Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.IndiaRural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.PolandLithuaniaPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Wilderness: Environment un-modified by human activity. Areas in which natural processes operate without human interference.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Hospitals, Rural: Hospitals located in a rural area.GreeceSex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Appalachian Region: A geographical area of the United States with no definite boundaries but comprising northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, western North Carolina, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western Virginia, West Virginia, western Maryland, southwestern Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, and southern New York.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.BoliviaArkansasDeveloping Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Cooking: The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.BangladeshInterviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.ArgentinaPoverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Cataract: Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness. The many kinds of cataract are classified by their morphology (size, shape, location) or etiology (cause and time of occurrence). (Dorland, 27th ed)Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)United StatesOntario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.BrazilEnvironmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.

Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer. (1/6923)

BACKGROUND: Cangshan County of Shandong Province has one of the lowest rates of gastric cancer (GC) in China. While intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) are less common in Cangshan than in areas of Shandong at high risk of GC, these precursor lesions nevertheless affect about 20% of adults age > or = 55. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: In order to evaluate determinants of IM and DYS in Cangshan County, a low risk area of GC a survey was conducted among 214 adults who participated in a gastroscopic screening survey in Cangshan County in 1994. METHOD: A dietary interview and measurement of serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. pylori was lowest (19%) among those with normal gastric mucosa, rising steadily to 35% for superficial gastritis (SG), 56% for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 80% for IM, and 100% for DYS. The prevalence odds of precancerous lesions were compared with the odds of normal histology or SG. The odds ratio (OR) or CAG associated with H. pylori positivity was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.7-10.0), while the OR of IM/DYS associated with H. pylori positivity was 31.5 (95% CI: 5.2-187). After adjusting for H. pylori infection, drinking alcohol was a risk factor for CAG (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-9.2) and IM/DYS (OR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.3-47.7). On the other hand, consumption of garlic showed non-significant protective effects and an inverse association with H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that infection with H. pylori is a risk factor and garlic may be protective, in the development and progression of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in an area of China at relatively low risk of GC.  (+info)

Precancerous lesions in two counties of China with contrasting gastric cancer risk. (2/6923)

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and shows remarkable geographical variation even within countries such as China. Linqu County in Shandong Province of northeast China has a GC rate that is 15 times higher than that of Cangshan County in Shandong, even though these counties are within 200 miles of each other. METHOD: In order to evaluate the frequency of precancerous gastric lesions in Linqu and Cangshan Counties we examined 3400 adults in Linqu County and 224 adults in Cangshan County. An endoscopic examination with four biopsies was performed in each individual of the two populations. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) was 30% and 15.1%, respectively, in Linqu compared to 7.9% and 5.6% in Cangshan (P < 0.01). Within these histological categories, advanced grades were found more often in Linqu than in Cangshan. The prevalences of IM and DYS were more common at each biopsy site in Linqu, where the lesions also tended to affect multiple sites. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study support the concept that IM and DYS are closely correlated with risks of GC and represent late stages in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Constitutional, biochemical and lifestyle correlates of fibrinogen and factor VII activity in Polish urban and rural populations. (3/6923)

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen and factor VII activity are known to be related to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, but population differences in clotting factors and modifiable characteristics that influence their levels have not been widely explored. METHODS: This paper examines correlates of plasma fibrinogen concentration and factor VII activity in 2443 men and women aged 35-64 in random samples selected from the residents in two districts in urban Warsaw (618 men and 651 women) and from rural Tarnobrzeg Province (556 men and 618 women) screened in 1987-1988, and assesses which characteristics might explain urban-rural differences. Fibrinogen and factor VII activity were determined using coagulation methods. RESULTS: Fibrinogen was 12.9 mg/dl higher in men and 14.1 mg/dl higher in women in Tarnobrzeg compared to Warsaw. Factor VII activity was higher in Warsaw (9.2% in men and 15.3% in women). After adjustment for selected characteristics, fibrinogen was higher in smokers compared to non-smokers by 28 mg/dl in men and 22 mg/dl in women. In women, a 15 mg/dl increase in HDL-cholesterol was associated with a 10 mg/dl decrease in fibrinogen (P < 0.01). After adjustment for other variables, a higher factor VII activity in Warsaw remained significant (a difference of 9.4% in men and 14.8% in women). Lower fibrinogen in Warsaw remained significant only in women (15.4 mg/dl difference). CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed that sex, age, BMI, smoking and blood lipids are related to clotting factors. However, with the exception of gender differences and smoking, associations between clotting factors and other variables were small and of questionable practical importance.  (+info)

Hygiene behaviour in rural Nicaragua in relation to diarrhoea. (4/6923)

BACKGROUND: Childhood diarrhoea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Nicaragua. Amongst the risk factors for its transmission are 'poor' hygiene practices. We investigated the effect of a large number of hygiene practices on diarrhoeal disease in children aged <2 years and validated the technique of direct observation of hygiene behaviour. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study was carried out in a rural zone of Nicaragua. From the database of a previously conducted case-control study on water and sanitation 172 families were recruited, half of which had experienced a higher than expected rate of diarrhoea in their children and the other half a lower rate. Hygiene behaviour was observed over two mornings and diarrhoea incidence was recorded with a calendar, filled out by the mother, and collected every week for 5 months. RESULTS: Of 46 'good' practices studied, 39 were associated with a lower risk of diarrhoea, five were unrelated and only for two a higher risk was observed. Washing of hands, domestic cleanliness (kitchen, living room, yard) and the use of a diaper/underclothes by the child had the strongest protective effect. Schooling (>3 years of primary school) and better economic position (possession of a radio) had a positive influence on general hygiene behaviour, education having a slightly stronger effect when a radio was present. Individual hygiene behaviour appeared to be highly variable in contrast with the consistent behaviour of the community as a whole. Feasible and appropriate indicators of hygiene behaviour were found to be domestic cleanliness and the use of a diaper or underclothes by the child. CONCLUSION: A consistent relationship between almost all hygiene practices and diarrhoea was detected, more schooling producing better hygiene behaviour. The high variability of hygiene behaviour at the individual level requires repeated observations (at least two) before and after the hygiene education in the event one wants to measure the impact of the campaign on the individual.  (+info)

Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries. (5/6923)

Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries.  (+info)

I(6/6923)

nvited commentary: vaccine failure or failure to vaccinate?  (+info)

Longitudinal evaluation of serovar-specific immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae. (7/6923)

The serovars of Neisseria gonorrhoeae that are predominant in a community change over time, a phenomenon that may be due to the development of immunity to repeat infection with the same serovar. This study evaluated the epidemiologic evidence for serovar-specific immunity to N. gonorrhoeae. During a 17-month period in 1992-1994, all clients of a sexually transmitted disease clinic in rural North Carolina underwent genital culture for N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal isolates were serotyped according to standard methods. Odds ratios for repeat infection with the same serovar versus any different serovar were calculated on the basis of the distribution of serovars in the community at the time of reinfection. Of 2,838 patients, 608 (21.4%; 427 males and 181 females) were found to be infected with N. gonorrhoeae at the initial visit. Ninety patients (14.8% of the 608) had a total of 112 repeat gonococcal infections. Repeat infection with the same serovar occurred slightly more often than would be expected based on the serovars prevalent in the community at the time of reinfection, though the result was marginally nonsignificant (odds ratio = 1.5, 95% confidence interval 1.0-2.4; p = 0.05). Choosing partners within a sexual network may increase the likelihood of repeat exposure to the same serovar of N. gonorrhoeae. Gonococcal infection did not induce evident immunity to reinfection with the same serovar.  (+info)

Diagnosing anaemia in pregnancy in rural clinics: assessing the potential of the Haemoglobin Colour Scale. (8/6923)

Anaemia in pregnancy is a common and severe problem in many developing countries. Because of lack of resources and staff motivation, screening for anaemia is often solely by clinical examination of the conjunctiva or is not carried out at all. A new colour scale for the estimation of haemoglobin concentration has been developed by WHO. The present study compares the results obtained using the new colour scale on 729 women visiting rural antenatal clinics in Malawi with those obtained by HemoCue haemoglobinometer and electronic Coulter Counter and with the assessment of anaemia by clinical examination of the conjunctiva. Sensitivity using the colour scale was consistently better than for conjunctival inspection alone and interobserver agreement and agreement with Coulter Counter measurements was good. The Haemoglobin Colour Scale is simple to use, well accepted, cheap and gives immediate results. It shows considerable potential for use in screening for anaemia in antenatal clinics in settings where resources are limited.  (+info)

  • In order to determine the sample size, firstly 9 rural settlements in central zone of Birjand City which had the highest population decrease during 2006 to 2016, were selected. (ufsm.br)
  • 2017. Doklad o sostoyanii sanitarno-epidemiologicheskogo blagopolu-chiya naseleniya v Tyumenskoy oblasti v 2016 godu [The Report of Sanitarial-Epidemology Condition of Population of the Tyumen Region in 2016]. (utmn.ru)
  • The studies show that today, the process of the social-economic changes and the increasing dynamism and replacement of the human groups have led to the changes in the rural areas. (ufsm.br)
  • Europe's rural areas are diverse in terms of population, demography, economic and social structures and labour markets. (europa.eu)
  • Nevertheless, many of Europe's rural areas face a common challenge their capacity to create high quality, sustainable jobs is falling behind urban areas. (europa.eu)
  • According to the USDA, rural areas have lower housing quality with lower energy efficiency on average. (iatp.org)
  • As such, it will affect rural communities that have long produced much of the nation's energy supply. (iatp.org)
  • This article observes the morbidity and death rates of rural population in municipal districts of the Tyumen Region. (utmn.ru)
  • The existing studies show that the numbers for the rural population are bigger than in city districts. (utmn.ru)
  • A vital model of inclusive architecture in support of rural populations, Krushi Bhawan illustrates how a government facility can be a vehicle for the patronage and preservation of local culture, craftsmanship and economy, it said. (thenewsroom.co.in)
  • Rural population in Faeroe Islands was reported at 27974 in 2015, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. (tradingeconomics.com)
  • The statistical population of the current study is all the villages in central zone of Birjand City which have had a population of more than 100 people (89 villages) according to 2016's census. (ufsm.br)
  • 2,3 Rural support is understandably low for policies and initiatives that don't improve the rural quality of life or that increase economic inequities and costs for rural residents. (iatp.org)
  • Overall, rural population has declined in recent years, according to the U.S. census. (ngagegroup.org)
  • Transportation - Homes and businesses are further apart in rural communities, and public transportation systems are lacking. (iatp.org)
  • But the changes are now coinciding with sharp declines in U.S. birth rates and an aging population, resulting in a first-ever annual loss. (dailytribune.com)
  • When a population declines, businesses have less demand for goods or services, the workforce shrinks, so businesses might move elsewhere, said Knapp. (wisbusiness.com)
  • Barring fresh investment that could bring jobs, however, large swaths of the Great Plains and Appalachia, along with parts of Arkansas, Mississippi and north Texas, could face significant population declines. (fosters.com)
  • The "worst of times" story: population declines in rural areas, posing significant political, economic and social challenges for Canada's future. (dal.ca)
  • Some of the latter was due to declines in their economies, which were tied to cyclical industries, such as manufacturing and farming, with rural areas recovering especially slowly from the recession in terms of wages and employment . (brookings.edu)
  • Places that are experiencing declines in population size eventually find that they are no longer able to sustain the same level of essential services that they could when the population was larger. (immigrationimpact.com)
  • India's rural customers are not yet ready to go completely digital, as far as finance is concerned. (weforum.org)
  • COVID-19 and the lockdown have decimated incomes and threaten the food security of India's rural population. (weforum.org)
  • Nearly one-quarter of India's population lives below the poverty line and up to a half a billion people are employed in the informal sector , getting by on daily and weekly earnings. (weforum.org)
  • Wolff, who believes climate change, inequality, racism, instability and the COVID-19 pandemic have converged to make the global economic crisis more acute and long-lasting, said India's anti-pandemic programmes should not just involve funding but also focus on constructing social distancing protocols for rural conditions. (indiatimes.com)
  • The DIC of IIT Kharagpur was set up under the government of India's National Initiative for Design Innovation, that aims to provide much-needed Science and Technology (S&T) backup to promote potential technologies for rural entrepreneurs and users. (indiatimes.com)
  • It has been shown that PON1 levels appear to be lower in older populations, but no known study has measured serum PON1 activity in the same individuals over time. (cdc.gov)
  • Merit-based Incentive Payment System Alternative Payment Models that use population health strategies can reduce patient costs and add benefits for hospitals and health systems, Lee McCall, CEO of Neshoba County General Hospital in Philadelphia, MS, and Don Wee, CEO of Tri-State Memorial Hospital in Clarkston, WA, said today during a session at the AHA Rural Health Care Leadership Conference. (aha.org)
  • The panelists demonstrated how rural hospitals engaged in the Magnolia Evergreen Accountable Care Organization, a Medicare Shared Savings Program Track 1 (MIPS) ACO, reduced overall Medicare spending by more than 8 percent. (aha.org)
  • Setting: Two district hospitals in rural southern Malawi, between March 1993 and July 1994. (tudelft.nl)
  • SHIP provides funding to approximately 1,600 participating hospitals in 46 participating SORHs to help small rural hospitals participate in value-based payment and care delivery models. (ruralcenter.org)
  • The Small Rural Hospital Transition ( SRHT ) Project supports small rural hospitals nationally by providing on-site technical assistance to assist bridging the gaps between the current health care system and the newly emerging health care delivery and payment system. (ruralcenter.org)
  • PMG calls allow peer-to-peer education focused on preparing rural hospitals for new payment and care delivery models. (ruralcenter.org)
  • As the national knowledge center on rural electronic health record adoption, The Center offers comprehensive services targeted at rural hospitals, rural health clinics and state and national HIT programs. (ruralcenter.org)
  • Expertly facilitated services conducted by The Center's staff of national rural health experts will help hospitals and organizations achieve this success. (ruralcenter.org)
  • Navigating the transition from volume to value-based payment and population health within hospitals as well as with the community begins with setting a course based on a strong assessment and good planning. (ruralcenter.org)
  • For starters, rural hospitals usually cannot provide the array of specialized and expensive care seen in larger urban hospitals, making per-patient cost comparisons difficult. (healthleadersmedia.com)
  • And rural hospitals do not enjoy the economy of scale and leverage with vendors and insurance companies that are seen in larger urban hospitals. (healthleadersmedia.com)
  • Still, there is a nagging perception out there that the 1,700 or so management teams at rural hospitals across the nation don't provide the same level of care delivery value as urban hospitals. (healthleadersmedia.com)
  • In point of fact, the highest rates of rural-urban migration at the present time are taking place in developing countries of Africa and Asia, and these continents' urban populations are projected to surpass the 50% mark by the year 2050. (worldatlas.com)
  • What baby boomers will do will be key to rural migration and growth, said Jason Henderson, a former vice president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City who is now associate dean of the Purdue University College of Agriculture. (dailytribune.com)
  • The out-migration of younger residents seems to have accelerated and a greater percentage of the population is now aging in place. (city-data.com)
  • In the last half-century, migration studies have been the single largest area of rural population research because the consequences of migration on both community population and socioeconomic structure are usually much greater than shifts in mortality and fertility. (powells.com)
  • Chapters three through six detail rural population changes including major migration streams and the factors and outcomes associated with, or attributable to, these movements. (powells.com)
  • The relationships among migration and the other components of population change and their joint effect on the structure of the rural population of the United States are analyzed in this volume. (powells.com)
  • According to Mongolia: Internal Migration Study conducted by the National University of Mongolia, nearly half of the country's population (47 percent) are now living in the capital, up from a little over a quarter (26.8 percent) in 1989. (iom.int)
  • The dissertation then continues by discussing statewide rural residential decision making and place attachment based on data collected by the Nebraska Roots Migration Survey. (unl.edu)
  • County population change includes two major components: natural change (births minus deaths, also available separately) and net migration (inmigrants minus outmigrants). (dailyyonder.com)
  • Although the definition of a rural area varies by region and their ingrained economic concepts, a rural area, in its simplest connotation, can be defined as a geographical region located outside of towns or urban centers. (worldatlas.com)
  • Zarecor argues that towns like Sheffield shouldn't spend money trying to lure new residents to shore up their population numbers. (npr.org)
  • Rural towns are scrambling to attract new residents and stave off heavy funding cuts from financially strapped federal and state governments. (fosters.com)
  • Immigrants and the industries that have attracted them have helped revitalize dying towns such as Worthington, Minn., which lost population in the 1990s but now is 40 percent Hispanic and growing, she explained. (prb.org)
  • After beginning with an introduction to rural population trends and population sustainability in rural towns, this dissertation gives an overview of population change in rural Nebraska towns between 1950 and 2010. (unl.edu)
  • Following a series of maps depicting the changes in rural Nebraska towns between these two censuses, six case studies are used to explore the growth of individual towns. (unl.edu)
  • A discussion on the characteristics of growing rural towns in Nebraska follows these case studies. (unl.edu)
  • Once predominantly agrarian, the rural economy is getting increasingly more diversified, with the non-agricultural sector contributing to about two-thirds of household incomes. (weforum.org)
  • Likewise, in Asia, the numbers increase as one enters East and South-East Asian countries, such as Nepal , where 81.76% of Nepalese inhabitants occupy rural zones. (worldatlas.com)
  • From stranded, isolated and poor rural inhabitants, they are now able to move around, access markets and basic services such as going to the hospital or taking their children to school" says Marie Francoise Marie-Nelly, World Bank Maghreb Country Director. (worldbank.org)
  • In the 12 months from December 2010 to December 2011, a further 21 million arrived in cities - more than the population of Sri Lanka - while rural inhabitants dropped, the statistics show. (citiesalliance.org)
  • Where population densities are low, markets of all kinds are thin, and the unit cost of delivering most social services and many types of infrastructure is high. (indexmundi.com)
  • Due to low population densities and poor road conditions, private transport companies would limit their services to basic and once-in-a day pick up. (worldbank.org)
  • I thought you might be interested in this item at http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/4292616 Title: Influx control : economic and social aspects of physical control over rural-urban population movements in South Africa and elsewhere Author: G M E Leistner Publisher: Pretoria : Africa Institute of South Africa, [1968? (worldcat.org)
  • Nonmetro population loss during 2010 12 reflects natural increase of 135,000 offset by net outmigration of 179,000. (dailyyonder.com)
  • According to state and national data compiled by Pew Charitable Trusts, the federal Census of Jails showed rural jails increased their share of statewide jail incarceration by 9 percent between 1978 and 2013. (mlive.com)
  • Those with greater population loss have labor loss of 14 percent over an eight-year period," said Knapp. (wisbusiness.com)
  • The report says that about 69 percent of the rural population is aware of internet as opposed to the 16 percent projected in last year's report. (siliconindia.com)
  • The farm economy remains extremely important in some regions, but overall there are more rural workers in manufacturing jobs (19 percent), retail trade (14 percent), and professional services (24 percent) than in farming (4 percent). (prb.org)
  • One outlier went against the trend: Menominee County, where the Menominee Indian Reservation is located, saw a population increase of just over 10 percent. (wpr.org)
  • Since 2010, Loudoun County's population has increased more than 27 percent, to more than 380,000. (nbcwashington.com)
  • however, its population has increased more than 15 percent since 2010. (nbcwashington.com)
  • The majority settled in Ger districts on the outskirts of Ulaanbaatar, which now account for over 60 percent of the city's population but have never been adequately integrated into municipal planning. (iom.int)
  • Of all the rural places that fit this definition and are the focus of the CAP report, 68 percent (or 1,894) have experienced a shrinking population since 1990 due to a declining number of native-born residents. (immigrationimpact.com)
  • In Texas, for example, almost 33 percent of the jail population comprised pretrial detainees in 1994. (texaspolicy.com)
  • With roughly 84% of its citizens remaining rural, Uganda has one of the highest agricultural populations in both Africa and the world. (worldatlas.com)
  • In a prospective population study ongoing since 1994 and now in its 3rd cycle of data/specimen collection, blood serum and questionnaire data are gathered roughly every 5 years from 499 rural Iowans ages 8-86 at the study onset. (cdc.gov)
  • According to the 2011 census Lakhisarai district has a population of 1,000,717, roughly equal to the nation of Fiji or the US state of Montana. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) have integrated these programmes since 1980 with the help of funding from the Central and State governments. (bankbazaar.com)
  • Since 1991, The Center has assisted rural citizens, health professionals, educators and policymakers with design and implementation strategies to assure the availability of quality health care. (ruralcenter.org)
  • ERS research found that Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) redemptions were associated with increased local employment-with $10,000 of redemptions contributing to 0.4 additional urban jobs and 1.0 additional rural jobs. (usda.gov)
  • With over 13 years of implementation, the program managed to improve 15,500 km of rural roads, particularly in the most-underserved regions of Morocco, thereby increasing from 54% to almost 80% the share of the rural population having access to an all-weather road. (worldbank.org)
  • WASHINGTON (AP) Living in a rural Nevada town, Moe Royels recalls a more bustling time years ago when retirees poured in to enjoy the warm desert climate, nearby casinos and quiet community. (dailytribune.com)
  • 11 We describe here the results of population-based, district-wide surveillance in western Kenya for hospitalization with influenza virus in the two years before A(H1N1)pdm09 reached Kenya. (who.int)
  • Rural townships saw population increases and Luzerne County cities saw decreases in the past two years, according to the data. (citizensvoice.com)
  • Ten years later, the county's estimated population was 321,027. (citizensvoice.com)
  • Anyone who's followed developments in rural Nova Scotia over the past few years, from school closures to major industry departures like New Page and Bowater, knows this story all too well. (dal.ca)
  • Here, a theoretical model linking farm program payments to population loss is presented and empirically estimated for the years 1980-90. (repec.org)
  • Within 20 years it is estimated that 40 per cent of the population of west England will be over 65. (rsnonline.org.uk)

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