Serum Amyloid A Protein: An ACUTE PHASE REACTION protein present in low concentrations in normal sera, but found at higher concentrations in sera of older persons and in patients with AMYLOIDOSIS. It is the circulating precusor of amyloid A protein, which is found deposited in AA type AMYLOID FIBRILS.Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Acute-Phase Reaction: An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.Amyloidosis: A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of AMYLOID. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.Amino Acids, SulfurSalivary alpha-Amylases: A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Pulsatilla: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain cernuosides and other oleanane and hederagenin saponins.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Serum Globulins: All blood proteins except albumin ( = SERUM ALBUMIN, which is not a globulin) and FIBRINOGEN (which is not in the serum). The serum globulins are subdivided into ALPHA-GLOBULINS; BETA-GLOBULINS; and GAMMA-GLOBULINS on the basis of their electrophoretic mobilities. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Anemia, Aplastic: A form of anemia in which the bone marrow fails to produce adequate numbers of peripheral blood elements.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Acute-Phase Proteins: Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.Serum Response Factor: A MADS domain-containing transcription factor that binds to the SERUM RESPONSE ELEMENT in the promoter-enhancer region of many genes. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Serum Amyloid P-Component: Amyloid P component is a small, non-fibrillar glycoprotein found in normal serum and in all amyloid deposits. It has a pentagonal (pentaxin) structure. It is an acute phase protein, modulates immunologic responses, inhibits ELASTASE, and has been suggested as an indicator of LIVER DISEASE.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Receptors, Lipoxin: Cell surface proteins that bind LIPOXINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Haptoglobins: Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Serum Sickness: Immune complex disease caused by the administration of foreign serum or serum proteins and characterized by fever, lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, and urticaria. When they are complexed to protein carriers, some drugs can also cause serum sickness when they act as haptens inducing antibody responses.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.LuxembourgCreatinineBlood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.TriglyceridesBlood Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Serum Bactericidal Test: Method of measuring the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy. It is used to monitor the therapy in BACTERIAL ENDOCARDITIS; OSTEOMYELITIS and other serious bacterial infections. As commonly performed, the test is a variation of the broth dilution test. This test needs to be distinguished from testing of the naturally occurring BLOOD BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Leupeptins: A group of acylated oligopeptides produced by Actinomycetes that function as protease inhibitors. They have been known to inhibit to varying degrees trypsin, plasmin, KALLIKREINS, papain and the cathepsins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Mice, Inbred C57BLFerritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Familial Mediterranean Fever: A group of HEREDITARY AUTOINFLAMMATION DISEASES, characterized by recurrent fever, abdominal pain, headache, rash, PLEURISY; and ARTHRITIS. ORCHITIS; benign MENINGITIS; and AMYLOIDOSIS may also occur. Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in marenostrin gene result in autosomal recessive transmission; simple heterozygous, autosomal dominant form of the disease.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 2.6.1.1.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Alkaline Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.1.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.6.1.2.Mice, Inbred BALB CLipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.alpha-Fetoproteins: The first alpha-globulins to appear in mammalian sera during FETAL DEVELOPMENT and the dominant serum proteins in early embryonic life.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Acinonyx: A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Cephalochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the LANCELETS. Its members are characterized by a NOTOCHORD which extends into the adult stage head.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Culture Media, Serum-Free: CULTURE MEDIA free of serum proteins but including the minimal essential substances required for cell growth. This type of medium avoids the presence of extraneous substances that may affect cell proliferation or unwanted activation of cells.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Transferrin: An iron-binding beta1-globulin that is synthesized in the LIVER and secreted into the blood. It plays a central role in the transport of IRON throughout the circulation. A variety of transferrin isoforms exist in humans, including some that are considered markers for specific disease states.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Blood Protein Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis applied to BLOOD PROTEINS.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Osteochondritis Dissecans: A type of osteochondritis in which articular cartilage and associated bone becomes partially or totally detached to form joint loose bodies. Affects mainly the knee, ankle, and elbow joints.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.JapanIsoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Peroxiredoxins: A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.Serum Response Element: A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of many growth-related genes. The regulatory transcription factor SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Hypothyroidism: A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Dental Pins: Small cylindrical pieces of metal used to enhance retention.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Turpentine: The concrete oleoresin obtained from Pinus palustris Mill. (Pinaceae) and other species of Pinus. It contains a volatile oil, to which its properties are due, and to which form it is generally used. (Dorland, 28th ed) Turpentine is used as a solvent and an experimental irritant in biomedical research. Turpentine toxicity is of medical interest.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Opsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Zinc Sulfate: A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Micromanipulation: The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
... remodeling and spacing factor 1 SAA1: serum amyloid A1 SAA2: serum amyloid A2 SAC3D1: SAC3 domain-containing protein 1 SART1: ...
... (SAA1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SAA1 gene. SAA1 is a major acute-phase protein mainly ... "Entrez Gene: SAA1 serum amyloid A1". Gabay C, Kushner I (Feb 1999). "Acute-phase proteins and other systemic responses to ... Published reports link SAA1 to a number of malignancies, but a causal relationship has not been established. SAA1 has been ... Several receptors for SAA1 have been identified using an SAA1 hybrid protein containing two amino acid substitutions from SAA2 ...
Molecular weights of the human proteins are estimated at 11.7 kDa for SAA1 and 12.8 kDa for SAA4. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is also ... SAA1 and SAA2 genes are regulated in liver cells by the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α. Both SAA1 and SAA2 are ... Three acute-phase SAA isoforms have been reported in mice, called SAA1, SAA2, and SAA3. During inflammation, SAA1 and SAA2 are ... Acute-phase serum amyloid A proteins (A-SAAs) are secreted during the acute phase of inflammation. These proteins have several ...
It has been reported that serum IL-17 levels are also elevated in SLE patients compared to controls and the Th17 pathway has ... of bronchial brushings obtained from COPD patients also linked lung function to several Th17 signature genes such as SAA1, SAA2 ... Vincent FB, Northcott M, Hoi A, Mackay F, Morand EF (August 2013). "Clinical associations of serum interleukin-17 in systemic ... and IL-12 was found in the serum and lesions of psoriasis patients. However, the finding of IL-17-producing cells as well as ...
To date, 10 HRSV-A genotypes have been designated, GA1 to GA7, SAA1, NA1, and NA2. The HRSV-B genotypes include GB1 to GB4, ... Although useful for research, a diagnosis using a collection of paired acute and convalescent sera to demonstrate a significant ...
"Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and ... "Association between Carbohydrate Intake and Serum Lipids". Journal of the American College of Nutrition 25 (2): 155-163. PMC ...
SAA1) variants, linkage disequilibrium between the CRP and SAA1 variants and the association of the CRP and SAA1 variants with ... CRP and SAA1 Haplotypes Are Associated with Both C-Reactive Protein and Serum Amyloid A Levels: Role of Suppression Effects. Yu ... Supplementary Materials include tables for the baseline data of the C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A ( ...
SAA1 gene. serum amyloid A1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Printable PDF Open All Close All ... The SAA1 gene provides instructions for making a protein called serum amyloid A1. This protein is made primarily in the liver ... Bakkaloglu A, Duzova A, Ozen S, Balci B, Besbas N, Topaloglu R, Ozaltin F, Yilmaz E. Influence of Serum Amyloid A (SAA1) and ... Tissue-specific regulation of the human acute-phase serum amyloid A genes, SAA1 and SAA2, by glucocorticoids in hepatic and ...
SAA1/2 genotypes, plasma SAA levels and serum HDL concentrations. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammation is important ... Genotyping of SAA1/2 SNPs. There are 115 and 76 SNPs for the human SAA1 and SAA2 genes, respectively, listed in the National ... across exon 4 of the SAA1 gene for our analysis. Therefore, in the present study, four SNPs of the SAA1 and SAA2 gene were ... SAA1/2 genetic polymorphisms and cIMT. Carty et al. [8] reported that SAA2 SNPs were associated with increased IMT in African- ...
The SAA protein is a reported synonym for the human gene SAA2, encoding serum amyloid A2. The full-length protein is 13,527 ... SAA1 / SAA / Serum Amyloid A Monoclonal Antibody *. Applications: WB, ELISA, ELISA-S, IHC, IHC-p ...
In view of the inflammatory nature of AOSD, we investigated whether serum amyloid A (SAA) gene polymorphisms affect the ... Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with adult-onset Stills disease Makiko Yashiro 1 , Hiroshi ... Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with adult-onset Stills disease Makiko Yashiro et al. Medicine ... The genotypes of the -13C/T SNP in the 5-flanking region of the SAA1 gene (rs12218) and two SNPs within exon 3 of SAA1 (2995C/ ...
This gene encodes a member of the serum amyloid A family of apolipoproteins. The encoded protein is a major acute phase protein ... Home , Life Science Research , Products , PCR Amplification , PrimePCR™ PCR Primers, Assays, and Arrays , Gene: SAA1, Human , ... PrimePCR™ ddPCR™ Expression EvaGreen® Assay: SAA1, Human. print ddPCR™ Evagreen assay for gene expression analysis. EvaGreen ...
Mouse monoclonal Serum Amyloid A antibody [115]. Validated in WB, sELISA and tested in Human. Cited in 5 publication(s). ... SAA1 antibody. *SAA2 antibody. *Serum amyloid A protein precursor antibody. *Serum amyloid A1 isoform 1 antibody ... Anti-Serum Amyloid A antibody [115]. See all Serum Amyloid A primary antibodies. ... All lanes : Anti-Serum Amyloid A antibody [115] (ab687) at 1/4000 dilution. Lanes 1-4 : Acute phase plasma samples. Lane 5 : ...
The Serum Amyloid A (SAA) family comprises a number of differentially expressed lipoproteins, acute phase SAA1 and SAA2, the ... Properties for Serum Amyloid A protein (SAA). Product Category. Primary Antibodies. Target Category. *Serum Amyloid A protein ( ... The Serum Amyloid A (SAA) family comprises a number of differentially expressed lipoproteins, acute phase SAA1 and SAA2, the ... Product Description for Serum Amyloid A protein (SAA). Mouse anti Human Serum Amyloid A protein (SAA) 426.. Presentation: ...
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a polymorphic protein [1-4]. In humans, SAA proteins are coded at four loci, called SAA1, SAA2, SAA3, ... T. Yamada, A. Wada, Y. Itoh, and K. Itoh, "Serum amyloid A1 alleles and plasma concentrations of serum amyloid A," Amyloid, vol ... J. D. Sipe, "Serum amyloid A: from fibril to function. Current status," Amyloid, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 10-12, 2000. View at Google ... The synthesis of SAA1 and SAA2 (acute phase SAA; A-SAA) is increased in inflammatory disorders. They may play roles in the ...
B-D: Some adipocytes were transfected with SAA3 or SAA1 siRNA. Negative control siRNAs #1 or #3 provided by the manufacturer ... Adipocyte-Derived Serum Amyloid A3 and Hyaluronan Play a Role in Monocyte Recruitment and Adhesion. ... Adipocyte-Derived Serum Amyloid A3 and Hyaluronan Play a Role in Monocyte Recruitment and Adhesion ... After transfection, total RNA and conditioned media were collected for analysis of SAA3 and SAA1 mRNA expression by real-time ...
2A). Unlike SAA1 levels in serum (Fig. 1D), SAA1 levels in HDL particles in HFD-fed vehicle-treated mice were not higher than ... E: Quantification of Western blots for serum CETP (n ≥ 6). F: Quantification of Western blots for serum SAA1 (n ≥ 6). ... D: Western blots for CETP and SAA1 proteins in serum. Membranes for SAA1 were stripped and reprobed with the PLTP antibody. ... 5G), consistent with changes of serum SAA1 protein levels seen in Fig. 1. Liver IL-6 mRNA level was increased only by CETP ...
Serum Amyloid A2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene ... Influence of Serum Amyloid A (SAA1) and SAA2 gene polymorphisms on renal amyloidosis, and on SAA/C-reactive protein values in ... serum amyloid A,2,acute phase reactant *SAA2. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Function: Major acute phase reactant. Apolipoprotein of the ... SAA2 (Serum Amyloid A2) is a Protein Coding gene. Diseases associated with SAA2 include Amyloidosis Aa and Amyloidosis. Among ...
Change in Serum Amyloid A1 (SAA1) [ Time Frame: baseline, Day 42 of study ]. ... Maximum serum concentration [ Time Frame: Day 42 of study ]. *Time at maximum serum concentration [ Time Frame: Day 42 of study ... Last measurable serum concentration [ Time Frame: Day 42 of study ]. *Time at last measurable serum concentration [ Time Frame ... The sponsor has developed F-652, a recombinant human IL-22 IgG2 Fc fusion protein produced in serum-free culture of Chinese ...
Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with adult-onset Stills disease. ... Serum levels of fibroblast growth factor-2 distinguish Takayasu arteritis from giant cell arteritis independent of age at ... Association of serum levels of fibrosis-related biomarkers with disease activity in patients with IgG4-related disease. ... Serum cytokine profiles and Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) level in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. ...
SAA1; PIG4; TP53I4; Amyloid protein A; Amyloid fibril protein AA; Serum amyloid A-1 protein , Products for research use only! ... ELISA Kit for Serum Amyloid A (SAA), SA-A; ... ELISA Kit for Serum Amyloid A (SAA). SA-A; SAA1; PIG4; TP53I4; ... Polyclonal Antibody to Serum Amyloid A (SAA). WB; IHC; ICC; IP.. PAA885Hu01. Polyclonal Antibody to Serum Amyloid A (SAA). WB; ... Monoclonal Antibody to Serum Amyloid A (SAA). WB; IHC; ICC; IP.. MAA885Hu22. Monoclonal Antibody to Serum Amyloid A (SAA). WB; ...
Two proteins, serum amyloid-A (SAA) protein 1 and apolipoprotein A1 were increased in the sera of non-human primates after drug ... Serum amyloid A as a predictor of coronary artery disease and cardiovascular outcome in women: the National Heart, Lung, and ... However, complement C5 and β-2-glycoprotein were identified in the data sets denoting some serum contamination was present.. ... The relationship between serum amyloid A and apolipoprotein A-I in high-density lipoprotein isolated from patients with ...
... acute-phase SAA1 and SAA2, the former being the major… ... The serum amyloid A (SAA) family comprises a number of ... The serum amyloid A (SAA) family comprises a number of differentially expressed apolipoproteins, acute-phase SAA1 and SAA2, the ... SAA1 monoclonal antibody (M01), clone 3C11-2C1. Western Blot analysis of SAA1 expression in human spleen.. *H00006288-M01 ... Western Blot analysis of SAA1 expression in transfected 293T cell line (H00006288-T02) by SAA1 MaxPab polyclonal antibody.Lane ...
Molecular weights of the human proteins are estimated at 11.7 kDa for SAA1 and 12.8 kDa for SAA4. Serum amyloid A (SAA) is also ... SAA1 and SAA2 genes are regulated in liver cells by the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-α. Both SAA1 and SAA2 are ... Three acute-phase SAA isoforms have been reported in mice, called SAA1, SAA2, and SAA3. During inflammation, SAA1 and SAA2 are ... Acute-phase serum amyloid A proteins (A-SAAs) are secreted during the acute phase of inflammation. These proteins have several ...
anti-Serum Amyloid A1 (SAA1) antibody (ABIN2151091). Mouse. Monoclonal. M18612SA1. Human. anti-Serum Amyloid A1 (SAA1) antibody ...
Serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene polymorphisms in Japanese patients with adult-onset Stillʼs disease (2018) ... Serum cytokine profiles and Mac-2 binding protein glycosylation isomer (M2BPGi) level in patients with autoimmune hepatitis ( ...
Serum Amyloid A1 Cluster, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human ... serum amyloid A (apo-SAA) cluster,including SAA1,SAA2,SAA3,SAA4,SAA5 (see symbols) *[email protected] ... Serum amyloid A-induced IL-6 production by rheumatoid synoviocytes. (PMID: 18243142) Koga T … Migita K (FEBS letters 2008) 3 58 ... The human serum amyloid A locus SAA4 is a pseudogene. (PMID: 1550545) Sack GH … Talbot CC (Biochemical and biophysical research ...
Serum Amyloid A ("SAA"; "SAA1"), and Serum Amyloid P ("SAP"). Plasma specimens for each of the normal, asthma and lung cancer ... Expression of four markers was unique for women with LC compared to NO: IL-8 and serum amyloid P (downregulated), serum amyloid ... Songwei, D. et al., "Discovery and Identification of Serum Amyloid a Protein Elevated in Lung Cancer Serum", Science in China ... SAA1 (Serum Amyloid A, SAA), CCL11 (Eotaxin), LEP (Leptin) and CXCL11 (Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 11, Interferon-inducible ...
Hepcidin (Hamp), serum amyloid 1 (Saa1) and ERFE (Fam132b) mRNA levels were measured by qRT-PCR and are shown as −ΔCt (i.e., Ct ... Six week-old HbbTh3/+ mice had (A) lower hemoglobin and (B) greatly increased serum Epo concentrations compared to their wild- ... Hepatic hepcidin mRNA (A) and serum hepcidin (B) levels were significantly suppressed by ERFE treatment. (C, D, E) Seven week- ... However, this increase was sufficient to significantly reduce hepatic hepcidin mRNA (D) and serum hepcidin (E) levels. (F) ...
Differential plasma clearance of murine acute-phase serum amyloid A proteins SAA1 and SAA2 Barbara KLUVE-BECKERMAN, Toshiyuki ...
Expression of S100A4 and SAA1/3 in CRC patients correlates with reduced survival. SAA1/3 proteins are effectors of the ... We found that the acute-phase response proteins serum amyloid A (SAA) 1 and SAA3 are transcriptional targets of S100A4 via TLR4 ... Detektion Mamma-Karzinom-spezifischer Proteine aus dem Serum xenotransplantierter Nacktmaeuse mittels differentieller ...
  • Serum amyloid A4 (SAA4) is a constitutive apolipoprotein of high-density lipoprotein. (hindawi.com)
  • The membrane was blocked in 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 1 hour at room temperature (RT) and then reacted with 2 μ g/mL rabbit anti-human SAA4 antibodies [ 9 ] for 1 hour at RT, followed by reaction with 1 : 1000-diluted peroxidase-conjugated anti-rabbit immunoglobulins (Bioscience Inc., USA) for 1 hour at RT. (hindawi.com)
  • However, only SAA1/2 and the constitutive form of SAA (SAA4) could be detected in the circulation by mass spectrometric analysis of HDL, the major carrier of circulating SAA. (scialert.net)
  • Visando novos estudos com a proteína amilóide sérica A (SAA), propusemos a produção de seu recombinante humano em Escherichia coli, mais especificamente, a isoforma encontrada na fase aguda (A-SAA1) e da constitutivamente expressa (C-SAA4). (unifacef.com.br)
  • Association of genetic variation in serum amyloid-A with cardiovascular disease and interactions with IL6, IL1RN, IL1beta and TNF genes in the Cardiovascular Health Study. (snpedia.com)
  • The gene coding for human SAA1 is one of the 4 SAA genes mapped to a region in the short arm on Chromosome 15. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inter-assay Precision (Precision between assays): 3 samples with low, middle and high level Serum Amyloid A (SAA) were tested on 3 different plates, 8 replicates in each plate. (uscnk.com)
  • Research tools such as the SAA1 knockout mice and transgenic mice have become available only recently. (wikipedia.org)
  • In separate validation studies, serum C3 and A2M levels were increased in mice with ConA treatment after 20-40 h and in 34 AIH patients in a subgroup analysis, females with AIH aged 20-50 years old displayed the largest increases in serum A2M level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This approach is suitable for the identifi cation of arthritis, or infl ammation serum proteome signatures in mice with distinct genetic backgrounds. (csic.es)
  • Increased serum amyloid a levels reflect colitis severity and precede amyloid formation in IL-2 knockout mice. (livedna.net)
  • Acute-phase serum amyloid A as a marker of insulin resistance in mice. (peprotech.com)
  • Uropathogenic Escherichia coli induces serum amyloid a in mice following urinary tract and systemic inoculation. (peprotech.com)
  • No significant cross-reactivity or interference between Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and analogues was observed. (uscnk.com)
  • Although its function is not fully understood, serum amyloid A1 appears to play a role in the immune system. (nih.gov)
  • [email protected] (Serum Amyloid A1 Cluster) is a Gene Cluster. (genecards.org)
  • p = 3.20×10 −111 ) contains serum amyloid A1 ( SAA1 ) and the adjacent general transcription factor 2 H1 ( GTF2H1 ), Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome 5 ( HPS5 ), lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) , and lactate dehydrogenase C ( LDHC ). (prolekare.cz)
  • In addition, LEC-released chemokines also stimulated the expression of serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) in cancer cells, enhancing their lymphatic invasion by increasing VE-cadherin phosphorylation, junction disruption, and vascular permeability of LECs. (mdpi.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the association of the polymorphisms of the serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene at rs4638289 and rs7131332 loci with Kawasaki disease (KD) and its complication coronary artery lesion (CAL) in children. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the current study, it was aimed to find out the prevalence of common MEFV gene mutations and BcII polymorphism in serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) gene in chronic renal patients (CRF) who require long-term hemodialysis. (cumhuriyet.edu.tr)
  • The genotypes of the -13C/T SNP in the 5'-flanking region of the SAA1 gene (rs12218) and two SNPs within exon 3 of SAA1 (2995C/T and 3010C/T polymorphisms) were determined using polymerase chain reaction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay in all subjects. (cdc.gov)
  • Publications] T.Yamada: 'Relative serum amyloid A (SAA) values : the influence of SAA1 genotypes and corticosteroid treatment in Japanese patients with rheumatoid arthritis'Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. (nii.ac.jp)
  • SAA1 genotypes were analyzed in 231 individuals. (cdc.gov)
  • SAA1 has 3 alleles (SAA1.1, SAA1.3, SAA1.5), defined by amino acid substitutions at positions 52 and 57 of the molecule. (medscape.com)
  • B ) Serum hepcidin levels after phlebotomy and treatment with EPO reflect mRNA concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • Our aim was to test the statistical associations between variations in the CRP gene and serum CRP levels in a Taiwanese population with interaction analysis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This study aimed to investigate the relationship between white blood cell counts and haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) levels in post-weaned calves with diarrhea caused by BCoV and those that recovered from diarrhea. (bvsalud.org)
  • The serum levels of miR-30c in hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier Xinjiang Uygur patients with inactive, low-replicative, high-replicative and HBe antigen-positive CHB were investigated. (bvsalud.org)
  • Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to investigate the polymorphisms of the SAA1 gene at rs4638289 and rs7131332 loci. (bvsalud.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms of the SAA1 gene at loci rs4638289 and rs7131332 are not associated with the onset of KD, while the polymorphism at the locus rs4638289 is associated with CAL in KD patients. (bvsalud.org)
  • Appropriate sample types may include undiluted body fluids and/or tissue homogenates, secretions such as Serum, Plasma and Other Biological Fluids. (mybiosource.com)
  • Regulation OFC-MYC transcription and mRNA abundance by serum growth factors and cell contact. (livedna.net)
  • Incubation of xL3 T. circumcincta with anti-SAA rabbit serum failed to significantly inhibit penetration of the abomasal mucosa in vitro. (stir.ac.uk)
  • Matrices listed below were spiked with certain level of recombinant Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and the recovery rates were calculated by comparing the measured value to the expected amount of Serum Amyloid A (SAA) in samples. (uscnk.com)
  • Serum samples were collected from 289 subjects enrolled in CDC TB Trials Consortium Study 29 at time of enrollment and at the end of the intensive phase (after 40 doses of TB treatment). (osti.gov)
  • Patients, Treatment Protocols, and Serum Samples. (aacrjournals.org)