common in areas where soil drainage is poor and low quality water is used for irrigation (Rengasamy, 2006). (ipl.org)
  • The ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite has been in orbit for a decade. (phys.org)
  • B. Mostafazadeh-fard, M. Heidarpour, Q. A. Aghakhani, and M. Feizi, "Effect of irrigation water salinity and leaching on soil chemical properties in an arid region," International Journal of Agriculture and Biology , vol. 3, pp. 166-469, 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • CSIRO also hopes to use the probe to measure salt concentrations in soil as part of its assault on dryland salinity. (innovations-report.com)
  • This paper tackles the increasingly significant problem of irrigation-induced soil salinity within a groundwater management model. (repec.org)
  • We introduce a negative externality to the production process by assuming that soil degradation due to higher soil salinity affects total factor productivity. (repec.org)
  • Soil salinity is the major abiotic stress affecting plant productivity worldwide. (frontiersin.org)
  • We learn how to monitor plants using conveyor belts in one of the world's biggest greenhouses, plus how scientists are trying to solve the problem of increasing soil salinity. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Increased soil salinity is a world-wide problem, hence there is a need to develop more salinity-resistant crop cultivars ( Ochatt, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The cells of organisms also contain solutions of dissolved ions, but the range of salinity that occurs in tissues is more narrow than the range that occurs in nature. (britannica.com)
  • In the open ocean the range of salinity is generally from 32 psu to 37 psu. (nasa.gov)
  • Knowlton and Kirby (1984) tested salinity tolerance and sodium balance in the prawn P. pugio and figured out that P. pugio can regulate its blood sodium level within its tolerable range of salinity. (amnh.org)
  • Fortunately for aquarists, most marine organisms are fairly forgiving of the exact salinity, and high quality reef aquaria can seemingly have a fairly wide range of salinity. (reefkeeping.com)
  • Recommendations aside, high quality reef aquaria exist with a fairly wide range of salinity. (reefkeeping.com)
  • Between 300 and 600 AD, awareness of changes in salinity, temperature, and smell helped Polynesians explore the southern Pacific Ocean. (nasa.gov)
  • Parasites (trematodes) may suppress the resistance of the mollusc-host to extreme salinity changes without effecting the hosts capacity for adaptive changes in salinity tolerance. (mendeley.com)
  • New research finds that extreme and sudden changes in salinity cause a biochemical response in corals (Acropora millepora) that is similar to marine heatwaves, but in some ways, more damaging. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies at James Cook University (Coral CoE) and University of Technology Sydney (UTS) report that extreme and sudden changes in salinity, or the ocean salt concentration, cause a biochemical response in corals that is similar to marine heatwaves, but in some ways, more damaging to their cells ability to function. (eurekalert.org)
  • the average heart rate did not vary significantly with changes in salinity. (amnh.org)
  • Red colors represent areas of high salinity, while blue shades represent areas of low salinity. (nasa.gov)
  • In some regions such as the North Atlantic near Greenland, cooled high-salinity surface waters can become dense enough to sink to great depths. (nasa.gov)
  • The salinity change is spatially complicated, this study uses a simple index to synthesize these changes, named the Salinity Contrast (SC) index, which is defined as the difference between the salinity averaged over high-salinity and low-salinity regions. (eurekalert.org)
  • These results suggest that although date palm is tolerant to high salinity, there is variation in tolerance among different cultivars. (mdpi.com)
  • High concentrations (over 37 practical salinity units) are usually in the center of the ocean basins away from the mouths of rivers, which input fresh water. (nasa.gov)
  • Grey shaded areas (land) exceed 36 psu (practical salinity units). (windows2universe.org)
  • Seawater's salinity is generally defined in parts per thousand by weight (ppt) or in practical salinity units (PSU), which often is shown simply as S=35, or whatever the value actually is. (reefkeeping.com)
  • Based on such information, my recommendation is to maintain salinity at a natural level of about 35 ppt (abbreviated as and also as PSU, practical salinity units). (reefkeeping.com)
  • salinity A measure of the total quantity of dissolved solids in water, in parts per thousand (per mille) by weight, when all organic matter has been completely oxidized, all carbonate has been converted to oxide, and bromide and iodide to chloride. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The salinity of ocean water is in the range 33-38 parts per thousand, with an average of 35 parts per thousand. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Features automatic temperature compensation, a double scale, salinity in parts per thousand, and specific gravity. (carolina.com)
  • Other features include a double scale, salinity in parts per thousand, and specific gravity. (carolina.com)
  • Salinity used to be expressed in parts per thousand (ppt). (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • Thriving in clear, sunlit waters - the majority of reef-building corals are found in tropical and subtropical waters with a salinity between 32 to 42 parts per thousand," said senior author Prof David Miller of Coral CoE. (eurekalert.org)
  • The heart rate of P. pugio did not vary significantly at salinities of 10, 15, 20 and 25 parts per thousand. (amnh.org)
  • Sometimes, scientists measure salinity in parts per thousand (ppt) . (windows2universe.org)
  • According to Myall Coast, last week, farmers were getting a salinity measure of 14 parts per thousand at the mouth of the river and four parts per thousand at Tea Gardens. (thefishsite.com)
  • While most countries limit the amount of salt in drinking and irrigation water, they do not normally consider the effect of salinity on aquatic organisms. (abc.net.au)
  • Human practices can increase the salinity of soils by the addition of salts in irrigation water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salinity from irrigation can occur over time wherever irrigation occurs, since almost all water (even natural rainfall) contains some dissolved salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term salinity refers to the amount of dissolved salts that are present in water. (britannica.com)
  • Naturally occurring waters vary in salinity from the almost pure water, devoid of salts, in snowmelt to the saturated solutions in salt lakes such as the Dead Sea . (britannica.com)
  • Because water cannot be readily pumped across cell membranes, salinity balance is usually maintained by actively transporting inorganic ions, usually sodium and chloride. (britannica.com)
  • Salinity is expressed by the amount of salt found in 1000 g (about 1 litre) of water. (esa.int)
  • Increasing dissolved-solids concentrations in the Lower Colorado River Basin and their associated adverse economic impact led to the enactment of the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act in 1974 and the establishment of water-quality criteria for salinity in the Colorado River system (Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Forum, 2005). (usgs.gov)
  • Evaporation of ocean water and formation of sea ice both increase the salinity of the ocean. (nasa.gov)
  • However these "salinity raising" factors are continually counterbalanced by processes that decrease salinity such as the continuous input of fresh water from rivers, precipitation of rain and snow, and melting of ice. (nasa.gov)
  • It is important to understand salinity, the amount of dissolved salts in water, because it will lead us to better understanding of the water cycle and can lead to improved climate models. (nasa.gov)
  • Since 86% of global evaporation and 78% of global precipitation occur over the ocean, ocean surface salinity is the key variable for understanding how fresh water input and output affects ocean dynamics. (nasa.gov)
  • By tracking ocean surface salinity we can directly monitor variations in the water cycle: land runoff, sea ice freezing and melting, and evaporation and precipitation over the oceans. (nasa.gov)
  • Salinity is an important factor in determining many aspects of the chemistry of natural waters and of biological processes within it, and is a thermodynamic state variable that, along with temperature and pressure, governs physical characteristics like the density and heat capacity of the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conceptually the salinity is the quantity of dissolved salt content of the water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salt Water Pool Fish Pond Test Digital Salinity Temp ~ R7N7. (ebay.com)
  • Salinity processes extend from local to regional scales and are driven by imbalances in the water budget that result, primarily, from agriculturally driven landscape change. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dryland salinity effects human and natural resources, such as native vegetation and crops, animals, infrastructure, agricultural inputs, biodiversity, aquatic ecosystems and water supply quality in the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding dryland salinity requires a look at the water cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ceasing the removal of deeply rooted vegetation in order to moderate unbalanced groundwater recharge and the replanting of deeply rooted vegetation such as Eucalyptus and salt tolerant species in regions where salinity is present, will start to alleviate the salt and ground water discharge problems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dryland salinity is a sign that the water balance of the nearby area of land or catchment has been altered. (wikipedia.org)
  • Combinations of these ions-sodium and chloride, for example-form salts, and salinity is another term commonly used to describe the dissolved solids content of water. (usgs.gov)
  • Salinity gradient energy, also known as blue energy and osmotic energy, is the energy obtainable from the difference in salt concentration between two feed solutions, typically sea water and river water. (worldcat.org)
  • ïŽSustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients is an essential text for R&D professionals in the energy & water industry interested in salinity gradient power and researchers in academia from post-graduate level upwards. (worldcat.org)
  • A paper in Science today finds rapidly changing ocean salinities as a result of a warming atmosphere have intensified the global water cycle (evaporation and precipitation) by an incredible 4 percent between 1950 and 2000. (motherjones.com)
  • Ocean Salinities Reveal Strong Global Water Cycle Intensification During 1950 to 2000. (motherjones.com)
  • INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, Landscape Salinity and Water Management for Improving Agricultural Productivity, IAEA-TECDOC-1916, IAEA, Vienna (2020). (iaea.org)
  • As salinity also increases as evaporation occurs, we can generalize the relationship to state that water with an increased 18 O to 16 O ratio is saltier than water with a lower 18 O to 16 O ratio. (classzone.com)
  • Local and imported sources are increasing the salinity of groundwater in localized areas and the salinity of reclaimed water in central Arizona. (phoenix.gov)
  • The magnitude of the salinity issue is unclear and water providers in central Arizona decided to work together to assess the problem and, if necessary develop regional strategies for managing it. (phoenix.gov)
  • Homeowners also incur salinity 'avoidance costs', such as buying bottled drinking water and installing water softening systems. (phoenix.gov)
  • The commercial sector experiences salinity-related issues similar to homeowners, with water-intensive commercial operations bearing higher costs. (phoenix.gov)
  • Salinity describes soils that contain high concentrations of water-soluble salts, mainly NaCl. (ipl.org)
  • Stratified coastal waterways are characterised by a distinct increase in salinity with water depth (Figure 2A). (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • However, the tidal currents are of insufficient strength to fully mix the water column, and salinity varies both vertically and horizontally. (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • In this case, salinity is uniform through the water column, but varies between the riverine and oceanic ends of the estuary. (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • Guest Post by Willis Eschenbach There's an interesting study in Science magazine, entitled "Ocean Salinities Reveal Strong Global Water Cycle Intensification During 1950 to 2000" by Durack et al. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Salinity in the ocean is defined as the grams of salt per 1000 grams of water. (nasa.gov)
  • One gram of salt per 1000 grams of water is defined as one practical salinity unit or one PSU. (nasa.gov)
  • Salinity is the key to understanding the global water cycle. (nasa.gov)
  • The water mass associated with these features has a distinct temperature- salinity ( T - S ) relationship in contrast to the Gulf Common Water (GCW). (ametsoc.org)
  • Historically, salinity in the Colorado River System has increased significantly due to export of high quality water from the upper reaches and salt pickup from irrigation return flow. (asce.org)
  • Although damages due to salinity are principally experienced in the lower basin, implications of the Clean Water Act make solving the problem a matter of concern for the upper basin as well. (asce.org)
  • Salinity , along with ocean temperature, is required to compute ocean density and provides key information about water mass formation, mixed layer depth, barrier layer depth, and geostrophic circulation ( de Boyer Montégut et al. (ametsoc.org)
  • The project, officials claim, will resolve problem of salinity ingress in upstream of Narmadar and stop deterioration of surface and ground water quality. (indiatimes.com)
  • The storage and regulated release of water from Sardar Sarovar dam will address issues of salinity ingress and cater to the need of water for irrigation besides domestic and industrial use, said government officials. (indiatimes.com)
  • The null hypothesis is that when water temperature, salinity and pH change, the heart rate of the grass shrimp in beats per minute will not change. (amnh.org)
  • The independent variables were salinity, water temperature, pH and the length of each P. pugio . (amnh.org)
  • 2002) tested water salinity and substrate as factors affecting the seasonal abundance and spatial distribution ofPalaemonetes species. (amnh.org)
  • Although many studies had investigated the life history of Palaemonetes species and their tolerance for salinity and temperature changes, there were no investigations that looked at the effect of water acidification on Palaemonetes. (amnh.org)
  • The salinity digital sensor is a new generation of intelligent water quality detection digital sensor which researching and developing by our company. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Current standards to measure salinity do not adequately assess the toxicity of saline water to aquatic organisms, the researchers said. (abc.net.au)
  • But water samples with the same total salinity measurement can contain vastly different compositions of chemical ions - the positively or negatively charged atoms that form when salt is dissolved in water - and these can have markedly different effects on freshwater fauna. (abc.net.au)
  • The quantity of water contained within the lagoon and salinity are liable to fluctuate wildly. (glaucus.org.uk)
  • In June (in Sussex) the Shore Crab moves in estuaries and into lower salinity water than the sea. (glaucus.org.uk)
  • How does salinity affect the solubility of oxygen in water? (reference.com)
  • Increasing salinity decreases water solubility, such that the oceans can dissolve about 20 percent less oxygen than fresh water of the same temperature. (reference.com)
  • Arcadia's Salinity Tolerance trait enables plants to produce increased yields under conditions of elevated salinity, expanding the range of usable acreage for crop production and reducing requirements for fresh water. (biospace.com)
  • Arcadia's agronomic performance traits, including Nitrogen Use Efficiency, Water Use Efficiency, Salinity Tolerance, Heat Tolerance and Herbicide Tolerance, are all aimed at making agricultural production more economically efficient and environmentally sound. (biospace.com)
  • This month salinity is set to rise by four grams per litre in the Mekong Delta, affecting as many as 110 kilometres in some major estuaries, Ho Chi Minh City's Southern Institute of Water Resources Research reports. (asianews.it)
  • Salinity is a measure of how much salt is in water. (windows2universe.org)
  • The concept of both is partly different: RM is correlating reduction of runoffs to salinity elevation and GM relates salt flux to the aquifer yield and the impact of lake water level is neglected. (scirp.org)
  • BP announced it is using a new technology called LoSal® EOR at its Clair Ridge field to create low-salinity water for 'waterflooding' from sea water. (eponline.com)
  • At the Clair Ridge development west of Shetland, UK, they have deployed the first sanctioned, large-scale offshore enhanced oil recovery (EOR) scheme using reduced salinity water injection, calling it LoSal® EOR. (eponline.com)
  • These facilities create low-salinity water for "waterflooding" from sea water. (eponline.com)
  • The release says the technology next will be used at the Mad Dog Phase 2 project in the Gulf of Mexico, where a low-salinity waterflood injection capacity of more than 250,000 barrels of water per day will be employed. (eponline.com)
  • Ocean salinity is a key parameter that links various elements of the water cycle to ocean circulation dynamics and climate. (clivar.org)
  • Other methods for determining the salinity of a water sample are described below. (hawaii.edu)
  • Therefore, our data suggest that microbial metabolic patterns in the subtropical estuary are likely influenced by the water discharge patterns created by dry and wet seasons along the salinity gradient. (hindawi.com)
  • Salinity is a measurement of the saltiness or concentration of salt in water. (vernier.com)
  • Determine the effect of evaporation on the salinity of ocean water. (vernier.com)
  • Numerical model data from multiple sources is collected and integrated with NASA remotely sensed satellite data to provide up-to-date and historical information on water temperature, salinity and oyster lease locations for coastal environments along the Gulf of Mexico. (federallabs.org)
  • Refractometers are precision optical instruments used for measuring aquarium water salinity. (aquacave.com)
  • The South Australian Minister for Water Ian Hunter says a 12 month scoping study has found the best way to manage salinity in the lower lakes, is by raising and lowering lake levels. (abc.net.au)
  • and (6) to decrease salt concentration and salt loading which causes increased salinity levels within the Colorado River and to enhance the supply and quality of water available for use in the United States and the Republic of Mexico. (federalgrantswire.com)
  • This kit has been designed to allow the analyst to perform a very simple titration to determine the salinity of their water sample. (boreal.com)
  • The new study, published in Journal of Climate , overcomes many of the previous limitations, and derives a new estimate of water cycle change based on a new salinity data product since 1960. (eurekalert.org)
  • Consequently, salinity changes integrate effects over broad areas and provide an excellent indicator for water cycle change. (eurekalert.org)
  • An improved estimate of the global water cycle change has been compiled based on the new salinity data, salinity-contrast metrics and model simulations. (eurekalert.org)
  • AUSTRALIA - With low salinity in the Myall River, those that make their living off the water are struggling. (thefishsite.com)
  • Mr Hunter said when the shortcut was open salt water was able to run into the river and increase salinity levels but since the closure of the shortcut water hasn't been able to get through, decreasing the salinity. (thefishsite.com)
  • Salinity induced water deficit is accompanied by reduction in photosynthetic unit, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), accumulation of various inorganic ions, and organic metabolites ( Ashraf and Harris, 2004 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The experimental design was a completely randomized in factorial scheme, with five cultivars of lettuce (Mônica SF31, Grandes Lagos 659, Veneranda, Folha Roxa Quatro Estações e Stella) and five levels of water salinity (0.5 , 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 dS m-1) and three replications. (scielo.br)
  • Excess salinity poses a growing threat to food production, drinking water quality and public health. (watereducation.org)
  • Excess salinity - that which is greater than the standard set to protect beneficial uses - poses a growing threat to food production and drinking water quality. (watereducation.org)
  • On the municipal side, communities are spending increasing amounts of money to comply with water quality discharge standards designed to limit salinity. (watereducation.org)
  • Increasing salinity is likely the largest long-term chronic water quality impairment to surface and groundwater in the Central Valley. (watereducation.org)
  • Salinity, including nitrate, from past and current sources impair beneficial uses of waters throughout the Valley landscape and result in pollution of drinking water sources for some communities in the Central Valley. (watereducation.org)
  • To accomplish this, the Central Arizona Salinity Study (CASS) was initiated in 2001 to examine the problems created by the importation of salts into central Arizona. (phoenix.gov)
  • Click the image to see an animation detailing why the salinity levels of the two oceans are different. (classzone.com)
  • Over oceans, measurements from SMOS, the longest continuous record from space, show monthly differences in sea-surface salinity with respect to the average salinity - and show large deviations in the tropical Pacific Ocean and in the Indian Ocean. (esa.int)
  • The length and precision with which climate scientists can track the salinity, or saltiness, of the oceans is set to improve dramatically according to researchers working as part of ESA's Climate Change Initiative. (phys.org)
  • Furthermore, salinity is a key dynamical parameter that influences oceans dynamics. (clivar.org)
  • A clear change in salinity has been detected in the world's oceans, signaling shifts and acceleration in the global rainfall and evaporation cycle tied directly to climate change. (earthscape.org)
  • The lower salinity tolerance during germination in H. salicornicum at 15°C was attributed to reversible osmotic effect, but lower salinity tolerance at 30°C was attributed to Na + toxicity that usually causes irreversible damage. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • If the aquarium's organisms are from brackish environments with lower salinity, or from the Red Sea with higher salinity, selecting something other than 35 ppt may make good sense. (reefkeeping.com)
  • For example, the clearing of trees for agriculture is a major reason for dryland salinity in some areas, since deep rooting of trees has been replaced by shallow rooting of annual crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • dryland salinity refers to salinity in unirrigated landscapes. (wikipedia.org)
  • all impact on the severity and occurrence of dryland salinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dryland salinity is broadly the result of three processes: Groundwater recharge, Groundwater movement and Groundwater discharge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dryland salinity: economic, scientific, social and policy dimensions ," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics , Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 45(4), December. (repec.org)
  • While sea surface temperatures have been measured from space for over 3 decades, the technology to measure sea surface salinity from space has only recently emerged. (nasa.gov)
  • Complex responses to drought and salinity stresses in plants are quantitative traits, thus involve cooperative functions of many genes and biochemical-molecular mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Thirteen different inbred lines in relation to the type of grain and life cycles were characterized by testing for osmotic stress associated with salinity. (scirp.org)
  • Our study shows the effect of osmotic stress at the tissue level on the midgut gland and, at least partially, explains the reason for the mortalities at low salinities. (scielo.cl)
  • Rivers and lakes can have a wide range of salinities, from less than 0.01 g/kg to a few g/kg, although there are many places where higher salinities are found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Palaemonetes pugio prefers aquatic macrophyte and shell substrate habitats, and tolerates a wide range of salinities (Anderson 1985). (amnh.org)
  • Environment.nsw.gov.au, 2013) Groundwater recharge occurs naturally, being a key process in the development of salinity, however land clearing accelerates this development as the once present deep-rooted plants do not use excess runoff, and it now seeps past the roots zone to enter the groundwater system. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is generally accepted that drought and salinity tolerance could be increased through transgenic approaches by incorporating genes involved in stress protection into plants that lack them. (springer.com)
  • Transgenic potato plants with improved tolerance to drought and salinity stresses have been produced using various genes. (springer.com)
  • This chapter presented the case study of enhanced drought and salinity tolerance of transgenic potato plants with a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) gene from spinach under the control of the constitutive expression promoter CaMV 35S and the stress-inducible expression promoter rd29A, respectively. (springer.com)
  • Extreme abiotic stress conditions, such as salinity, flooding, heat, drought, and cold, as well as heavy metal toxicity and oxidative stress affect plants in many different ways. (intechopen.com)
  • HKT transporter-mediated salinity resistance mechanisms in Arabidopsis and monocot crop plants. (nih.gov)
  • In this report, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of seed presoaking by bovine hemoglobin, an inducer of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), on salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) plants. (nih.gov)
  • Plants, like other organisms, have set tolerance levels for salinity. (g-mwater.com.au)
  • The plants were exposed to three weeks of salinity watering treatments at the seed, seedling, juvenile, and mature ontogenetic stages. (esa.org)
  • They found that the plants do exhibit some trait plasticity to avoid salinity stress in the short term, useful at early life stages. (esa.org)
  • Parida, A.K. and Das, A.B. (2005) Salt Tolerance and Salinity Effects on Plants: A Review. (scirp.org)
  • Salinity affects some physiological and biochemical processes of the plants and reduces significantly the yield. (scirp.org)
  • Despite advances in increasing plant productivity and resistance to a number of pests and diseases, improving salt tolerance in crop plants remains elusive, mainly because salinity affects several aspects of plant physiology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Between 1988 and 2012, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Program spent between $10 million and $60 million annually on salinity control projects aimed at reducing salinity loads in surface waters of the Colorado River Basin (U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 2013). (usgs.gov)
  • Silicon in the form of silicic acid, which usually appears as a neutral molecule in the pH range of most natural waters, may also be included for some purposes (e.g., when salinity/density relationships are being investigated). (wikipedia.org)
  • All natural waters contain some dissolved solids (salinity) from contact with soils, rocks, and other natural materials. (usgs.gov)
  • The chemical study―especially of salinity―of the Kinneret waters has a long history. (scirp.org)
  • The Kinneret waters' level of salinity became so critical that heavy national investments were carried out on anthropogenic interventions within the natural ecosystem. (scirp.org)
  • While there are some salinity regulatory controls in place, it is generally agreed that a much more comprehensive approach is needed, one that involves the many users of Central Valley waters. (watereducation.org)
  • Since salinity is one of the main drivers of ocean circulation and closely connected with the cycling of freshwater around the planet measurements of sea-surface salinity from SMOS are improving our knowledge of the conditions that influence these circulation patterns and thus climate. (esa.int)
  • SMOS has now provided the longest continuous record of sea-surface salinity measurements from space. (esa.int)
  • The international salinity community will meet shortly to discuss developments in ocean salinity mapping after five years of SMOS measurements. (esa.int)
  • Salinity is controlled largely by the balance between evaporation and precipitation. (esa.int)
  • Salinity varies due to evaporation and precipitation over the ocean as well as river runoff and ice melt. (nasa.gov)
  • Drought and salinity are the most important environmental stress factors that limit agricultural production worldwide. (springer.com)
  • The recent advance was summarized in improving drought and salinity tolerance through transgenic approaches in potato. (springer.com)
  • And reduction of groundwater flow caused by drought can also concentrate salinity in some circumstances, he said. (abc.net.au)
  • Five of its provinces - Kiên Giang, Bến Tre, Tiền Giang, Cà Mau, Long An - have declared a state of emergency because of years of drought and rising salinity. (asianews.it)
  • The government estimates that 362,000 hectares of rice fields and 136,000 fruit trees in the Mekong Delta will be affected by drought and salinity this year. (asianews.it)
  • In an effort to address this challenge, we generated temporal imaging data from 378 diverse rice genotypes across 14 d of 90 m m NaCl stress and developed a statistical model to assess the genetic architecture of dynamic salinity-induced growth responses in rice germplasm. (plantphysiol.org)
  • This salinity meter is an ion-selective meter which uses a sodium electrode to read directly the salt (NaCl) content of a solution. (sciencelab.com)
  • Seedlings from 10 commercially important date palm cultivars were subjected to 240 mM NaCl, and several physiological parameters related to salinity tolerance traits were evaluated upon treatment. (mdpi.com)
  • In order to understand the mechanisms underlying acquisition of tolerance to salinity, we recently produced callus tissues of tobacco and Medicago truncatula resistant to NaCl-induced salt stress following application of a step-up recurrent selection method. (frontiersin.org)
  • The surface area of salinity resistant cells of M. truncatula A17 and N. tabacum BY2 and their nuclei, produced by step-up recurrent selection, were reduced, and cells elongated as NaCl increased, but these parameters proved to be unreliable in explaining cell survival and growth at high NaCl. (frontiersin.org)
  • In Part II, you will measure the change in salinity near the mouth of a river as it flows into an ocean. (vernier.com)
  • Former head of the Murray Darling Basin Commission, Dr Don Blackmore, said the drying climate had reduced the problem of salinity in Australia, meaning the problem is not expected to be as extensive as was predicted in the 1990s. (abc.net.au)
  • The results have shown new very tolerant cultivars (Manoma and Umsila) that could serve as genetic resources for improved date palm tolerance to salinity. (mdpi.com)
  • Determine the salinity change when a river flows into an ocean. (vernier.com)
  • The present paper will focus on salinity as chloride concentration (ppm) [Cl] which is the common component for quality consideration. (scirp.org)
  • Rectangular flat map projection (Atlantic-centered) with grid lines showing Sea Surface Salinity measurements taken by Aquarius between September 2011 and September 2014. (nasa.gov)
  • Print resolution still - Rectangular flat map projection (Atlantic-centered) showing Sea Surface Salinity measurements taken by Aquarius. (nasa.gov)
  • Nrm.qld.gov.au, 2013) Primary salinity naturally occurs in arid and saline environments such as salt lakes, marshes, pans and salt flats. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, development of salt-tolerant rice cultivars is essential to maintain rice productivity in the salinity-affected regions globally. (plantphysiol.org)
  • With the conclusion of the salinity tolerant rice trials, we are able to identify lines which have shown superior performance in acute salt stress conditions," said Dr. Usha Barwale Zehr, Chief Technology Officer of Mahyco. (biospace.com)
  • Salinity Natural Salt Pool Clarifier performs better than other pool clarifiers. (pinchapenny.com)
  • Salt stress on cotton varieties of distinct salinity tolerance can induce expression of different proteins. (scirp.org)
  • The ability of halophytes to tolerate high salt is determined by the effective coordination between various physiological processes, metabolic pathways and protein or gene networks responsible for delivering salinity tolerance. (frontiersin.org)
  • The present review summarizes the salt tolerance mechanisms of halophytes by elucidating the recent studies that have focused on proteomic, metabolomic, and ionomic aspects of various halophytes in response to salinity. (frontiersin.org)
  • The effects of salinity on cell size are known, but those on cell morphometry including cell and nuclear surface area and position of nuclei within salt stress resistant cells were never studied before. (frontiersin.org)
  • Nuclear marginalization was for the first time observed as a result of salt stress in plant cells, and could be a novel helpful morphological marker of acquisition of salinity tolerance. (frontiersin.org)
  • The billion-dollar question is what to do with all that salt Truck it out Build a massive drain to the ocean Allow valuable farmland to transition into a giant salinity dumping grounds Wherever the solution lies, one thing is certain. (watereducation.org)
  • 1. Introduction Salinity is one of the fundamental ocean variables that are routinely measured, and variations in salinity have been used extensively in climate studies. (ametsoc.org)
  • Even in a drying climate, salinity could get worse if there is a wet cycle," Dr Blackmore said. (abc.net.au)
  • In a paper published Friday (April 27) in the journal Science, Australian scientists from the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory reported changing patterns of salinity in the global ocean during the past 50 years, marking a clear symptom of climate change. (earthscape.org)
  • This study provides new monthly gridded salinity fields for the upper 2000 m since 1960" John Abraham said, "To perform interpolation across data sparse intervals and regions, the method uses information on the spatio-temporal co-variability of salinity taken from the historical coupled climate model simulations. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, freshwater plumes from large rivers such as the Amazon alter surface salinity. (esa.int)
  • This includes, for example, salinity differences related to El Niño and La Niña, and the impact that freshwater from large tropical rivers has on tropical cyclones. (esa.int)
  • Plan view of the salinity distribution of a hypothetical estuary in which salinity (as PSU) increases away from the freshwater source. (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • High evaporation rates in the presence of low freshwater inflow can lead to hyper- salinity in tidal embayments and wide shallow estuaries . (ozcoasts.org.au)
  • New research confirms that drastic changes in ocean salinity from, for example, severe freshwater flooding, as recently experienced off the coast of north-east Queensland from abnormal monsoonal conditions, provoke a similar stress response in corals as extreme heating, resulting in "freshwater bleaching" and if unabated, coral death. (eurekalert.org)
  • The conference will review progress and ongoing work and will identify next frontiers in the fields of ocean salinity and freshwater cycle science. (clivar.org)
  • At AquaCave, we offer some of the best selection & best prices on Salinity Refractometers for Marine and Reef Aquariums for you marine, reef, and freshwater aquarium. (aquacave.com)
  • precipitation puts more freshwater into the ocean and reduces the salinity. (eurekalert.org)
  • In higher salinity levels (500 - 700 mM), germination at moderate temperatures was greater than at both lower and higher temperatures. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The team have proposed a new method of measuring salinity that will provide a more accurate assessment of the impact on aquatic life. (abc.net.au)
  • Groundwater salinity in the sandly alluvial aquifers of Cooper Creek are stronly influenced by their proximity to Billabongs. (carleton.edu)
  • Salinity is usually caused by two mechanisms: groundwater salinity and irrigation salinity. (ipl.org)
  • Interestingly, there was no correlation between environmental salinity and IGF-I levels, although decreased salinity improves growth and feed conversion efficiency. (gu.se)
  • The existence of two relatively independent systems of adaptation to extreme (resistance level) and moderate (tolerance level) changes of environmental salinity was shown. (mendeley.com)
  • Compared with non-hemoglobin treatment, hemoglobin presoaking also increased the potassium (K) to sodium (Na) ratio both in the root and shoot parts after salinity stress. (nih.gov)
  • Whether you work in a lab setting or perform testing in the field, we have the products you need, from Sodium & Salinity Meters, glassware, chemicals, or testing equipment. (sciencelab.com)
  • Salinity affects a significant portion of arable land and is particularly detrimental for irrigated agriculture, which provides one-third of the global food supply. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Salinity is one of the well-known abiotic stresses which affects crop productivity through imposing ion imbalance and disrupting the metabolic pathways. (springer.com)
  • Salinity affects about half the districts in 10 of the 12 provinces in the Mekong region. (asianews.it)
  • Tiffany D. Lum - a Masters student at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI - will present her research on salinity tolerance in a coastal plant species and how it affects plant reproduction resilience. (esa.org)
  • This very large, slow current -- estimated to be on the order of 1000 years to complete a full circuit -- is called the thermohaline circulation because it is caused by temperature (thermo) and salinity (haline) variations. (nasa.gov)
  • Seed priming and salinity induced variations in wheat (Triticum a. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Because optimal management and (or) mitigation of salinity requires a sound understanding of the spatial distribution of salinity sources, load accumulation, and transport mechanisms, the UCRB dissolved-solids SPARROW model was updated and further enhanced with streamflow and dissolved data concentrations collected during 1984−2012. (usgs.gov)
  • The concentrations of dissolved gases like oxygen and nitrogen are not usually included in descriptions of salinity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the sophisticated labs at the National Sea Simulator, we put both young and adult corals under a salinity stress test to see how they respond to differing salinity concentrations," said co-author Dr Jean-Baptiste Raina of UTS. (eurekalert.org)
  • 1. Introduction Salinity plays a significant role in the ocean circulation and the Earth global hydrological cycle. (ametsoc.org)
  • Play media The term 'salinity' is, for oceanographers, usually associated with one of a set of specific measurement techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • A region on chromosome 1 regulates both the fluorescence shift indicative of the longer term ionic stress and the early growth rate decline during salinity stress. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The genetic basis of temporal adaptive responses to salinity stress remains to be explored in rice and other crops. (plantphysiol.org)
  • PIPs and TIPs have shown differential regulation pattern in roots and shoots of Arabidopsis , barley, and maize in salinity stress. (springer.com)
  • In the present chapter, we discussed roles of plant aquaporins in salinity stress and exploitating the same for genetic engineering approach. (springer.com)
  • In general, we found that the coral's cells launch a similar chemical response to reduced salinity as they do for heat stress," Prof Miller explained. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, unlike the heat stress response, corals exposed to reduced salinity experience a complete collapse of their internal cellular protein balance, suggesting that their cells are in deep trouble. (eurekalert.org)
  • A model for AtHKT1;1 and OsHKT1;5 functions in mediating Na + exclusion from leaves by removing Na + from the xylem sap during salinity stress. (nih.gov)
  • Salinity stress is an important environmental constraint limiting the productivity of many crops worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • Salinity stress has a negative impact on the plant's growth and development ( Rockström and Falkenmark, 2000 ), that gradually decline the crop productivity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mechanisms of salinity adaptation. (mendeley.com)
  • Essential physiological functions of major Na(+) transporters and their mechanisms mediating salinity resistance have been identified in Arabidopsis , including the AtSOS1, AtNHX and AtHKT1;1 transporters. (nih.gov)
  • Salinity, temperature and light affect seed germination of Haloxy. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Reseeding degraded communities with this species requires information about light and temperature requirements and salinity tolerance at different temperatures of its seed germination. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In non-saline treated seeds, germination in light conditions was similar for temperatures up to 25°C, but declined significantly at 30°C. Germination in darkness at either 15 or 20°C was significantly greater than at 25 and 30°C. Both final germination percentage and germination rate decreased as salinity increased. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination by presoaking with hemoglobin. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, these results suggested that hemoglobin performs an advantageous role in enhancement of salinity tolerance during rice seed germination. (nih.gov)
  • Date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a major fruit tree in the Middle East and it is a plant considered to be tolerant to a variety of abiotic stresses, including salinity. (mdpi.com)
  • The number of leaves, leaf area and biomass of shoots were reduced linearly with increasing salinity, with higher values in cultivars Folha Roxa Quatro Estações and Stella. (scielo.br)
  • Ltd. (Mahyco), today announced the achievement of a pipeline advancement target in the development of Salinity Tolerant rice. (biospace.com)
  • Salinity Tolerant rice is in Phase 3 of development, and the trait has been applied other important row crops such as wheat and cotton. (biospace.com)
  • Gophen, M. (2016) A Review on Modeling of Kinneret Salinity with Practical Recommendations. (scirp.org)
  • Salinity dramatically impedes plant growth, leading to a decrease in crop yield and quality. (ipl.org)
  • 1994) observed that when P. pugio and P. vulgaris were exposed to an array of 32 cubicles, each provided with one of four substrates (wood, mud, sand and shells), both species showed a significant preference for wood, regardless of salinity. (amnh.org)