Rupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.Splenic RuptureAortic Rupture: The tearing or bursting of the wall along any portion of the AORTA, such as thoracic or abdominal. It may result from the rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to TRAUMA.Heart Rupture: Disease-related laceration or tearing of tissues of the heart, including the free-wall MYOCARDIUM; HEART SEPTUM; PAPILLARY MUSCLES; CHORDAE TENDINEAE; and any of the HEART VALVES. Pathological rupture usually results from myocardial infarction (HEART RUPTURE, POST-INFARCTION).Uterine Rupture: A complete separation or tear in the wall of the UTERUS with or without expulsion of the FETUS. It may be due to injuries, multiple pregnancies, large fetus, previous scarring, or obstruction.Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction: Laceration or tearing of cardiac tissues appearing after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture: Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Stomach Rupture: Bursting of the STOMACH.Tendon Injuries: Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Hemoperitoneum: Accumulations of blood in the PERITONEAL CAVITY due to internal HEMORRHAGE.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Heart Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the heart.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Suture Techniques: Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).Vaginal Birth after Cesarean: Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.Blood Vessel Prosthesis: Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Chordae Tendineae: The tendinous cords that connect each cusp of the two atrioventricular HEART VALVES to appropriate PAPILLARY MUSCLES in the HEART VENTRICLES, preventing the valves from reversing themselves when the ventricles contract.Aortic Aneurysm: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic: An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.Hematoma: A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.Hernia, Diaphragmatic, Traumatic: The type of DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA caused by TRAUMA or injury, usually to the ABDOMEN.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Aneurysm, Dissecting: Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.Trial of Labor: Allowing a woman to be in LABOR, OBSTETRIC long enough to determine if vaginal birth may be anticipated.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Cardiac Tamponade: Compression of the heart by accumulated fluid (PERICARDIAL EFFUSION) or blood (HEMOPERICARDIUM) in the PERICARDIUM surrounding the heart. The affected cardiac functions and CARDIAC OUTPUT can range from minimal to total hemodynamic collapse.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Endovascular Procedures: Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Chorioamnionitis: INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.Splenic DiseasesTensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Heart Aneurysm: A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.Esophageal Diseases: Pathological processes in the ESOPHAGUS.Abdominal Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving organs in the abdominal cavity.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hemothorax: Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Aneurysm, Infected: Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Pericardial Effusion: Fluid accumulation within the PERICARDIUM. Serous effusions are associated with pericardial diseases. Hemopericardium is associated with trauma. Lipid-containing effusion (chylopericardium) results from leakage of THORACIC DUCT. Severe cases can lead to CARDIAC TAMPONADE.Obstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Posterior Capsular Rupture, Ocular: A breach in the continuity of the posterior chamber of the eyeball.Abdomen, Acute: A clinical syndrome with acute abdominal pain that is severe, localized, and rapid in onset. Acute abdomen may be caused by a variety of disorders, injuries, or diseases.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Urinary Bladder Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY BLADDER.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Uterine Myomectomy: Surgical removal of a LEIOMYOMA of the UTERUS.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Amnion: The innermost membranous sac that surrounds and protects the developing embryo which is bathed in the AMNIOTIC FLUID. Amnion cells are secretory EPITHELIAL CELLS and contribute to the amniotic fluid.Echinococcosis, Hepatic: Liver disease caused by infections with parasitic tapeworms of the genus ECHINOCOCCUS, such as Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis. Ingested Echinococcus ova burrow into the intestinal mucosa. The larval migration to the liver via the PORTAL VEIN leads to watery vesicles (HYDATID CYST).Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Tendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Patellar Ligament: A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Tendinopathy: Clinical syndrome describing overuse tendon injuries characterized by a combination of PAIN, diffuse or localized swelling, and impaired performance. Distinguishing tendinosis from tendinitis is clinically difficult and can be made only after histopathological examination.Brachiocephalic Trunk: The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.Iatrogenic Disease: Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A heterogeneous group of autosomally inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES caused by defects in the synthesis or structure of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are numerous subtypes: classical, hypermobility, vascular, and others. Common clinical features include hyperextensible skin and joints, skin fragility and reduced wound healing capability.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Oligohydramnios: A condition of abnormally low AMNIOTIC FLUID volume. Principal causes include malformations of fetal URINARY TRACT; FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION; GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION; nicotine poisoning; and PROLONGED PREGNANCY.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Tissue Adhesives: Substances used to cause adherence of tissue to tissue or tissue to non-tissue surfaces, as for prostheses.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Coronary Thrombosis: Coagulation of blood in any of the CORONARY VESSELS. The presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) often leads to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Thrombosis: Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Capillary Fragility: The susceptibility of CAPILLARIES, under conditions of increased stress, to leakage.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Stifle: In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Emergency Treatment: First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Iliac Aneurysm: Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any one of the iliac arteries including the common, the internal, or the external ILIAC ARTERY.Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations: Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.Ulcer: A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Endoleak: Postoperative hemorrhage from an endovascular AORTIC ANEURYSM repaired with endoluminal placement of stent grafts (BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION). It is associated with pressurization, expansion, and eventual rupture of the aneurysm.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials: The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Bursa, Synovial: A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.Matrix Metalloproteinase 9: An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.Pneumoperitoneum: A condition with trapped gas or air in the PERITONEAL CAVITY, usually secondary to perforation of the internal organs such as the LUNG and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, or to recent surgery. Pneumoperitoneum may be purposely introduced to aid radiological examination.Sternotomy: Making an incision in the STERNUM.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Sinus of Valsalva: The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall.Lacerations: Torn, ragged, mangled wounds.Foreign-Body Migration: Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.Arteriovenous Fistula: An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Necrosis: The pathological process occurring in cells that are dying from irreparable injuries. It is caused by the progressive, uncontrolled action of degradative ENZYMES, leading to MITOCHONDRIAL SWELLING, nuclear flocculation, and cell lysis. It is distinct it from APOPTOSIS, which is a normal, regulated cellular process.Sutures: Materials used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Anterior instability of the glenohumeral joint with humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament. A review of 41 cases. (1/977)

We studied retrospectively a consecutive series of 547 shoulders in 529 patients undergoing operation for instability. In 41, the cause of instability was considered to be lateral avulsion of the capsule, including the inferior glenohumeral ligament, from the neck of the humerus, the HAGL lesion. In 35, the lesion was found at first exploration, whereas in six it was noted at revision of a previous failed procedure. In both groups, the patients were older on average than those with instability from other causes. Of the primary cases, in 33 (94.3%) the cause of the first dislocation was a violent injury; six (17.4%) had evidence of damage to the rotator cuff and/or the subscapularis. Only four (11.4%) had a Bankart lesion. In patients undergoing a primary operation in whom the cause of the first dislocation was a violent injury, who did not have a Bankart lesion and had no suggestion of multidirectional laxity, the incidence of HAGL was 39%.  (+info)

Extradural inflammation associated with annular tears: demonstration with gadolinium-enhanced lumbar spine MRI. (2/977)

Annular tears are manifest on MRI as the high-intensity zone (HIZ) or as annular enhancement. Patients with annular tears may experience low back pain with radiation into the lower limb in the absence of nerve root compression. Inflammation of nerve roots from leak of degenerative nuclear material through full-thickness annular tears is a proposed mechanism for such leg pain. The aim of this study is to illustrate the appearance of extradural enhancement adjacent to annular tears in patients being investigated for low back pain with radiation into the lower limb(s). Sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin echo and axial T1-weighted spin echo sequences were obtained in eight patients being investigated for low back and leg pain. In all patients, the T1-weighted sequences were repeated following intravenous gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA). Annular tears were identified at 12 sites in eight patients. Extradural inflammation appeared as a region of intermediate signal intensity replacing the fat between the posterior disc margin and the theca, which enhanced following Gd-DTPA. The inflammatory change was always associated with an annular tear, and in four cases directly involved the nerve root. Enhancement of the nerve root was seen in two cases. The findings may be relevant in the diagnosis of chemical radiculopathy secondary to inflammation at the site of an annular leak from a degenerating disc.  (+info)

Sonographic incidence of tendon microtears in athletes with chronic Achilles tendinosis. (3/977)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the number and distribution of tendon microtears in asymptomatic controls and athletes with chronic Achilles tendinitis or partial thickness tears using high resolution ultrasound. METHODS: The mean number of microtears in three random tendon cross sections were recorded per tendon third in 19 asymptomatic volunteers, 16 athletes with symptomatic chronic Achilles tendinitis, and eight athletes with partial Achilles tendon rupture. RESULTS: Microtears were most numerous in the middle third section of the Achilles tendon. Some 67% of tendons in the control group had no microtears, and 28% showed a single microtear. Only 18% of the athletes with chronic Achilles tendinitis and none of the athletes with partial tendon rupture were without microtears in the middle third of their Achilles tendon. Of the tendons with chronic tendinitis, 13% had more than three microtears per section which increased to 87% in tendons exhibiting partial rupture. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be an association between microtear formation and Achilles tendon rupture.  (+info)

Traumatic wound rupture after penetrating keratoplasty in Africa. (4/977)

AIM: To investigate risk factors, visual outcome, and graft survival for traumatic wound rupture after penetrating keratoplasty. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 336 patients who underwent penetrating keratoplasty from 1988 to 1995. RESULTS: 19 patients (5.7%) suffered traumatic postoperative wound rupture requiring surgical repair. They were younger (mean age 16.6 years, 95% CI 13.2-20.6) and more frequently keratoconic (p = 0.01) than other patients (mean age 28.9 years, 95% CI 26.-31.0). Mean postoperative follow up was 37.7 (SD 22.9) months and 24.5 (18.9) months for the rupture and non-rupture patients. Mean interval between keratoplasty and rupture was 18 (21) weeks. The lens was damaged and removed in 37% of ruptured eyes. For keratoconics, the probability of graft survival at 5 years was lower (p = 0.03) in the ruptured eyes (75%) than in the non-ruptured eyes (90%). Endothelial failure was a more common (p <0.05) cause of graft opacification in ruptured grafts than in intact grafts. Of the ruptured eyes, 53% achieved a final corrected acuity of at least 6/18 and 63% achieved at least 6/60 compared with 48% and 71% of the intact eyes respectively (both p >0.1). The proportion of keratoconic eyes which achieved at least 6/60 was lower (p = 0.02) in the ruptured eyes (67%) than the non-ruptured eyes (87%). Eyes with wound ruptures of 5 clock hours or greater were less likely (p <0.05) to achieve an acuity of 6/18 and were more likely (p <0.05) to have an associated lens injury. CONCLUSIONS: Graft rupture is relatively common in African practice, particularly in young keratoconics. Visual outcome and graft survival are not significantly worse than for other grafted eyes, but are significantly worse than for other grafted keratoconic eyes.  (+info)

Evidence for increased collagenolysis by interstitial collagenases-1 and -3 in vulnerable human atheromatous plaques. (5/977)

BACKGROUND: Several recent studies attempted to classify plaques as those prone to cause clinical manifestations (vulnerable, atheromatous plaques) or those less frequently associated with acute thrombotic complication (stable, fibrous plaques). Defining the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these morphological features remains a challenge. Because interstitial forms of collagen determine the biomechanical strength of the atherosclerotic lesion, this study investigated expression of the collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) interstitial collagenase-3 (MMP-13) and the previously studied MMP-1 in human atheroma and used a novel technique to test the hypothesis that collagenolysis in atheromatous lesions exceeds that in fibrous human atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, similar in size, were separated by conventional morphological characteristics into fibrous (n=10) and atheromatous (n=10) lesions. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis demonstrated increased levels of MMP-1 and MMP-13 in atheromatous versus fibrous plaques. In addition, collagenase-cleaved type I collagen, demonstrated by a novel cleavage-specific antibody, colocalized with MMP-1- and MMP-13-positive macrophages. Macrophages, rather than endothelial or smooth muscle cells, expressed MMP-13 and MMP-1 on stimulation in vitro. Furthermore, Western blot analysis demonstrated loss of interstitial collagen type I and increased collagenolysis in atheromatous versus fibrous lesions. Finally, atheromatous plaques contained higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines, activators of MMPs. CONCLUSIONS: This report demonstrates that atheromatous rather than fibrous plaques might be prone to rupture due to increased collagenolysis associated with macrophages, probably mediated by the interstitial collagenases MMP-1 and MMP-13.  (+info)

Stromelysin promoter 5A/6A polymorphism is associated with acute myocardial infarction. (6/977)

BACKGROUND: Rupture of the fibrous cap of an atherosclerotic plaque is a key event that predisposes to acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may contribute to weakening of the cap, which favors rupture. Stromelysin, a member of MMP family, is identified extensively in human coronary atherosclerotic lesions. It can degrade most of the constituents of extracellular matrix as well as activating other MMPs, which suggests that it may play an important role in plaque rupture. Recently, a common variant (5A/6A) in the promoter of the stromelysin gene has been identified. The 5A/6A polymorphism could regulate the transcription of the stromelysin gene in an allele-specific manner. METHODS AND RESULTS: To investigate the relation between the 5A/6A polymorphism in the promoter of the stromelysin gene and AMI, we conducted a case-control study of 330 AMI patients and 330 control subjects. The prevalence of the 5A/6A+5A/5A genotype was significantly more frequent in the patients with AMI than in control subjects (48.8% vs 32.7%, P<0.0001). In logistic regression models, the odds ratio of the 5A/6A+5A/5A was 2.25 (95% CI, 1.51 to 3.35). The association of 5A/6A polymorphism with AMI was statistically significant and independent of other risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The 5A/6A polymorphism in the promoter of the stromelysin gene is a novel pathogenetic risk factor for AMI.  (+info)

Ocular explosion during cataract surgery: a clinical, histopathological, experimental, and biophysical study. (7/977)

INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of cases are being recognized in which a peribulbar anesthetic for cataract surgery has been inadvertently injected directly into the globe under high pressure until the globe ruptures or explodes. We reviewed the records of 6 such cases (one of which was reported previously by us), and one additional case has been reported in the literature. Surprisingly, 2 of these 7 cases went unrecognized at the time, and the surgeons proceeded with the cataract operation; all of the patients ultimately developed severe visual loss and/or loss of the eye. OBJECTIVES: To reproduce this eye explosion in a live anesthetized rabbit model and to perform a clinical, histopathological, experimental, biophysical, and mathematical analysis of this injury. METHODS: Eyes of live anesthetized rabbits were ruptured by means of the injection of saline directly into the globe under high pressure. The clinical and pathological findings of the ruptured human and animal eyes were documented photographically and/or histopathologically. An experimental, biophysical, and mathematical analysis of the pressures and forces required to rupture the globe via direct injection using human cadavers, human eye-bank eyes, and classic physics and ophthalmic formulas was performed. The laws of Bernoulli, LaPlace, Friedenwald, and Pascal were applied to the theoretical and experimental models of this phenomenon. RESULTS: The clinical and pathological findings of scleral rupture, retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, and lens extrusion were observed. In the exploded human and rabbit eyes, the scleral ruptures appeared at the equator, the limbal area, or the posterior pole. In 2 of the 7 human eyes, the anterior segments appeared entirely normal despite the rupture, and cataract surgery was completed; surgery was canceled in the other 4 cases. In 4 of the 5 injected and ruptured rabbit eyes, the anterior segments appeared essentially normal. The experiments with human eye-bank eyes and the theoretical analyses of this entity show that the pressure required to produce such an injury is much more easily obtained with a 3- or 5-mL syringe than with a syringe 10 mL or larger. CONCLUSIONS: Explosion of an eyeball during the injection of anesthesia for ocular surgery is a devastating injury that may go unrecognized. The probability of an ocular explosion can be minimized by careful use of a syringe 10 mL or larger with a blunt needle, by discontinuing the injection if resistance is met, and by inspecting the globe prior to ocular massage or placement of a Honan balloon. When ocular explosion occurs, immediate referral to and intervention by a vitreoretinal surgeon is optimal. Practicing ophthalmologists should be aware of this blinding but preventable complication of ocular surgery.  (+info)

Recurrent carotid blowout syndrome: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in a newly recognized subgroup of patients. (8/977)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To our knowledge, recurrent carotid blowout syndrome (rCBS) has not been well described. Our purpose was to review our institution's recent experience with patients who presented with multiple episodes of carotid blowout syndrome (CBS), and who were referred for emergent diagnostic angiography and endovascular therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the last 46 consecutive patients who had a clinical diagnosis of CBS. All patients were examined and treated prospectively according to a standardized protocol. Most patients (43 of 46) had undergone extensive primary and salvage radical surgery with intraoperative brachytherapy or external beam radiation or both. The remaining three patients had either traumatic or iatrogenic CBS. RESULTS: Twelve patients (26%) in our series had more than one episode of CBS in which a total of 32 (20 recurrent) events were observed (average 2.7, range 2-4). Intervals of rCBS ranged from 1 day to 6 years. Thirteen (65%) of 20 recurrent events were attributed to progressive disease (PD), and seven (35%) of 20 to treatment failures (TFs). In the PD group, seven (54%) of 13 had recurrent ipsilateral disease, and six (46%) of 13 had recurrent contralateral disease. Etiologies of rCBS were as follows: seven exposed carotids; seven carotid pseudoaneurysms; eight small-branch pseudoaneurysms; five tumor hemorrhages; three hyperemic/ulcerated wounds; and one aortic arch rupture. Twenty-seven of 32 events were treated with endovascular therapy, which included the following: nine carotid occlusions; 11 small-branch embolizations; three transarterial tumor embolizations; one carotid stent; and two direct-puncture embolizations. Four of six TFs were retreated successfully with endovascular therapy; the remaining two TFs were managed successfully by surgery. In the PD group, hemorrhagic complications of rCBS were managed successfully in all but one patient, who died. No permanent neurologic or ophthalmologic complications occurred. CONCLUSION: Recurrent CBS is a frequently encountered problem in which most cases are caused by PD resulting from both multifocal iatrogenic arteriopathy and occasional wound complications that are characteristic of aggressively managed head and neck surgical patients. Initial TFs are encountered often as well. Despite the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of rCBS, most cases can be retreated effectively.  (+info)

  • The government has released the report of an inquiry into the fuel supply disruption caused by the rupture of a key pipeline in September 2017. (scoop.co.nz)
  • A section of the pipe that brings diesel, petrol and jet fuel from Marsden Point Oil Refinery to Auckland ruptured in September 2017, leaking jet fuel into several paddocks and halting fuel supply to Auckland Airport for 10 days, leading to flight cancellations and some petrol stations running out of fuel. (scoop.co.nz)
  • A large volume of contrast is demonstrated in the abdominal cavity consistent with an intraperitoneal urinary bladder rupture. (radiopaedia.org)
  • A condition called thrombosis, results when blood starts to coagulate, or clump together, at the site of the rupture, similar to the way blood clots to stop bleeding from a cut. (blausen.com)
  • online] Available at: https://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/Abstract/publishahead/Intraoperative_Capsule_Rupture,_Postoperative.97566.aspx [Accessed 22 Oct. (cancernetwork.com)
  • We investigate the statistics of record breaking (RB) events in the time series of crackling bursts in a fiber bundle model of the creep rupture of heterogeneous materials. (elsevier.com)
  • Danku, Z & Kun, F 2014, ' Record breaking bursts in a fiber bundle model of creep rupture ', Frontiers of Physics , vol. 2, A008, pp. 1-8. (elsevier.com)
  • When the water breaks early, it is called premature rupture of membranes (PROM). (medlineplus.gov)
  • If the water breaks before the 37th week of pregnancy, it is called preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). (medlineplus.gov)
  • How quickly does labor happen after premature rupture of membranes (PROM)? (medscape.com)
  • Practice Bulletin No. 160: Premature Rupture of Membranes. (medscape.com)
  • Preterm premature rupture of membranes: perspectives surrounding controversies in management. (medscape.com)
  • Mozurkewich E. Management of premature rupture of membranes at term: an evidence-based approach. (medscape.com)
  • Can platelet count and mean platelet volume during the first trimester of pregnancy predict preterm premature rupture of membranes? (medscape.com)
  • Risk factors for pulmonary hypoplasia in second-trimester premature rupture of membranes. (medscape.com)
  • When this happens before contractions start, it is called premature rupture of membranes (PROM). (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • You may hear this early PROM referred to as preterm premature rupture of membranes, or pPROM . (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Doctors are concerned the drug could make any pre-existing aneurysms or other arterial abnormalities prone to rupture. (irishexaminer.com)
  • 7mm) aneurysms have often been left untreated, even though such aneurysms have also been known to rupture and cause brain hemorrhages. (redorbit.com)
  • The new study established that approximately one third of all aneurysms and up to one fourth of small aneurysms will rupture during a patient's lifetime. (redorbit.com)
  • The risk of rupture is particularly high for female smokers with brain aneurysms of seven millimeters or more in diameter. (redorbit.com)
  • This is not to say that aneurysms in non-smoking men never rupture, but that the risk is much lower than we previously thought. (redorbit.com)
  • A team of researchers at Baylor College of Medicine, the Texas Heart Institute and Baylor College of Medicine's Cardiovascular Research Institute has found that ciprofloxacin, a widely prescribed antibiotic, increases the risk of tears and rupture on the main artery of the body, the aorta, in a mouse model of human aortic aneurysms and dissections (AAD), a disease that carries high risk of death from aortic rupture. (bcm.edu)
  • They found that patients who received fluoroquinolones had a higher risk for aneurysms (formation of balloon-like areas in the aorta that weaken the integrity of the vessel), ruptures or dissections (tears in the wall) than patients who did not receive the antibiotics. (bcm.edu)
  • The CT scan evaluation had identified a subgroup of patients with aneurysms associated with chronic contained rupture. (nih.gov)
  • Guidelines released by the Society for Vascular Surgery now recommend endovascular repair over surgery for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms . (medpagetoday.com)
  • Fortunately, not all aortic aneurysms reach the point of rupture. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • We think most aneurysms never rupture,' said Vlak, a neurologist at the Utrecht Stroke Centre at University Medical Centre in Utrecht, the Netherlands. (health24.com)
  • The rupture site is most commonly near the globe's equator posterior to the insertion of the rectus muscles, which is where the sclera is weakest and thinnest. (medscape.com)
  • Globe rupture and posterior segment injury have always been associated with a high frequency of visual loss. (medscape.com)
  • A case of cataract surgery with planned presbyopia-correcting IOL implantation- complicated by posterior capsule rupture and a postoperative refractive surprise- reinforced important lessons and provided a new revelation to one experienced surgeon. (modernmedicine.com)
  • This possibility was examined by a review of 67 patients (average age 57 years) diagnosed with rupture of the posterior tibial tendon. (nih.gov)
  • A statistical correlation was demonstrated between rupture of the posterior tibial tendon and obesity (P = .005) and to a lesser extent hypertension (P = .025). (nih.gov)
  • An additional vascular risk is implicated by the known zone of hypovascularity of the posterior tibial tendon and risk of rupture secondary to systemic or local injections of corticosteroids. (nih.gov)
  • The prevalence of posterior tibial tendon rupture parallels the degenerative processes of aging, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. (nih.gov)
  • Rupture is a 2016 American independently made science fiction horror thriller film directed by Steven Shainberg and starring Noomi Rapace. (yahoo.com)
  • Market Study Report Market Research states that the world Rupture Disc market held an opportunity worth US$520 Million in 2016.The market is expected to expand at 3.29% CAGR over the period between 2016 and 2022. (openpr.com)
  • This section might be prone to rupture because blood flow is poor, which also can impair its ability to heal. (mayoclinic.org)
  • RUPTURE follows Renee Morgan (Noomi Rapace), a single mom, who is deathly terrified of spiders. (lifeboat.com)
  • Sep 29, 2018 · A gallbladder rupture is a medical condition where the gallbladder leaks or bursts. (yahoo.com)
  • Spontaneous Rupture of the Å'sophagus with Recovery Following Repair 14291268 1996 12 01 2018 12 01 0035-9157 58 1965 Jun Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine Proc. (tripdatabase.com)
  • Rupture of the Oesophagus Simulating Myocardial Infarction 14253730 1996 12 01 2018 12 01 0032-5473 41 1965 Jan Postgraduate medical journal Postgrad Med J RUPTURE OF THE OESOPHAGUS SIMULATING MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. (tripdatabase.com)
  • 5676956 1968 11 06 2018 11 13 0007-1447 3 5617 1968 Aug 31 British medical journal Br Med J Intramural rupture of the oesophagus. (tripdatabase.com)
  • ‘Spontaneous’ rupture of the healthy oesophagus 5662191 1968 09 05 2018 11 13 0032-5473 44 513 1968 Jul Postgraduate medical journal Postgrad Med J "Spontaneous" rupture of the healthy oesophagus. (tripdatabase.com)
  • In 2018 the FDA issued yet another warning on fluoroquinolones, this time about the risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta. (newmobility.com)
  • Collingwood star Steele Sidebottom will undergo surgery on a ruptured testicle and will miss Friday night's clash with Essendon. (news.com.au)
  • When the infection from the rupture spreads from the contained area inside the appendix to the entire peritoneum, the patient's body temperature rises. (livestrong.com)
  • depends on which tendon you ruptured and how severe the rupture is. (drugs.com)
  • A uterine rupture often results in severe injuries from oxygen deprivation to the child and potentially life-threatening blood loss for the mother. (millerandzois.com)
  • Doctors should suspect a uterine rupture if the mother suddenly experiences severe pain in her abdomen and the fetus' heart rate slows. (millerandzois.com)
  • Two-dimensional and 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography clearly visualized the ruptured head of the posteromedial papillary muscle, the freely mobile stump within the left ventricle, and severe eccentric mitral regurgitation ( Figure 3A - 3C and Movies IV-VI in the online-only Data Supplement). (ahajournals.org)
  • An invasive angiogram (below) from the same patient showed extraluminal contrast (arrow) representing a ruptured plaque associated with a severe stenosis in the left anterior descending artery. (auntminnie.com)
  • 857-9 O'Connell N D ND eng Case Reports Journal Article England Proc R Soc Med 7505890 0035-9157 IM Adult Aged Esophageal Perforation Humans Male Middle Aged Rupture , Spontaneous 1965 11 1 1965 11 1 0 1 1965 11 1 0 0 ppublish 4952961 PMC1898989 Dis Chest. (tripdatabase.com)
  • 504-8 Toghill P J PJ MacGuire C F CF Raut P S PS eng Journal Article England Postgrad Med J 0234135 0032-5473 IM Aged Esophageal Perforation diagnostic imaging Humans Male Middle Aged Radiography Rupture , Spontaneous 1968 7 1 1968 7 1 0 1 1968 7 1 0 0 ppublish 5662191 PMC2466268 JAMA. (tripdatabase.com)
  • If you are young or middle aged, especially a sports person, your doctor would advise surgery to repair a tendon rupture, while nonsurgical treatment would be the method of choice if you are older. (medindia.net)
  • A coronary angiogram revealed a significantly calcified stenotic lesion on the mid left anterior descending artery ( Figure 4A ), but there was no critical stenosis on the right coronary system that could explain the infarct-related rupture of the posteromedial papillary muscle ( Figure 4B ). (ahajournals.org)
  • Coronary CTA images (above) show extraluminal contrast in communication with the coronary lumen, consistent with a ruptured coronary plaque. (auntminnie.com)
  • Treatment of eardrum rupture varies from person to person. (medicinenet.com)
  • The scanty data available on human eardrum rupture from blast pressure suggest a normal distribution of rupture about a median overpressure of 15 psi. (hypertextbook.com)
  • Perforations or ruptures of the eardrum may or may not cause pain depending upon the underlying cause of the rupture or hole. (medicinenet.com)
  • While the cause of the rupture was not immediately known, Brent Peters, the fire chief for Laurel, told The A.P. that it may have been caused by high waters eroding parts of the river bed and exposing the pipeline to debris. (truth-out.org)
  • The treatment for myocardial rupture is supportive in the immediate setting and surgical correction of the rupture, if feasible. (wikipedia.org)
  • The best surgical technique for your Achilles rupture will be determined by your foot and ankle orthopaedic surgeon​ . (aofas.org)
  • In a 2013 study, researchers looked at device-retrieval data from the implant manufacturers Mentor and Allergan and found that 51 to 64% of silicone implant ruptures were caused by damage by surgical instruments during the initial implant surgery. (breastcancer.org)
  • Once a uterine rupture is discovered, timely surgical intervention is needed. (millerandzois.com)
  • The success of your surgery can depend on your surgeon's experience, the type of surgical procedure used, the extent of tendon damage, how soon after rupture the surgery is done, and how soon your rehabilitation program starts after surgery and how well you follow it. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Additionally, the effects of corticosteroids and local surgical procedures may further be associated with local vascular impairment and eventual rupture. (nih.gov)
  • Hello - I am looking for a code of a free wall rupture (left ventricular)repair w/CABG. (aapc.com)
  • Moreover, rheological measurements have shown that above some critical load, the network displays substantial softening, suggesting a major disruption of the actin network, possibly because of filament rupture, filament buckling, unfolding of APBs, or unbinding of ABPs ( 16 , 30 ). (pnas.org)
  • When a silicone implant ruptures, the gel leaks out more slowly because it's thicker, so it may take you longer to realize that the implant has ruptured, or you may not realize it at all. (breastcancer.org)