Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Saccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Genome, Fungal: The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.beta-Fructofuranosidase: A glycoside hydrolase found primarily in PLANTS and YEASTS. It has specificity for beta-D-fructofuranosides such as SUCROSE.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Genes, Suppressor: Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.Haploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Silent Information Regulator Proteins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A set of nuclear proteins in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE that are required for the transcriptional repression of the silent mating type loci. They mediate the formation of silenced CHROMATIN and repress both transcription and recombination at other loci as well. They are comprised of 4 non-homologous, interacting proteins, Sir1p, Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p. Sir2p, an NAD-dependent HISTONE DEACETYLASE, is the founding member of the family of SIRTUINS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Genes, Mating Type, Fungal: Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Kluyveromyces: An ascomycetous yeast of the fungal family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.CDC28 Protein Kinase, S cerevisiae: A protein kinase encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CDC28 gene and required for progression from the G1 PHASE to the S PHASE in the CELL CYCLE.Spheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Ergosterol: A steroid of interest both because its biosynthesis in FUNGI is a target of ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS, notably AZOLES, and because when it is present in SKIN of animals, ULTRAVIOLET RAYS break a bond to result in ERGOCALCIFEROL.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Killer Factors, Yeast: Protein factors released from one species of YEAST that are selectively toxic to another species of yeast.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.XyloseSirtuin 2: A sirtuin family member found primarily in the CYTOPLASM. It is a multifunctional enzyme that contains a NAD-dependent deacetylase activity that is specific for HISTONES and a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity.Genes, Lethal: Genes whose loss of function or gain of function MUTATION leads to the death of the carrier prior to maturity. They may be essential genes (GENES, ESSENTIAL) required for viability, or genes which cause a block of function of an essential gene at a time when the essential gene function is required for viability.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Chitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Cathepsin A: A carboxypeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal amino acid with a broad specificity. It also plays a role in the LYSOSOMES by protecting BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and NEURAMINIDASE from degradation. It was formerly classified as EC 3.4.12.1 and EC 3.4.21.13.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.Mannosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of mannose from a nucleoside diphosphate mannose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. The group includes EC 2.4.1.32, EC 2.4.1.48, EC 2.4.1.54, and EC 2.4.1.57.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.TrehaloseOrganisms, Genetically Modified: Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Inositol: An isomer of glucose that has traditionally been considered to be a B vitamin although it has an uncertain status as a vitamin and a deficiency syndrome has not been identified in man. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1379) Inositol phospholipids are important in signal transduction.Pichia: Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS from SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. It is involved in morphological events related to the cell cycle. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Allantoin: A urea hydantoin that is found in URINE and PLANTS and is used in dermatological preparations.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Rad52 DNA Repair and Recombination Protein: A DNA-binding protein that mediates DNA REPAIR of double strand breaks, and HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Methyl Methanesulfonate: An alkylating agent in cancer therapy that may also act as a mutagen by interfering with and causing damage to DNA.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Benomyl: A systemic agricultural fungicide used for control of certain fungal diseases of stone fruit.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Glycoside HydrolasesGlycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Chitin: A linear polysaccharide of beta-1->4 linked units of ACETYLGLUCOSAMINE. It is the second most abundant biopolymer on earth, found especially in INSECTS and FUNGI. When deacetylated it is called CHITOSAN.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Trehalase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alpha,alpha-trehalose and water to D-glucose. EC 3.2.1.28.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Receptors, Mating Factor: A family of pheromone receptors that were initially discovered in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE as proteins necessary for fungal conjugation. Each mating factor receptor is expressed in HAPLOID CELLS of a single mating type.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Glucan Endo-1,3-beta-D-Glucosidase: An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,3-beta-D-glucosidic linkages in 1,3-beta-D-glucans including laminarin, paramylon, and pachyman.Endodeoxyribonucleases: A group of enzymes catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. They include members of EC 3.1.21.-, EC 3.1.22.-, EC 3.1.23.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), EC 3.1.24.- (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES), and EC 3.1.25.-.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Galactokinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the formation of galactose 1-phosphate and ADP from ATP and D-galactose. Galactosamine can also act as the acceptor. A deficiency of this enzyme results in GALACTOSEMIA. EC 2.7.1.6.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Gene Conversion: The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication which leads to the production of non-reciprocal recombinant strands and the apparent conversion of one allele into another. Thus, e.g., the meiotic products of an Aa individual may be AAAa or aaaA instead of AAaa, i.e., the A allele has been converted into the a allele or vice versa.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Peroxisomes: Microbodies which occur in animal and plant cells and in certain fungi and protozoa. They contain peroxidase, catalase, and allied enzymes. (From Singleton and Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes: A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Metabolic Engineering: Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.Sphingolipids: A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)Crossing Over, Genetic: The reciprocal exchange of segments at corresponding positions along pairs of homologous CHROMOSOMES by symmetrical breakage and crosswise rejoining forming cross-over sites (HOLLIDAY JUNCTIONS) that are resolved during CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION. Crossing-over typically occurs during MEIOSIS but it may also occur in the absence of meiosis, for example, with bacterial chromosomes, organelle chromosomes, or somatic cell nuclear chromosomes.Exoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-AminohydrolasesGenes, Essential: Those genes found in an organism which are necessary for its viability and normal function.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Nucleotidyltransferases: A class of enzymes that transfers nucleotidyl residues. EC 2.7.7.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.CanavanineNucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.

A Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor (TRAF) binds the ste20 kinase Misshapen and activates Jun kinase. (1/25200)

Two families of protein kinases that are closely related to Ste20 in their kinase domain have been identified - the p21-activated protein kinase (Pak) and SPS1 families [1-3]. In contrast to Pak family members, SPS1 family members do not bind and are not activated by GTP-bound p21Rac and Cdc42. We recently placed a member of the SPS1 family, called Misshapen (Msn), genetically upstream of the c-Jun amino-terminal (JNK) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase module in Drosophila [4]. The failure to activate JNK in Drosophila leads to embryonic lethality due to the failure of these embryos to stimulate dorsal closure [5-8]. Msn probably functions as a MAP kinase kinase kinase kinase in Drosophila, activating the JNK pathway via an, as yet, undefined MAP kinase kinase kinase. We have identified a Drosophila TNF-receptor-associated factor, DTRAF1, by screening for Msn-interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid system. In contrast to the mammalian TRAFs that have been shown to activate JNK, DTRAF1 lacks an amino-terminal 'Ring-finger' domain, and overexpression of a truncated DTRAF1, consisting of only its TRAF domain, activates JNK. We also identified another DTRAF, DTRAF2, that contains an amino-terminal Ring-finger domain. Msn specifically binds the TRAF domain of DTRAF1 but not that of DTRAF2. In Drosophila, DTRAF1 is thus a good candidate for an upstream molecule that regulates the JNK pathway by interacting with, and activating, Msn. Consistent with this idea, expression of a dominant-negative Msn mutant protein blocks the activation of JNK by DTRAF1. Furthermore, coexpression of Msn with DTRAF1 leads to the synergistic activation of JNK. We have extended some of these observations to the mammalian homolog of Msn, Nck-interacting kinase (NIK), suggesting that TRAFs also play a critical role in regulating Ste20 kinases in mammals.  (+info)

Vac1p coordinates Rab and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling in Vps45p-dependent vesicle docking/fusion at the endosome. (2/25200)

The vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediates transport of vacuolar protein precursors from the late Golgi to the lysosome-like vacuole. Sorting of some vacuolar proteins occurs via a prevacuolar endosomal compartment and mutations in a subset of VPS genes (the class D VPS genes) interfere with the Golgi-to-endosome transport step. Several of the encoded proteins, including Pep12p/Vps6p (an endosomal target (t) SNARE) and Vps45p (a Sec1p homologue), bind each other directly [1]. Another of these proteins, Vac1p/Pep7p/Vps19p, associates with Pep12p and binds phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PI(3)P), the product of the Vps34 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) [1] [2]. Here, we demonstrate that Vac1p genetically and physically interacts with the activated, GTP-bound form of Vps21p, a Rab GTPase that functions in Golgi-to-endosome transport, and with Vps45p. These results implicate Vac1p as an effector of Vps21p and as a novel Sec1p-family-binding protein. We suggest that Vac1p functions as a multivalent adaptor protein that ensures the high fidelity of vesicle docking and fusion by integrating both phosphoinositide (Vps34p) and GTPase (Vps21p) signals, which are essential for Pep12p- and Vps45p-dependent targeting of Golgi-derived vesicles to the prevacuolar endosome.  (+info)

B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through SP1-binding sites. (3/25200)

B-MYB is an ubiquitous protein required for mammalian cell growth. In this report we show that B-MYB transactivates its own promoter through a 120 bp segment proximal to the transcription start site. The B-MYB-responsive element does not contain myb-binding sites and gel-shift analysis shows that SP1, but not B-MYB, protein contained in SAOS2 cell extracts binds to the 120 bp B-myb promoter fragment. B-MYB-dependent transactivation is cooperatively increased in the presence of SP1, but not SP3 overexpression. When the SP1 elements of the B-myb promoter are transferred in front of a heterologous promoter, an increased response to B-MYB results. In contrast, c-MYB, the prototype member of the Myb family, is not able to activate the luciferase construct containing the SP1 elements. With the use of an SP1-GAL4 fusion protein, we have determined that the cooperative activation occurs through the domain A of SP1. These observations suggest that B-MYB functions as a coactivator of SP1, and that diverse combinations of myb and SP1 sites may dictate the responsiveness of myb-target genes to the various members of the myb family.  (+info)

Evidence for F-actin-dependent and -independent mechanisms involved in assembly and stability of the medial actomyosin ring in fission yeast. (4/25200)

Cell division in a number of eukaryotes, including the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, is achieved through a medially placed actomyosin-based contractile ring. Although several components of the actomyosin ring have been identified, the mechanisms regulating ring assembly are still not understood. Here, we show by biochemical and mutational studies that the S.pombe actomyosin ring component Cdc4p is a light chain associated with Myo2p, a myosin II heavy chain. Localization of Myo2p to the medial ring depended on Cdc4p function, whereas localization of Cdc4p at the division site was independent of Myo2p. Interestingly, the actin-binding and motor domains of Myo2p are not required for its accumulation at the division site although the motor activity of Myo2p is essential for assembly of a normal actomyosin ring. The initial assembly of Myo2p and Cdc4p at the division site requires a functional F-actin cytoskeleton. Once established, however, F-actin is not required for the maintenance of Cdc4p and Myo2p medial rings, suggesting that the attachment of Cdc4p and Myo2p to the division site involves proteins other than actin itself.  (+info)

The exocyst is an effector for Sec4p, targeting secretory vesicles to sites of exocytosis. (5/25200)

Polarized secretion requires proper targeting of secretory vesicles to specific sites on the plasma membrane. Here we report that the exocyst complex plays a key role in vesicle targeting. Sec15p, an exocyst component, can associate with secretory vesicles and interact specifically with the rab GTPase, Sec4p, in its GTP-bound form. A chain of protein-protein interactions leads from Sec4p and Sec15p on the vesicle, through various subunits of the exocyst, to Sec3p, which marks the sites of exocytosis on the plasma membrane. Sec4p may control the assembly of the exocyst. The exocyst may therefore function as a rab effector system for targeted secretion.  (+info)

Cooperative binding of heat shock factor to the yeast HSP82 promoter in vivo and in vitro. (6/25200)

Previous work has shown that heat shock factor (HSF) plays a central role in remodeling the chromatin structure of the yeast HSP82 promoter via constitutive interactions with its high-affinity binding site, heat shock element 1 (HSE1). The HSF-HSE1 interaction is also critical for stimulating both basal (noninduced) and induced transcription. By contrast, the function of the adjacent, inducibly occupied HSE2 and -3 is unknown. In this study, we examined the consequences of mutations in HSE1, HSE2, and HSE3 on HSF binding and transactivation. We provide evidence that in vivo, HSF binds to these three sites cooperatively. This cooperativity is seen both before and after heat shock, is required for full inducibility, and can be recapitulated in vitro on both linear and supercoiled templates. Quantitative in vitro footprinting reveals that occupancy of HSE2 and -3 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae HSF (ScHSF) is enhanced approximately 100-fold through cooperative interactions with the HSF-HSE1 complex. HSE1 point mutants, whose basal transcription is virtually abolished, are functionally compensated by cooperative interactions with HSE2 and -3 following heat shock, resulting in robust inducibility. Using a competition binding assay, we show that the affinity of recombinant HSF for the full-length HSP82 promoter is reduced nearly an order of magnitude by a single-point mutation within HSE1, paralleling the effect of these mutations on noninduced transcript levels. We propose that the remodeled chromatin phenotype previously shown for HSE1 point mutants (and lost in HSE1 deletion mutants) stems from the retention of productive, cooperative interactions between HSF and its target binding sites.  (+info)

The histone acetylase PCAF is a phorbol-ester-inducible coactivator of the IRF family that confers enhanced interferon responsiveness. (7/25200)

Transcription factors of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family bind to the type I interferon (IFN)-responsive element (ISRE) and activate transcription from IFN-inducible genes. To identify cofactors that associate with IRF proteins, DNA affinity binding assays were performed with nuclear extracts prepared from tissue culture cells. The results demonstrated that the endogenous IRFs bound to the ISRE are complexed with the histone acetylases, PCAF, GCN5, and p300/CREB binding protein and that histone acetylase activities are accumulated on the IRF-ISRE complexes. By testing recombinant proteins, we show that PCAF directly binds to some but not all members of the IRF family through distinct domains of the two proteins. This interaction was functionally significant, since transfection of PCAF strongly enhanced IRF-1- and IRF-2-dependent promoter activities. Further studies showed that expression of PCAF and other histone acetylases was markedly induced in U937 cells upon phorbol ester treatment, which led to increased recruitment of PCAF to the IRF-ISRE complexes. Coinciding with the induction of histone acetylases, phorbol ester markedly enhanced IFN-alpha-stimulated gene expression in U937 cells. Supporting the role for PCAF in conferring IFN responsiveness, transfection of PCAF into U937 cells led to a large increase in IFN-alpha-inducible promoter activity. These results demonstrate that PCAF is a phorbol ester-inducible coactivator of the IRF proteins which contributes to the establishment of type I IFN responsiveness.  (+info)

The 3'-->5' exonucleases of DNA polymerases delta and epsilon and the 5'-->3' exonuclease Exo1 have major roles in postreplication mutation avoidance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (8/25200)

Replication fidelity is controlled by DNA polymerase proofreading and postreplication mismatch repair. We have genetically characterized the roles of the 5'-->3' Exo1 and the 3'-->5' DNA polymerase exonucleases in mismatch repair in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using various genetic backgrounds and highly sensitive mutation detection systems that are based on long and short homonucleotide runs. Genetic interactions were examined among DNA polymerase epsilon (pol2-4) and delta (pol3-01) mutants defective in 3'-->5' proofreading exonuclease, mutants defective in the 5'-->3' exonuclease Exo1, and mismatch repair mutants (msh2, msh3, or msh6). These three exonucleases play an important role in mutation avoidance. Surprisingly, the mutation rate in an exo1 pol3-01 mutant was comparable to that in an msh2 pol3-01 mutant, suggesting that they participate directly in postreplication mismatch repair as well as in other DNA metabolic processes.  (+info)

Before scientist learned how to make a synthetic growth hormone, removing it painstakingly in small amounts from the pituitary glands of human cadavers. a. scientists ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins involved in hybrid DNA formation in vitro. AU - Heyer, W. D.. AU - Johnson, A. W.. AU - Norris, D. N.. AU - Tishkoff, D.. AU - Kolodner, R. D.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - RecA-like activities that can form hybrid DNA in vitro have been identified in a wide variety of organisms. We have previously described the strand exchange protein 1 (SEP1) from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that can form hybrid DNA in vitro. Purified as an Mr 132 000 polypeptide, recent molecular and immunological studies have now shown that the native form is an Mr 175 000 polypeptide containing strand exchange activity. The gene encoding SEP1 has been cloned and sequenced. The primary sequence failed to reveal any significant sequence homology to other sequences in data base searches. In vivo SEP1 was found to be essential for normal meiosis as cells containing a homozygous insertion mutation in the SEP1 gene failed to sporulate. In order to identify additional factors ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A regulated MET3-GLC7 gene fusion provides evidence of a mitotic role for Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein phosphatase 1. AU - Black, S. AU - Andrews, P D. AU - Sneddon, A A. AU - Stark, M J. PY - 1995. Y1 - 1995. N2 - Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses a single essential gene (GLC7) encoding protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Elevated expression of this gene from the GAL1 promoter is highly detrimental to the cell, causing a growth defect and aberrant bud morphology, which leads to cells exhibiting long, extended buds. By comparison, expression of GLC7 from the weaker MET3 promoter was without significant effect on either growth or morphology. However, repression of GLC7 expression from the MET3 promoter in cells where the MET3-GLC7 fusion was the sole source of PP1 resulted in a mitotic delay. Such cultures showed a massive decrease in the rate of proliferation in conjunction with a significant increase in the proportion of large, budded cells. 46-diamidino-2-phenylindole ...
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I reveal that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtt109p promotes genome stability and resistance to DNA-damaging agents, and that it does this by functionally cooperating with the histone chaperone Asf1p to maintain normal chromatin structure. Furthermore, I show that, as for Asf1p, Rtt109p is required for histone H3 acetylation on lysine 56 (K56) in vivo. Moreover I show that Rtt109p directly catalyzes this modification in vitro in a manner that is stimulated by Asf1p. These data establish Rtt109p as a member of a new class of histone acetyltransferases and show that its actions are critical fro cell survival in the presence of DNA damage during S phase. In the second part of this thesis, I reveal that cells deleted for Saccharomyces cerevisiae ESC2 exhibit synthetic sickness when combined with deletions of many genes involved in maintaining genomic stability. Moreover, I show that esc2Δ mutant cells exhibit increased recombination frequency and increased relocalisation of recombination repair protein ...
New Sequences ============= S82971 S82971 1775bp DNA PLN 10-FEB-1997 PEX13=PAS20 [Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Genomic, 1775 nt]. PEX13; Pex13p. SCRGA1 X90950 4305bp DNA PLN 07-FEB-1997 S.cerevisiae rga1 (dbm1) gene. DBM1; pheromone response; RGA1 gene; RGA1 (DBM1); Rga1p (Dbm1p). SCU17262 U17262 3051bp DNA PLN 11-FEB-1997 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pip1p (PIP1) gene, complete cds. PIP1; Pip1p. SCU17263 U17263 2251bp DNA PLN 11-FEB-1997 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pip2p (PIP2) gene, complete cds. PIP2; Pip2p. SCU17264 U17264 1842bp DNA PLN 11-FEB-1997 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pip3p (PIP3) gene, complete cds. PIP3; Pip3p. SCU85960 U85960 1720bp DNA PLN 11-FEB-1997 Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II-specific TBP associated factor Taf40p (TAF40) gene, complete cds. TAF40; RNA polymerase II specific TBP associated; factor. SCU86641 U86641 1657bp DNA PLN 08-FEB-1997 Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rim9p (RIM9) gene, complete cds. RIM9; Rim9p. =========== Updated Features/Annotations ============= YSCDYS1 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning and characterization of the RAD1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Higgins, David R.. AU - Prakash, Satya. AU - Reynolds, Paul. AU - Prakash, Louise. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - We have cloned the RAD1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and physically mapped it to a 4.0-kb DNA fragment from chromosome XVI. The RAD1 gene determines a transcript of 3.1 kb, and the direction of transcription was found to be leftwards, from EcoRI towards BglII (Fig. 1). Deletions of the RAD1 gene were made and were found to have no effect on viability of vegetative cells or spores, or on sporulation.. AB - We have cloned the RAD1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and physically mapped it to a 4.0-kb DNA fragment from chromosome XVI. The RAD1 gene determines a transcript of 3.1 kb, and the direction of transcription was found to be leftwards, from EcoRI towards BglII (Fig. 1). Deletions of the RAD1 gene were made and were found to have no effect on viability of vegetative cells or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cooperative interactions between pairs of homologous chromatids during meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Mell, Joshua Chang. AU - Komachi, Kelly. AU - Hughes, Owen. AU - Burgess, Sean. PY - 2008/6. Y1 - 2008/6. N2 - We report a novel instance of negative interference during Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiosis, where Cremediated recombination between pairs of allelic loxP sites is more frequent than expected. We suggest that endogenous crossover recombination mediates cooperative pairing interactions between all four chromatids of a meiotic bivalent.. AB - We report a novel instance of negative interference during Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiosis, where Cremediated recombination between pairs of allelic loxP sites is more frequent than expected. We suggest that endogenous crossover recombination mediates cooperative pairing interactions between all four chromatids of a meiotic bivalent.. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=49849083414&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - ...
In the study, 300 male day-old, Ross 308 broiler chicks were used. Experiment groups were designed as follows: control; 0.1 % Saccharomyces cerevisiae; 0.2 % Saccharomyces cerevisiae; 0.4 % Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The experimental diets were chemically analyzed according to the methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Twelve groups were obtained, including three replicates for each experimental group. Each replicated group was comprised of 25 chicks, and thus 75 chicks were placed in each experimental group. After 42 days, broiler chickens were slaughtered. Tibiotarsi were weighed with a digital scale, and the lengths were measured with a digital caliper after the drying process. Cortical areas were measured with the ImageJ Image Processing and Analysis Program. A UTEST Model-7014 tension and compression machine and a Maxtest software were used to determine the bone strength of the tibiotarsus. The severity of the tibial dyschondroplasia lesion was evaluated as 0, +1, +2 and ...
ARAUJO, Roberta A.C. et al. Monitoring Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations by mtDNA restriction analysis and other molecular typing methods during spontaneous fermentation for production of the artisanal cachaça. Braz. J. Microbiol. [online]. 2007, vol.38, n.2, pp.217-223. ISSN 1517-8382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822007000200006.. An ecological study on Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations in spontaneous fermentation has been conducted in three vats of a cachaça distillery in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Ninety-seven yeast isolates were collected at the beginning, the middle and at the end of the production period, and were identified by standard methods. Differentiation between the indigenous S. cerevisiae strains isolated was performed by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) restriction analysis, RAPD-PCR, and PCR fingerprint using an intron splice primer. Analysis of the mtDNA restriction profiles revealed 12 different patterns, 11 corresponding to indigenous yeasts (I to XI) and one (XII) to a ...
Yeast co-immunoprecipitation dataset ; Gavin et al, 2006 YBR119W YPL178W YBR119W YML046W YBR119W YKL012W YBR119W YDR235W YBR119W YIL061C YBR119W YDR240C YBR119W YGR013W YBR119W YMR125W YBR152W YER172C YBR152W YMR240C YBR152W YMR288W YBR152W YPL213W YBR152W YIR009W YBR152W YDL043C YBR152W YJL203W YBR152W YDR473C YBR152W YGR091W YBR152W YGR075C YBR152W YPR178W YBR152W YBR055C YBR152W YHR165C YBR152W YDL030W YBR152W YML049C YBR152W YER029C YBR152W YKL173W YBR152W YDL098C YBR152W YOR308C YDL087C YER172C YDL087C YMR288W YDL087C YHR086W YDL087C YER165W YDL087C YML046W YDL087C YKL012W YDL087C YDR235W YDL087C YHR165C YDL087C YML049C YDL087C YER029C YDL087C YLR275W YDL087C YLR147C YDL087C YIL061C YDL087C YKL173W YDL087C YDR240C YDL087C YGR013W YDL087C YMR125W YDL087C YGR162W YDL087C YLR298C YDL175C YJL050W YDL175C YPL190C YDL175C YOL115W YDR235W YHR086W YDR235W YML046W YDR235W YKL012W YDR235W YIL061C YDR235W YGR013W YDR235W YMR125W YDR240C YHR086W YDR240C YML046W YDR240C YDR235W YDR240C YHR165C YDR240C ...
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF2 gene affects the expression of many diversely regulated genes and has been implicated in transcriptional activation. We report here the cloning and characterization of STH1, a gene that is homologous to SNF2. STH1 is essential for mitotic growth and is functionally distinct from SNF2. A bifunctional STH1-beta-galactosidase protein is located in the nucleus. The predicted 155,914-Da STH1 protein is 72% identical to SNF2 over 661 amino acids and 46% identical over another stretch of 66 amino acids. Both STH1 and SNF2 contain a putative nucleoside triphosphate-binding site and sequences resembling the consensus helicase motifs. The large region of homology shared by STH1 and SNF2 is conserved among other eukaryotic proteins, and STH1 and SNF2 appear to define a novel family of proteins related to helicases. ...
The Sec18 protein (Sec18p) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been identified as a component involved in the vesicular transport of proteins through the secretory and endocytotic pathways. Sec18p is a homologue of the mammalian protein NSF which has been shown, using a number of in vitro transport assay systems and affinity purification procedures, to interact with other proteins in a multisubunit protein complex. This work represents two approaches taken with the aim of identifying proteins that interact with Sec18p in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Isolation of protein complexes was first attempted by affinity purification of a tagged version of Sec18p. The protein was C-terminally tagged with a protein A moiety from Staphylococcus aureus containing IgG binding domains. It was hoped that the affinity of protein A for IgG Sepharose could be used to isolate protein complexes that formed in vivo with the Sec18p. Although the fusion construct was shown to be active in vivo, specific ...
Under amino acid starvation conditions, the bakers" yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae activates a system called "General control of amino acid biosynthesis". Gcn4p, the transcription factor of this system induces the expression of more than 50 genes involved in the different amino acid biosynthetic pathways. In this thesis it could be shown that during simultaneous limitation of amino acids and nitrogen the general control is not activated. More exactly, even a decrease of the Gcn4p activity was detected, which was traced back onto a reduction of the Gcn4 protein amount in the cell. This decrease of the intracellular concentration was caused by translational control of the GCN4 mRNA, which was able to repress even a 2-fold increase of the GCN4 transcription rate. Furthermore during nitrogen starvation conditions no correlation between the stature of eIF-2 phosphorylation and GCN4 expression was observed. For this reason an involvement of the already known mechanism of translation! al regulation of ...
Pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment can be used for non-thermal inactivation of microorganisms. The aim of this paper is to investigate PEF treatment of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using three different field waveforms: square; non-oscillating exponential and oscillating exponential. The PEF system used in this paper consists of a pulsed power supply and a parallel-plane metallic electrodes treatment cell located in an air-pressurised chamber. PEF treatment of the yeast was conducted using electric field impulses with magnitudes of 67 kV/cm and 80 kV/cm. The efficacy of the PEF treatment for inactivation of the yeast cells was assessed by comparison of the PEF-treated and untreated yeast populations. Results showed that 3-log10 reduction in the yeast population can be achieved with 100 impulses using all tested waveforms. Amongst all three tested waveforms non-oscillating exponential impulses demonstrated improved PEF performance. The effect of duration of treatment and peak magnitude ...
HOMOLOGOUS recombination is required for the faithful repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that arise during normal cellular processes or from exposure of cells to DNA-damaging agents. Central to the process of homologous recombination is the Rad51 protein, which facilitates synapsis and strand invasion into homologous duplex DNA (San Filippo et al. 2008). Rad51 belongs to the RecA family of homologous pairing proteins (Aboussekhra et al. 1992; Basile et al. 1992; Shinohara et al. 1992). Yeast and humans have two RecA homologs: Rad51 and the meiosis-specific Dmc1 (Bishop et al. 1992; San Filippo et al. 2008). In addition, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD55 and RAD57 genes encode proteins with sequence similarity to RecA and Rad51 and are considered to be Rad51 paralogs (Kans and Mortimer 1991; Lovett 1994). Mutation of RAD51, RAD55, or RAD57 confers sensitivity of ionizing radiation (IR) and defects in mitotic and meiotic recombination, indicating that their functions are not redundant ...
TRA1 is an essential gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that encodes a 437 kDa protein product. It is a member of a family of key signaling and regulatory molecules that contain a C-terminal phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) domain [1] and is a component of two multisubunit transcriptional regulatory complexes, the SAGA/SLIK and NuA4 complexes, which also contain the histone acetyltransferase enzymes, Gcn5 and Esa1, respectively [2-4]. Tra1 interacts directly with transcriptional activator proteins and is thought to be critical in recruitment of SAGA/SLIK and NuA4 to their target promoters [5-8].. Previously we identified mutations in the C-terminal PI3K domain of Tra1 that showed defects in transcriptional activation, sensitivity to ethanol and the cell wall destabilizing agent calcofluor white and resulted in shortened telomeres [9]. The pattern of changes neither fully mimicked those seen upon disruption of other SAGA/SLIK nor NuA4 components. For example, unlike strains with deletions of ...
During the production of wine and beer, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can encounter an environment that is deficient in zinc, resulting in a sluggish or a stuck ferment. It has been shown that the Zap1p-transcription factor induces the expression of a regulon in response to zinc deficiency; however, it was evident that a separate regulon was also activated during zinc deficiency in a Zap1p-independent manner. This study discovered the Msn2p and Msn4p (Msn2/4p) transcriptional activator proteins to be an additional control mechanism inducing the stress response during zinc deficiency. Promoter sequence analysis identified the stress response element (STRE) motif, recognized by Msn2/4p, and was significantly enriched in the promoters of genes induced by zinc deficiency. An investigation using genome-wide analyses revealed a distinct regulon consisting of STREcontaining genes whose zinc-responsive expression was abolished in an msn2 msn4 double mutant. An STRE-driven lacZ reporter ...
Yeast cells. Coloured Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) of yeast cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This fungus, also known as Bakers or Brewers yeast, consists of single vegetative cells. Some cells can be seen dividing by budding off new cells. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ferments sugar, producing alcohol and carbon dioxide in the process. It has long been used in brewing beer, the production of wine and in baking leavened bread (carbon dioxide causes the dough to rise). Medically, dried Bakers yeast is used as a rich source of vitamin B1, riboflavin and nicotinic acid. Magnification: x125 at 6x7cm size. x200 at 4x5 - Stock Image B250/0646
The effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on fattening performances of growing cattle is an article from MOJ Ecology & Environmental Sciences for MedCrave Group. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the yeast on fattening performances of the growing cattle. The experiment was carried out with 179 imported 12-14 months old growing mixed breed bulls (Hereford, Angus, Brangus, and some other crossbreds) that were allocated to control and yeast group according to the breeds and body weight. Experimental diet was formulated with 19 % roughages (alfalfa and wheat straw) containing 13% crude protein. Yeast group was supplemented 40g d-1 live yeast containing 1.23×1011 CFU/g. The study lasted 62 days from May to July. Initial body weight were 393.91±4,43 for control and 395.56±4.45kg for yeast group. After test period, daily gain was similar (1465.85±26.76 vs. 1451.42±34.05g d-1, P|0.05) for the bull receiving the diet without yeast compared to the bulls receiving yeast. Similar results were
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Yeast Cells Sem Scanning as a 8x6 Glass Mount from CMSP Photo Prints. Fast and safe delivery. Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Yeast Cells. these Microorganisms Fungi are Used to Raise Bread Dough the Yeasts Produce
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Spt20/Ada5 was originally identified by mutations that suppress Ty insertion alleles and by mutations that suppress the toxicity caused by Gal4-VP16 overexpression. Here we present evidence for physical associations between Spt20/Ada5 and three other Spt proteins, suggesting that they exist in a complex. A related study demonstrates that this complex also contains the histone acetyltransferase, Gcn5, and Ada2. This complex has been named SAGA (Spt/Ada/Gcn5 acetyltransferase). To identify functions that genetically interact with SAGA, we have screened for mutations that cause lethality in an spt20Δ/ada5Δ mutant. Our screen identified mutations in SNF2, SIN4, and GAL11. These mutations affect two known transcription complexes: Snf/Swi, which functions in nucleosome remodeling, and Srb/mediator, which is required for regulated transcription by RNA polymerase II. Systematic analysis has demonstrated that spt20Δ/ada5Δ and spt7Δ mutations cause ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae sudah sejak lama digunakan sebagai starter fermentasi pembuatan roti dan minuman beralkohol. Dalam buku ini, Saccharomyces crervisiae dimanfaatkan sebagai agensia modifikasi dalam pengolahan pangan, kemampuan S. cerevisiae dalam merombak komponen pangan, produk metabolit yang dihasilkan oleh S. cerevisiae, modifikasi terhadap perubahan sifat beberapa produk pangan oleh S. cerevisiae seperti tapioka, tempe, dan modifikasi fermentasi kakao. Pengertian dasar mengenai khamir perlu dipahami oleh mahasiswa yang khususnya mempelajari mikrobiologi pangan, mikrobiologi industri dan teknologi pangan. S.cerevisiae adalah khamir ...
The production of bio-based chemicals, fuels, pharmaceuticals and food additives by microbial fermentation is a rapidly growing field. There is an increasing demand for efficient cell factories that enable the production of biofuels and biochemicals from renewable resources at low and competitive cost. The knowledge of genetics, physiology, biochemistry and large-scale fermentation of bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, combined with the advent of genome engineering and recombinant DNA technology makes it a preferred host for many industrial bio-based applications, ranging from biofuels and bulk chemicals to nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals [1-8]. Furthermore, S. cerevisiae has the advantage of being easy to manipulate genetically with a range of established cloning and vector systems [6, 9].. Production organisms with multi-enzyme pathways often require precise control of the expression level of the associated genes [2, 5, 10]. Besides regulating promoter strength, the copy number of ...
Bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most important and widely used cell factories for recombinant protein production. Many strategies have been applied to engineer this yeast for improving its protein production capacity, but productivity is still relatively low, and with increasing market demand, it is important to identify new gene targets, especially targets that have synergistic effects with previously identified targets. Despite improved protein production, previous studies rarely focused on processes associated with intracellular protein retention. Here we identified genetic modifications involved in the secretory and trafficking pathways, the histone deacetylase complex, and carbohydrate metabolic processes as targets for improving protein secretion in yeast. Especially modifications on the endosome-to-Golgi trafficking was found to effectively reduce protein retention besides increasing protein secretion. Through combinatorial genetic manipulations of several of the newly
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC ® 201390D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain BY4743 (ATCC ® 201390™) Application:
Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC ® 201389D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain BY4742 (ATCC ® 201389™) Application:
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of cell surface characteristics on adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to the biomaterial hydroxylapatite. AU - White, Jane S.. AU - Walker, Graeme M.. PY - 2011/2. Y1 - 2011/2. N2 - The influence of the physicochemical properties of biomaterials on microbial cell adhesion is well known, with the extent of adhesion depending on hydrophobicity, surface charge, specific functional groups and acid-base properties. Regarding yeasts, the effect of cell surfaces is often overlooked, despite the fact that generalisations may not be made between closely related strains. The current investigation compared adhesion of three industrially relevant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (M-type, NCYC 1681 and ALY, strains used in production of Scotch whisky, ale and lager, respectively) to the biomaterial hydroxylapatite (HAP). Adhesion of the whisky yeast was greatest, followed by the ale strain, while adhesion of the lager strain was approximately 10-times less. According to ...
The Pumilio family (PUF) proteins are conserved among the eukaryotes (42). They bind to specific sequences in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of target transcripts via their conserved and characteristic PUF domain and thereby inhibit the stability or translatability of these target mRNAs (32, 50). Indeed, the PUF domain appears sufficient for PUF proteins to affect their target transcripts (32, 50). Five PUF proteins, Puf1p to Puf5p, were thought to exist in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (37, 49). A sixth, Puf6p, has recently been reported (9). None are essential (9, 37, 49). One of the yeast PUF proteins, Mpt5p, also known as Htr1p (23), Puf5p (37), or Uth4p (20), promotes replicative life span (3, 20, 21), the number of generations a virgin daughter cell can undergo before becoming senescent. Mpt5p is a robust regulator of ageing, since it also affects life span in a long-lived genetic background (17).. In addition to displaying a short replicative life span, mutants ...
To grow, eukaryotic cells must expand by inserting glycerolipids, sphingolipids, sterols, and proteins into their plasma membrane, and maintain the proper levels and bilayer distribution. A fungal cell must coordinate growth with enlargement of its cell wall. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a plasma membrane‐localized protein kinase complex, Target of Rapamicin (TOR) complex‐2 (TORC2) (mammalian ortholog is mTORC2), serves as a sensor and masterregulator of these plasma membrane‐ and cell wall‐associated events by directly phosphorylating and thereby stimulating the activity of two types of effector protein kinases: Ypk1 (mammalian ortholog is SGK1), along with a paralog (Ypk2); and, Pkc1 (mammalian ortholog is PKN2/PRK2). Ypk1 is a central regulator of pathways and processes required for plasma membrane lipid and protein homeostasis, and requires phosphorylation on its T‐loop by eisosome‐associated protein kinase Pkh1 (mammalian ortholog is PDK1) and a paralog (Pkh2). For cell survival under
Septins are a family of eukaryotic GTP-binding proteins that associate into linear rods, which, in turn, polymerize end-on-end into filaments and further assemble into other, more elaborate super-structures at discrete subcellular locations. Hence, septin-based ensembles are considered elements of the cytoskeleton. One function of these structures that has been well-documented in studies conducted in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is to serve as a scaffold that recruits regulatory proteins, which dictate the spatial and temporal control of certain aspects of the cell division cycle. In particular, septin-associated protein kinases couple cell cycle progression with cellular morphogenesis. Thus, septin-containing structures serve as signaling platforms that integrate a multitude of signals and coordinate key downstream networks required for cell cycle passage. This review summarizes what we currently understand about how the action of septin-associated protein kinases and their substrates control
1P-022 Saccharomyces cerevisiaeの糖代謝における転写制御ネットワークの予測(遺伝子工学,一般講演)1P-022 Saccharomyces cerevisiaeの糖代謝における転写制御ネットワークの予測(遺伝子工学,一般講演)AN10549378 ...
ERK5 is a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase regulated in human cells by diverse mitogens and stresses but also suspected of mediating the effects of a number of oncogenes. Its expression in the slt2Delta Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant rescued several of the phenotypes caused by the lack of Slt2p (Mpk1p) cell integrity MAP kinase. ERK5 is able to provide this cell integrity MAP kinase function in yeast, as it is activated by the cell integrity signaling cascade that normally activates Slt2p and, in its active form, able to stimulate at least one key Slt2p target (Rlm1p, the major transcriptional regulator of cell wall genes). In vitro ERK5 kinase activity was abolished by Hsp90 inhibition. ERK5 activity in vivo was also lost in a strain that expresses a mutant Hsp90 chaperone. Therefore, human ERK5 expressed in yeast is an Hsp90 client, despite the widely held belief that the protein kinases of the MAP kinase class are non-Hsp90-dependent activities. Two-hybrid and protein binding studies ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Subcellular distribution of glutathione and its dynamic changes under oxidative stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Zechmann, Bernd. AU - Liou, Liang-Chun. AU - Koffler, Barbara E.. AU - Horvat, Lucija. AU - Tomasic, Ana. AU - Fulgosi, Hrvoje. AU - Zhang, Zhaojie. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. U2 - 10.1111/j.1567-1364.2011.00753.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1567-1364.2011.00753.x. M3 - Article. VL - 11. SP - 631. EP - 642. JO - FEMS yeast research. JF - FEMS yeast research. SN - 1567-1356. IS - 8. ER - ...
Read "The Genetic Control of Cell Growth and Development in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Disturbed Sporulation in Diploids with a Decreased Activity of the Ras/cAMP Signal Transduction Pathway, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, disruption of the YCF1 gene increases the sensitivity of cell growth to mercury. Transformation of the resulting ycf1 null mutant with a plasmid harbouring YCF1 under the control of the GAL promoter largely restores the wild-type resistance to the metal ion. The protective effect of Ycf1p against the toxicity of mercury is especially pronounced when yeast cells are grown in rich medium or in minimal medium supplemented with glutathione. Secretory vesicles from S. cerevisiae cells overproducing Ycf1p are shown to exhibit ATP-dependent transport of bis(glutathionato)mercury. Moreover, using beta-galactosidase as a reporter protein, a relationship between mercury addition and the activity of the YCF1 promoter can be shown. Altogether, these observations indicate a defence mechanism involving an induction of the expression of Ycf1p and transport by this protein of mercury-glutathione adducts into the vacuole. Finally, possible coparticipation in mercury tolerance of other ABC
Evolution of multigene families are considered in the review on the example of the PHO gene family encoding the structure of acid phosphatases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Analysis of the...
MOTIZUKI, M., MITSUI, K., ENDO, Y. and TSURUGI, K. (1986), Detection and partial characterization of the chromatin-associated proteases of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. European Journal of Biochemistry, 158: 345-350. doi: 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1986.tb09757.x ...
Cell volume is an important parameter for modelling cellular processes. Temperature-induced variability of cellular size, volume, intracellular granularity, a fraction of budding cells of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK 113-7D (in anaerobic glucose unlimited batch cultures) were measured by flow cytometry and matched with the performance of the biomass growth (maximal specific growth rate (μmax), specific rate of glucose consumption, the rate of maintenance, biomass yield on glucose). The critical diameter of single cells was 7.94 μm and it is invariant at growth temperatures above 18.5°C. Below 18.5°C, it exponentially increases up to 10.2 μm. The size of the bud linearly depends on μmax, and it is between 50% at 5°C and 90% at 31°C of the averaged single cell. The intracellular granularity (side scatter channel (SSC)-index) negatively depends on μmax. There are two temperature regions (5-31°C vs. 33-40°C) where the relationship between SSC-index and various cellular parameters ...
Amphiphysins are proteins thought to be involved in synaptic vesicle endocytosis. Amphiphysins share a common BAR domain, which can sense and/or bend membranes, and this function is believed to be essential for endocytosis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking the amphiphysin ortholog Rvs161 are i …
Winters MJ, Pryciak PM. Interaction with the SH3 domain protein Bem1 regulates signaling by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae p21-activated kinase Ste20. Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Mar; 25(6):2177-90 ...
Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in vivo Prp8 splicing assay(A) Schematic representation of the two-step splicing pathway (SS, splice site; BS, branch site). Brie
This unit presents detailed protocols for a range of centrifugation‐based subcellular fractionation procedures for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased stress parameter synthesis in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae after treatment with 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. AU - Wonisch, Willibald. AU - Hayn, Marianne. AU - Schaur, Jörg. AU - Tatzber, Franz. AU - Kranner, Ilse. AU - Grill, Dieter. AU - Winkler, Rudolf. AU - Bilinski, Tomasz. AU - Kohlwein, Sepp-Dieter. AU - Esterbauer, Hermann. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. U2 - 10.1016/S0014-5793(97)00123-3. DO - 10.1016/S0014-5793(97)00123-3. M3 - Article. VL - 405. SP - 11. EP - 15. JO - FEBS letters. JF - FEBS letters. SN - 0014-5793. IS - 1. ER - ...
The covalent attachment of ubiquitin (Ub) to short-lived or damaged proteins is believed to be the signal that initiates their selective degradation. In several cases, it has been shown that the proteolytic signal takes the form of a multi-Ub chain in which successive Ub molecules are linked tandemly at lysine 48 (K-48). Here we show that Ub molecules can be linked together in vivo at two other lysine positions, lysine 29 (K-29) and lysine 63 (K-63). The formation of these alternative linkages is strongly dependent on the presence of the stress-related Ub conjugating enzymes UBC4 and UBC5. Furthermore, expression of Ub carrying a K-63 to arginine 63 substitution in a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is missing the poly-Ub gene, UBI4, fails to compensate for the stress defects associated with these cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the formation of multi-Ub chains involving K-63 linkages plays an important role in the yeast stress response. In broader terms, these results ...
Background: The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae provides intriguing possibilities for synthetic biology and bioprocess applications, but its use is still constrained by cellular characteristics that limit the product yields. Considering the production of advanced biopharmaceuticals, a major hindrance lies in the yeast endoplasmic reticulum (ER), as it is not equipped for efficient and large scale folding of complex proteins, such as human antibodies. Results: Following the example of professional secretory cells, we show that inducing an ER expansion in yeast by deleting the lipid-regulator gene OPI1 can improve the secretion capacity of full-length antibodies up to fourfold. Based on wild-type and ER-enlarged yeast strains, we conducted a screening of a folding factor overexpression library to identify proteins and their expression levels that enhance the secretion of antibodies. Out of six genes tested, addition of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase CPR5 provided the most beneficial effect on ...
I use this paper in my graduate genetics course. It describes a global screen for synthetic defects involving DNA integrity, which reveals a network of 16 functional modules. The paper illustrates screens based on genetic interactions (in this case, synthetic lethality or fitness defects) and the systems biology used to evaluate the results of such a screen. It also illustrates the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system ...
We investigated the relationship in Saccharomyces cerevisiae between the cell cycle start function, CDC25, and two mutants defining components of the cAMP pathway. The thermolabile adenylate cyclase mutant cyr1-2(ts) is phenotypically similar to the temperature-sensitive mutant cdc25(ts) in that both mutants, when shifted to the restrictive temperature, arrest in G1 of the cell cycle and permit the initiation of meiosis and sporulation. The mutant bcy1 [a lesion resulting in a low level of regulatory (R) subunit and a high level of active, catalytic (C) subunit of the CAMP-dependent protein kinase] suppresses the temperature-sensitive phenotype of cyr1-2(ts) and confers an asporogenous phenotype. We found that cdc25(ts) complemented cyr1-2(ts), and, unlike cyr1-2(ts), was not suppressible by bcy1, demonstrating that cyr1 and CDC25 must encode different functions. Also our results indicate that CDC25 does not encode the R subunit of the CAMP-dependent protein kinase. In addition, although the cdc25(ts)
The angelic acid moiety represents an essential modification in many biologically active products. These products are commonly known as angelates and several studies have demonstrated their therapeutic benefits, including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, their availability for use in the development of therapeutics is limited due to poor extraction yields. Chemical synthesis has been achieved but its complexity prevents application, therefore microbial production may offer a promising alternative. Here, we engineered the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce angelyl-CoA, the CoA-activated form of angelic acid. For yeast-based production of angelyl-CoA we first expressed genes recently identified in the biosynthetic cluster ssf of Streptomyces sp. SF2575 in S. cerevisiae. Exogenous feeding of propionate and heterologous expression of a propionyl-CoA synthase from Streptomyces sp. were initially employed to increase the intracellular propionyl-CoA level, resulting in
Gardasil's proteins are synthesized by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Its protein makeup allows it to target four types of ... One such method is a vaccine based on the minor capsid protein L2, which is highly conserved across HPV genotypes.[180] Efforts ... Every subunit of the virus is composed of two proteins molecules, L1 and L2. The reason why this virus has the capability to ... The HPV vaccines are based on hollow virus-like particles (VLPs) assembled from recombinant HPV coat proteins. The virus ...
"Structure of the linkage region between the polysaccharide and protein parts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan". J. Biol. Chem ...
De novo origination of a new protein-coding gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics. 2008, 179 (1): 487-496. PMC 2390625. ... Hubby, J. L. Protein Differences in Drosophila. I. Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1963, 48 (6): 871-879. PMC 1210521. PMID ... Knowles DG, McLysaght A. Recent de novo origin of human protein-coding genes. Genome Res. 2009, 19 (10): 1752-1759. PMC 2765279 ... 编) In: Bryson, V. and Vogel, H.J. Evolving genes and proteins. Academic Press, New-York. 1964: 479-496.. ...
"The predominant protein-arginine methyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (21): 12585-94. doi: ... Advances in Protein Chemistry. 67. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. pp. 201-222. doi:10.1016/S0065-3233(04)67008-2. ISBN 0- ... McBride AE, Silver PA (July 2001). "State of the arg: protein methylation at arginine comes of age". Cell. 106 (1): 5-8. doi: ... Protein-Arginine+N-Methyltransferase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
... protein N-myristoyltransferase cause temperature-sensitive myristic acid auxotrophy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Proc Natl ... 1985). "Amino terminal myristylation of the protein kinase p60src, a retroviral transforming protein". Science. 227 (4685): 427 ... 1990). "Myristoylation of gag proteins of HIV-1 plays an important role in virus assembly". AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses. 6 (6 ... Tashiro A, Shoji S, Kubota Y (1990). "Antimyristoylation of the gag proteins in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells ...
... p is one of many helicase proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Rrm3p a DNA helicase that unwinds DNA in a 5'-to-3' ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Baker's yeast) - RRM3 gene & protein". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2017- ... "The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Helicase Rrm3p Facilitates Replication Past Nonhistone Protein-DNA Complexes". Molecular Cell. 12 ... "RRM3 Rrm3p [Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2017-11-25. Torres, Jorge Z.; ...
Non-human protein homologs for cystinosin include ERS1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast cells) and the Caenorhabditis elegans ... CTNS is the gene that encodes the protein cystinosin in humans. Cystinosin is a lysosomal seven-transmembrane protein that ... The protein obeys Michaelis-Menton kinetics and has an associated KM of 278 ± 49 μM.[11][13] ... and is a member of the lysosomal cystine transporter family of transport proteins.[10] It comprises 367 amino acid residues, ...
"Removal of frameshift intermediates by mismatch repair proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Molecular and Cellular Biology. ... This leads to a premature stop codon, shortening the protein that is supposed to be transcribed. When the protein is able to ... aligns a protein against a DNA sequence allowing frameshifts and introns FastY - compare a DNA sequence to a protein sequence ... An incorrectly made protein can have detrimental effects on cell viability and in most cases cause the higher organism to ...
de la Cruz J, Kressler D, Linder P (May 1999). "Unwinding RNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: DEAD-box proteins and related ... The DEAD/DEAH box helicases are a family of proteins whose purpose is to unwind nucleic acids. The DEAD box helicases are ...
de la Cruz J, Kressler D, Linder P (May 1999). "Unwinding RNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: DEAD-box proteins and related ... DExD/H proteins have also been found to be required components in pre- mRNA splicing, in particular the DEAH proteins, Prp2, ... As shown in the figure, DEAD box proteins are needed in the initial steps of spliceosome formation, while DEAH box proteins are ... but DEAD box proteins use ATP and DEAH does not. DEAD box proteins are considered to be RNA helicases and many have been found ...
"RNase H2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a complex of three proteins". Nucleic Acids Research. 32 (2): 407-414. doi:10.1093/nar/ ... The S. cerevisiae homolog of the E. coli protein (that is, the H2A subunit) was easily identifiable by bioinformatics when the ... Crouch, R. J.; Arudchandran, A.; Cerritelli, S. M. (2001-01-01). "RNase H1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: methods and ... The B subunit mediates protein-protein interactions between the H2 complex and PCNA, which localizes H2 to replication foci. ...
"The predominant protein-arginine methyltransferase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (21): 12585-94. doi: ... Proteins in eukaryotic transcription. Advances in Protein Chemistry. 67. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press. pp. 201-222. doi: ... As indicated by their monikers, these differ in the presence of a SET domain, which is a type of protein domain. Human genes ... A possible homolog of Dot1 was found in archaea which shows the ability to methylate archaeal histone-like protein in recent ...
"Identification of novel filament-forming proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster". Journal of Cell ... These include bacteria (C. crescentus), yeast (S. cerevisiae), fruit flies (D. melanogaster) and human cells. These filamentous ... a Nucleotide-Regulated Glutamine Amidotransferase/ATP-Dependent Amidoligase Fusion Protein and Homologue of Anticancer and ...
"Nuclear and nucleolar localization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal proteins S22 and S25". FEBS Letters. 452 (3): 335-340 ... Phyre2 found the most similar protein to be the human protein NDC80 kinetochore complex component, a nuclear protein that binds ... signaling proteins, and protein degradation; in fact, the older group has the higher expression of FAM98A in low protein diets ... in both young and old men with high or low protein diets, the expression levels were measured as a ratio of low/high protein ...
"Nuclear and nucleolar localisation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal proteins S22 and S25". FEBS Lett. 452 (3): 335-40. doi ... Using a protein called Nucleoplasmin, the archetypal 'molecular chaperone', they identified a domain in the protein that acts ... This was made possible by the demonstration that nuclear protein import is a two-step process; the nuclear protein binds to the ... Ray M, Tang R, Jiang Z, Rotello VM (2015). "Quantitative tracking of protein trafficking to the nucleus using cytosolic protein ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NEDD8 gene. (In Saccharomyces cerevisiae this protein is known as Rub1.) ... This ubiquitin-like protein (ULP), becomes covalently conjugated to a limited number of cellular proteins in a manner analogous ... Pan ZQ, Kentsis A, Dias DC, Yamoah K, Wu K (March 2004). "Nedd8 on cullin: building an expressway to protein destruction". ... Kumar S, Yoshida Y, Noda M (August 1993). "Cloning of a cDNA which encodes a novel ubiquitin-like protein". Biochemical and ...
"Interaction landscape of membrane-protein complexes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Nature. 489 (7417): 585-589. doi:10.1038/ ... "Epigenetics in Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Epigenetics. 1. Cold Spring Harbor Press, 2007. Cell Cycle. Principles of Control" by ... S. cerevisiae has 16 chromosomes, S. pombe has 3. S. cerevisiae is often diploid while S. pombe is usually haploid. S. pombe ... Conversely, S. cerevisiae has well-developed peroxisomes, while S. pombe does not. S. cerevisiae has small point centromere of ...
November 2010). "A systematic screen for protein-lipid interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Mol. Syst. Biol. 6 (1): 430. ... "Crystal structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae phosphatidylinositol-transfer protein". Nature. 391 (6666): 506-10. doi: ... This domain is named after cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) and TRIO guanine exchange factor. CRALB protein ... Other members of the family are alpha-tocopherol transfer protein and phosphatidylinositol-transfer protein (Sec14). They ...
Hardwick, KG; Pelham, HR (April 25, 1990). "ERS1 a seven transmembrane domain protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Nucleic ... All proteins in the LCT family are distantly related to the proteins of the microbial rhodopsin (MR) family (TC #3.E.1), an ... These proteins are found in intracellular organelles of eukaryotes, many in lysosomes. The few that have been characterized ... Kalatzis, V; Cherqui, S; Antignac, C; Gasnier, B (November 1, 2001). "Cystinosin, the protein defective in cystinosis, is a H ...
"Evolutionary relationship and secondary structure predictions in four transport proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae". J. Mol. ... Vandenbol M, Grenson M, Jauniaux JC (1989). "Nucleotide sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PUT4 proline-permease-encoding ... A number of such proteins have been found to be evolutionary related. These proteins contain 12 transmembrane segments. Amino ... Protein Sci. 2 (1): 20-30. doi:10.1002/pro.5560020103. PMC 2142299 . PMID 8382989. This article incorporates text from the ...
Z-DNA binding protein 1, also known as Zuotin, is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast gene. Zuo1 has been identified in vitro as a ... a putative Z-DNA binding protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". EMBO J. 11 (10): 3787-3796. PMC 556839 . PMID 1396572. Wilhelm ... "Transfer RNA binding protein in the nucleus of Saccharomyces cerevisiae". FEBS Lett. 349 (2): 260-264. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(94 ... tRNA and Z-DNA binding protein. The name "zuotin" is derived from the Chinese word "zuo" meaning "left". It is a member of ...
ExPASy Tools [3][non-primary source needed] [A Novel Solution NMR Structure of Protein yst0336 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... "Global landscape of protein complexes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae". Nature. 440 (7084): 637-43. doi:10.1038/ ... A Novel Solution NMR Structure of Protein yst0336 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Structure/mmdb/ ... Furthermore, multiple proteins were involved in ubiquitination. Some of the interacting yeast proteins with the higher ...
This gene encodes a protein related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Nhp2p. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have ... The H/ACA snoRNPs also include the DKC1, NOLA1 and NOLA3 proteins. These four H/ACA snoRNP proteins localize to the dense ... H/ACA ribonucleoprotein complex subunit 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NHP2 gene. This gene is a member of the ... Both 18S rRNA production and rRNA pseudouridylation are impaired if any one of the four proteins is depleted. The four H/ACA ...
The protein is found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and several eukaryotes. In Saccharomyces the Vts1 impacts vesicular transport ... Protein-protein interactions through SAM domains participate in different regulatory activities such as signal transduction. ... Proteins having such domains where also shown to recognize and interact with RNA structures of similar shape to the Smaug ... Bork P, Ponting CP, Hofmann K, Schultz J (1997). "SAM as a protein interaction domain involved in developmental regulation". ...
A comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. [Cover paper] Nature Feb 10, 2000; Vol. ... The Chediak-Higashi protein interacts with SNARE complex and signal transduction proteins. Molecular Medicine 2002; Vol. 8, 56- ... Protein Interaction Map of Drosophila melanogaster. [Cover paper] Science November 2, 2003; 10.1126. Bader JS, Deem MW, Hammond ... CuraGen focused on how the proteins encoded in a genome function together, and published the first global proteomic maps of a ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 釀酒酵母 12,000,000 5,538 Caenorhabditis elegans. 秀麗隱杆線蟲 97,000,000 18,250 ... non-protein-coding genes, and chromosomal structural elements) under selection for biological function.. " Mouse Genome ... This proportion is much higher than can be explained by protein-coding sequences alone, implying that the genome contains many ...
Protein,Production,from,Pichia,pastoris,Yeast:,A,Protocol,for,Benchtop,Fermentation,biological,advanced biology technology, ... By Julia Cino PhD ... Introduction Over th...The production of a functional protein is intimately related to the ce... Pichia ... Fed-batch culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae : a perspective of computer control to enhance the productivity in bakers yeast ... Yeast Protein Production System Features High Yields and One-Step Purification. 2. Efficient Cleavage of Fusion Proteins to ...
Transcript/Protein Information [PANTHER Classification System] Transcript/Protein Information. PANTHER Classification System ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ...
The cellular and the chromosomal content of the major nonhistone proteins was measured. Two... ... Proteins were isolated from purified yeast chromatin and subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis. ... Chromosomal proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. I. number and properties of individual proteins ... Metrizamide Nonhistone proteins Two-dimensional electrophoresis Tubulin This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ...
... Mark Gosink mmgosink at facstaff.wisc.edu Tue Apr 14 15:00:00 EST 1998 * ... Hello Netters: I am trying to determine the concentration of my favorite protein expressed in S.c.. Its about 40kDa, localized ... to the cytosol and represents about 1% to the total protein (by Coomasie staining by eye) when grown in minimal glucose media. ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C] H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit d [Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C]. gi,398366327,ref ... The Saccharomyces cerevisiae VMA6 gene encodes the 36-kDa subunit of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase membrane sector. [J Biol Chem. ... The Saccharomyces cerevisiae VMA6 gene encodes the 36-kDa subunit of the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase membrane sector.. Bauerle C, Ho ... H(+)-transporting V0 sector ATPase subunit d [Saccharomyces cerevisiae S288C]. NCBI Reference Sequence: NP_013552.3 ...
Mitotic role for the Cdc28 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Mitotic role for the Cdc28 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. S I Reed and C Wittenberg ... The dual role of the Cdc28 protein kinase in the S. cerevisiae cell cycle thus parallels that demonstrated for the cdc2 protein ... The Cdc28 protein kinase functions in the G1 to S phase transition of the cell cycle of the budding yeast Saccharomyces ...
The DNA damage-dependent checkpoint of Saccharomyces cerevisiaeis a paradigm for eukaryotic checkpoint pathways that regulate ... Green C.M., Lowndes N.F. (2004) Purification and Analysis of Checkpoint Protein Complexes From Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In: ... The DNA damage-dependent checkpoint of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a paradigm for eukaryotic checkpoint pathways that regulate ... A system of shuttle vectors and yeast host strains designed for efficient manipulation of DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ...
In this paper, published in Nature magazine, the authors report, using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a test ... To date, generation of large-scale protein?protein interaction maps has relied on the yeast two-hybrid system, which detects ... of predicted yeast proteins as baits, they detected 3,617 associated proteins covering 25% of the yeast proteome. Numerous ... With the advent of ultrasensitive mass spectrometric protein identification methods, it is feasible to identify directly ...
Mutational Hypersensitivity of a Gene Regulatory Protein: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gal80p. *Karsten Melcher 1 ... Nogi, Y., and T. Fukasawa, 1989 Functional domains of a negative regulatory protein, GAL80, of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. ... 1993 Gal80 proteins of Kluyveromyces lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are highly conserved but contribute differently to ... 193-281 in The Molecular Biology of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, edited by J. R. Broach, J. R. Pringle and E. W. Jones. ...
Replication Protein A Is Required for Meiotic Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Christine Soustelle, Michèle Vedel, ... Replication Protein A Is Required for Meiotic Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Replication Protein A Is Required for Meiotic Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Christine Soustelle, Michèle Vedel, ... Replication Protein A Is Required for Meiotic Recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Christine Soustelle, Michèle Vedel, ...
Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2 and Msh3 repair proteins in double-strand break-induced recombination. Neal Sugawara, ... Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2 and Msh3 repair proteins in double-strand break-induced recombination ... Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2 and Msh3 repair proteins in double-strand break-induced recombination ... Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2 and Msh3 repair proteins in double-strand break-induced recombination ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Bakers yeast). Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain RM11-1a) (Bakers yeast). Saccharomyces cerevisiae ( ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain CEN.PK113-7D) (Bakers yeast). Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Bakers yeast). Saccharomyces ... Saccharomyces eubayanus (Yeast). Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain RM11-1a) (Bakers yeast). Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain Lalvin QA23) (Bakers yeast). Saccharomyces cerevisiae x Saccharomyces kudriavzevii (strain ...
tr,A7A264,A7A264_YEAS7 Conserved protein OS=Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain YJM789) OX=307796 GN=ECO1 PE=4 SV=1 ... Protein predictedi ,p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the protein ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain YJM789) (Bakers yeast)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database ...
The Sec18 protein (Sec18p) of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been identified as a component involved in the vesicular ... two approaches taken with the aim of identifying proteins that interact with Sec18p in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ... The protein was C-terminally tagged with a protein A moiety from Staphylococcus aureus containing IgG binding domains. It was ... complexing proteins could not be isolated due to the large amount of non-specific binding of yeast proteins to the protein A ...
The protein Blm3 was found associated with the Ump1-associated half proteasome in nuclear extracts of S. cerevisiae. By ... Grundlage dieser Arbeit war die Identifizierung des Proteins Blm3 als Proteasomen-assoziiertes Protein in Kernextrakten aus S. ... As a coordinating protein, Blm3 presumably exerts a regulating effect onto the maturation and, finally, onto the activation of ... Das Protein Blm3 verzögert die Reifung des naszierenden Proteasoms in das maturierte 20S-Proteasom. Blm3 übt vermutlich einen ...
Protein synthesis in long-term stationary-phase cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. E K Fuge, E L Braun, M Werner-Washburne ... Protein synthesis in long-term stationary-phase cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. E K Fuge, E L Braun, M Werner-Washburne ... Protein synthesis in long-term stationary-phase cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. E K Fuge, E L Braun, M Werner-Washburne ... Protein synthesis in long-term stationary-phase cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ...
... in studies conducted in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is to serve as a scaffold that recruits regulatory proteins, ... in studies conducted in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is to serve as a scaffold that recruits regulatory proteins, ... This review summarizes what we currently understand about how the action of septin-associated protein kinases and their ... This review summarizes what we currently understand about how the action of septin-associated protein kinases and their ...
As these proteins are functionally conserved between budding yeast and mammalian cells, they might also play critical roles in ... Here, we investigate this issue by analyzing the role of evolutionarily conserved telomeric proteins in protecting budding ... We demonstrate that the key telomeric proteins Yku, Rap1, Rif1, and Rif2 inhibit telomere degradation by specifically ...
Multiplexed Protein Quantitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Amine-reactive Isobaric Tagging Reagents. Philip L. Ross, ... Multiplexed Protein Quantitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Amine-reactive Isobaric Tagging Reagents ... Multiplexed Protein Quantitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Amine-reactive Isobaric Tagging Reagents ... Multiplexed Protein Quantitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Amine-reactive Isobaric Tagging Reagents ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins [D12.776.354.750]. *Silent Information Regulator Proteins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae [D12.776. ... Silent Information Regulator Proteins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae*Silent Information Regulator Proteins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... Silent Mating Type Information Regulator Protein, S cerevisiae*Silent Mating Type Information Regulator Protein, S cerevisiae ... "Silent Information Regulator Proteins, Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae*cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. *cdc42 GTP Binding Protein, Saccharomyces ... Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins [D12.776.354.750]. *cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae [D12.776.354.750.249] ... cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein [D12.776.157.325.515.700.050]. *cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae [D12.776.157.325. ... rho GTP-Binding Proteins [D08.811.277.040.330.300.400.700]. *cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae [D08.811. ...
Protein synthesis during transition and stationary phases under glucose limitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.. H Boucherie ... Protein synthesis during transition and stationary phases under glucose limitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ... Protein synthesis during transition and stationary phases under glucose limitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ... Protein synthesis during transition and stationary phases under glucose limitation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ...
The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress- ... The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress- ... and unfolded protein response (UPR) has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and ... and unfolded protein response (UPR) has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and ...
... cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCDC 364 and its use as single cell protein.Material and methodsThe single cell protein ... thin-layer chromatography.Results andconclusionThe Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCDC 364 produced maximum single cell protein in ... was produced using discarded pineapple peels and Saccharomyces cerevisiae NCDC 364. Optimization of bioprocess variables ( ... substrates for production of commercially important microbial proteins for alarming global issues linked to protein ...
Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins Rtt109p and Esc2p : two novel regulators of genome stability ... In the second part of this thesis, I reveal that cells deleted for Saccharomyces cerevisiae ESC2 exhibit synthetic sickness ... I reveal that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtt109p promotes genome stability and resistance to DNA-damaging agents, and that it ... that esc2Δ mutant cells exhibit increased recombination frequency and increased relocalisation of recombination repair protein ...
  • Multiple 2-plex datasets can be combined after separate analyses, but there is a high likelihood that different sets of peptides and proteins will be identified between each experiment. (mcponline.org)
  • We have developed a multiplexed set of reagents for quantitative protein analysis that place isobaric mass labels at the N termini and lysine side chains of peptides in a digest mixture. (mcponline.org)
  • Absolute quantitation of targeted proteins can also be achieved using synthetic peptides tagged with one of the members of the multiplex reagent set. (mcponline.org)
  • In the first step, the proteins identified by a single protein identification tool were classified into two groups: high confidence proteins that were identified by unique peptides, and low confidence proteins that were identified by non-unique peptides. (openthesis.org)
  • The proteins that were identified by the presence of unique peptides and that were commonly identified by different tools were grouped into the highest confidence level - Level 4. (openthesis.org)
  • According to the operation of tandem mass spectrometry and the characteristics of the peptides generated by site-specific protease digestion, a two-pass approach for identifying the species-specific proteins was developed. (openthesis.org)
  • The recent abundance of genome sequence data has brought an urgent need for systematic proteomics to decipher the encoded protein networks that dictate cellular function. (visualcomplexity.com)
  • I reveal that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtt109p promotes genome stability and resistance to DNA-damaging agents, and that it does this by functionally cooperating with the histone chaperone Asf1p to maintain normal chromatin structure. (bl.uk)
  • The single dynein motor encoded by the S. cerevisiae genome performs an important but nonessential spindle-positioning role. (rupress.org)
  • The methods described here should be applicable to the hydrodynamic analysis and subsequent purification of any soluble protein from organisms amenable to genetic manipulation, such as yeast, as long as the function of that protein is not perturbed by the addition of an epitope tag. (springer.com)
  • Other databases present images of a collection of GFP (or otherwise)-tagged proteins in one or a few genetic backgrounds or conditions. (g3journal.org)
  • The development of genetic engineering and cloning has opened many possibilities of expression and isolation of heterologous proteins for research purposes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • With many known proteins on the map, it will soon be possible to use 2-D gel analysis to study regulatory pathways in normal and mutant yeast, with knowledge of many the protein products that respond to each genetic or environmental manipulation. (cshl.edu)
  • In this study, we further identified this element and observed that overexpression of a small protein (sORF2) of 57 amino acids encoded in this region caused growth inhibition. (omictools.com)
  • Two polypeptides of molecular weights 55,000 and 53,000, identified as α and β tubulin, and a polypeptide of molecular weight 63,000, associated with the nuclear DNA to a very high degree, account for nearly 50% of the nonhistone proteins present in chromatin. (springer.com)
  • Analysis of the hydrodynamic properties of a protein in a crude mixture can give insights into possible tertiary organization such as participation in high-molecular-mass protein complexes. (springer.com)
  • An understanding of how different cargo proteins are segregated in the trans -Golgi and how extracellular signals control vesicle function is actively being sought, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. (rupress.org)
  • The coenzym A-synthesizing protein complex (CoA-SPC) is a multienzyme complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Bakers' yeast), which has a molecular weight in excess of 200,000 as determined by Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. (semanticscholar.org)
  • While the P. pastoris system has a much smaller set of vectors available and a less-well-established molecular biology, it can be cultured to very high densities [ 24 ] potentially producing large quantities of the protein of interest. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These data are discussed in terms of models involving dynamic molecular recognition between proteins. (docphin.com)
  • In particular, as discussed here, septin-based structures recruit, and thereby localize (and, in some cases, regulate the activity of) a multiplicity of protein kinases that integrate multiple inputs into signaling pathways and ultimately initiate ensuing biological responses (Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Quantitative measures of protein dynamics in vivo are therefore highly useful for elucidating specific regulatory pathways. (g3journal.org)
  • The developed two-pass approach and two-step strategy were then used to study the protein profiling of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultivated in various gravity conditions (10 and 300 g glucose/l) in order to investigate the changes in central metabolic pathways of S. cerevisiae. (openthesis.org)
  • A collection of articles that focus on an array of different scientific topics such as pathways, cancer, transmembrane proteins. (cusabio.com)
  • Results of this study suggest that easily available raw materials such as fruit peels offer cost-effective substrates for production of commercially important microbial proteins for alarming global issues linked to protein malnutrition.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. (magiran.com)
  • In order to better understand this pathway, we undertook a biochemical study of the proteins implicated in its functioning. (springer.com)
  • In vitro studies strongly suggest that several proteins of this pathway-Rad51, Rad52, Rad54, Rad55, Rad57, and replication protein A (RPA)-play a role in the strand exchange reaction. (genetics.org)
  • Desmyter L, Verstraelen J, Dewaele S, Libert C, Contreras R, Chen C. Nonclassical export pathway: overexpression of NCE102 reduces protein and DNA damage and prolongs lifespan in an SGS1 deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (ugent.be)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that the components and the mechanism of the SRP-dependent protein targeting pathway are evolutionarily conserved yet not essential for cell growth. (ucsf.edu)
  • Conibear and Stevens, 1995 ), and two separable vesicle types carry different sets of proteins to the plasma membrane ( Harsay and Bretscher, 1995 ). (rupress.org)
  • 20 related proteins that can be divided into two classes according to their regulation and function ( André, 1995 ). (rupress.org)
  • Redundancy for function between different types of microtubule-based motor proteins was also indicated by the observation that cin8 dyn1 double-deletion mutants are inviable. (rupress.org)
  • Surprisingly, cells that are grown for a prolonged time in the absence of SRP or SRP receptor no longer show pronounced protein translocation defects. (ucsf.edu)
  • The cross-species expressions of IBD1 in S. pombe and byr4 in S. cerevisiae cause defects in shape, implicating the presence of a conserved mechanism for the control of cytokinesis in eukaryotes. (elsevier.com)
  • This review summarizes what we currently understand about how the action of septin-associated protein kinases and their substrates control information flow to drive the cell cycle into and out of mitosis, to regulate bud growth, and especially to direct timely and efficient execution of cytokinesis and cell abscission. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results suggest that Rho1 small GTP-binding protein binds to a specific site at the growth region of cells, where Rho1p exerts its function in controlling cell growth. (rupress.org)
  • In a previous study, we found an unknown element that caused growth inhibition after its copy number increased in the 3′ region of DIE2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (omictools.com)
  • sORF2 was not required in the normal growth of S. cerevisiae, and not conserved in related yeast species including S. paradoxus. (omictools.com)
  • Although the fusion construct was shown to be active in vivo , specific complexing proteins could not be isolated due to the large amount of non-specific binding of yeast proteins to the protein A moiety. (bl.uk)
  • Dominant negative mutant forms of the Sec18p interfere with the normal function of the wild-type protein in vivo . (bl.uk)
  • The ICAT quantitative labeling strategy ( 3 , 4 ) is perhaps the best-characterized method for relative protein quantitation using MS. Other elegant approaches use cell-culture enrichment with a stable isotope-labeled amino acid, including arginine ( 5 ), lysine ( 6 ), tyrosine ( 7 ), and leucine ( 8 ), for in vivo incorporation of a mass difference to support relative quantitation. (mcponline.org)
  • Use of bimolecular fluorescence complementation to study in vivo interactions between Cdc42p and Rdi1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (harvard.edu)
  • A yeast-based two-hybrid screen was conducted to isolate proteins interacting with Gcd6p in vivo. (le.ac.uk)
  • This is one of the few systems in which both in vivo and in vitro systems for selection and analysis of altered binding sites and binding protein exist. (buffalo.edu)