Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.
Combined Modality Therapy
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Drug Administration Schedule
Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Clinical Trials as Topic
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.)
Product Surveillance, Postmarketing
A formulation for presenting an antigen to induce specific immunologic responses. It consists of an assembly of antigens in multimeric form. The assembly is attached to a matrix with a built-in adjuvant, saponin. ISCOMs induce strong serum antibody responses, and are used as highly immunogenic forms of subunit vaccines.
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Drug Therapy, Combination
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Proportional Hazards Models
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic
Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Disease Models, Animal
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Lymph Node Excision
Tumor Markers, Biological
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
United States Food and Drug Administration
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
Quality of Life
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems
Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Immunoglobulin A, Secretory
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.
Estrogen Receptor Modulators
Predictive Value of Tests
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
... aluminium phosphate is one of the most common immunologic adjuvants (efficiency enhancers) in vaccinations. Aluminium adjuvant ... use is widespread due to their cheap price, long history of use, safety and efficiency with most antigens. It's unknown how ... RJ, Crowther (2010). Vaccine adjuvants: preparation methods and research protocols. Humana. pp. 65-66, 82. ISBN 9781617371592. ... such salts function as adjuvants. Similar to aluminum hydroxide, AlPO4 is used as an antacid. It neutralizes stomach acid (HCl ...
Edible algae vaccine
... strategy under preliminary research to combine a genetically engineered sub-unit vaccine and an immunologic adjuvant into ... While spirulina is accepted as safe to consume, edible algal vaccines remain under basic research with unconfirmed safety and ...
"Comparative Safety of Vaccine Adjuvants: A Summary of Current Evidence and Future Needs". Drug Safety. 38 (11): 1059-1074. doi: ... The word "adjuvant" comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid. "An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any ... Freund's complete adjuvant, Freund's incomplete adjuvant Other organic substances: squalene There are many adjuvants, some of ... Discussing the safety of squalene as an adjuvant in 2006, the World Health Organisation stated "follow-up to detect any vaccine ...
Christopher Shaw (neuroscientist)
Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety (2012). "Aluminum Adjuvants". Weekly Epidemiological Record. World Health ... vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity". Immunologic Research. 56 (2-3): 304-316. doi:10.1007/s12026-013-8403-1. PMID 23609067. ... Petrik, M; Wong, MC; Tabata, RC; Garry, RF; Shaw, CA (February 2007). "Aluminum adjuvant linked to gulf war illness induces ... Shaw is chair of the Scientific Advisory Board of the anti-vaccine Children's Medical Safety Research Institute, founded and ...
... immunologic adjuvant. A study of the response of non-human primate to the vaccine had been initiated. As of February 2015[ ... March 2017). "Safety and immunogenicity of GamEvac-Combi, a heterologous VSV- and Ad5-vectored Ebola vaccine: An open phase I/ ... June 2015). "Safety and immunogenicity of a novel recombinant adenovirus type-5 vector-based Ebola vaccine in healthy adults in ... The safety was assessed in approximately 15,000 individuals in Africa, Europe, and North America. The most commonly reported ...
Because inactivated viruses tend to produce a weaker response by the immune system than live viruses, immunologic adjuvants and ... Ghost techniques increase the safety of the killed vaccines, while maintaining their antigenicity due to mild preparation ... Petrovsky, Nikolai; Aguilar, Julio César (2004-09-28). "Vaccine adjuvants: Current state and future trends". Immunology and ...
2009 swine flu pandemic vaccine
"WHO - Squalene-based adjuvants in vaccines". Frey S, Poland G, Percell S, Podda A (October 2003). "Comparison of the safety, ... 2009 swine flu pandemic COVID-19 vaccine Immunologic adjuvant "WHO cuts swine flu vaccine production estimate". AFP. 24 ... A 2009 review of oil-based adjuvants in influenza vaccines stated that this type of adjuvant "neither stimulates antibodies ... about formulations of the vaccine that contain squalene as an adjuvant. An adjuvant is a substance that boosts the body's ...
... (for "Adjuvant System 03") is the trade name for a squalene-based immunologic adjuvant used in various vaccine products by ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Ahmed, SS; Montomoli, E; Pasini, FL; Steinman, L (2016). "The Safety of Adjuvanted ... 2009 flu pandemic MF59 - another squalene-based adjuvant by Novartis AS04 - another adjuvant by GSK v t e. ... A dose of AS03 adjuvant contains 10.69 mg squalene 11.86 mg DL-α-tocopherol 4.86 mg polysorbate 80 In the 2009 influenza ...
Adjuvants. Main article: Immunologic adjuvant. Vaccines typically contain one or more adjuvants, used to boost the immune ... "Vaccine Safety: The Facts". HealthyChildren.org. Retrieved 2019-04-16.. *^ Grammatikos AP, Mantadakis E, Falagas ME (June 2009 ... Aluminum salts or gels are added as adjuvants. Adjuvants are added to promote an earlier, more potent response, and more ... Finally, the vaccine is formulated by adding adjuvant, stabilizers, and preservatives as needed. The adjuvant enhances the ...
H5N1 clinical trials
In a clinical trial, 80% of volunteers who received two vaccine doses containing 3.8 mcg of antigen with an adjuvant (a ... Study start: April 2005; Study completion: February 2006 The purpose of this study is to determine the dose-related safety of ... They come with obstacles-immunologic, regulatory, and commercial-but they also have generated more excitement than any other ... Study start: October 2005; Study completion: August 2006 This study is intended to examine the safety and dose-related ...
... has been tested as adjuvant treatment in nearly 200 breast cancer patients over a total of 5 years, and has shown to be ... "Efficacy and Safety Study of NeuVax™ (Nelipepimut-S or E75) Vaccine to Prevent Breast Cancer Recurrence (PRESENT)". ... 2008). "Assessment of immunologic response and recurrence patterns among patients with clinical recurrence after vaccination ... Clinical trial number NCT01479244 for "Efficacy and Safety Study of NeuVax(TM) Vaccine to Prevent Breast Cancer Recurrence ( ...
"Establishment of a new quality control and vaccine safety test for influenza vaccines and adjuvants using gene expression ... "Circulating proteasomes are markers of cell damage and immunologic activity in autoimmune diseases". The Journal of ...
Immunologic adjuvants are substances, administered in conjunction with a vaccine, that stimulate the immune system and increase ... "Squalene-based adjuvants in vaccines". Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety. World Health Organization. 21 July 2006. ... Squalene is not itself an adjuvant, but it has been used in conjunction with surfactants in certain adjuvant formulations. An ... An influenza vaccine called FLUAD which used MF59 as an adjuvant was approved for use in the US in people 65 years of age and ...
Aluminum compounds are used as immunologic adjuvants to increase the effectiveness of many vaccines. The aluminum in vaccines ... Immunization Safety Review Committee (2004). Immunization Safety Review: Vaccines and Autism. The National Academies Press. doi ... with the conclusion that currently used vaccines meet high safety standards and that criticism of vaccine safety in the popular ... Other safety concerns about vaccines have been promoted on the Internet, in informal meetings, in books, and at symposia. These ...
William French Anderson
In addition, extensive safety studies were done in the vector transduced animals. Attempting to perform gene therapy by ... During the 12 years that Anderson has been in prison, IL-12 has been shown to potentially be a very important adjuvant drug in ... a sufficient percentage to ensure immunologic protection. She is now 33 years old, married, and works as a journalist and ... The initial protocol was a safety study where only the N2 vector, previously shown to be safe when used in non-human primates, ...
Our hospital has acted to protect the safety of our patients. No longer will we administer dietary supplements unless the ... Coffin SE, Moser CA, Cohen S, Clark HF, Offit PA (1997). "Immunologic correlates of protection against rotavirus challenge ... Offit, PA; Jew, RK (2003). "Addressing Parents' Concerns: Do Vaccines Contain Harmful Preservatives, Adjuvants, Additives, or ... Paul Offit, MD, on vaccine safety" (PDF). Books and Ideas. Podcast (MP3). Retrieved 2009-05-13. Wallace A (2009-10-19). "An ...
Safety, efficacy, and immunologic associates of protection". The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 200 (3): 337-46. doi:10.1086/ ... Later, modern adjuvants and the possibility of preparing of single parasite proteins started another way to obtain malaria ... In 1948 inactivated merozoites with an adjuvant were used for preventing lethal malaria to kill a group of monkeys. But the ... These T cells are believed to be the main immunologic mechanism to fight malaria in liver. In 2014 Sanaria promoted an ...
Edith A. Perez
Efficacy and Safety of Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab Administered in a Single Infusion Bag, Followed by Vinorelbine: VELVET Cohort ... HER2 and chromosome 17 effect on patient outcome in the N9831 adjuvant trastuzumab trial. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Oct 1; 28(28):4307 ... which raises funds for under-served women and for genomics and immunologic translational cancer research. A goal of Dr. Perez's ... Impact of PTEN protein expression on benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab in early-stage human epidermal growth factor receptor 2- ...
Hepatoxicity is the major safety issue of geniposide. Several studies in rats have shown an increase in serum alanine ... 2014). "Effects and mechanisms of geniposide on rats with adjuvant arthritis". Immunopharmacol. 20 (1): 46-53. doi:10.1016/j. ... Another study revealed that geniposide's effect was probably enhanced by immunoregulation in immunologic tissues, such as gut- ...
T cells and immune system cytokines and have been investigated in clinical trials as immunologic adjuvants. Many tumors express ... "Safety, activity, and immune correlates of anti-PD-1 antibody in cancer". The New England Journal of Medicine. 366 (26): 2443- ... Other adjuvants include proteins or other chemicals that attract and/or activate dendritic cells, such as granulocyte ... have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy. On 16 ...
Kolb, Susan (1996). "Doctor, Are You Listening? The Silicone Catastrophe." Human Adjuvant Disease Corp. Retrieved from " ... and has been an active voice in the debate about the safety of breast implant devices since 1996. She has treated over 2,000 ... Immunologic Research, 18, 125-73. See:Shanklin, Douglas. R., and D. L. Smalley (2002). "Pathogenic and Diagnostic Aspects of ... Human Adjuvant Disease Corp. Retrieved from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-09-28. Retrieved 2011-10-09. ...
As well as the active antigen derived from A/California/7/2009 (H1N1), the vaccine contains an immunologic adjuvant AS03 which ... In 2018, a multinational study including Centers for Disease Control and Prevention scientists published safety data on ... While other 2009 H1N1 vaccines have been developed, the use of a proprietary immunologic adjuvant is claimed to boost the ... Pandemrix contains two adjuvants designed to provoke a stronger immune response; they were not in the vaccine used in China, ...
Maor et el have demonstrated the safety and efficiency of IRE as an ablation modality for smooth muscle cells in the walls of ... Despite that IRE makes adjuvant tumor mass reduction therapy for LAPC possible for the first time, IRE remains, in its current ... June 2019). "High-frequency irreversible electroporation is an effective tumor ablation strategy that induces immunologic cell ... Buijs M, Zondervan PJ, de Bruin DM, van Lienden KP, Bex A, van Delden OM (March 2019). "Feasibility and safety of irreversible ...
The safety of biologics during pregnancy has not been assessed. European guidelines recommend avoiding biologics if a pregnancy ... The immunologic pathways of psoriasis involve Th9, Th17, Th1 lymphocytes, and IL-22. The aforementioned biologic agents hinder ... ISBN 978-0-07-166904-7. Gelmetti C (January 2009). "Therapeutic moisturizers as adjuvant therapy for psoriasis patients". ... Rustin MH (November 2012). "Long-term safety of biologics in the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis: review of ...
Heat shock protein
Given their role in presentation, HSPs are useful as immunologic adjuvants (DAMPS) in boosting the response to a vaccine. ... Retrieved 9 January 2018.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link) "Immune Response and Safety of HS110 Vaccine in ...
Induced stem cells
However, the safety of these cells remains questionable. Since lineage conversion from pre-iPSC relies on the use of iPSC ... Such a system provides a useful tool for practical application of iPSCs in the treatment of hematologic and immunologic ... Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have great clinical potential as adjuvants for cancer immunotherapy. iNKT cells act as ... 2012). "Long-term safety and efficacy of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) grafts in a preclinical model of retinitis ...
February 2010). "Immunologic activity and safety of autologous HIV RNA-electroporated dendritic cells in HIV-1 infected ... One of the other ways is injecting a two-component vaccine which is containing an mRNA adjuvant and naked IVT mRNA encoding ... BioNTech RNA Pharmaceuticals GmbH (2020-01-14). "Clinical First-in-human Dose Escalation Study Evaluating the Safety and ... RNA adjuvants, and encapsulating mRNA in nanoparticles with lipids. Even though In Vitro Translated(IVT) mRNA with delivery ...
Evaluating the Safety of and Immune Response to HIV-MAG DNA Vaccine With or Without Plasmid IL-12 Adjuvant Delivered...
Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Adjuvants, Immunologic. Angiogenesis Inhibitors. Angiogenesis Modulating ... Evaluating the Safety of and Immune Response to HIV-MAG DNA Vaccine With or Without Plasmid IL-12 Adjuvant Delivered ... The HIV-MAG vaccine, IL-12 pDNA adjuvant, and placebos for IL-12 pDNA adjuvant/HIV-MAG vaccines will be delivered IM into the ... The HIV-MAG vaccine, IL-12 pDNA adjuvant, and placebos for IL-12 pDNA adjuvant/HIV-MAG vaccines will be delivered IM into the ...
Safety and Immunogenicity of a Human Hookworm Candidate Vaccine With Different Doses of a Novel Adjuvant - Full Text View -...
Adjuvants, Immunologic. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Antacids. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ... Safety and Immunogenicity of a Human Hookworm Candidate Vaccine With Different Doses of a Novel Adjuvant. The safety and ... Phase I Study of the Safety and Immunogenicity of Na-GST-1/Alhydrogel® With Different Doses of the Novel Immunostimulant GLA-AF ... Other condition that in the opinion of the investigator would jeopardize the safety or rights of a volunteer participating in ...
Efficacy and Safety of a PIKA Rabies Vaccine Containing the PIKA Adjuvant With an Accelerated Regimen - Full Text View -...
Known bleeding disorder or suspected impairment of immunologic function, or receipt of immunosuppressive therapy or ... Efficacy and Safety of a PIKA Rabies Vaccine Containing the PIKA Adjuvant With an Accelerated Regimen. The safety and ... Phase II Study to Determine the Efficacy and Safety of PIKA Rabies Vaccine Containing the PIKA Adjuvant With an Accelerated ... and the PIKA adjuvant. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of the vaccine ...
Immunologic adjuvant - Wikipedia
"Comparative Safety of Vaccine Adjuvants: A Summary of Current Evidence and Future Needs". Drug Safety. 38 (11): 1059-1074. doi: ... The word "adjuvant" comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid. "An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any ... Freunds complete adjuvant, Freunds incomplete adjuvant Other organic substances: squalene There are many adjuvants, some of ... Discussing the safety of squalene as an adjuvant in 2006, the World Health Organisation stated "follow-up to detect any vaccine ...
Study to Assess the Efficacy, Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of BIIB033 in Participants With Relapsing Forms of...
Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Adjuvants, Immunologic. To Top. *For Patients and Families ... The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study ... Safety and efficacy of opicinumab in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (SYNERGY): a randomised, placebo-controlled, ... Study to Assess the Efficacy, Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of BIIB033 in Participants With Relapsing Forms of ...
Immunogenicity and safety of recombinant Helicobacter pylori urease in a nonhuman primate
Adjuvants, Immunologic* / administration & dosage * Animals * Bacterial Toxins / administration & dosage * Bacterial Toxins / ... Immunogenicity and safety of recombinant Helicobacter pylori urease in a nonhuman primate Dig Dis Sci. 1996 Sep;41(9):1853-62. ... Twenty-five micrograms of LT was a sufficient and safe adjuvant dosage, whereas higher dosages resulted in diarrhea and ... adjuvant. Oral immunization with rUrease resulted in a markedly elevated serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response with ...
Safety and immunogenicity of a Sf9 insect cell-derived respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein nanoparticle vaccine
Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage * Adjuvants, Immunologic / adverse effects * Adolescent * Adult * Aluminum ... Safety and immunogenicity of a Sf9 insect cell-derived respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein nanoparticle vaccine Vaccine ... Objective: We performed a Phase 1 randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety and ...
Cross-sectional study assessing long-term safety of interferon-beta-1b for relapsing-remitting MS.
Here, we report the safety assessments. In the pivotal study, 372 patients were randomi ... Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use*. Adult. Antibodies / blood. Cross-Sectional Studies. Disability Evaluation. Dose- ... 0/Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0/Antibodies; 145155-23-3/interferon beta-1b; 77238-31-4/Interferon-beta ... CONCLUSION: The results from the 16-Year Long-Term Follow-Up study support the long-term safety of interferon-beta-1b therapy ...
Integrating Safety and Efficacy Evaluation Throughout Vaccine Research and Development | American Academy of Pediatrics
Such studies can also provide information on the immunologic basis of inflammation and on adjuvant activity. ... Clinical studies conducted by industry have analyzed the safety profile of adjuvants in people with chronic diseases, including ... SAFELY PERFORMING VACCINE-SAFETY RESEARCH. At the NIH, vaccine safety is an integral part of every aspect of the development ... Also, safety-monitoring committees (SMCs) and data safety-monitoring boards (DSMBs) provide a second and independent review of ...
Cross-clade immunogenicity and safety of an AS03A-adjuvanted prepandemic H5N1 influenza vaccine in Hong Kong | HKMJ
Key words: Adjuvants, immunologic; Disease outbreaks; Influenza A virus, H5N1 subtype; Influenza vaccines; Influenza, human ... To present Hong Kong-specific data from a large Asian population (also involving Thailand, Singapore, and Taiwan) on safety and ... There were no safety concerns for any of the adjuvanted vaccine formulations. ... The AS03A-adjuvanted H5N1 prepandemic influenza vaccine demonstrated good immunogenicity and an acceptable safety profile in ...
Safety, Correlative Markers, and Clinical Results of Adjuvant Nivolumab in Combination with Vaccine in Resected High-Risk...
Conclusions: Nivolumab with vaccine is well tolerated as adjuvant therapy and demonstrates immunologic activity with promising ... Safety, Correlative Markers, and Clinical Results of Adjuvant Nivolumab in Combination with Vaccine in Resected High-Risk ... Safety, Correlative Markers, and Clinical Results of Adjuvant Nivolumab in Combination with Vaccine in Resected High-Risk ... Safety, Correlative Markers, and Clinical Results of Adjuvant Nivolumab in Combination with Vaccine in Resected High-Risk ...
HIV/AIDS Vaccines | News | AIDSinfo
... scientists use immunologic adjuvants. Currently, only one adjuvant -- alum, first discovered in 1926 -- is incorporated into ... Adjuvants, Other Immune Enhancers. Because of safety concerns, most candidate HIV/AIDS vaccines are made from one or more ... These reagents also will be used in preclinical vaccine development, adjuvant development and standardized immunologic ... AIDS Cooperative Adjuvant Groups conduct multidisciplinary research on the mechanisms of action of adjuvants, substances that ...
Aluminium phosphate - Wikipedia
... aluminium phosphate is one of the most common immunologic adjuvants (efficiency enhancers) in vaccinations. Aluminium adjuvant ... use is widespread due to their cheap price, long history of use, safety and efficiency with most antigens. Its unknown how ... RJ, Crowther (2010). Vaccine adjuvants: preparation methods and research protocols. Humana. pp. 65-66, 82. ISBN 9781617371592. ... such salts function as adjuvants. Similar to aluminum hydroxide, AlPO4 is used as an antacid. It neutralizes stomach acid (HCl ...
Trolling the antivaccine trolls | ScienceBlogs
... safety and efficacy of aluminum-hydroxide continues to be questioned when used as an immunologic adjuvant. ... Vaccine promoters use the FDAs 2011 study (Mitkus et al) to justify claims of aluminum adjuvant safety. But it has several ... Where is your evidence for the neurological safety of aluminum adjuvants? When I look at the literature cited here and ... Now take amount of the Al adjuvant in vaccine and find the percentage of the Al adjuvant to the daily body load. It will be a ...
Adjuvants, Immunologic | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
A Phase 1 Randomized, Placebo-controlled, Observer-blinded Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Immunogenicity of Inactivated ... Immunologic" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Adjuvants, Immunologic" was a major or minor topic of ... "Adjuvants, Immunologic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Adjuvants, Immunologic" by people in Profiles. ...
Food Safety File #8: The Sweet That Kills: Aspartame Morphing into Neotame: World Alert!
3. Adjuvant Forms antigenic tissue, triggering immunologic attack, fetal wastage. 4. Chelation Chelates metals, promotes heavy ... Subject: Food Safety File #8: The Sweet That Kills: Aspartame Morphing into Neotame: World Alert!. Hello everyone. It has been ... Subject: Re: Food Safety File #8: The Sweet That Kills: Aspartame Morphing into Neotame: World Alert! Dear Jean,. You are so ... Food Safety Files 2: UK Grocery Chain Bans Aspartame + NY Times ad against GE Food & more There are also many detailed ...
PA-18-873: Research to Advance Vaccine Safety (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed)
Research to Advance Vaccine Safety (R01 Clinical Trial Not Allowed) PA-18-873. NIAID ... including different adjuvants; 2) how genetic variations affect immune/physiological responses that may impact vaccine safety; ... Comparison of the immunologic and physiologic effects of different combinations of vaccines, or vaccine antigens formulated ... including different adjuvants; 2) how genetic variations affect immune/physiological responses that may impact vaccine safety; ...
Vaccines | Free Full-Text | Vaccine Potentiation by Combination Adjuvants | HTML
In contrast to previously licensed adjuvants, current successful adjuvant formulations often consist of several molecules, that ... Adjuvants are crucial components of vaccines. They significantly improve vaccine efficacy by modulating, enhancing, or ... Safety, efficacy, and immunologic associates of protection. J. Infect. Dis. 2009, 200, 337-346. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ... 7. Adjuvant Systems. Adjuvant systems™ (GlaxoSmithKline (GSK)) are various combinations of classical adjuvants and ...
Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in the United States: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization...
... safety, and immunologic memory. Pediatrics 2001;107:626-31. CrossRefexternal icon PubMedexternal icon ... Aluminum salts generally are used as adjuvants to enhance the immune response of vaccinated persons. ... The Vaccine Safety Datalink: successes and challenges monitoring vaccine safety. Vaccine 2014;32:5390-8. CrossRefexternal icon ... Summary of safety and efficacy data on a yeast-derived hepatitis B vaccine. Am J Med 1989;87(3a):S14-20. CrossRefexternal icon ...
Immunologic and Clinical Effects of Injecting Mature Peptide-Loaded Dendritic Cells by Intralymphatic and Intranodal Routes in...
Safety. Table 2 reports the adverse effects supposedly related to the treatment. We observed no related grade 4 toxicities and ... Previous adjuvant immunotherapy with IFN-α and/or previous chemotherapy or immunotherapy for metastatic disease was permitted ... Immunologic and Clinical Effects of Injecting Mature Peptide-Loaded Dendritic Cells by Intralymphatic and Intranodal Routes in ... Immunologic and Clinical Effects of Injecting Mature Peptide-Loaded Dendritic Cells by Intralymphatic and Intranodal Routes in ...
Selection of Adjuvants for Enhanced Vaccine Potency
Until recently, however, only one type of adjuvant - aluminum salts, had been widely used within licensed human vaccines in the ... The most important factor is arguably the type and concentration of vaccine adjuvants. ... US, even though a variety of novel adjuvants have been evaluated in the past few decades. This review summarizes the key adju- ... "Safety and immunologic response of a viral vaccine to prostate- pecific antigen in combination with radiation therapy when ...
Frontiers | Vaccine Adjuvants: Mode of Action | Immunology
Despite more than a century of human use, only a few adjuvants are licensed today. However many adjuvants have been tested in ... Despite more than a century of human use, only a few adjuvants are licensed today. However many adjuvants have been tested in ... Much of the early work on adjuvants discovery and development was empirical producing safe and effective products, but without ... Much of the early work on adjuvants discovery and development was empirical producing safe and effective products, but without ...
PAR-14-065: Research Using Biosamples From Selected Type 1 Diabetes Clinical Studies (DP3)
This was a pilot study to investigate the safety and the immunologic mechanisms of human insulin B-chain in incomplete Freunds ... adjuvant (IFA) in humans. The ultimate goal of the intervention is to prevent or delay further loss of beta cell mass after the ... "Evaluation of Tolerability, Safety, and Pharmacokinetics of hOKT3γ1(Ala-Ala) in Participants with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus". ... To gain new understanding of the immunologic mechanisms involved in the natural history and progression of type 1 diabetes and ...
Safety Evaluation of Potential Toxic Metals Exposure from Street Foods Consumed in Mid-West Nigeria
i,Objective.,/i, Street-vended foods offer numerous advantages to food security; nevertheless, the safety of street food should ... vaccine adjuvants, and autoimmunity," Immunologic Research, vol. 56, no. 2-3, pp. 304-316, 2013. View at: Publisher Site , ... WHO, Essential Safety Requirements for Street-vended Foods, Revised Edition, Food Safety Unit, World Health Organization, ... Food safety is the assurance that food will not cause any harm or deleterious effect to the consumer when it is consumed . ...
"The safety and tolerability of an HIV-1 DNA prime-protein boost vaccin" by Jeffrey S. Kennedy, Mary Dawn T. Co et al.
... the safety observations following administration of a polyvalent DNA prime-protein boost HIV-1 vaccine formulated with adjuvant ... QS21 adjuvant. Questions remain regarding the cause of the vasculitis, but the unique DTH observation may have contributed to ... AIDS Vaccines; Adjuvants, Immunologic; Adult; Female; Human Experimentation; Humans; Hypersensitivity, Delayed; Immunization, ... The safety and tolerability of an HIV-1 DNA prime-protein boost vaccine (DP6-001) in healthy adult volunteers ...
International Conference on Veterinary Vaccines and Vaccine Development ICVVVD in March 2022 in Rio de Janeiro
Vaccine safety. Biology of cells and mechanisms of the immune system. Vaccine development and delivery. Novel vaccines or ... Immunologic diseases. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology. Veterinary immunochemistry. Veterinary immunodiagnosis. ... adjuvant effect on immunization. Action mechanisms of vaccines or antimicrobial agents Abstracts/Full-Text Paper Submission ...
Tuberculosis Immunity: Opportunities from Studies with Cattle
... serves as an additional safety screen for evaluation of vaccines, adjuvants, or other administered biologics, and (6) ... size allows dose titration studies and full immunologic assessment via frequent collection of large volumes of blood which ... M. H. Larsen, K. Biermann, B. Chen et al., "Efficacy and safety of live attenuated persistent and rapidly cleared Mycobacterium ... Promising TB vaccines may also be evaluated in the calf (safety and efficacy) prior to testing in costly NHPs (thereby ...
Genital Warts Vaccine Tested on Infants
... and its effectiveness has been called into question alongside its safety. ... Its safety is so questionable that Japan no longer recommends Gardasil.35 In July 2016, a study published in Immunologic ... Pre-licensure clinical trials of Gardasil, which contains an aluminum adjuvant, used an aluminum containing "placebo" as a ... Another primary issue here is that no properly performed safety studies were done on Gardasil pre- or post-licensure and, by ...
Equine Clinical Immunology | Veterinary Medicine - Equine | Veterinary Medicine | Subjects | Wiley
17.3 Immunologic mechanisms and etiologic associations, 145. 17.4 Types of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid inflammation and ... 29.5 Adjuvants and vaccine delivery systems, 285. 29.6 Important diseases with unavailable effective vaccines, 285 ... 28.3 Safety of vaccines, 271. 28.4 Key knowledge-gaps in equine vaccinology, 273 ... 18.3 Immunologic mechanisms and etiologic associations, 155. 18.4 Multi-systemic response triggered by inflammatory mediators, ...
- There are many known adjuvants in widespread use, including aluminium salts, oils and virosomes. (wikipedia.org)
- Inorganic compounds: potassium alum, aluminium hydroxide, aluminium phosphate, calcium phosphate hydroxide Oils: paraffin oil, propolis (only in preclinical studies), Adjuvant 65 (based on peanut oil. (wikipedia.org)
- Aluminium salts are the most commonly-used adjuvants in human vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
- Along with aluminium hydroxide, aluminium phosphate is one of the most common immunologic adjuvants (efficiency enhancers) in vaccinations. (wikipedia.org)
- Aluminium adjuvant use is widespread due to their cheap price, long history of use, safety and efficiency with most antigens. (wikipedia.org)
- In immunology, an adjuvant is a substance that increases and/or modulates the immune response to a vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
- An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any substance that acts to accelerate, prolong, or enhance antigen-specific immune responses when used in combination with specific vaccine antigens. (wikipedia.org)
- Adjuvants in immunology are often used to modify or augment the effects of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
- Because immune systems have evolved to recognize these specific antigenic moieties, the presence of an adjuvant in conjunction with the vaccine can greatly increase the innate immune response to the antigen by augmenting the activities of dendritic cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages by mimicking a natural infection. (wikipedia.org)
- Vaccine adjuvants: preparation methods and research protocols. (wikipedia.org)
- It's unknown how such salts function as adjuvants. (wikipedia.org)
- Adjuvants accomplish this task by mimicking specific sets of evolutionarily conserved molecules, so called pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which include liposomes, lipopolysaccharide, molecular cages for antigens, components of bacterial cell walls, and endocytosed nucleic acids such as double-stranded RNA, double-stranded RNA, single-stranded DNA, and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide-containing DNA. (wikipedia.org)
- No matter what the mechanism is, alum is not a perfect adjuvant because it does not work with all antigens (e.g. malaria and tuberculosis). (wikipedia.org)
- After the Cutter incident , a polio vaccine accident around the mid-1950s, the Division of Biologic Standards emerged to oversee the safety and regulation of vaccines. (excedr.com)
- Including autism, which according to Shoenfeld and his antivax friends is caused by inflammatory aluminium adjuvants in vaccines. (forbetterscience.com)
- The Phase 1b/2a clinical study of VBI-2601 (BRII-179) is a randomized, controlled study designed to assess the safety, tolerability, and antiviral activity of VBI-2601 (BRII-179) in patients with chronic HBV infection. (vbivaccines.com)
- The study is designed as a two-part dose-escalation study assessing a low dose and a high dose of VBI-2601 (BRII-179), with and without an undisclosed adjuvant, and has enrolled 46 patients. (vbivaccines.com)
- This randomized Phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of everolimus in 111 patients with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer with prior exposure to AI treatment (in adjuvant and/or metastatic setting). (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- For these patients, several additional therapies provide benefit by further suppression of androgen signaling (enzalutamide, abiraterone), disruption of the cell cycle in replicating cells (docetaxel, cabazitaxel), targeting of bone metastases (radium-223), or activation of antitumor immunologic response (sipuleucel-T). While these therapies have undoubtedly extended the median survival of patients with metastatic CRPC, their impact on survival is modest and they clearly do not work for all men. (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
- This is, in turn, attributed to modifications in the immunologic response to the allergen. (tmedihk.com)
- Another source of cash for Shoenfeld's academic activities is the notorious antivax entity, the so-called "Children's Medical Safety Research Institute", CMSRI. (forbetterscience.com)
- The trigger housing utilizes an anodized aluminum body and the trigger shoe and safety are carbonitrided which dramatically increases the surface hardness and wear-resistance properties of the metal. (psalmvoorspelen.nl)