Saccharum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.Acer: A plant genus of the family ACERACEAE, best known for trees with palmately lobed leaves.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Fagus: A plant genus of the family FAGACEAE.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Alpinia: A plant genus of the family ZINGIBERACEAE. Members contain galangin, yakuchinone-A, and diarylheptanoids.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Canes: Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.Diarylheptanoids: A group of compounds consisting of two aromatic rings separated by seven carbons (HEPTANES) and having various substituents. The best known member is CURCUMIN.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Emollients: Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.Skin Care: Maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In various disease states, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are useful. The care of the skin is particularly important in various occupations, in exposure to sunlight, in neonates, and in PRESSURE ULCER.Maple Syrup Urine Disease: An autosomal recessive inherited disorder with multiple forms of phenotypic expression, caused by a defect in the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BRANCHED-CHAIN). These metabolites accumulate in body fluids and render a "maple syrup" odor. The disease is divided into classic, intermediate, intermittent, and thiamine responsive subtypes. The classic form presents in the first week of life with ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, emesis, neonatal seizures, and hypertonia. The intermediate and intermittent forms present in childhood or later with acute episodes of ataxia and vomiting. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p936)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.FloridaFlowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Clerodendrum: A plant genus of the family Lamiaceae. Inerminosides (iridoid glycosides); colebroside A; STEROIDS; STEROLS; terpenoid glucosides; and abietane DITERPENES have been found in this genus.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.PicratesPlant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.

Immunostimulating and growth-promoting effects of sugar cane extract (SCE) in chickens. (1/233)

Polymorphonuclear cells of the peripheral blood in the chicken significantly increased their phagocytosis when cultured with sugar cane extract (SCE; 250-1,000 microg/ml) for 24 hr. Chickens orally administered SCE (500 mg/kg/day) for 3 or 6 consecutive days at 1 week of age showed significantly higher body weight and gain in body weight/day and a lower food conversion ratio within the growing period of 6 weeks than physiological saline-administered control chickens. Furthermore, oral administration of SCE also resulted in significantly higher immune responses against sheep red blood cells and Brucella abortus. These results suggest that SCE has immunostimulating and growth promoting effects in chickens.  (+info)

Aluminium-responsive genes in sugarcane: identification and analysis of expression under oxidative stress. (2/233)

Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) technology was used to gain preliminary insights into gene expression induced by the phytotoxic aluminium species, Al(3+), in sugarcane roots. Roots of hydroponically-grown Saccharum spp. hybrid cv. N19 were exposed to 221 microM Al(3+) at pH 4.1 for 24 h, a regime shown to inhibit root elongation by 43%, relative to unchallenged roots. Database comparisons revealed that, of a subset of 50 cDNAs ostensibly up-regulated by the metal in the root tips, 14 possessed putative identities indicative of involvement in signalling events and the regulation of gene expression, while the majority (28) were of unknown function. All of the 50 cDNAs sequenced displayed significant similarity to uncharacterized plant expressed sequence tags (ESTs), approximately half (23) of which had been derived from other graminaceous crop species that had been subject to a variety of stresses. Analysis of the expression of 288 putative Al(3+)-inducible genic fragments indicated higher levels of expression under oxidative (1 mM diamide for 4 h) rather than Al(3+) stress. By deploying SSH, this study has provided an indication of the nature of genes expressed in sugarcane roots under Al(3+) stress. It is anticipated that the information obtained will guide further exploration of the potential for manipulation of the Al tolerance characteristics of the crop.  (+info)

New phenolic compounds from Kokuto, non-centrifuged cane sugar. (3/233)

Five new phenolic compounds, 4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl-propanone (8), 3-[5-[(threo) 2,3-dihydro-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-7-methoxybenzofuranyl]- propanoic acid (12), 2-[4-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy]-3-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dime thoxyphenyl)propyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (13), 4-[(erythro) 2,3-dihydro-3(hydroxymethyl)-5-(3-hydropropyl)-7-methoxy-2-benzofuranyl]-2,6-dime thoxyphenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (14), 9-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside of icariol A2 (15), and known phenolic compounds were isolated from Kokuto, non-centrifuged cane sugar (Saccharum officinarum L.). Their structures were determined by a spectral investigation.  (+info)

RNA expression profiles and data mining of sugarcane response to low temperature. (4/233)

Tropical and subtropical plants are generally sensitive to cold and can show appreciable variation in their response to cold stress when exposed to low positive temperatures. Using nylon filter arrays, we analyzed the expression profile of 1,536 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of sugarcane (Saccharum sp. cv SP80-3280) exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. Thirty-four cold-inducible ESTs were identified, of which 20 were novel cold-responsive genes that had not previously been reported as being cold inducible, including cellulose synthase, ABI3-interacting protein 2, a negative transcription regulator, phosphate transporter, and others, as well as several unknown genes. In addition, 25 ESTs were identified as being down-regulated during cold exposure. Using a database of cold-regulated proteins reported for other plants, we searched for homologs in the sugarcane EST project database (SUCEST), which contains 263,000 ESTs. Thirty-three homologous putative cold-regulated proteins were identified in the SUCEST database. On the basis of the expression profiles of the cold-inducible genes and the data-mining results, we propose a molecular model for the sugarcane response to low temperature.  (+info)

Analysis and functional annotation of an expressed sequence tag collection for tropical crop sugarcane. (5/233)

To contribute to our understanding of the genome complexity of sugarcane, we undertook a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) program. More than 260,000 cDNA clones were partially sequenced from 26 standard cDNA libraries generated from different sugarcane tissues. After the processing of the sequences, 237,954 high-quality ESTs were identified. These ESTs were assembled into 43,141 putative transcripts. Of the assembled sequences, 35.6% presented no matches with existing sequences in public databases. A global analysis of the whole SUCEST data set indicated that 14,409 assembled sequences (33% of the total) contained at least one cDNA clone with a full-length insert. Annotation of the 43,141 assembled sequences associated almost 50% of the putative identified sugarcane genes with protein metabolism, cellular communication/signal transduction, bioenergetics, and stress responses. Inspection of the translated assembled sequences for conserved protein domains revealed 40,821 amino acid sequences with 1415 Pfam domains. Reassembling the consensus sequences of the 43,141 transcripts revealed a 22% redundancy in the first assembling. This indicated that possibly 33,620 unique genes had been identified and indicated that >90% of the sugarcane expressed genes were tagged.  (+info)

Establishment of a functional genomics platform for Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli. (6/233)

Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli, the causal agent of ratoon stunting disease in sugarcane, is a xylem-limited, nutritionally fastidious, slow growing, gram-positive coryneform bacterium. Because of the difficulties in growing this bacterium in pure culture, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. Currently, the genome sequence of L. xyli subsp. xyli is being completed by the Agronomical and Environmental Genomes group from the Organization for Nucleotide Sequencing and Analysis in Brazil. To complement this work, we produced 712 Lxx::Tn4431 transposon mutants and sequenced flanking regions from 383 of these, using a rapid polymerase chain reaction-based approach. Tn4431 insertions appeared to be widespread throughout the L. xyli subsp. xyli genome; however, there were regions that had significantly higher concentrations of insertions. The Tn4431 mutant library was screened for individuals unable to colonize sugarcane, and one noncolonizing mutant was found. The mutant contained a transposon insertion disrupting two open reading frames (ORF), one of which had homology to an integral membrane protein from Mycobacterium leprae. Sequencing of the surrounding regions revealed two operons, pro and cyd, both of which are believed to play roles in disease. Complementation studies were carried out using the noncolonizing Lxx::Tn4431 mutant. The noncolonizing mutant was transformed with a cosmid containing 40 kbp of wild-type sequence, which included the two ORF disrupted in the mutant, and several transformants were subsequently able to colonize sugarcane. However, analysis of each of these transformants, before and after colonization, suggests that they have all undergone various recombinant events, obscuring the roles of these ORF in L. xyli subsp. xyli pathogenesis.  (+info)

Genome remodelling in three modern S. officinarumxS. spontaneum sugarcane cultivars. (7/233)

This study provides evidence that nuclear and chromosome remodelling has taken place in sugarcane, a vegetative crop with a complex genome derived from interspecific hybridizations between Saccharum officinarum and S. spontaneum. Detailed knowledge on the chromosomal compositions of the three clones analysed was acquired. (1) All hybrid cultivars were found to be aneuploid, affecting both parental genomes (having chromosomes in addition to full genomes), with chromosome numbers from 2n=102-106 in My5514 and up to 2n=113-117 in C236-51. (2) Comparative in situ hybridization showed that about 16% of these chromosomes are inherited from S. spontaneum and less than 5% are recombinant or translocated chromosomes containing sequences of both S. officinarum and S. spontaneum. (3) Differences between the observed DNA contents (estimated by flow cytometry) and those expected from the number of chromosomes, allowed the introgression of additional S. spontaneum or S. officinarum DNA pieces into the B42231 and C236-51 cultivars to be estimated. (4) Size heterogeneity between S. officinarum homologous chromosomes carrying the 18S-5.8S-25S and 5S ribosomal genes (identified by FISH with pTa71 and pTa794, respectively) confirms remodelling occurred by chromosomal interchange events, at least in these homologous chromosomes. (5) Simultaneous visualization of nucleoli and NORs showed that all 18S-5.8S-25S loci were potentially functional in the three clones, independent of their origin and size.  (+info)

Putative pyrophosphate phosphofructose 1-kinase genes identified in sugar cane may be getting energy from pyrophosphate. (8/233)

Pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) has been detected in several types of plant cells, but the gene has not been reported in sugar cane. Using Citrus paradisi PPi-PFK gene (AF095520 and AF095521) sequences to search the sugar cane EST database, we have identified both the alpha and beta subunits of this enzyme. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 76 and 80% similarity with the corresponding alpha and beta subunits of C. paradisi. A high degree of similarity was also observed among the PFK b subunits when the alignment of the sugar cane sequences was compared to those of Ricinus communis and Solanum tuberosum. It appears that alpha and beta are two distinct subunits; they were found at different concentrations in several sugar cane tissues. It remains to be determined if the different gene expression levels have some physiological importance and how they affect sucrose synthesis, export, and storage in vacuoles. A comparison between the amino acid sequences of b PFKs from a variety of organisms allowed us to identify the two critical Asp residues typical of this enzyme's activity site and the other binding sites; these residues are tightly conserved in all members of this protein family. Apparently, there are catalytic residues on the b subunit of the pyrophosphate-dependent enzyme.  (+info)

  • The level of polymorphism observed proved that the SRAP system was robust and amplified markers across species and genera and established evolutionary history interconnecting members of the Saccharum complex. (lsu.edu)
  • Evaluation of candidate reference genes for expression study in Saccharum spp. (peerj.com)
  • Sequence related amplification polymorphism (SRAP) marker technique was used to assess genetic relationships and diversity among genotypes of Saccharum and allied genera. (lsu.edu)
  • The present study deals with the use of mangrove soil, a new source for the isolation of an inulinase producing strain followed by the enzyme production and optimization using hardy sugarcane, "Saccharum arundinaceum", a novel substrate. (elsevier.com)
  • Repositorio da Producao Cientifica e Intelectual da Unicamp: Characterization of a sugarcane (Saccharum spp. (unicamp.br)
  • Characterization of a sugarcane (Saccharum spp. (unicamp.br)
  • The present article reports on the characterization of ScBAK1, a leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase from sugarcane (Saccharum spp. (unicamp.br)
  • Prasad, V & Naik, GR 2000, ' In vitro strategies for selection of eye-spot resistant sugarcane lines using toxins of Helminthosporium sacchari ', Indian Journal of Experimental Biology , vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 69-73. (elsevier.com)
  • Join wider than 8 metres, Time to ultimate height A. saccharum is a large, deciduous tree to 20m with a dense, oval to rounded crown and large, dull-green, three- to five-lobed leaves that turn brilliant orange, red and yellow in autumn. (ourstruggle.net)