Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Battered Women: Women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period, usually by a husband or other dominant male figure. Characteristics of the battered woman syndrome are helplessness, constant fear, and a perceived inability to escape. (From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3d ed)Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.United StatesParity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Spouse Abuse: Deliberate severe and repeated injury to one domestic partner by the other.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Papanicolaou Test: Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Endometriosis: A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.SwedenPerimenopause: The transitional period before and after MENOPAUSE. Perimenopausal symptoms are associated with irregular MENSTRUAL CYCLE and widely fluctuated hormone levels. They may appear 6 years before menopause and subside 2 to 5 years after menopause.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Menstruation Disturbances: Variations of menstruation which may be indicative of disease.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Family Planning Services: Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Hot Flashes: A sudden, temporary sensation of heat predominantly experienced by some women during MENOPAUSE. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal: Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Climacteric: Physiologic period, characterized by endocrine, somatic, and psychic changes with the termination of ovarian function in the female. It may also accompany the normal diminution of sexual activity in the male.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.CaliforniaEarly Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Urinary Incontinence: Involuntary loss of URINE, such as leaking of urine. It is a symptom of various underlying pathological processes. Major types of incontinence include URINARY URGE INCONTINENCE and URINARY STRESS INCONTINENCE.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.JapanChina: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Preconception Care: An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Reproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.IndiaPregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Great BritainPrognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Genital Diseases, Female: Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Dyspareunia: Recurrent genital pain occurring during, before, or after SEXUAL INTERCOURSE in either the male or the female.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Estrogens, Conjugated (USP): A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Gender Identity: A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.Domestic Violence: Deliberate, often repetitive physical, verbal, and/or other types of abuse by one or more members against others of a household.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.NorwaySeverity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Colposcopy: The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Asian Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Sterilization, Reproductive: Procedures to block or remove all or part of the genital tract for the purpose of rendering individuals sterile, incapable of reproduction. Surgical sterilization procedures are the most commonly used. There are also sterilization procedures involving chemical or physical means.Sex Offenses: Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Uterine Cervical Diseases: Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.Vaginal Diseases: Pathological processes of the VAGINA.Hirsutism: A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.Homosexuality, Female: Sexual attraction or relationship between females.Milk, HumanReproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.BrazilAsian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Premenstrual Syndrome: A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.DenmarkWeight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
  • The device, called SimplCath, was the focus of the winning presentation at the Nebraska InnovateHER 2017 Challenge hosted by The Center for Rural Affairs' Rural Enterprise Assistance Project (REAP) Women's Business Center. (cfra.org)
  • In its Eighth CEDAW periodic report (2017), the Government reported upon measures taken towards supporting rural women's businesses, improving access to Broadband and considering women's needs in the provision of rural transport. (wrc.org.uk)
  • Of the state's 101 rural counties, 43 have no hospitals, according to a Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services document updated in October 2017. (columbiamissourian.com)
  • From 2004 to 2014, 179 rural counties in the U.S - about 9 percent - lost all hospital-based obstetric services, according to a 2017 University of Minnesota study. (columbiamissourian.com)
  • Analysis of more than 20 years of data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicated deaths from CAD have increased 11.2% from 2010-2017 in women 55-64 years old, while also uncovering trends related to the disease in other age groups. (hcplive.com)
  • Using multiple-cause-of-death files from the CDC WONDER database from 1999-2017, Moccetti and colleagues at the Knight Cardiovascular Institute sought to assess the impact of CAD in women younger than 65 years old and men younger than 55 years old as well as urban-rural differences of the disease. (hcplive.com)
  • NMRW has helped women set up their own methods of employment and to resist oppressive traditions in customary law. (wikipedia.org)
  • Health care providers and the public health system need to work to ensure equal and adequate access to all methods of contraception for all women, no matter their geographic location or education level,' Lunde and her colleagues wrote. (foxnews.com)
  • The women who were using traditional methods or temporary modern methods were more likely to experience unintended pregnancy than longer acting method users. (popcouncil.org)
  • Use of modern contraceptive methods has increased fourfold in India since the 1970s, characterized by a predominance of female sterilization. (guttmacher.org)
  • Men understood family planning and contraception to be two separate issues: Men viewed "family planning" as synonymous with female sterilization, whereas they saw "contraception" as referring to spacing methods, knowledge of which was limited. (guttmacher.org)
  • The methods used in this study include individual interviews with six rural adult women students at Southwestern Oregon Community College (SWOCC). (oregonstate.edu)
  • Methods We used data from a population-based, community trial of approximately 39,000 married rural Bangladeshi women aged 13-44 between 2001 and 2007 to examine the relation between women's reported morbidity symptoms from childbirth to 3 months postpartum, and subsequent depressive symptoms assessed at 6 months postpartum. (urotoday.com)
  • Methods: A Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 52 clusters of Dhanusha District of Nepal in a total of 426 pregnant women in their second trimester using multistage cluster sampling method. (lse.ac.uk)
  • In the battle against hunger and poverty, women, especially rural women, most certainly hold up the heavier half,' Mr David A Harcharik, Deputy Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, said today at a meeting on the decisive role rural women play in feeding the world. (fao.org)
  • On the third day of the 'World Food Summit: five years later' heads of state, ministers, high-ranking officials and representatives of non-governmental organizations from around the world gathered to learn more about 'Rural women: crucial partners in the fight against hunger and poverty. (fao.org)
  • He also stressed the importance of rural women having equal rights to participate in the policy process, adding that rural women must be nothing less than equal partners in the fight against poverty. (fao.org)
  • Rural women constitute the majority of the 1.5 billion people who live in absolute poverty. (fao.org)
  • But in spite of their crucial roles in assuring food security, rural women battle hunger and poverty on increasingly marginal land with meagre resources. (fao.org)
  • Places like McDowell County, located in the belt of the state's depressed southern coalfields, isolated by mountains and crippled by decades of poverty, are now the laboratory for rural welfare reform. (womensenews.org)
  • In many regions of Uganda, rural women live below the poverty line, and food scarcity means these women must work on farms simply to keep enough food on the table to feed their families. (globalfundforwomen.org)
  • Whereas before, many of the women were living below the poverty line, now they have sustainable year-round income. (globalfundforwomen.org)
  • Project work "contributes to the understanding of rural poverty, and the factors that maintain communities in socioeconomic exclusion," Dr Montanari states. (europa.eu)
  • Providing education for women and girls is essential to creating a world free of poverty, sickness, and strife. (sabin.org)
  • An emphasis on affordability for buying homes is not relevant to women in poverty. (wrc.org.uk)
  • It started in 2008 after the United Nations (UN) General Assembly resolved to recognize "the critical role and contribution of rural women, including indigenous women, in enhancing agricultural and rural development, improving food security and eradicating rural poverty. (scribd.com)
  • Thus it is important to recognise the contribution and significant role played by these rural women in food security and poverty elevation. (scribd.com)
  • It is also necessary for ensuring rural women's access to productive agricultural resources contributes to decreasing world hunger and poverty. (scribd.com)
  • Self-reliance is a value in rural populations, and I think that's what these women were expressing-that their circumstances were difficult and stressful, but if they had the ability to support themselves financially, they would be able to lift their families out of poverty. (medicalxpress.com)
  • SANTIAGO, Mar 3 2018 (IPS) - Adelaida Marca, an Aymaran indigenous woman who produces premium oregano in Socoroma, in the foothills of the Andes in the far north of Chile, embodies the recovery of heirloom seeds, and is a representative of a workforce that supports thousands of people and of a future marked by greater gender equality. (ipsnews.net)
  • On the Commonwealth African Forum Canada 2018, she said CBWN is the Forum's Country Focal Point, adding that CBW, endorsed by Queen Elizabeth II and recognised by 52 govern-ments, exposes women to trade opportunities, multilateral trade missions, trade policy makers and $93 billion procurement tenders across 40 sectors, globally. (vanguardngr.com)
  • In 2018, Women's Resource Centre collaborated with rural women living and working in North East of England to gather evidence about the effectiveness of these Government measures. (wrc.org.uk)
  • The 'Asia-Pacific Regional High-Level Meeting for CSW62: Challenges and Opportunities in Achieving Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Rural Women and Girls' adopted a set of recommendations that will feed into CSW62 - the leading intergovernmental body dedicated exclusively to the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of women worldwide - to be held at the UN Headquarters in New York from 12 to 23 March 2018. (newswit.com)
  • The Kenya Rural Women and Media Project 2018 is now rolling out, IAWRT Kenya, has begun inducting a women's group in Western Kenya. (cmfe.eu)
  • Headed by the CMFE board member Birgitte Jallov, IAWRT's new priority committee and work area 'Rural Women and Media' started out July 2018. (cmfe.eu)
  • Today's meeting falls within the executive framework of the FAO Plan of Action for the Integration of Women in Development, which was adopted in November 1995 in the wake of the World Conference on Women in Beijing. (fao.org)
  • Honoring rural women was first forwarded during the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, China, in 1995. (scribd.com)
  • Fourteen women (70%) delivered locally and six (30%) travelled away, comparable with Queensland perinatal data for 1995 to 2003. (rrh.org.au)
  • It is through profiting from their sponsorship of rural black outsider artists like the quilters of Gee's Bend that the Arnetts have pursued a version of the American Dream that centers on money, power, and the willingness to manipulate others. (crmvet.org)
  • This initiative is intended to demonstrate a collaborative partnership approach between the grantee and local health or social service Start Printed Page 26531 providers, e.g., community health centers, rural health centers, family planning clinics, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), community based organizations, faith based organizations, public assistance programs and local health departments. (federalregister.gov)
  • Authors say that policy reforms associated with Medicaid, such as increasing reimbursement to rural health centers and expanding coverage beyond the traditional prenatal to 60-day postpartum period, are important considerations to help address these life-altering experiences for pregnant women, their families, and rural communities. (medicalxpress.com)
  • There are no addiction specialists or treatment centers nearby, and women have nowhere else to go. (chcf.org)
  • One sample study in a county of one central province showed that 65% of the divorce cases in 2008 were involved with rural women who were left behind. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some 56 percent of the world's female suicides -- about 500 a day -- occur in China, according to a study based on Chinese vital statistics by the World Bank, Harvard University and the World Health Organization. (nytimes.com)
  • Rural women, especially those without much education, are more likely to have their 'tubes tied' in their 20s and early 30s than urban and suburban women, according to a new study. (foxnews.com)
  • For their new study, Dr. Britt Lunde from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York and her colleagues analyzed data from a national survey of about 4,700 women aged 20 to 34, conducted in 2006 through 2010. (foxnews.com)
  • If they are women who genuinely understood they were being sterilized and desired sterilization, then I wouldn't have a concern,' she said of rural women in the study. (foxnews.com)
  • A study drafted by RedPar in 2009, "The impact of the food crisis on low-income rural women in Mexico", concluded that the workload of rural women is growing heavier while their incomes remain stagnant, their food consumption is shrinking, and they are hit hard by the combined effect of declining prices for their products and rising prices of basic items like cooking oil and meat. (truthout.org)
  • In 2010, the collective followed up on the study with the report "Resistance and strategies by rural women in the face of the food crisis, climate change and migration", which took an in-depth look at measures that rural women have adopted to deal with the different facets of the crisis. (truthout.org)
  • The study team examined more than two decades of data on first pregnancies for teens ages 15 to 19 and young women ages 20 to 24. (reuters.com)
  • About 60% of rural black and Hispanic teens' first pregnancies were unintended and ended with live births, compared with 45% of white teens' pregnancies in cities, the study found. (reuters.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to describe and examine the lifestyle physical activity behaviors (household, leisure, occupational) of older rural women. (cdc.gov)
  • Data on 2,355 married women from the 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey are used to study how female employment affects fertility in China. (repec.org)
  • At the time of exam, both behavioral and demographic data were collected on all women participating in the study. (hindawi.com)
  • The majority of women in the study (96%) reported no symptoms of chlamydia. (hindawi.com)
  • In a forthcoming project, she will conduct a comparative study of how rural women achieve this across four countries in three continents. (europa.eu)
  • New Haven, Conn.Women in rural Bangladesh prefer inexpensive, traditional stoves for cooking over modern ones despite significant health risks, according to a Yale study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . (bio-medicine.org)
  • The overall aim of this study is to reduce risk behaviors and increase health and behavioral health service utilization among disadvantaged, drug-using rural women at high risk for HIV and HCV. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study examined the effects of the sociodemographics of rural women on place of delivery in the country. (hindawi.com)
  • The study was conducted in Mbooni Division, Makueni District, Kenya among non-pregnant, non-lactating women of reproductive age having a child between 2-5 years. (wur.nl)
  • The overall aim of this study was to examine the associations between different exposures to IPV and women's mental health during pregnancy and after childbirth in rural Vietnam. (nih.gov)
  • Different forms of IPV were measured by the Intimate Partner Violence section of the WHO Multi-Country Study on Women's Health and Domestic Violence Against Women questionnaire. (nih.gov)
  • But rural residents have a 9% greater chance of dangerous childbirth situations than urban peers-with about 4,400 more cases over the study period- according to the findings that were published in Health Affairs ' December issue . (medicalxpress.com)
  • James research expert Electra Paskett, PhD , shares that they would like to enroll 1000+ women, ages 50-74, in the study, and those interested can call toll-free, 877-304-2273 , or email [email protected] , to see if they are eligible to be included. (osu.edu)
  • We did an exploratory study, conducting semi-structured interviews with 20 women who lived in Roma (or surrounds) and had delivered a baby between January 2001 and August 2004, or were pregnant when interviewed. (rrh.org.au)
  • Given the importance of women in agriculture, this study was conducted to examine the role of Iranian women in the farm management decision-making processed concerning animal husbandry. (umn.edu)
  • The sample of the study comprised 200 farm women, who were recruited by the help of the proportionate stratified sampling technique. (umn.edu)
  • We conducted a cross sectional study in a sample of 1177 postpartum women participating in a micronutrient supplementation trial in Nepal. (bmj.com)
  • The present study was conducted in a rural south eastern region of Nepal as part of a trial examining the effects of multiple micronutrients on low birth weight. (bmj.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze factors which affect the participation of rural women in nonformal education programs in Thailand in order to describe their emotional needs and identify implications for future programming. (unt.edu)
  • This article presents the results of a study on the digital inclusion of rural women in social networks. (rclis.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of grandmothers in Eswatini caring for female adolescents living with HIV. (medworm.com)
  • The aim of the study was to define whether in a group of young women the place of residence in their childhood and adolescence, as well as moving from a rural to an urban area, have affected their biological condition. (aaem.pl)
  • The results of the study do not indicate that a change of place of residence has a stronger effect on the biological condition of rural women than their urban peers. (aaem.pl)
  • The study, "Rural Pregnant Women's Stressors and Priorities for Stress Reduction," was published in Issues in Mental Health Nursing . (medicalxpress.com)
  • This study is aimed to explore the psychological effects and health challenges of menopausal symptoms in middle aged women in a rural community of Nigeria. (academicjournals.org)
  • Utilizing a random sampling technique, one hundred and twenty middle aged women (n=120) age 40 to 55 years were recruited for the study. (academicjournals.org)
  • Change in health-related quality of life over the menopausal transition in a multiethnic cohort of middle-aged women: Study of Women's Health across the Nation. (academicjournals.org)
  • RWM had several objectives in place by 1993, including increasing women's participation in village meetings or kgotlas, meeting with the government, changing "oppressive traditions," access to land for both single and married women, and women's representation in negotiations and government. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present day and age, we must recognize the fact that women should have the right to land, access to credit, the right to share the benefits of agricultural output, the right to inherit property and the right to education. (fao.org)
  • To raise their voices and expand their choices, action is needed to ensure that women have equal access to resources, such as land, water, credit and technology, and that they can participate fully in policy making. (fao.org)
  • It's possible, they speculated, that more rural women get sterilized because they don't have access to or can't afford long-term but reversible forms of contraception, such as intrauterine devices. (foxnews.com)
  • She said going forward, the goal is to make sure women understand - and have access to - all contraceptive options. (foxnews.com)
  • When local doctors and midwives leave town, rural women lose access to essential services. (reuters.com)
  • Both trends may reflect poorer access for rural teens and young women to family planning options, researchers conclude in the American Journal of Public Health. (reuters.com)
  • But welfare reform often poses the toughest challenge for women like Lester, who live in rural counties where transportation, jobs and access to the information superhighway are extremely limited. (womensenews.org)
  • Rural women do not have the same access as men to land tenure, credit, or training. (ipsnews.net)
  • Members, most of whom are women, are able to save money, access microloans to start businesses, assist orphans and vulnerable children and, where needed, access funds to address community emergencies. (unicef.org)
  • In late 2014, a group of public health experts and philanthropists were grappling with the problem of how to improve contraception access for women in the most remote, hard-to-reach villages in rural Africa, where a flood can shut down the roads for days and cut off medical supply chains. (nextbillion.net)
  • The pilots not only seek to build better career access for women in the regions, but also to inspire women from the regions as to the possibilities available right on their doorstep. (europa.eu)
  • Improving local labour market access for women and providing them with better career development is a crucial first step in encouraging them to stay. (europa.eu)
  • Access to education is absolutely crucial to the advancement of rural women and children. (sabin.org)
  • Access to maternal care has worsened in recent years, with an increasing number of rural hospitals closing across the country. (columbiamissourian.com)
  • The organization promotes economic opportunity through equitable local control and ownership by providing programs that enhance business development, life skills, networking, access to capital, access to information, access to markets, business diversification including agriculture, and awareness of rural community economic development. (ohpe.ca)
  • Indian Policy makers and women rights activists have stressed the need for more concrete steps to improve women's access to quality // healthcare services in the country. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This platform gave different stakeholders an opportunity to forcefully present issues related to rural women's access to quality maternal health services and share their experiences. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Ms S Jalaja, Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, urged all the stakeholders to evolve a unified solution to the problem of healthcare access to women. (bio-medicine.org)
  • As a result, women have less access to productive resources than men do. (scribd.com)
  • Women farmers control less land than do men-less than 20 per cent of landholders are women and also have limited access to inputs, seeds, credits, climate-smart technologies or finance. (scribd.com)
  • The partnership is expected to be a viable strategy for identifying and educating rural women in culturally appropriate manner that reduces denial, demystifies stigma, clarifies inaccuarate information, and increases knowledge for self-protection and access to counseling and testing resources. (federalregister.gov)
  • Lack of access to credit very often prevents rural women from starting and building businesses and making an income. (servindi.org)
  • Irene Nantale, a young Ugandan woman, exemplifies the huge difference access to financial services can make in people's lives. (servindi.org)
  • Ensuring women have access to ongoing care before and after pregnancy, is key to addressing underlying chronic conditions, such as hypertension, obesity and diabetes, Admon says. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Dr. Kundhavi Kadiresan, Assistant Director-General and Regional Representative of the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), added, "Evidence shows that if rural women had access to, and control of, the same resources as men, their contributions would increase food production by as much as four per cent. (newswit.com)
  • Embracing the use of technology for economic and social and political development also has a practical side as the women want to begin to be able to access and navigate Kenya's E-government services which allow online applications for government identification, passports, driver's license, and other services. (cmfe.eu)
  • The Agri-tecture team will be working alongside 20 women in the indigenous village of San Juan Mixtepec, in the State of Oaxaca, to design and construct an off the grid building made from appropriate materials such as clay and bamboo. (kickstarter.com)
  • Adelaida Marca, an Aymara indigenous woman, has been successful at the Rural World Expo in Santiago selling her sought-after premium oregano, which has a special fragrance, grown on terraces in Socoroma, her village in the highlands of northern Chile. (ipsnews.net)
  • Our first demand is healthy and clean production and the right of each person to consume healthy food," said Alicia Muñoz, of the National Association of Rural and Indigenous Women (Anamuri), one of the leading Latin American organisations that defends women farmers. (ipsnews.net)
  • The project extends credit to indigenous people, mainly women, in 13 remote municipalities of northern Potosí. (unicef.org)
  • Local stakeholders from the communal bank in the town of Jarana, located in rural Potosí, Bolivia, hold a meeting to discuss lending for income-generating activities in the indigenous community. (unicef.org)
  • In fact, the profile of an indigenous, impoverished girl living in a rural area is a precise picture of social exclusion and inequality in Bolivia. (unicef.org)
  • Indigenous women and rural women play a very important role in addressing climate change, specifically in efforts to ensure food security in their households and their countries, as well in climate change adaptation efforts. (oxfam.org)
  • This is especially true in the case of indigenous women and rural women, whose conditions of life and marginalization put them at greater risk. (oxfam.org)
  • Even though women head about one fifth of rural households -- and in some regions more than one third -- women only own around 1 percent of all land. (fao.org)
  • Supporting women-led businesses is the smartest investment to improve the food security and nutrition of vulnerable households and boost local development. (wfp.org)
  • To date, the project has provided support to about 10,000 rural households, most of them headed by women. (wfp.org)
  • Use of pesticides by households in rural Ghana is common for residential pest control, agricultural use, and for the reduction of vectors carrying disease. (mdpi.com)
  • BISHKEK - The Government of Japan has made a contribution of US$600,000 to the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) to support rural women in the Kyrgyz Republic so they can play a greater role in entrepreneurship and farming. (wfp.org)
  • To this end, members of WOMEN's new transnational network of Demography Coaches have developed training to help HR managers to make adjustments in their organisation to counteract demographic imbalances -addressing from this perspective issues such as work-life balance, female entrepreneurship and medical insurance and pension schemes. (europa.eu)
  • Through the project, Fatima and other women in her community have also learned to read and write, crucial skills for building a business and playing a role in the community. (servindi.org)
  • In 2014, 17 pregnant women from rural Ghana were surveyed about household pesticide use and provided weekly first morning urine voids during three visits ( n = 51 samples). (mdpi.com)
  • To determine predictors of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among women 14-24 years of age attending family planning clinics throughout a rural Midwestern state. (hindawi.com)
  • These networks have the aim of sharing best practice among women in business. (europa.eu)
  • Wealth, maternal education, ecological zone, getting money for treatment, ethnicity, partner's education, parity, and distance to a health facility were found as the determinants of place of delivery among women in rural Ghana. (hindawi.com)
  • The major cause of micronutrient deficiencies are low intake due to monotonous diets, especially among women of child bearing age. (wur.nl)
  • Symptoms of depression may be of particular concern among women suffering from physical illnesses. (urotoday.com)
  • Results of the analysis indicated declines in age-adjusted mortality from premature CAD were similar among men and women from 1999-2010-when rates of decline among women overall began to slow. (hcplive.com)
  • 32 weeks) was higher among women positive for gonorrhoea (OR = 4.7, 95% CI: 1.0 to 22.0). (bmj.com)
  • We consistently have enough stock of the [contraceptive] injection, as well as of other medicines for pregnant women and mothers, to bring with us," she added. (unfpa.org)
  • Closure of community-based services as a result of austerity impacts disproportionally upon rural women, particularly in their roles of mothers and carers. (wrc.org.uk)
  • Peer-reviewed articles were eligible if a standardized assessment of depression was administered to rural mothers within the first year postpartum. (wiley.com)
  • Using data from rural Bangladesh in 1998-1999 it investigates whether women in a relatively strong bargaining position at the time of marriage continue to remain in a strong position post marriage as seen by their decision to use the contraceptive pill. (repec.org)
  • The OWH HIV/AIDS program began in 1999 with funding from the Minority AIDS Fund (formerly Minority AIDS Initiative) to address the gaps in services provided to women who are at risk or living with HIV. (federalregister.gov)
  • Now, however, thanks to the efforts of policy makers, researchers, development workers, journalists and women activists, the vital contribution of rural women to social and economic development has been widely documented. (fao.org)
  • The report is also expected to conclude that poor rural women also frequently suffer from disruption in family lives, unreliable child support, health problems, lack of health insurance and lack of transportation. (womensenews.org)
  • Many rural BME women and families have been targeted by racism and as a result suffer from anxiety and in some cases, post-traumatic stress and depression. (wrc.org.uk)
  • Men's attitudes toward women's health and women's own concepts of health as interpreted by Islamic law and practice, combined with the fact that medical assistance occurs outside the walls of the very private household, contribute to a situation where women suffer and die patiently at home. (penn.museum)
  • This project has potential to make a significant contribution to science by providing knowledge about the health, risk behaviors, and service utilization of a vulnerable and understudied group of women during a time of emerging and significant public health risk in a rural Appalachian setting. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The impacts of climate change affect everyone in a different way but nevertheless gender discrimination makes women especially vulnerable to these negative effects . (oxfam.org)
  • This was a secondary analysis of data generated in a community-based longitudinal investigation in which a cohort of pregnant women were recruited and followed until 6 months after childbirth. (nih.gov)
  • This Consultation is also taking place at a time when the whole United Nations system is preparing to celebrate, next year, the fifth anniversary of the adoption in Beijing of the Platform for Action in favour of women. (fao.org)
  • United Nations, March 13 (IANS) India's Women and Child Development Minister Maneka Gandhi has cancelled a speech to the UN Commission on Status of Women (CSW) and Joint Secretary Chetan Sanghi is to speak in her place, according to rosters of speakers posted by the UN. (yahoo.com)
  • The pledge was made at the regional consultation for the 62nd session of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women (CSW62) held in Bangkok. (newswit.com)
  • As per an assessment from January to September 2001, women comprised only 34.8 percent of total agrarian reform beneficiaries (Philippine NGO BPA+10 Report, 2005). (scribd.com)
  • Avelino's case is an illustration of the difficulties faced by rural women in Mexico who since 2008 have suffered the combined effects of the economic, food and climate crises, compounded by the spiral of drug-related violence in different regions in this Latin American country. (truthout.org)
  • Those present included senior policy makers, women survivors of poor maternal health care, grassroots women leaders, representatives of civil society, technical agencies, donors, officials of the health Ministry and technical agencies such as the UNFPA, WHO and the UNICEF. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Female employment might lead to lower fertility since working reduces a woman's available time, and as raising children is time-intensive, employed women might choose to have fewer children. (voxeu.org)
  • The labour market situation for women living in rural Poland is characterised by a particularly difficult situation due on the one hand to their less direct involvement in farm management and, on the other hand, fewer job vacancies for women outside of agriculture. (springer.com)
  • In addition, the divergent character of household land made it difficult to operate the mechanized farming, which meant that the agricultural farming has to rely on the elementary manual labour by women. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statistics show that almost 70 percent of economically active women in low-income food-deficit countries are employed in the agricultural sector. (fao.org)
  • An EU-funded fellowship investigated whether an agricultural strategy launched in 2008 has enabled these women to improve their socioeconomic status. (europa.eu)
  • In most rural homes, where there is no electricity, food is cooked over an open fire using wood, agricultural residue and animal dung, known together as "biomass. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Though not counted in official statistics, women are active economic actors such as landless workers, traders of agricultural and fishery products, and engaged in micro-manufacturing enterprises. (scribd.com)
  • Of the total rural work force, women comprised 27.3 percent of the 10.4 million workers employed in the agricultural, hunting and forestry sector in 2004 (NSO, 2004). (scribd.com)
  • And maternal death remains a significant issue in Myanmar, where an estimated 178 women die per every 100,000 live births, according to UN data . (unfpa.org)