Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.
Efforts to reduce risk, to address and reduce incidents and accidents that may negatively impact healthcare consumers.
Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial cell wall fragments; also acts as pyrogen and may cause arthritis; stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.
An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.
The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.
Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.
Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.
A formulation for presenting an antigen to induce specific immunologic responses. It consists of an assembly of antigens in multimeric form. The assembly is attached to a matrix with a built-in adjuvant, saponin. ISCOMs induce strong serum antibody responses, and are used as highly immunogenic forms of subunit vaccines.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE whose members produce SAPONINS.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.
Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
The degree to which the blood supply for BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS is free of harmful substances or infectious agents, and properly typed and crossmatched (BLOOD GROUPING AND CROSSMATCHING) to insure serological compatibility between BLOOD DONORS and recipients.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.
Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
4-Methyl derivative of LOMUSTINE; (CCNU). An antineoplastic agent which functions as an alkylating agent.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Substances that possess antiestrogenic actions but can also produce estrogenic effects as well. They act as complete or partial agonist or as antagonist. They can be either steroidal or nonsteroidal in structure.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
... aluminium phosphate is one of the most common immunologic adjuvants (efficiency enhancers) in vaccinations. Aluminium adjuvant ... use is widespread due to their cheap price, long history of use, safety and efficiency with most antigens. It's unknown how ... RJ, Crowther (2010). Vaccine adjuvants: preparation methods and research protocols. Humana. pp. 65-66, 82. ISBN 9781617371592. ... such salts function as adjuvants. Similar to aluminum hydroxide, AlPO4 is used as an antacid. It neutralizes stomach acid (HCl ...
... strategy under preliminary research to combine a genetically engineered sub-unit vaccine and an immunologic adjuvant into ... While spirulina is accepted as safe to consume, edible algal vaccines remain under basic research with unconfirmed safety and ...
"Comparative Safety of Vaccine Adjuvants: A Summary of Current Evidence and Future Needs". Drug Safety. 38 (11): 1059-1074. doi: ... The word "adjuvant" comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid. "An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any ... Freund's complete adjuvant, Freund's incomplete adjuvant Other organic substances: squalene There are many adjuvants, some of ... Discussing the safety of squalene as an adjuvant in 2006, the World Health Organisation stated "follow-up to detect any vaccine ...
Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety (2012). "Aluminum Adjuvants". Weekly Epidemiological Record. World Health ... vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity". Immunologic Research. 56 (2-3): 304-316. doi:10.1007/s12026-013-8403-1. PMID 23609067. ... Petrik, M; Wong, MC; Tabata, RC; Garry, RF; Shaw, CA (February 2007). "Aluminum adjuvant linked to gulf war illness induces ... Shaw is chair of the Scientific Advisory Board of the anti-vaccine Children's Medical Safety Research Institute, founded and ...
... immunologic adjuvant. A study of the response of non-human primate to the vaccine had been initiated. As of February 2015[ ... March 2017). "Safety and immunogenicity of GamEvac-Combi, a heterologous VSV- and Ad5-vectored Ebola vaccine: An open phase I/ ... June 2015). "Safety and immunogenicity of a novel recombinant adenovirus type-5 vector-based Ebola vaccine in healthy adults in ... The safety was assessed in approximately 15,000 individuals in Africa, Europe, and North America. The most commonly reported ...
Because inactivated viruses tend to produce a weaker response by the immune system than live viruses, immunologic adjuvants and ... Ghost techniques increase the safety of the killed vaccines, while maintaining their antigenicity due to mild preparation ... Petrovsky, Nikolai; Aguilar, Julio César (2004-09-28). "Vaccine adjuvants: Current state and future trends". Immunology and ...
"WHO - Squalene-based adjuvants in vaccines". Frey S, Poland G, Percell S, Podda A (October 2003). "Comparison of the safety, ... 2009 swine flu pandemic COVID-19 vaccine Immunologic adjuvant "WHO cuts swine flu vaccine production estimate". AFP. 24 ... A 2009 review of oil-based adjuvants in influenza vaccines stated that this type of adjuvant "neither stimulates antibodies ... about formulations of the vaccine that contain squalene as an adjuvant. An adjuvant is a substance that boosts the body's ...
... (for "Adjuvant System 03") is the trade name for a squalene-based immunologic adjuvant used in various vaccine products by ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Ahmed, SS; Montomoli, E; Pasini, FL; Steinman, L (2016). "The Safety of Adjuvanted ... 2009 flu pandemic MF59 - another squalene-based adjuvant by Novartis AS04 - another adjuvant by GSK v t e. ... A dose of AS03 adjuvant contains 10.69 mg squalene 11.86 mg DL-α-tocopherol 4.86 mg polysorbate 80 In the 2009 influenza ...
Adjuvants. Main article: Immunologic adjuvant. Vaccines typically contain one or more adjuvants, used to boost the immune ... "Vaccine Safety: The Facts". Retrieved 2019-04-16.. *^ Grammatikos AP, Mantadakis E, Falagas ME (June 2009 ... Aluminum salts or gels are added as adjuvants. Adjuvants are added to promote an earlier, more potent response, and more ... Finally, the vaccine is formulated by adding adjuvant, stabilizers, and preservatives as needed. The adjuvant enhances the ...
In a clinical trial, 80% of volunteers who received two vaccine doses containing 3.8 mcg of antigen with an adjuvant (a ... Study start: April 2005; Study completion: February 2006 The purpose of this study is to determine the dose-related safety of ... They come with obstacles-immunologic, regulatory, and commercial-but they also have generated more excitement than any other ... Study start: October 2005; Study completion: August 2006 This study is intended to examine the safety and dose-related ...
... has been tested as adjuvant treatment in nearly 200 breast cancer patients over a total of 5 years, and has shown to be ... "Efficacy and Safety Study of NeuVax™ (Nelipepimut-S or E75) Vaccine to Prevent Breast Cancer Recurrence (PRESENT)". ... 2008). "Assessment of immunologic response and recurrence patterns among patients with clinical recurrence after vaccination ... Clinical trial number NCT01479244 for "Efficacy and Safety Study of NeuVax(TM) Vaccine to Prevent Breast Cancer Recurrence ( ...
"Establishment of a new quality control and vaccine safety test for influenza vaccines and adjuvants using gene expression ... "Circulating proteasomes are markers of cell damage and immunologic activity in autoimmune diseases". The Journal of ...
Immunologic adjuvants are substances, administered in conjunction with a vaccine, that stimulate the immune system and increase ... "Squalene-based adjuvants in vaccines". Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety. World Health Organization. 21 July 2006. ... Squalene is not itself an adjuvant, but it has been used in conjunction with surfactants in certain adjuvant formulations. An ... An influenza vaccine called FLUAD which used MF59 as an adjuvant was approved for use in the US in people 65 years of age and ...
Aluminum compounds are used as immunologic adjuvants to increase the effectiveness of many vaccines. The aluminum in vaccines ... Immunization Safety Review Committee (2004). Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism. The National Academies Press. doi ... with the conclusion that currently used vaccines meet high safety standards and that criticism of vaccine safety in the popular ... Other safety concerns about vaccines have been promoted on the Internet, in informal meetings, in books, and at symposia. These ...
In addition, extensive safety studies were done in the vector transduced animals. Attempting to perform gene therapy by ... During the 12 years that Anderson has been in prison, IL-12 has been shown to potentially be a very important adjuvant drug in ... a sufficient percentage to ensure immunologic protection. She is now 33 years old, married, and works as a journalist and ... The initial protocol was a safety study where only the N2 vector, previously shown to be safe when used in non-human primates, ...
Our hospital has acted to protect the safety of our patients. No longer will we administer dietary supplements unless the ... Coffin SE, Moser CA, Cohen S, Clark HF, Offit PA (1997). "Immunologic correlates of protection against rotavirus challenge ... Offit, PA; Jew, RK (2003). "Addressing Parents' Concerns: Do Vaccines Contain Harmful Preservatives, Adjuvants, Additives, or ... Paul Offit, MD, on vaccine safety" (PDF). Books and Ideas. Podcast (MP3). Retrieved 2009-05-13. Wallace A (2009-10-19). "An ...
Safety, efficacy, and immunologic associates of protection". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 200 (3): 337-46. doi:10.1086/ ... Later, modern adjuvants and the possibility of preparing of single parasite proteins started another way to obtain malaria ... In 1948 inactivated merozoites with an adjuvant were used for preventing lethal malaria to kill a group of monkeys. But the ... These T cells are believed to be the main immunologic mechanism to fight malaria in liver. In 2014 Sanaria promoted an ...
Efficacy and Safety of Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab Administered in a Single Infusion Bag, Followed by Vinorelbine: VELVET Cohort ... HER2 and chromosome 17 effect on patient outcome in the N9831 adjuvant trastuzumab trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Oct 1; 28(28):4307 ... which raises funds for under-served women and for genomics and immunologic translational cancer research. A goal of Dr. Perez's ... Impact of PTEN protein expression on benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab in early-stage human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- ...
Hepatoxicity is the major safety issue of geniposide. Several studies in rats have shown an increase in serum alanine ... 2014). "Effects and mechanisms of geniposide on rats with adjuvant arthritis". Immunopharmacol. 20 (1): 46-53. doi:10.1016/j. ... Another study revealed that geniposide's effect was probably enhanced by immunoregulation in immunologic tissues, such as gut- ...
T cells and immune system cytokines and have been investigated in clinical trials as immunologic adjuvants. Many tumors express ... "Safety, activity, and immune correlates of anti-PD-1 antibody in cancer". The New England Journal of Medicine. 366 (26): 2443- ... Other adjuvants include proteins or other chemicals that attract and/or activate dendritic cells, such as granulocyte ... have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy. On 16 ...
Kolb, Susan (1996). "Doctor, Are You Listening? The Silicone Catastrophe." Human Adjuvant Disease Corp. Retrieved from " ... and has been an active voice in the debate about the safety of breast implant devices since 1996. She has treated over 2,000 ... Immunologic Research, 18, 125-73. See:Shanklin, Douglas. R., and D. L. Smalley (2002). "Pathogenic and Diagnostic Aspects of ... Human Adjuvant Disease Corp. Retrieved from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-09-28. Retrieved 2011-10-09. ...
As well as the active antigen derived from A/California/7/2009 (H1N1), the vaccine contains an immunologic adjuvant AS03 which ... In 2018, a multinational study including Centers for Disease Control and Prevention scientists published safety data on ... While other 2009 H1N1 vaccines have been developed, the use of a proprietary immunologic adjuvant is claimed to boost the ... Pandemrix contains two adjuvants designed to provoke a stronger immune response; they were not in the vaccine used in China, ...
Maor et el have demonstrated the safety and efficiency of IRE as an ablation modality for smooth muscle cells in the walls of ... Despite that IRE makes adjuvant tumor mass reduction therapy for LAPC possible for the first time, IRE remains, in its current ... June 2019). "High-frequency irreversible electroporation is an effective tumor ablation strategy that induces immunologic cell ... Buijs M, Zondervan PJ, de Bruin DM, van Lienden KP, Bex A, van Delden OM (March 2019). "Feasibility and safety of irreversible ...
The safety of biologics during pregnancy has not been assessed. European guidelines recommend avoiding biologics if a pregnancy ... The immunologic pathways of psoriasis involve Th9, Th17, Th1 lymphocytes, and IL-22. The aforementioned biologic agents hinder ... ISBN 978-0-07-166904-7. Gelmetti C (January 2009). "Therapeutic moisturizers as adjuvant therapy for psoriasis patients". ... Rustin MH (November 2012). "Long-term safety of biologics in the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis: review of ...
Given their role in presentation, HSPs are useful as immunologic adjuvants (DAMPS) in boosting the response to a vaccine. ... Retrieved 9 January 2018.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link) "Immune Response and Safety of HS110 Vaccine in ...
However, the safety of these cells remains questionable. Since lineage conversion from pre-iPSC relies on the use of iPSC ... Such a system provides a useful tool for practical application of iPSCs in the treatment of hematologic and immunologic ... Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have great clinical potential as adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy. iNKT cells act as ... 2012). "Long-term safety and efficacy of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) grafts in a preclinical model of retinitis ...
February 2010). "Immunologic activity and safety of autologous HIV RNA-electroporated dendritic cells in HIV-1 infected ... One of the other ways is injecting a two-component vaccine which is containing an mRNA adjuvant and naked IVT mRNA encoding ... BioNTech RNA Pharmaceuticals GmbH (2020-01-14). "Clinical First-in-human Dose Escalation Study Evaluating the Safety and ... RNA adjuvants, and encapsulating mRNA in nanoparticles with lipids. Even though In Vitro Translated(IVT) mRNA with delivery ...
Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Adjuvants, Immunologic. Angiogenesis Inhibitors. Angiogenesis Modulating ... Evaluating the Safety of and Immune Response to HIV-MAG DNA Vaccine With or Without Plasmid IL-12 Adjuvant Delivered ... The HIV-MAG vaccine, IL-12 pDNA adjuvant, and placebos for IL-12 pDNA adjuvant/HIV-MAG vaccines will be delivered IM into the ... The HIV-MAG vaccine, IL-12 pDNA adjuvant, and placebos for IL-12 pDNA adjuvant/HIV-MAG vaccines will be delivered IM into the ...
Adjuvants, Immunologic. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Antacids. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ... Safety and Immunogenicity of a Human Hookworm Candidate Vaccine With Different Doses of a Novel Adjuvant. The safety and ... Phase I Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel® With Different Doses of the Novel Immunostimulant GLA-AF ... Other condition that in the opinion of the investigator would jeopardize the safety or rights of a volunteer participating in ...
Known bleeding disorder or suspected impairment of immunologic function, or receipt of immunosuppressive therapy or ... Efficacy and Safety of a PIKA Rabies Vaccine Containing the PIKA Adjuvant With an Accelerated Regimen. The safety and ... Phase II Study to Determine the Efficacy and Safety of PIKA Rabies Vaccine Containing the PIKA Adjuvant With an Accelerated ... and the PIKA adjuvant. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of the vaccine ...
"Comparative Safety of Vaccine Adjuvants: A Summary of Current Evidence and Future Needs". Drug Safety. 38 (11): 1059-1074. doi: ... The word "adjuvant" comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid. "An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any ... Freunds complete adjuvant, Freunds incomplete adjuvant Other organic substances: squalene There are many adjuvants, some of ... Discussing the safety of squalene as an adjuvant in 2006, the World Health Organisation stated "follow-up to detect any vaccine ...
Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Adjuvants, Immunologic. To Top. *For Patients and Families ... The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study ... Safety and efficacy of opicinumab in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (SYNERGY): a randomised, placebo-controlled, ... Study to Assess the Efficacy, Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of BIIB033 in Participants With Relapsing Forms of ...
Adjuvants, Immunologic* / administration & dosage * Animals * Bacterial Toxins / administration & dosage * Bacterial Toxins / ... Immunogenicity and safety of recombinant Helicobacter pylori urease in a nonhuman primate Dig Dis Sci. 1996 Sep;41(9):1853-62. ... Twenty-five micrograms of LT was a sufficient and safe adjuvant dosage, whereas higher dosages resulted in diarrhea and ... adjuvant. Oral immunization with rUrease resulted in a markedly elevated serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response with ...
Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage * Adjuvants, Immunologic / adverse effects * Adolescent * Adult * Aluminum ... Safety and immunogenicity of a Sf9 insect cell-derived respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein nanoparticle vaccine Vaccine ... Objective: We performed a Phase 1 randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and ...
Here, we report the safety assessments. In the pivotal study, 372 patients were randomi ... Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use*. Adult. Antibodies / blood. Cross-Sectional Studies. Disability Evaluation. Dose- ... 0/Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0/Antibodies; 145155-23-3/interferon beta-1b; 77238-31-4/Interferon-beta ... CONCLUSION: The results from the 16-Year Long-Term Follow-Up study support the long-term safety of interferon-beta-1b therapy ...
Such studies can also provide information on the immunologic basis of inflammation and on adjuvant activity. ... Clinical studies conducted by industry have analyzed the safety profile of adjuvants in people with chronic diseases, including ... SAFELY PERFORMING VACCINE-SAFETY RESEARCH. At the NIH, vaccine safety is an integral part of every aspect of the development ... Also, safety-monitoring committees (SMCs) and data safety-monitoring boards (DSMBs) provide a second and independent review of ...
Key words: Adjuvants, immunologic; Disease outbreaks; Influenza A virus, H5N1 subtype; Influenza vaccines; Influenza, human ... To present Hong Kong-specific data from a large Asian population (also involving Thailand, Singapore, and Taiwan) on safety and ... There were no safety concerns for any of the adjuvanted vaccine formulations. ... The AS03A-adjuvanted H5N1 prepandemic influenza vaccine demonstrated good immunogenicity and an acceptable safety profile in ...
Conclusions: Nivolumab with vaccine is well tolerated as adjuvant therapy and demonstrates immunologic activity with promising ... Safety, Correlative Markers, and Clinical Results of Adjuvant Nivolumab in Combination with Vaccine in Resected High-Risk ... Safety, Correlative Markers, and Clinical Results of Adjuvant Nivolumab in Combination with Vaccine in Resected High-Risk ... Safety, Correlative Markers, and Clinical Results of Adjuvant Nivolumab in Combination with Vaccine in Resected High-Risk ...
... scientists use immunologic adjuvants. Currently, only one adjuvant -- alum, first discovered in 1926 -- is incorporated into ... Adjuvants, Other Immune Enhancers. Because of safety concerns, most candidate HIV/AIDS vaccines are made from one or more ... These reagents also will be used in preclinical vaccine development, adjuvant development and standardized immunologic ... AIDS Cooperative Adjuvant Groups conduct multidisciplinary research on the mechanisms of action of adjuvants, substances that ...
... aluminium phosphate is one of the most common immunologic adjuvants (efficiency enhancers) in vaccinations. Aluminium adjuvant ... use is widespread due to their cheap price, long history of use, safety and efficiency with most antigens. Its unknown how ... RJ, Crowther (2010). Vaccine adjuvants: preparation methods and research protocols. Humana. pp. 65-66, 82. ISBN 9781617371592. ... such salts function as adjuvants. Similar to aluminum hydroxide, AlPO4 is used as an antacid. It neutralizes stomach acid (HCl ...
... safety and efficacy of aluminum-hydroxide continues to be questioned when used as an immunologic adjuvant. ... Vaccine promoters use the FDAs 2011 study (Mitkus et al) to justify claims of aluminum adjuvant safety. But it has several ... Where is your evidence for the neurological safety of aluminum adjuvants? When I look at the literature cited here and ... Now take amount of the Al adjuvant in vaccine and find the percentage of the Al adjuvant to the daily body load. It will be a ...
A Phase 1 Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Observer-blinded Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Inactivated ... Immunologic" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Adjuvants, Immunologic" was a major or minor topic of ... "Adjuvants, Immunologic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Adjuvants, Immunologic" by people in Profiles. ...
3. Adjuvant Forms antigenic tissue, triggering immunologic attack, fetal wastage. 4. Chelation Chelates metals, promotes heavy ... Subject: Food Safety File #8: The Sweet That Kills: Aspartame Morphing into Neotame: World Alert!. Hello everyone. It has been ... Subject: Re: Food Safety File #8: The Sweet That Kills: Aspartame Morphing into Neotame: World Alert! Dear Jean,. You are so ... Food Safety Files 2: UK Grocery Chain Bans Aspartame + NY Times ad against GE Food & more There are also many detailed ...
Research to Advance Vaccine Safety (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PA-18-873. NIAID ... including different adjuvants; 2) how genetic variations affect immune/physiological responses that may impact vaccine safety; ... Comparison of the immunologic and physiologic effects of different combinations of vaccines, or vaccine antigens formulated ... including different adjuvants; 2) how genetic variations affect immune/physiological responses that may impact vaccine safety; ...
In contrast to previously licensed adjuvants, current successful adjuvant formulations often consist of several molecules, that ... Adjuvants are crucial components of vaccines. They significantly improve vaccine efficacy by modulating, enhancing, or ... Safety, efficacy, and immunologic associates of protection. J. Infect. Dis. 2009, 200, 337-346. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ... 7. Adjuvant Systems. Adjuvant systems™ (GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)) are various combinations of classical adjuvants and ...
... safety, and immunologic memory. Pediatrics 2001;107:626-31. CrossRefexternal icon PubMedexternal icon ... Aluminum salts generally are used as adjuvants to enhance the immune response of vaccinated persons. ... The Vaccine Safety Datalink: successes and challenges monitoring vaccine safety. Vaccine 2014;32:5390-8. CrossRefexternal icon ... Summary of safety and efficacy data on a yeast-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Am J Med 1989;87(3a):S14-20. CrossRefexternal icon ...
Safety. Table 2 reports the adverse effects supposedly related to the treatment. We observed no related grade 4 toxicities and ... Previous adjuvant immunotherapy with IFN-α and/or previous chemotherapy or immunotherapy for metastatic disease was permitted ... Immunologic and Clinical Effects of Injecting Mature Peptide-Loaded Dendritic Cells by Intralymphatic and Intranodal Routes in ... Immunologic and Clinical Effects of Injecting Mature Peptide-Loaded Dendritic Cells by Intralymphatic and Intranodal Routes in ...
Until recently, however, only one type of adjuvant - aluminum salts, had been widely used within licensed human vaccines in the ... The most important factor is arguably the type and concentration of vaccine adjuvants. ... US, even though a variety of novel adjuvants have been evaluated in the past few decades. This review summarizes the key adju- ... "Safety and immunologic response of a viral vaccine to prostate- pecific antigen in combination with radiation therapy when ...
Despite more than a century of human use, only a few adjuvants are licensed today. However many adjuvants have been tested in ... Despite more than a century of human use, only a few adjuvants are licensed today. However many adjuvants have been tested in ... Much of the early work on adjuvants discovery and development was empirical producing safe and effective products, but without ... Much of the early work on adjuvants discovery and development was empirical producing safe and effective products, but without ...
This was a pilot study to investigate the safety and the immunologic mechanisms of human insulin B-chain in incomplete Freunds ... adjuvant (IFA) in humans. The ultimate goal of the intervention is to prevent or delay further loss of beta cell mass after the ... "Evaluation of Tolerability, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of hOKT3γ1(Ala-Ala) in Participants with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus". ... To gain new understanding of the immunologic mechanisms involved in the natural history and progression of type 1 diabetes and ...
i,Objective.,/i, Street-vended foods offer numerous advantages to food security; nevertheless, the safety of street food should ... vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity," Immunologic Research, vol. 56, no. 2-3, pp. 304-316, 2013. View at: Publisher Site , ... WHO, Essential Safety Requirements for Street-vended Foods, Revised Edition, Food Safety Unit, World Health Organization, ... Food safety is the assurance that food will not cause any harm or deleterious effect to the consumer when it is consumed [1]. ...
... the safety observations following administration of a polyvalent DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccine formulated with adjuvant ... QS21 adjuvant. Questions remain regarding the cause of the vasculitis, but the unique DTH observation may have contributed to ... AIDS Vaccines; Adjuvants, Immunologic; Adult; Female; Human Experimentation; Humans; Hypersensitivity, Delayed; Immunization, ... The safety and tolerability of an HIV-1 DNA prime-protein boost vaccine (DP6-001) in healthy adult volunteers ...
Vaccine safety. Biology of cells and mechanisms of the immune system. Vaccine development and delivery. Novel vaccines or ... Immunologic diseases. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology. Veterinary immunochemistry. Veterinary immunodiagnosis. ... adjuvant effect on immunization. Action mechanisms of vaccines or antimicrobial agents Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission ...
... serves as an additional safety screen for evaluation of vaccines, adjuvants, or other administered biologics, and (6) ... size allows dose titration studies and full immunologic assessment via frequent collection of large volumes of blood which ... M. H. Larsen, K. Biermann, B. Chen et al., "Efficacy and safety of live attenuated persistent and rapidly cleared Mycobacterium ... Promising TB vaccines may also be evaluated in the calf (safety and efficacy) prior to testing in costly NHPs (thereby ...
... and its effectiveness has been called into question alongside its safety. ... Its safety is so questionable that Japan no longer recommends Gardasil.35 In July 2016, a study published in Immunologic ... Pre-licensure clinical trials of Gardasil, which contains an aluminum adjuvant, used an aluminum containing "placebo" as a ... Another primary issue here is that no properly performed safety studies were done on Gardasil pre- or post-licensure and, by ...
17.3 Immunologic mechanisms and etiologic associations, 145. 17.4 Types of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid inflammation and ... 29.5 Adjuvants and vaccine delivery systems, 285. 29.6 Important diseases with unavailable effective vaccines, 285 ... 28.3 Safety of vaccines, 271. 28.4 Key knowledge-gaps in equine vaccinology, 273 ... 18.3 Immunologic mechanisms and etiologic associations, 155. 18.4 Multi-systemic response triggered by inflammatory mediators, ...
  • There are many known adjuvants in widespread use, including aluminium salts, oils and virosomes. (
  • Inorganic compounds: potassium alum, aluminium hydroxide, aluminium phosphate, calcium phosphate hydroxide Oils: paraffin oil, propolis (only in preclinical studies), Adjuvant 65 (based on peanut oil. (
  • Aluminium salts are the most commonly-used adjuvants in human vaccines. (
  • Along with aluminium hydroxide, aluminium phosphate is one of the most common immunologic adjuvants (efficiency enhancers) in vaccinations. (
  • Aluminium adjuvant use is widespread due to their cheap price, long history of use, safety and efficiency with most antigens. (
  • In immunology, an adjuvant is a substance that increases and/or modulates the immune response to a vaccine. (
  • An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any substance that acts to accelerate, prolong, or enhance antigen-specific immune responses when used in combination with specific vaccine antigens. (
  • Adjuvants in immunology are often used to modify or augment the effects of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. (
  • Because immune systems have evolved to recognize these specific antigenic moieties, the presence of an adjuvant in conjunction with the vaccine can greatly increase the innate immune response to the antigen by augmenting the activities of dendritic cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages by mimicking a natural infection. (
  • Vaccine adjuvants: preparation methods and research protocols. (
  • It's unknown how such salts function as adjuvants. (
  • Adjuvants accomplish this task by mimicking specific sets of evolutionarily conserved molecules, so called pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which include liposomes, lipopolysaccharide, molecular cages for antigens, components of bacterial cell walls, and endocytosed nucleic acids such as double-stranded RNA, double-stranded RNA, single-stranded DNA, and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide-containing DNA. (
  • No matter what the mechanism is, alum is not a perfect adjuvant because it does not work with all antigens (e.g. malaria and tuberculosis). (
  • In addition, many vaccines contain aluminum adjuvants . (
  • In addition, injection of aluminum adjuvants in an attempt to model Gulf War syndrome and associated neurological deficits leads to an ALS phenotype in young male mice. (
  • After the Cutter incident , a polio vaccine accident around the mid-1950s, the Division of Biologic Standards emerged to oversee the safety and regulation of vaccines. (
  • Including autism, which according to Shoenfeld and his antivax friends is caused by inflammatory aluminium adjuvants in vaccines. (
  • The Phase 1b/2a clinical study of VBI-2601 (BRII-179) is a randomized, controlled study designed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antiviral activity of VBI-2601 (BRII-179) in patients with chronic HBV infection. (
  • The study is designed as a two-part dose-escalation study assessing a low dose and a high dose of VBI-2601 (BRII-179), with and without an undisclosed adjuvant, and has enrolled 46 patients. (
  • This randomized Phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of everolimus in 111 patients with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer with prior exposure to AI treatment (in adjuvant and/or metastatic setting). (
  • For these patients, several additional therapies provide benefit by further suppression of androgen signaling (enzalutamide, abiraterone), disruption of the cell cycle in replicating cells (docetaxel, cabazitaxel), targeting of bone metastases (radium-223), or activation of antitumor immunologic response (sipuleucel-T).[6] While these therapies have undoubtedly extended the median survival of patients with metastatic CRPC, their impact on survival is modest and they clearly do not work for all men. (
  • This is, in turn, attributed to modifications in the immunologic response to the allergen. (
  • Another source of cash for Shoenfeld's academic activities is the notorious antivax entity, the so-called "Children's Medical Safety Research Institute", CMSRI. (
  • The trigger housing utilizes an anodized aluminum body and the trigger shoe and safety are carbonitrided which dramatically increases the surface hardness and wear-resistance properties of the metal. (