Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.
Efforts to reduce risk, to address and reduce incidents and accidents that may negatively impact healthcare consumers.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Errors or mistakes committed by health professionals which result in harm to the patient. They include errors in diagnosis (DIAGNOSTIC ERRORS), errors in the administration of drugs and other medications (MEDICATION ERRORS), errors in the performance of surgical procedures, in the use of other types of therapy, in the use of equipment, and in the interpretation of laboratory findings. Medical errors are differentiated from MALPRACTICE in that the former are regarded as honest mistakes or accidents while the latter is the result of negligence, reprehensible ignorance, or criminal intent.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
Beliefs and values shared by all members of the organization. These shared values, which are subject to change, are reflected in the day to day management of the organization.
An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.
Surveillance of drugs, devices, appliances, etc., for efficacy or adverse effects, after they have been released for general sale.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.
An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The degree to which the blood supply for BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS is free of harmful substances or infectious agents, and properly typed and crossmatched (BLOOD GROUPING AND CROSSMATCHING) to insure serological compatibility between BLOOD DONORS and recipients.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Systems developed for collecting reports from government agencies, manufacturers, hospitals, physicians, and other sources on adverse drug reactions.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Errors in prescribing, dispensing, or administering medication with the result that the patient fails to receive the correct drug or the indicated proper drug dosage.
Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.
The analysis of an activity, procedure, method, technique, or business to determine what must be accomplished and how the necessary operations may best be accomplished.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.
A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)
Risk or hazard associated with the handling and use of chemicals.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Organizations comprising wage and salary workers in health-related fields for the purpose of improving their status and conditions. The concept includes labor union activities toward providing health services to members.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Management of the internal organization of the hospital.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Examination of foods to assure wholesome and clean products free from unsafe microbes or chemical contamination, natural or added deleterious substances, and decomposition during production, processing, packaging, etc.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Drugs that are used to treat RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE established in 1990 to "provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on research, demonstration projects, and evaluations with respect to health care to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery..." It supersedes the National Center for Health Services Research. The United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999.
Multi-step systematic review process used for improving safety by investigation of incidents to find what happened, why it happened, and to determine what can be done to prevent it from happening again.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.
Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.
Aid for consistent recording of data such as tasks completed and observations noted.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The highest dose of a biologically active agent given during a chronic study that will not reduce longevity from effects other than carcinogenicity. (from Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Overall systems, traditional or automated, to provide medication to patients in hospitals. Elements of the system are: handling the physician's order, transcription of the order by nurse and/or pharmacist, filling the medication order, transfer to the nursing unit, and administration to the patient.
Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).
Devices used to protect and restrain infant and child automotive passengers.
Identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
On the job training programs for personnel carried out within an institution or agency. It includes orientation programs.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.
The individuals employed by the hospital.
Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.
Agents that prevent clotting.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Persons with no known significant health problems who are recruited to participate in research to test a new drug, device, or intervention as controls for a patient group. (from, accessed 2/14/2013)
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The use of COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS to store and transmit medical PRESCRIPTIONS.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.
Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.
The attainment or process of attaining a new level of performance or quality.
Personal devices for protection of heads from impact, penetration from falling and flying objects, and from limited electric shock and burn.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
A macrolide compound obtained from Streptomyces hygroscopicus that acts by selectively blocking the transcriptional activation of cytokines thereby inhibiting cytokine production. It is bioactive only when bound to IMMUNOPHILINS. Sirolimus is a potent immunosuppressant and possesses both antifungal and antineoplastic properties.
Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Penetrating stab wounds caused by needles. They are of special concern to health care workers since such injuries put them at risk for developing infectious disease.
The application of industrial management practice to systematically maintain and improve organization-wide performance. Effectiveness and success are determined and assessed by quantitative quality measures.
Fibrinolysin or agents that convert plasminogen to FIBRINOLYSIN.
The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.
Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.
Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.
The practice of prescribing or using a drug outside the scope of the drug's official approved label as designated by a regulatory agency concerning the treatment of a particular disease or condition.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Instruments used for injecting or withdrawing fluids. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Stents that are covered with materials that are embedded with chemicals that are gradually released into the surrounding milieu.
The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Managerial personnel responsible for implementing policy and directing the activities of hospitals.
Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Acute illnesses, usually affecting the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, brought on by consuming contaminated food or beverages. Most of these diseases are infectious, caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can be foodborne. Sometimes the diseases are caused by harmful toxins from the microbes or other chemicals present in the food. Especially in the latter case, the condition is often called food poisoning.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
Material prepared from plants.
The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.

Influence of crossdrafts on the performance of a biological safety cabinet. (1/2832)

A biological safety cabinet was tested to determine the effect of crossdrafts (such as those created by normal laboratory activity or ventilation) upon the ability of the cabinet to protect both experiments and investigators. A simple crossdraft, controllable from 50 to 200 feet per min (fpm; 15.24 to 60.96 m/min), was created across the face of the unit. Modifications of standardized procedures involving controlled bacterial aerosol challenges provided stringent test conditions. Results indicated that, as the crossflow velocities exceeded 100 fpm, the ability of the cabinet to protect either experiments or investigators decreased logarithmically with increasing crossdraft speed. Because 100 fpm is an airspeed easily achieved by some air conditioning and heating vents (open windows and doorways may create velocities far in excess of 200 fpm), the proper placement of a biological safety cabinet within the laboratory--away from such disruptive air currents--is essential to satisfactory cabinet performance.  (+info)

National Child Passenger Safety Week--February 14-20, 1999. (2/2832)

In 1997, 1791 U.S. children aged <15 years were killed and 282,000 were injured while riding in motor vehicles. National Child Passenger Safety Week, February 14-20, 1999, will highlight safety recommendations for children aged >4 years and weighing >40 lbs who have outgrown their child safety seats.  (+info)

3D angiography. Clinical interest. First applications in interventional neuroradiology. (3/2832)

3D angiography is a true technical revolution that allows improvement in the quality and safety of diagnostic and endovascular treatment procedures. 3D angiography images are obtained by reconstruction of a rotational angiography acquisition done on a C-arm (GE Medical Systems) spinning at 40 degrees per second. The carotid or vertebral selective injection of a total of 15 ml of non-ionic contrast media at 3 ml/sec over 5 seconds allows the selection of the "arterial phase". Four hundred sixty 3D angiographic studies were performed from December 1996 to September 1998 on 260 patients and have been analyzed in MIP (Maximum Intensity Projection) and SSD (Shaded Surface Display) views. The exploration of intracranial aneurysms is simplified and only requires, for each vascular axis, a biplane PA and Lateral run followed by a single rotational angiography run. The 3D angiography image is available on the workstation's screen (Advantage Workstation 3.1, GE Medical Systems) in less than 10 minutes after the acquisition of the rotational run. It therefore allows one to analyze, during the intervention, the aneurysm's angioarchitecture, in particular the neck, and select the best therapeutic technique. When endovascular treatment is the best indication, 3D angiography allows one to define the optimal angle of view and accurately select the microcoils dimensions. 3D angiography replaces the multiple oblique views that used to be required to analyze the complex aneurysms and therefore allows a reduction of the total contrast medium quantity, the patient X-ray dose and the length of the intervention time which is a safety factor. Also, in particular for complex cases, it brings additional elements complementing the results of standard 2D DSA and rotational angiograms. In the cervical vascular pathology, 3D angiography allows for a better assessment of the stenosis level and of dissection lesions. Our current research activities focus on the matching without stereotactic frame between 3D X-ray angiography and volumetric MR acquisition, which should allow us to improve the treatment of intracerebral arterio-venous malformations (AVMs).  (+info)

Penetrating sledding injuries to the lower torso--2 case reports. (4/2832)

Sledding accidents are frequent and vary in severity. Penetrating sledding injuries are uncommon but may be devastating. Snow-racers--sleds with both steering and braking devices--may be associated with an increased rate of injury. The authors present 2 cases of lower-torso penetrating trauma associated with the use of snow-racers. Both cases involved penetration--of the perineum in one case and the inguinal area in the other--by wooden sticks. Both patients recovered fully after prompt surgical intervention. The authors suggest that the absence of a protective panel at the front of the snow-racer may result in the sledder's lower torso being more exposed to objects encountered while sledding. The injuries reported raise concerns about the safety of modern sleds and the possibility that design changes are needed.  (+info)

Surgical transluminal iliac angioplasty with selective stenting: long-term results assessed by means of duplex scanning. (5/2832)

PURPOSE: The safety of iliac angioplasty and selective stenting performed in the operating room by vascular surgeons was evaluated, and the short- and long-term results were assessed by means of serial duplex scanning. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1996, 281 iliac stenotic or occlusive lesions in 235 consecutive patients with chronic limb ischemia were treated by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) alone (n = 214) or PTA with stent (n = 67, 23.8%). There were 260 primary lesions and 21 restenosis after a first PTA, which were analyzed separately. Stents were implanted in selected cases, either primarily in totally occluded arteries or after suboptimum results of PTA (ie, residual stenosis or a dissection). Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Results were reported in an intention-to-treat basis. Clinical results and patency were evaluated by means of symptom assessment, ankle brachial pressure index, and duplex scanning at discharge and 1, 3, 6, and every 12 months after angioplasty. To identify factors that may affect outcome, 12 clinical and radiological variables, including the four categories of lesions defined by the Standards of Practice Committee of the Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, were analyzed separately. The statistical significances of life-table analysis of patency were determined by means of the log-rank test. RESULTS: There were no postoperative deaths or amputations. Local, general, and vascular complications occurred in 2.1%, 1.3% and 4.7% of cases, respectively (total, 8.1%). The mean follow-up period was 29.6 months. The cumulative patency rates +/- SE of the 260 PTAs (including 55 PTAs plus stents) were 92.9% +/- 1.5% at 1 month, 86. 5% +/- 1.7% at 1 year, 81.2% +/- 2.3% at 2 years, 78.8% +/- 2.9% at 3 years, and 75.4% +/- 3.5% at 5 and 6 years. The two-year patency rate of 21 redo PTAs (including 11 PTAs plus stents) was 79.1% +/- 18.2%. Of 12 predictable variables studied in the first PTA group, only the category of the lesion was predictive of long-term patency. The two-year patency rate was 84% +/- 3% for 199 category 1 lesions and 69.7% +/- 6.5% for 61 category 2, 3, and 4 lesions together (P =. 02). There was no difference of patency in the stented and nonstented group. CONCLUSION: Iliac PTA alone or with the use of a stent (in cases of occlusion and/or suboptimal results of PTA) offers an excellent long-term patency rate. Categorization of lesions remains useful in predicting long-term outcome. PTA can be performed safely by vascular surgeons in the operating room and should be considered to be the primary treatment for localized iliac occlusive disease.  (+info)

Carotid endarterectomy and intracranial thrombolysis: simultaneous and staged procedures in ischemic stroke. (6/2832)

PURPOSE: The feasibility and safety of combining carotid surgery and thrombolysis for occlusions of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA), either as a simultaneous or as a staged procedure in acute ischemic strokes, was studied. METHODS: A nonrandomized clinical pilot study, which included patients who had severe hemispheric carotid-related ischemic strokes and acute occlusions of the MCA, was performed between January 1994 and January 1998. Exclusion criteria were cerebral coma and major infarction established by means of cerebral computed tomography scan. Clinical outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin scale. RESULTS: Carotid reconstruction and thrombolysis was performed in 14 of 845 patients (1.7%). The ICA was occluded in 11 patients; occlusions of the MCA (mainstem/major branches/distal branch) or the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) were found in 14 patients. In three of the 14 patients, thrombolysis was performed first, followed by carotid enarterectomy (CEA) after clinical improvement (6 to 21 days). In 11 of 14 patients, 0.15 to 1 mIU urokinase was administered intraoperatively, ie, emergency CEA for acute ischemic stroke (n = 5) or surgical reexploration after elective CEA complicated by perioperative intracerebral embolism (n = 6). Thirteen of 14 intracranial embolic occlusions and 10 of 11 ICA occlusions were recanalized successfully (confirmed with angiography or transcranial Doppler studies). Four patients recovered completely (Rankin 0), six patients sustained a minor stroke (Rankin 2/3), two patients had a major stroke (Rankin 4/5), and two patients died. In one patient, hemorrhagic transformation of an ischemic infarction was detectable postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Combining carotid surgery with thrombolysis (simultaneous or staged procedure) offers a new therapeutic approach in the emergency management of an acute carotid-related stroke. Its efficacy should be evaluated in interdisciplinary studies.  (+info)

Mid-term results of endoscopic perforator vein interruption for chronic venous insufficiency: lessons learned from the North American subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery registry. The North American Study Group. (7/2832)

PURPOSE: The safety, feasibility, and early efficacy of subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery (SEPS) for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency were established in a preliminary report. The long-term clinical outcome and the late complications after SEPS are as yet undetermined. METHODS: The North American Subfascial Endoscopic Perforator Surgery registry collected information on 148 SEPS procedures that were performed in 17 centers in the United States and Canada between August 1, 1993, and February 15, 1996. The data analysis in this study focused on mid-term outcome in 146 patients. RESULTS: One hundred forty-six patients (79 men and 67 women; mean age, 56 years; range, 27 to 87 years) underwent SEPS. One hundred and one patients (69%) had active ulcers (class 6), and 21 (14%) had healed ulcers (class 5). One hundred and three patients (71%) underwent concomitant venous procedures (stripping, 70; high ligation, 17; varicosity avulsion alone, 16). There were no deaths or pulmonary embolisms. One deep venous thrombosis occurred at 2 months. The follow-up periods averaged 24 months (range, 1 to 53 months). Cumulative ulcer healing at 1 year was 88% (median time to healing, 54 days). Concomitant ablation of superficial reflux and lack of deep venous obstruction predicted ulcer healing (P <.05). Clinical score improved from 8.93 to 3.98 at the last follow-up (P <. 0001). Cumulative ulcer recurrence at 1 year was 16% and at 2 years was 28% (standard error, < 10%). Post-thrombotic limbs had a higher 2-year cumulative recurrence rate (46%) than did those limbs with primary valvular incompetence (20%; P <.05). Twenty-eight of the 122 patients (23%) who had class 5 or class 6 ulcers before surgery had an active ulcer at the last follow-up examination. CONCLUSIONS: The interruption of perforators with ablation of superficial reflux is effective in decreasing the symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency and rapidly healing ulcers. Recurrence or new ulcer development, however, is still significant, particularly in post-thrombotic limbs. The reevaluation of the indications for SEPS is warranted because operations in patients without previous deep vein thrombosis are successful but operations in those patients with deep vein thrombosis are less successful. Operations on patients with deep vein occlusion have poor outcomes.  (+info)

Endovascular repair of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm: a tip for systemic pressure reduction. (8/2832)

A proposed technique for systemic pressure reduction during deployment of a stent graft was studied. A 67-year-old man, who had a descending thoracic aneurysm, was successfully treated with an endovascular procedure. An occluding balloon was introduced into the inferior vena cava (IVC) through the femoral vein. The balloon volume was manipulated with carbon dioxide gas to reduce the venous return, resulting in a transient and well-controlled hypotension. This IVC-occluding technique for systemic pressure reduction may be safe and convenient to minimize distal migration of stent grafts.  (+info)

There are several types of drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, including:

1. Common side effects: These are side effects that are commonly experienced by patients taking a particular medication. Examples include nausea, dizziness, and fatigue.
2. Serious side effects: These are side effects that can be severe or life-threatening. Examples include allergic reactions, liver damage, and bone marrow suppression.
3. Adverse events: These are any unwanted or harmful effects that occur during the use of a medication, including side effects and other clinical events such as infections or injuries.
4. Drug interactions: These are interactions between two or more drugs that can cause harmful side effects or reduce the effectiveness of one or both drugs.
5. Side effects caused by drug abuse: These are side effects that occur when a medication is taken in larger-than-recommended doses or in a manner other than as directed. Examples include hallucinations, seizures, and overdose.

It's important to note that not all side effects and adverse reactions are caused by the drug itself. Some may be due to other factors, such as underlying medical conditions, other medications being taken, or environmental factors.

To identify and manage drug-related side effects and adverse reactions, healthcare providers will typically ask patients about any symptoms they are experiencing, perform physical exams, and review the patient's medical history and medication list. In some cases, additional tests may be ordered to help diagnose and manage the problem.

Overall, it's important for patients taking medications to be aware of the potential for side effects and adverse reactions, and to report any symptoms or concerns to their healthcare provider promptly. This can help ensure that any issues are identified and addressed early, minimizing the risk of harm and ensuring that the patient receives the best possible care.

Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.

Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.

Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.

Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Example sentence: The patient had a hemorrhage after the car accident and needed immediate medical attention.

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.

In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

In medical terminology, nausea is sometimes used interchangeably with the term "dyspepsia," which refers to a general feeling of discomfort or unease in the stomach, often accompanied by symptoms such as bloating, belching, or heartburn. However, while nausea and dyspepsia can be related, they are not always the same thing, and it's important to understand the specific underlying cause of any gastrointestinal symptoms in order to provide appropriate treatment.

Some common causes of nausea include:

* Gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and gastritis
* Motion sickness or seasickness
* Medication side effects, including chemotherapy drugs, antibiotics, and painkillers
* Pregnancy and morning sickness
* Food poisoning or other infections
* Migraines and other headaches
* Anxiety and stress

Treatment for nausea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include medications such as antihistamines, anticholinergics, or anti-nausea drugs, as well as non-pharmacological interventions such as ginger, acupressure, or relaxation techniques. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent dehydration or other complications.

1. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs): These are side effects caused by medications, such as allergic reactions, liver damage, or other systemic problems. ADRs can be a significant cause of iatrogenic disease and can result from taking the wrong medication, taking too much medication, or taking medication for too long.
2. Infections acquired during medical procedures: Patients who undergo invasive medical procedures, such as surgeries or insertion of catheters, are at risk of developing infections. These infections can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms that enter the body through the surgical site or the catheter.
3. Surgical complications: Complications from surgery can range from minor issues, such as bruising and swelling, to more serious problems, such as infection, organ damage, or nerve injury. These complications can be caused by errors during the procedure, poor post-operative care, or other factors.
4. Medication overuse or underuse: Medications that are prescribed inappropriately or in excess can cause iatrogenic disease. For example, taking too much medication can lead to adverse drug reactions, while taking too little medication may not effectively treat the underlying condition.
5. Medical imaging complications: Medical imaging procedures, such as X-rays and CT scans, can sometimes cause iatrogenic disease. For example, excessive radiation exposure from these procedures can increase the risk of cancer.
6. Psychiatric iatrogenesis: This refers to harm caused by psychiatric treatment, such as medication side effects or inappropriate use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).
7. Overdiagnosis: Overdiagnosis occurs when a condition is diagnosed that would not have caused symptoms or required treatment during the person's lifetime. This can lead to unnecessary testing, treatment, and other iatrogenic harms.
8. Unnecessary surgery: Surgical procedures that are not necessary can cause harm and increase healthcare costs.
9. Inappropriate referrals: Referring patients for unnecessary tests or procedures can lead to iatrogenic disease and increased healthcare costs.
10. Healthcare provider burnout: Burnout among healthcare providers can lead to errors, adverse events, and other forms of iatrogenic disease.

It is important to note that these are just a few examples of iatrogenic disease, and there may be other factors that contribute to this phenomenon as well. Additionally, while many of the factors listed above are unintentional, some may be due to negligence or other forms of misconduct. In all cases, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent iatrogenic disease and promote high-quality, patient-centered care.

Injuries caused by needles or other sharp objects that puncture the skin and can potentially introduce infectious agents, such as bloodborne pathogens like HIV or hepatitis, into the body. These injuries are a common occupational hazard for healthcare workers and others who handle sharp objects, and can also occur in non-work related settings, such as during medical procedures or at home.

Needlestick injuries can be serious and potentially life-threatening, particularly if the needle or other sharp object is contaminated with an infectious agent. In addition to the risk of infection, needlestick injuries can also cause physical injury, such as lacerations or puncture wounds, and may require medical attention.

There are several measures that can be taken to prevent needlestick injuries, including using safer needle devices, proper disposal of sharp objects, and appropriate training for healthcare workers on safe needle use and handling techniques. In addition, vaccination against certain infectious agents, such as hepatitis B, can help protect against the risk of infection from a needlestick injury.

Types of Gastrointestinal Diseases:

1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A common condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel movements.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
3. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition in which stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
4. Peptic Ulcer Disease: A condition characterized by ulcers in the lining of the stomach or duodenum.
5. Diverticulitis: A condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the colon and become inflamed.
6. Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach lining, often caused by infection or excessive alcohol consumption.
7. Esophagitis: Inflammation of the esophagus, often caused by acid reflux or infection.
8. Rectal Bleeding: Hemorrhage from the rectum, which can be a symptom of various conditions such as hemorrhoids, anal fissures, or inflammatory bowel disease.
9. Functional Dyspepsia: A condition characterized by recurring symptoms of epigastric pain, bloating, nausea, and belching.
10. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to react to gluten, leading to inflammation and damage in the small intestine.

Causes of Gastrointestinal Diseases:

1. Infection: Viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections can cause gastrointestinal diseases.
2. Autoimmune Disorders: Conditions such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in the GI tract.
3. Diet: Consuming a diet high in processed foods, sugar, and unhealthy fats can contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
4. Genetics: Certain genetic factors can increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
5. Lifestyle Factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress, and lack of physical activity can all contribute to gastrointestinal diseases.
6. Radiation Therapy: Exposure to radiation therapy can damage the GI tract and increase the risk of developing certain gastrointestinal diseases.
7. Medications: Certain medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and corticosteroids can cause gastrointestinal side effects.

Vomiting can be caused by a variety of factors, such as:

1. Infection: Viral or bacterial infections can inflame the stomach and intestines, leading to vomiting.
2. Food poisoning: Consuming contaminated or spoiled food can cause vomiting.
3. Motion sickness: Traveling by car, boat, plane, or other modes of transportation can cause motion sickness, which leads to vomiting.
4. Alcohol or drug overconsumption: Drinking too much alcohol or taking certain medications can irritate the stomach and cause vomiting.
5. Pregnancy: Hormonal changes during pregnancy can cause nausea and vomiting, especially during the first trimester.
6. Other conditions: Vomiting can also be a symptom of other medical conditions such as appendicitis, pancreatitis, and migraines.

When someone is vomiting, they may experience:

1. Nausea: A feeling of queasiness or sickness in the stomach.
2. Abdominal pain: Crampy or sharp pain in the abdomen.
3. Diarrhea: Loose, watery stools.
4. Dehydration: Loss of fluids and electrolytes.
5. Headache: A throbbing headache can occur due to dehydration.
6. Fatigue: Weakness and exhaustion.

Treatment for vomiting depends on the underlying cause, but may include:

1. Fluid replacement: Drinking fluids to replenish lost electrolytes and prevent dehydration.
2. Medications: Anti-inflammatory drugs or antibiotics may be prescribed to treat infections or other conditions causing vomiting.
3. Rest: Resting the body and avoiding strenuous activities.
4. Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or substances that trigger vomiting.
5. Hospitalization: In severe cases of vomiting, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat underlying conditions.

It is important to seek medical attention if the following symptoms occur with vomiting:

1. Severe abdominal pain.
2. Fever above 101.5°F (38.6°C).
3. Blood in vomit or stools.
4. Signs of dehydration, such as excessive thirst, dark urine, or dizziness.
5. Vomiting that lasts for more than 2 days.
6. Frequent vomiting with no relief.

A laboratory infection is an infection that occurs in a healthcare worker or laboratory personnel while working in a laboratory setting, typically with infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, or fungi. These infections can be acquired through exposure to infected samples, equipment, or surfaces in the laboratory.

The risk of laboratory infection is higher in settings where high-risk agents are handled, such as in the study of highly infectious diseases like Ebola or SARS. The transmission of infectious agents in laboratories can occur through various routes, including:

1. Direct contact with infected samples or materials.
2. Contact with contaminated surfaces or equipment.
3. Inhalation of aerosols generated during procedures such as centrifugation or pipetting.
4. Exposure to infected personnel or animals in the laboratory.

To prevent laboratory infections, healthcare workers and laboratory personnel must follow strict safety protocols, including wearing personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves, gowns, and masks, and adhering to proper sterilization and decontamination techniques. Laboratories should also have ventilation systems that filter out infectious agents and should be designed with containment levels to minimize the risk of exposure.

Laboratory infections can have serious consequences for both the individuals involved and the broader community, including the potential for transmitting infectious diseases to others outside of the laboratory setting. Therefore, it is essential to have strict safety protocols and proper training for laboratory personnel to minimize the risk of laboratory-acquired infections.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

There are several types of headaches, including:

1. Tension headache: This is the most common type of headache and is caused by muscle tension in the neck and scalp.
2. Migraine: This is a severe headache that can cause nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
3. Sinus headache: This type of headache is caused by inflammation or infection in the sinuses.
4. Cluster headache: This is a rare type of headache that occurs in clusters or cycles and can be very painful.
5. Rebound headache: This type of headache is caused by overuse of pain medication.

Headaches can be treated with a variety of methods, such as:

1. Over-the-counter pain medications, such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
2. Prescription medications, such as triptans or ergots, for migraines and other severe headaches.
3. Lifestyle changes, such as stress reduction techniques, regular exercise, and a healthy diet.
4. Alternative therapies, such as acupuncture or massage, which can help relieve tension and pain.
5. Addressing underlying causes, such as sinus infections or allergies, that may be contributing to the headaches.

It is important to seek medical attention if a headache is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, confusion, or weakness. A healthcare professional can diagnose the cause of the headache and recommend appropriate treatment.

1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.

Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.

Foodborne diseases, also known as food-borne illnesses or gastrointestinal infections, are conditions caused by eating contaminated or spoiled food. These diseases can be caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites, which can be present in food products at any stage of the food supply chain.

Examples of common foodborne diseases include:

1. Salmonella: Caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
2. E. coli: Caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli, this disease can cause a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, urinary tract infections, and pneumonia.
3. Listeria: Caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes, this disease can cause symptoms such as fever, headache, and stiffness in the neck.
4. Campylobacter: Caused by the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni, this disease can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps.
5. Norovirus: This highly contagious virus can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach cramps.
6. Botulism: Caused by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum, this disease can cause symptoms such as muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, and difficulty swallowing.

Foodborne diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including stool samples, blood tests, and biopsies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics or other supportive care to manage symptoms. Prevention is key to avoiding foodborne diseases, and this includes proper food handling and preparation practices, as well as ensuring that food products are stored and cooked at safe temperatures.

1. Ischemic stroke: This is the most common type of stroke, accounting for about 87% of all strokes. It occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain.
2. Hemorrhagic stroke: This type of stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures, causing bleeding in the brain. High blood pressure, aneurysms, and blood vessel malformations can all cause hemorrhagic strokes.
3. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA is a temporary interruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts for a short period of time, usually less than 24 hours. TIAs are often a warning sign for a future stroke and should be taken seriously.

Stroke can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the location and severity of the damage to the brain. Some common symptoms include:

* Weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg
* Difficulty speaking or understanding speech
* Sudden vision loss or double vision
* Dizziness, loss of balance, or sudden falls
* Severe headache
* Confusion, disorientation, or difficulty with memory

Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and can have a significant impact on the quality of life for survivors. However, with prompt medical treatment and rehabilitation, many people are able to recover some or all of their lost functions and lead active lives.

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding stroke and developing effective treatments. Some of the most important advances include:

* Development of clot-busting drugs and mechanical thrombectomy devices to treat ischemic strokes
* Improved imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI scans, to diagnose stroke and determine its cause
* Advances in surgical techniques for hemorrhagic stroke
* Development of new medications to prevent blood clots and reduce the risk of stroke

Despite these advances, stroke remains a significant public health problem. According to the American Heart Association, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States and the leading cause of long-term disability. In 2017, there were over 795,000 strokes in the United States alone.

There are several risk factors for stroke that can be controlled or modified. These include:

* High blood pressure
* Diabetes mellitus
* High cholesterol levels
* Smoking
* Obesity
* Lack of physical activity
* Poor diet

In addition to these modifiable risk factors, there are also several non-modifiable risk factors for stroke, such as age (stroke risk increases with age), family history of stroke, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).

The medical community has made significant progress in understanding the causes and risk factors for stroke, as well as developing effective treatments and prevention strategies. However, more research is needed to improve outcomes for stroke survivors and reduce the overall burden of this disease.

Symptoms of neutropenia may include recurring infections, fever, fatigue, weight loss, and swollen lymph nodes. The diagnosis is typically made through a blood test that measures the number of neutrophils in the blood.

Treatment options for neutropenia depend on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, supportive care to manage symptoms, and in severe cases, bone marrow transplantation or granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) therapy to increase neutrophil production.

There are several symptoms of RA, including:

1. Joint pain and stiffness, especially in the hands and feet
2. Swollen and warm joints
3. Redness and tenderness in the affected areas
4. Fatigue, fever, and loss of appetite
5. Loss of range of motion in the affected joints
6. Firm bumps of tissue under the skin (rheumatoid nodules)

RA can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, blood tests, and imaging studies such as X-rays or ultrasound. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs), and biologic agents. Lifestyle modifications such as exercise and physical therapy can also be helpful in managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

There is no cure for RA, but early diagnosis and aggressive treatment can help to slow the progression of the disease and reduce symptoms. With proper management, many people with RA are able to lead active and fulfilling lives.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

There are different types of myocardial infarctions, including:

1. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI): This is the most severe type of heart attack, where a large area of the heart muscle is damaged. It is characterized by a specific pattern on an electrocardiogram (ECG) called the ST segment.
2. Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI): This type of heart attack is less severe than STEMI, and the damage to the heart muscle may not be as extensive. It is characterized by a smaller area of damage or a different pattern on an ECG.
3. Incomplete myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack is when there is some damage to the heart muscle but not a complete blockage of blood flow.
4. Collateral circulation myocardial infarction: This type of heart attack occurs when there are existing collateral vessels that bypass the blocked coronary artery, which reduces the amount of damage to the heart muscle.

Symptoms of a myocardial infarction can include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and fatigue. These symptoms may be accompanied by anxiety, fear, and a sense of impending doom. In some cases, there may be no noticeable symptoms at all.

Diagnosis of myocardial infarction is typically made based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as an electrocardiogram (ECG), cardiac enzyme tests, and imaging studies like echocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

Treatment of myocardial infarction usually involves medications to relieve pain, reduce the amount of work the heart has to do, and prevent further damage to the heart muscle. These may include aspirin, beta blockers, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and statins. In some cases, a procedure such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow to the affected area.

Prevention of myocardial infarction involves managing risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and obesity. This can include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet, regular exercise, and stress reduction, as well as medications to control these conditions. Early detection and treatment of heart disease can help prevent myocardial infarction from occurring in the first place.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

Occupational Injuries can affect any part of the body, including the musculoskeletal system (e.g., back injuries, sprains and strains), the respiratory system (e.g., occupational asthma), the skin and eyes (e.g., exposure to chemicals or radiation), and more.

Some common types of Occupational Injuries include:

1. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs): These injuries affect the muscles, nerves, tendons, and joints, often caused by repetitive tasks, poor posture, or heavy lifting. Examples include carpal tunnel syndrome, back strain, and tendonitis.
2. Hearing loss: Prolonged exposure to loud noises in the workplace can cause permanent hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears).
3. Skin diseases: Occupational skin diseases can result from exposure to chemicals, cleaning products, or other substances. Examples include contact dermatitis and occupational eczema.
4. Respiratory problems: Inhaling hazardous materials or substances can cause respiratory issues, such as asthma, bronchitis, and lung cancer.
5. Eye injuries: Prolonged exposure to bright lights, glare, or flying objects can cause eye injuries, including retinal damage and cataracts.
6. Traumatic injuries: Accidents in the workplace, such as falls or being struck by an object, can result in traumatic injuries, including broken bones, concussions, and head trauma.
7. Repetitive motion injuries: Repeating the same tasks over time can cause injuries to muscles, tendons, and joints, such as carpal tunnel syndrome or trigger finger.
8. Heat-related illnesses: Working in high temperatures without proper ventilation or hydration can lead to heat exhaustion or heat stroke.
9. Cold-related illnesses: Exposure to cold temperatures for extended periods can cause hypothermia and other cold-related illnesses.
10. Psychological injuries: Stress, bullying, and harassment in the workplace can lead to psychological injuries, including depression and anxiety disorders.

It's important for employees to be aware of these potential hazards and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE), following safety protocols, and reporting any incidents or concerns to their supervisors or human resources department. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and take proactive measures to prevent injuries and illnesses from occurring in the first place.

In the medical field, fatigue is often evaluated using a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to determine its underlying cause. Treatment for fatigue depends on the underlying cause, but may include rest, exercise, stress management techniques, and medication.

Some common causes of fatigue in the medical field include:

1. Sleep disorders, such as insomnia or sleep apnea
2. Chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, heart disease, or arthritis
3. Infections, such as the flu or a urinary tract infection
4. Medication side effects
5. Poor nutrition or hydration
6. Substance abuse
7. Chronic stress
8. Depression or anxiety
9. Hormonal imbalances
10. Autoimmune disorders, such as thyroiditis or lupus.

Fatigue can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as:

1. Anemia
2. Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
3. Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid)
4. Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid)
5. Chronic fatigue syndrome
6. Fibromyalgia
7. Vasculitis
8. Cancer
9. Heart failure
10. Liver or kidney disease.

It is important to seek medical attention if fatigue is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, pain, or difficulty breathing. A healthcare professional can diagnose and treat the underlying cause of fatigue, improving overall quality of life.

There are different types of fever, including:

1. Pyrexia: This is the medical term for fever. It is used to describe a body temperature that is above normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F).
2. Hyperthermia: This is a more severe form of fever, where the body temperature rises significantly above normal levels.
3. Febrile seizure: This is a seizure that occurs in children who have a high fever.
4. Remittent fever: This is a type of fever that comes and goes over a period of time.
5. Intermittent fever: This is a type of fever that recurs at regular intervals.
6. Chronic fever: This is a type of fever that persists for an extended period of time, often more than 3 weeks.

The symptoms of fever can vary depending on the underlying cause, but common symptoms include:

* Elevated body temperature
* Chills
* Sweating
* Headache
* Muscle aches
* Fatigue
* Loss of appetite

In some cases, fever can be a sign of a serious underlying condition, such as pneumonia, meningitis, or sepsis. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone in your care has a fever, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as difficulty breathing, confusion, or chest pain.

Treatment for fever depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen may be prescribed to help reduce the fever. It is important to follow the recommended dosage instructions carefully and to consult with a healthcare professional before giving medication to children.

In addition to medication, there are other ways to help manage fever symptoms at home. These include:

* Drinking plenty of fluids to stay hydrated
* Taking cool baths or using a cool compress to reduce body temperature
* Resting and avoiding strenuous activities
* Using over-the-counter pain relievers, such as acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen, to help manage headache and muscle aches.

Preventive measures for fever include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing your hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Staying up to date on vaccinations, which can help prevent certain infections that can cause fever.

There are several types of thrombosis, including:

1. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, which can cause swelling, pain, and skin discoloration.
2. Pulmonary embolism (PE): A clot breaks loose from another location in the body and travels to the lungs, where it can cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and coughing up blood.
3. Cerebral thrombosis: A clot forms in the brain, which can cause stroke or mini-stroke symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking.
4. Coronary thrombosis: A clot forms in the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle, leading to a heart attack.
5. Renal thrombosis: A clot forms in the kidneys, which can cause kidney damage or failure.

The symptoms of thrombosis can vary depending on the location and size of the clot. Some common symptoms include:

1. Swelling or redness in the affected limb
2. Pain or tenderness in the affected area
3. Warmth or discoloration of the skin
4. Shortness of breath or chest pain if the clot has traveled to the lungs
5. Weakness, numbness, or difficulty speaking if the clot has formed in the brain
6. Rapid heart rate or irregular heartbeat
7. Feeling of anxiety or panic

Treatment for thrombosis usually involves medications to dissolve the clot and prevent new ones from forming. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot or repair the damaged blood vessel. Prevention measures include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, avoiding long periods of immobility, and managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes.

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JIS Z 9101:2005 Safety Colours And Safety Signs - Design Principles For Safety Signs In Workplaces And Public Areas (in ... Safety colours and safety signs - Registered safety signs (ISO 7010:2011); German version EN ISO 7010:2012". Retrieved ... Safety colours and safety signs -- Registered safety signs". Retrieved 22 November 2018. International Organization for ... Workplace and public area safety signs) JIS Z 9103 (Safety sign colors) and JIS Z 9104 (Safety signs - General specifications ...
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Other forms of safety harnesses include: Seat belts. Child safety seats. Over-the-shoulder restraints used on thrill rides at ... A safety harness is a form of protective equipment designed to safeguard the user from injury or death from falling. The core ... Some safety harnesses are used in combination with a shock-absorbing lanyard, which is used to regulate deceleration and ... American Society of Safety Professionals. Archived from the original on May 27, 2020. Retrieved June 4, 2020. Purchase Our Z359 ...
A safety taxonomy is a standardized set of terminologies used within the fields of safety and health care. The goal is to ... Beyond Human Error: Taxonomies and Safety Science; (CRC Press 2006). (Safety, Taxonomy). ... Biological taxonomy Economic taxonomy Military taxonomy Safety science Weinhart, S.N. (2005) Beyond Babel: prospects for a ... universal patient safety taxonomy. Int. Journal for Quality in Health Care 17: 93-94. ...
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Motor vehicle crashes are a public health concern both in the United States and abroad. In the United States, motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death, and kill over 100 people every day. However, motor vehicle crash injuries and deaths are preventable. There are proven strategies that can help prevent these injuries and deaths. Whether you are a driver, passenger, cyclist, or pedestrian, you can take steps to stay safe on the road.. ...
Key points to remember about hot weather safety. Older people can have a tougher time dealing with heat and humidity. The ... For more information about hot weather safety. Eldercare Locator. 800-677-1116. [email protected] https://eldercare.acl. ...
Kids need swim safety goggles with polycarbonate lenses when playing sports that happen in water, like: ... Types of protective eyewear for sports include safety goggles, face guards, and special eyewear designed for specific sports. ... Kids can also wear safety goggles over their regular glasses or contacts. ...
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (n.d.). Child safety: Is your child in the right car seat? Retrieved August 6, ... If your car or safety seat does not use the LATCH system, you will have to use the vehicles safety belts to secure an ... ... of car seats and safety seat manufacturers.. Newer cars and trucks are equipped with the LATCH system for installing child ...
Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD)plus icon *Accessing Data from Vaccine Safety Datalink ... CDC will continue to monitor the safety of COVID-19 vaccines through its other vaccine safety monitoring systems. V-safe users ... Vaccine Safety Monitoringplus icon *Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). *CISAplus icon *CISA Resources for ... V-safe was developed specifically for COVID-19 vaccines and has been an essential component of the pandemic vaccine safety ...
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We believe the unique combination of passive safety, active safety, and automated driver assistance is crucial for keeping not ... we believe that technology can help improve safety. Thats why Tesla vehicles are engineered to be the safest cars in the world ... Tesla Vehicle Safety Report. At Tesla, we believe that technology can help improve safety. Thats why Tesla vehicles are ... Active safety features come standard on all Tesla vehicles made after September 2014 for an added layer of safety beyond the ...
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Annual Security and Fire Safety Report. Learn more about our safety efforts in Fordhams Annual Security and Fire Safety Report ... Public Safety. Stay aware. Stay safe.. We know how big New York City can seem. When youre new its hard to imagine being able ... Fordhams Department of Public Safety makes your community feel a lot smaller. Our top priority is to ensure the well-being of ... Personal safety programs on topics including preventing sexual assault and urban living are offered throughout the academic ...
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  • If your car or safety seat does not use the LATCH system, you will have to use the vehicle's safety belts to secure an appropriate car seat. (
  • Explore this vehicle's safety and convenience features below. (
  • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), a division of the U.S. Department of Labor, is the lead federal organization devoted to protecting the safety and health of America's workers. (
  • OSHA produces and enforces protective standards for occupational safety and health and also provides employers and employees with technical and consultative assistance. (
  • V-safe was developed specifically for COVID-19 vaccines and has been an essential component of the pandemic vaccine safety monitoring systems that have successfully characterized the safety of the COVID-19 vaccines used in the United States. (
  • CDC will continue to monitor the safety of COVID-19 vaccines through its other vaccine safety monitoring systems . (
  • There is a large body of scientific studies that supports the safety of flu vaccine in pregnant people and their babies, and CDC continues to gather data on this topic. (
  • One of these studies was conducted using CDC's Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) . (
  • For more information, visit the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Food Safety for Older Adults and People with Cancer, Diabetes, HIV/AIDS, Organ Transplants, and Autoimmune Diseases webpage. (
  • The Air Force Academy Safety Office provides advice and guidance to the Academy superintendent, subordinate commanders, and directors on all safety issues and concerns including mishap prevention, hazard identification and risk mitigation. (
  • Topics & resources with guidance to assist employers and responders to achieve worker safety and health during emergency responses. (
  • As required by the NIH Further Guidance on a Data and Safety Monitoring for Phase I and Phase II Trials and NIH Policy for Data and Safety Monitoring , the NIDDK has developed guidelines to provide a uniform structure for all NIDDK grant applicants and grantees conducting human subjects research. (
  • The Health and Safety Branch is a team of environmental, health, and safety professionals dedicated to reducing or eliminating the risks of illness and injury from occupational and environmental health hazards at NIEHS. (
  • It is important to identify workplace risks and ensure that employees always use appropriate Safety Eyewear whenever necessary. (
  • Newer cars and trucks are equipped with the LATCH system for installing child safety seats (LATCH stands for Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children). (
  • It is a set of attachment points that make installing child safety seats easier. (
  • There may be a delay with very recently announced safety recalls for which not all VINs have been identified. (
  • Initiated safety recalls require a manufacturer's action to announce and remedy the defects. (
  • In October 2018, we began voluntarily releasing quarterly safety data in order to provide critical safety information about our vehicles to the public, and in July 2019 we began voluntarily releasing annually updated data about vehicle fires as well. (
  • You can learn more about these specific safety activities and programmes using the links below, and via the navigation provided in the left-side menu. (
  • The Star Safety System™ is a combination of active traction, cornering and braking technologies that help the driver to accelerate, steer and stop, especially in slippery conditions or during emergency maneuvers. (
  • Widely available emergency telephones at the Rose Hill and Lincoln Center campuses tie directly to Public Safety. (
  • Most decisions to conduct a recall and remedy a safety defect are made voluntarily by manufacturers prior to any involvement by NHTSA. (
  • Information on regulations that outline requirements for specific safety and health related matters or industries. (
  • The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration provides a set of guidelines (PDF 1.16 MB) regarding infant car seats. (
  • Following food safety guidelines reduces the risk of foodborne illnesses. (
  • Types of protective eyewear for sports include safety goggles, face guards, and special eyewear designed for specific sports. (
  • ZEISS Safety Eyewear with individual correction. (
  • We know that if Safety Eyewear is appreciated when it is used. (
  • Therefore, our Safety Eyewear is developed to be used for prevention as well as for protection and helpfulness when the need arises. (
  • ZEISS Safety Eyewear can be used for several hours without feeling heavy or uncomfortable. (
  • Everyone has the right to receive prescription Safety Eyewear when their vision is impaired, and this is something every employer should provide free of charge. (
  • Safety Eyewear is part of personal protective equipment. (
  • Safety Eyewear is used in an increasing number of situations and in more professions than ever before. (
  • ZEISS supplies Safety Eyewear to promote a better and more efficient working life. (
  • These requirements are followed by the Swedish Work Environment Authority (AFS 2001:3) in terms of personal protective equipment which includes prescription lenses in Safety Eyewear. (
  • A 6 mm steel bullet is shot at the Safety Eyewear (45 m/s). (
  • As an employer, you decide and are responsible for whether an employee needs S or F classified Safety Eyewear. (
  • An optician is responsible for testing the subject's vision and providing a correct prescription and we as a manufacturer of Safety Eyewear are responsible for manufacturing and supplying approved, certified Safety Eyewear according to the prescription. (
  • ZEISS supplies CE marked, tested and approved complete Safety Eyewear. (
  • ZEISS uses four types of material for Safety Eyewear. (
  • OSHA also works with employers through various programs and partnerships to help them develop effective safety and health systems to reduce injuries and illnesses in the workplace. (
  • They are also working to enable the safety standardization needed to integrate today's exciting innovations in aircraft propulsion, design, autonomous control, and personal mobility, while still maintaining or improving overall network performance. (
  • NIOSH research, programs, and publications are responsive to the occupational health and safety problems that burden today's and tomorrow's workers. (
  • The 193 countries who cooperate through ICAO are currently working toward their agreed global safety target of zero fatalities by 2030, in tandem with the strengthening of their regulatory capacities, while pursuing a range of programmes and targets relevant to current core areas of global aviation safety planning, oversight, and risk mitigation. (
  • If the trial is not masked and is low risk, it may be appropriate for the principal investigator (PI) to be involved with oversight of the study in conjunction with the external Safety Monitor. (
  • For other emergencies call Public Safety at 802-443-5911. (
  • As a global safety science leader, UL Solutions helps companies to demonstrate safety, enhance sustainability, strengthen security, deliver quality, manage risk and achieve regulatory compliance. (
  • This lens type meets the mechanical impact requirements according to EN166-F, which makes them a favourite among safety representatives around Europe. (
  • The Safety Office assists Unit Safety Representatives in managing unit program activities, conduct annual and specialized safety surveys, and analyzes accident causes and trends. (
  • If the functional supervisor is not known, report hazards that can't be corrected immediately to the USAFA Safety Office. (
  • The Safety Office staff manages the Academy's occupational and explosives safety programs, safety policies and procedures, accident investigations, incidents and hazardous conditions, and coordinates with Air Education Training Command through the 306th Flying Training Group to manage the Academy's Flight Safety Program. (
  • Learn more about our safety efforts in Fordham's Annual Security and Fire Safety Report . (
  • In addition to QI presentations, the NIMH Clinical Director uses this meeting to make patient safety announcements, track, trend, and report (STARS). (
  • This office coordinates monthly Patient Safety & Quality (PSQ) meetings where each NIMH research group presents a lab-specific Patient Safety/Quality Improvement project. (
  • For investigator-initiated clinical studies, a summary of the meeting or the minutes from meetings with the Safety Monitor or DSMB (see below) should also be sent as an official communication to NIDDK. (
  • Choose a vehicle to learn more details about its safety features. (
  • Explore additional safety and convenience features on this vehicle. (
  • Food safety is about how to select, handle, prepare, and store food to prevent foodborne illnesses. (
  • We can help you engineer safety into your products throughout your development process, reducing costs and challenges associated with innovative offerings. (
  • James leads CSPI campaigns whose goals are to minimize threats to public health from food safety issues and animals in the food system. (
  • And, in the extremely unlikely event that a fire occurs, the state-of-the-art design of our battery packs ensures that its safety system works as intended and isolates a fire to select areas within the battery while simultaneously venting heat away from the passenger cabin and the vehicle. (
  • Personal safety programs on topics including preventing sexual assault and urban living are offered throughout the academic year. (
  • NFPA offers free safety tip sheets on a variety of fire and life safety topics. (
  • Check for cleanliness and only buy food from reputable businesses that follow food safety regulations. (
  • The Safety Office staff provides safety training to include traffic-safety education and safety surveillance for institutional Academy events, such as Parents' Weekend, cadet graduation ceremonies and in-processing, and cadet summer training programs. (
  • A recall is issued when a manufacturer or NHTSA determines that a vehicle, equipment, car seat, or tire creates an unreasonable safety risk or fails to meet minimum safety standards. (
  • They meet the requirements of increased mechanical strength according to European standard EN-166-S. These lenses are often chosen when the risk of mechanical impact is less significant. (
  • On Oct. 26, the FDA approved revisions to the safety labeling for penicillamine (Cuprimine capsules, made by Merck), warning of the risk of fetal harm associated with its use during pregnancy (Pregnancy category D). (
  • Star Safety System™ includes Vehicle Stability Control (VSC), Traction Control (TRAC), Anti-lock Brake System (ABS), Electronic Brake-force Distribution (EBD), Brake Assist (BA) and Smart Stop Technology® (SST). (
  • GR Supra's available Driver Assist and Safety and Technology Packages bring added peace of mind to every drive. (
  • GR Supra comes equipped with a number of intelligent safety features, including a Pre-Collision System with Pedestrian Detection, Lane Departure Warning with Steering Assist, Automatic High Beams and Speed Limit Information. (
  • Blood safety involves keeping the Nation's blood supply free of contaminants or infectious agents. (
  • The Safety Monitor and DSMB members must be free of any conflicts of interest so that independence and objectivity are maintained. (
  • On automatic transmission models, GR86 comes standard with a number of intelligent safety features, including Pre-Collision Braking System, Pre-Collision Throttle Management, Adaptive Cruise Control, Lead Vehicle Start Alert, Lane Departure Warning with Sway Warning and Automatic High Beams. (
  • He has also owned his own businesses where he developed tire test system controls and tire rolling resistance test machines and a laboratory high-speed uniformity tire test machine, as well as vehicle safety test systems for vehicle crash tests and component strength tests for major tire and vehicle companies around the world. (
  • In addition, it reviews and tracks hospital problem occurrences (submitted through the Safety Tracking & Reporting System-- STARS system). (
  • Have you experienced a vehicle, tire, car seat, or equipment safety problem that could be a safety defect? (
  • One of the most important safety critical components on cars, trucks, and aircraft is the pneumatic tire. (
  • This seminar covers these facets of tire safety phenomena. (
  • Use fundamental equations of engineering science to predict and/or explain tire-vehicle interactions related to safety. (
  • The lenses are CE marked for your safety. (
  • Kids can also wear safety goggles over their regular glasses or contacts. (
  • The choice of lens depends greatly on the purpose for which the glasses are to be used and the safety requirements. (
  • The hope is for patients with blood disorders to live long and full lives, and to improve blood safety measures both in the United States and around the world. (
  • NHTSA issues vehicle safety standards and requires manufacturers to recall vehicles and equipment that have safety-related defects. (
  • Her work includes serving on federal advisory committees, testifying before Congress and federal agencies, offering technical advice to policymakers, and providing commentary to the media on consumer and food safety issues. (
  • Good coverage of relevant issues concerning tires and vehicle safety. (
  • We believe the unique combination of passive safety, active safety, and automated driver assistance is crucial for keeping not just Tesla drivers and passengers safe, but all drivers on the road. (
  • Meet regulatory requirements and consumer demand for safe, trustworthy products and services by working with the global safety science leader, UL Solutions. (
  • CSPI's food safety team helps ensure our food supply is safe by holding industry and government accountable. (
  • It is the role of the members of the Department of Public Safety to ensure that those ideals are held in high regard by enforcing College policies, laws and ordinances, protecting property and persons, and offering services that contribute to an effective living and learning environment. (
  • One is to ensure the adequacy and safety of the Nation's blood supply. (
  • DSMPs are designed to ensure the safety of participants and assure the validity of data. (
  • Investigators involved in multi-center clinical studies must ensure that a summary of the Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB)'s review of adverse events be distributed to all site IRBs ( see NOT 99-107 ). (
  • If the agency receives similar reports from a number of people about the same product, this could indicate that a safety-related defect may exist that would warrant the opening of an investigation. (
  • To avoid nutrition-related problems, people with HIV must also pay attention to food safety. (
  • Why is food safety important for people living with HIV? (
  • Flu shots have been given to millions of people over many years with an excellent safety record. (
  • Safety is a core value-offering of rapid and dependable air services, and international cooperation on aviation safety by governments and industry groups, through ICAO, has helped to make commercial aircraft the safest way to travel. (
  • make sure to use breakaway safety cords or lanyards. (
  • In general, the Safety Monitor should not be an individual involved in patient care as part of the study and it is preferable to have a Safety Monitor who is external to the clinical study. (