Heart Rupture, Post-Infarction
Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture
Aortic Aneurysm, Abdominal
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation
Vaginal Birth after Cesarean
Blood Vessel Prosthesis
Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic
Anterior Cruciate Ligament
Hernia, Diaphragmatic, Traumatic
Trial of Labor
Obstetric Labor, Premature
Posterior Capsular Rupture, Ocular
Carotid Artery Diseases
Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations
Finite Element Analysis
Predictive Value of Tests
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials
Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
Microscopy, Atomic Force
Anterior instability of the glenohumeral joint with humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament. A review of 41 cases. (1/977)We studied retrospectively a consecutive series of 547 shoulders in 529 patients undergoing operation for instability. In 41, the cause of instability was considered to be lateral avulsion of the capsule, including the inferior glenohumeral ligament, from the neck of the humerus, the HAGL lesion. In 35, the lesion was found at first exploration, whereas in six it was noted at revision of a previous failed procedure. In both groups, the patients were older on average than those with instability from other causes. Of the primary cases, in 33 (94.3%) the cause of the first dislocation was a violent injury; six (17.4%) had evidence of damage to the rotator cuff and/or the subscapularis. Only four (11.4%) had a Bankart lesion. In patients undergoing a primary operation in whom the cause of the first dislocation was a violent injury, who did not have a Bankart lesion and had no suggestion of multidirectional laxity, the incidence of HAGL was 39%. (+info)
Extradural inflammation associated with annular tears: demonstration with gadolinium-enhanced lumbar spine MRI. (2/977)Annular tears are manifest on MRI as the high-intensity zone (HIZ) or as annular enhancement. Patients with annular tears may experience low back pain with radiation into the lower limb in the absence of nerve root compression. Inflammation of nerve roots from leak of degenerative nuclear material through full-thickness annular tears is a proposed mechanism for such leg pain. The aim of this study is to illustrate the appearance of extradural enhancement adjacent to annular tears in patients being investigated for low back pain with radiation into the lower limb(s). Sagittal T1- and T2-weighted spin echo and axial T1-weighted spin echo sequences were obtained in eight patients being investigated for low back and leg pain. In all patients, the T1-weighted sequences were repeated following intravenous gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA). Annular tears were identified at 12 sites in eight patients. Extradural inflammation appeared as a region of intermediate signal intensity replacing the fat between the posterior disc margin and the theca, which enhanced following Gd-DTPA. The inflammatory change was always associated with an annular tear, and in four cases directly involved the nerve root. Enhancement of the nerve root was seen in two cases. The findings may be relevant in the diagnosis of chemical radiculopathy secondary to inflammation at the site of an annular leak from a degenerating disc. (+info)
Sonographic incidence of tendon microtears in athletes with chronic Achilles tendinosis. (3/977)OBJECTIVE: To assess the number and distribution of tendon microtears in asymptomatic controls and athletes with chronic Achilles tendinitis or partial thickness tears using high resolution ultrasound. METHODS: The mean number of microtears in three random tendon cross sections were recorded per tendon third in 19 asymptomatic volunteers, 16 athletes with symptomatic chronic Achilles tendinitis, and eight athletes with partial Achilles tendon rupture. RESULTS: Microtears were most numerous in the middle third section of the Achilles tendon. Some 67% of tendons in the control group had no microtears, and 28% showed a single microtear. Only 18% of the athletes with chronic Achilles tendinitis and none of the athletes with partial tendon rupture were without microtears in the middle third of their Achilles tendon. Of the tendons with chronic tendinitis, 13% had more than three microtears per section which increased to 87% in tendons exhibiting partial rupture. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be an association between microtear formation and Achilles tendon rupture. (+info)
Traumatic wound rupture after penetrating keratoplasty in Africa. (4/977)AIM: To investigate risk factors, visual outcome, and graft survival for traumatic wound rupture after penetrating keratoplasty. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 336 patients who underwent penetrating keratoplasty from 1988 to 1995. RESULTS: 19 patients (5.7%) suffered traumatic postoperative wound rupture requiring surgical repair. They were younger (mean age 16.6 years, 95% CI 13.2-20.6) and more frequently keratoconic (p = 0.01) than other patients (mean age 28.9 years, 95% CI 26.-31.0). Mean postoperative follow up was 37.7 (SD 22.9) months and 24.5 (18.9) months for the rupture and non-rupture patients. Mean interval between keratoplasty and rupture was 18 (21) weeks. The lens was damaged and removed in 37% of ruptured eyes. For keratoconics, the probability of graft survival at 5 years was lower (p = 0.03) in the ruptured eyes (75%) than in the non-ruptured eyes (90%). Endothelial failure was a more common (p <0.05) cause of graft opacification in ruptured grafts than in intact grafts. Of the ruptured eyes, 53% achieved a final corrected acuity of at least 6/18 and 63% achieved at least 6/60 compared with 48% and 71% of the intact eyes respectively (both p >0.1). The proportion of keratoconic eyes which achieved at least 6/60 was lower (p = 0.02) in the ruptured eyes (67%) than the non-ruptured eyes (87%). Eyes with wound ruptures of 5 clock hours or greater were less likely (p <0.05) to achieve an acuity of 6/18 and were more likely (p <0.05) to have an associated lens injury. CONCLUSIONS: Graft rupture is relatively common in African practice, particularly in young keratoconics. Visual outcome and graft survival are not significantly worse than for other grafted eyes, but are significantly worse than for other grafted keratoconic eyes. (+info)
Evidence for increased collagenolysis by interstitial collagenases-1 and -3 in vulnerable human atheromatous plaques. (5/977)BACKGROUND: Several recent studies attempted to classify plaques as those prone to cause clinical manifestations (vulnerable, atheromatous plaques) or those less frequently associated with acute thrombotic complication (stable, fibrous plaques). Defining the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie these morphological features remains a challenge. Because interstitial forms of collagen determine the biomechanical strength of the atherosclerotic lesion, this study investigated expression of the collagen-degrading matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) interstitial collagenase-3 (MMP-13) and the previously studied MMP-1 in human atheroma and used a novel technique to test the hypothesis that collagenolysis in atheromatous lesions exceeds that in fibrous human atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, similar in size, were separated by conventional morphological characteristics into fibrous (n=10) and atheromatous (n=10) lesions. Immunohistochemical and Western blot analysis demonstrated increased levels of MMP-1 and MMP-13 in atheromatous versus fibrous plaques. In addition, collagenase-cleaved type I collagen, demonstrated by a novel cleavage-specific antibody, colocalized with MMP-1- and MMP-13-positive macrophages. Macrophages, rather than endothelial or smooth muscle cells, expressed MMP-13 and MMP-1 on stimulation in vitro. Furthermore, Western blot analysis demonstrated loss of interstitial collagen type I and increased collagenolysis in atheromatous versus fibrous lesions. Finally, atheromatous plaques contained higher levels of proinflammatory cytokines, activators of MMPs. CONCLUSIONS: This report demonstrates that atheromatous rather than fibrous plaques might be prone to rupture due to increased collagenolysis associated with macrophages, probably mediated by the interstitial collagenases MMP-1 and MMP-13. (+info)
Stromelysin promoter 5A/6A polymorphism is associated with acute myocardial infarction. (6/977)BACKGROUND: Rupture of the fibrous cap of an atherosclerotic plaque is a key event that predisposes to acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may contribute to weakening of the cap, which favors rupture. Stromelysin, a member of MMP family, is identified extensively in human coronary atherosclerotic lesions. It can degrade most of the constituents of extracellular matrix as well as activating other MMPs, which suggests that it may play an important role in plaque rupture. Recently, a common variant (5A/6A) in the promoter of the stromelysin gene has been identified. The 5A/6A polymorphism could regulate the transcription of the stromelysin gene in an allele-specific manner. METHODS AND RESULTS: To investigate the relation between the 5A/6A polymorphism in the promoter of the stromelysin gene and AMI, we conducted a case-control study of 330 AMI patients and 330 control subjects. The prevalence of the 5A/6A+5A/5A genotype was significantly more frequent in the patients with AMI than in control subjects (48.8% vs 32.7%, P<0.0001). In logistic regression models, the odds ratio of the 5A/6A+5A/5A was 2.25 (95% CI, 1.51 to 3.35). The association of 5A/6A polymorphism with AMI was statistically significant and independent of other risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The 5A/6A polymorphism in the promoter of the stromelysin gene is a novel pathogenetic risk factor for AMI. (+info)
Ocular explosion during cataract surgery: a clinical, histopathological, experimental, and biophysical study. (7/977)INTRODUCTION: An increasing number of cases are being recognized in which a peribulbar anesthetic for cataract surgery has been inadvertently injected directly into the globe under high pressure until the globe ruptures or explodes. We reviewed the records of 6 such cases (one of which was reported previously by us), and one additional case has been reported in the literature. Surprisingly, 2 of these 7 cases went unrecognized at the time, and the surgeons proceeded with the cataract operation; all of the patients ultimately developed severe visual loss and/or loss of the eye. OBJECTIVES: To reproduce this eye explosion in a live anesthetized rabbit model and to perform a clinical, histopathological, experimental, biophysical, and mathematical analysis of this injury. METHODS: Eyes of live anesthetized rabbits were ruptured by means of the injection of saline directly into the globe under high pressure. The clinical and pathological findings of the ruptured human and animal eyes were documented photographically and/or histopathologically. An experimental, biophysical, and mathematical analysis of the pressures and forces required to rupture the globe via direct injection using human cadavers, human eye-bank eyes, and classic physics and ophthalmic formulas was performed. The laws of Bernoulli, LaPlace, Friedenwald, and Pascal were applied to the theoretical and experimental models of this phenomenon. RESULTS: The clinical and pathological findings of scleral rupture, retinal detachment, vitreous hemorrhage, and lens extrusion were observed. In the exploded human and rabbit eyes, the scleral ruptures appeared at the equator, the limbal area, or the posterior pole. In 2 of the 7 human eyes, the anterior segments appeared entirely normal despite the rupture, and cataract surgery was completed; surgery was canceled in the other 4 cases. In 4 of the 5 injected and ruptured rabbit eyes, the anterior segments appeared essentially normal. The experiments with human eye-bank eyes and the theoretical analyses of this entity show that the pressure required to produce such an injury is much more easily obtained with a 3- or 5-mL syringe than with a syringe 10 mL or larger. CONCLUSIONS: Explosion of an eyeball during the injection of anesthesia for ocular surgery is a devastating injury that may go unrecognized. The probability of an ocular explosion can be minimized by careful use of a syringe 10 mL or larger with a blunt needle, by discontinuing the injection if resistance is met, and by inspecting the globe prior to ocular massage or placement of a Honan balloon. When ocular explosion occurs, immediate referral to and intervention by a vitreoretinal surgeon is optimal. Practicing ophthalmologists should be aware of this blinding but preventable complication of ocular surgery. (+info)
Recurrent carotid blowout syndrome: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in a newly recognized subgroup of patients. (8/977)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To our knowledge, recurrent carotid blowout syndrome (rCBS) has not been well described. Our purpose was to review our institution's recent experience with patients who presented with multiple episodes of carotid blowout syndrome (CBS), and who were referred for emergent diagnostic angiography and endovascular therapy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the last 46 consecutive patients who had a clinical diagnosis of CBS. All patients were examined and treated prospectively according to a standardized protocol. Most patients (43 of 46) had undergone extensive primary and salvage radical surgery with intraoperative brachytherapy or external beam radiation or both. The remaining three patients had either traumatic or iatrogenic CBS. RESULTS: Twelve patients (26%) in our series had more than one episode of CBS in which a total of 32 (20 recurrent) events were observed (average 2.7, range 2-4). Intervals of rCBS ranged from 1 day to 6 years. Thirteen (65%) of 20 recurrent events were attributed to progressive disease (PD), and seven (35%) of 20 to treatment failures (TFs). In the PD group, seven (54%) of 13 had recurrent ipsilateral disease, and six (46%) of 13 had recurrent contralateral disease. Etiologies of rCBS were as follows: seven exposed carotids; seven carotid pseudoaneurysms; eight small-branch pseudoaneurysms; five tumor hemorrhages; three hyperemic/ulcerated wounds; and one aortic arch rupture. Twenty-seven of 32 events were treated with endovascular therapy, which included the following: nine carotid occlusions; 11 small-branch embolizations; three transarterial tumor embolizations; one carotid stent; and two direct-puncture embolizations. Four of six TFs were retreated successfully with endovascular therapy; the remaining two TFs were managed successfully by surgery. In the PD group, hemorrhagic complications of rCBS were managed successfully in all but one patient, who died. No permanent neurologic or ophthalmologic complications occurred. CONCLUSION: Recurrent CBS is a frequently encountered problem in which most cases are caused by PD resulting from both multifocal iatrogenic arteriopathy and occasional wound complications that are characteristic of aggressively managed head and neck surgical patients. Initial TFs are encountered often as well. Despite the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges of rCBS, most cases can be retreated effectively. (+info)
In the medical field, "rupture" refers to the tearing or bursting of a structure or tissue, often as a result of trauma or excessive force. For example, a rupture of the aorta is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the main artery in the body bursts, often due to a weakened or diseased vessel. Similarly, a rupture of the spleen can occur as a result of blunt trauma to the abdomen, and can lead to severe bleeding and potentially death if not treated promptly. Ruptures can also occur in other organs and tissues, such as the uterus during childbirth, the appendix during an appendicitis, or the retina of the eye. In each case, a rupture can lead to serious complications and require prompt medical attention to prevent further damage or loss of function.
Splenic rupture is a medical emergency that occurs when the spleen, a vital organ located in the upper left part of the abdomen, ruptures or tears. This can happen due to various reasons, including blunt trauma to the abdomen, severe abdominal infections, or certain medical conditions such as sickle cell anemia or splenic vein thrombosis. When the spleen ruptures, it can cause severe internal bleeding, which can quickly lead to shock and even death if not treated promptly. Symptoms of splenic rupture may include sudden abdominal pain, rapid heart rate, low blood pressure, and fainting. Diagnosis of splenic rupture typically involves a physical examination, imaging tests such as ultrasound or CT scan, and blood tests to check for signs of internal bleeding. Treatment usually involves surgery to repair or remove the ruptured spleen, followed by supportive care to manage any complications and prevent further bleeding.
Aortic rupture is a medical emergency that occurs when the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body, ruptures or tears. This can happen due to a variety of factors, including trauma, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), aneurysms (ballooning of the aorta), and certain medical conditions such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Aortic rupture is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms of aortic rupture may include severe chest pain, shortness of breath, lightheadedness, and loss of consciousness. If left untreated, aortic rupture can lead to rapid bleeding and death. Treatment for aortic rupture typically involves emergency surgery to repair or replace the damaged section of the aorta. In some cases, aortic rupture may be treated with medications to control blood pressure and prevent further bleeding. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else may be experiencing aortic rupture.
Heart rupture is a serious medical condition that occurs when the wall of the heart is torn or ruptured. This can happen as a result of a heart attack, trauma, or a congenital defect in the heart. When the heart wall ruptures, it can cause a sudden and severe loss of blood, leading to shock and potentially death. The rupture can occur in different parts of the heart, including the atria, ventricles, or septum. Diagnosis of heart rupture typically involves a combination of clinical examination, imaging studies such as echocardiography or computed tomography (CT), and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the severity and location of the rupture, but may include surgery to repair or replace the damaged heart tissue, or supportive measures to manage shock and other complications.
Uterine rupture is a serious medical condition that occurs when the wall of the uterus breaks or tears during pregnancy or childbirth. This can be a life-threatening situation for both the mother and the baby, as it can lead to severe bleeding, infection, and other complications. Uterine rupture is most commonly associated with previous cesarean deliveries, but it can also occur in women who have had a history of uterine surgery or who have certain medical conditions that increase the risk of uterine weakness. Symptoms of uterine rupture may include severe abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, and a high-pitched fetal heart rate. If left untreated, uterine rupture can lead to severe maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Treatment for uterine rupture typically involves emergency surgery to repair the damaged uterus and remove the baby, if necessary. In some cases, a hysterectomy may be necessary to remove the uterus and prevent further bleeding.
Heart rupture, post-infarction refers to a catastrophic complication that can occur after a heart attack (myocardial infarction). It is a rare but life-threatening condition in which a tear or hole develops in the wall of the heart, usually in the left ventricle, the main pumping chamber of the heart. The rupture can occur due to the intense pressure and strain on the heart muscle during a heart attack, which can cause the muscle fibers to tear or break apart. The rupture can lead to a sudden and massive loss of blood, which can cause the heart to stop beating (cardiac arrest) and lead to death within minutes. Symptoms of heart rupture, post-infarction may include sudden chest pain, shortness of breath, rapid or irregular heartbeat, and shock. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as echocardiography or computed tomography (CT) scan. Treatment for heart rupture, post-infarction is typically surgical, involving repair or replacement of the damaged heart tissue. However, the prognosis for this condition is generally poor, with a high mortality rate.
Premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM) is a medical condition in which the membranes surrounding the fetus in the uterus break before the expected time of delivery. This can occur at any time during pregnancy, but it is most common between 37 and 38 weeks of gestation. PROM can cause a number of complications for both the mother and the baby. For the mother, it can lead to infection, preterm labor, and low amniotic fluid levels. For the baby, it can increase the risk of respiratory distress syndrome, infection, and low birth weight. There are several possible causes of PROM, including infection, trauma, and mechanical factors such as the baby's movements. In some cases, the cause of PROM may not be known. Treatment for PROM typically involves hospitalization and close monitoring of the mother and baby. In some cases, antibiotics may be given to prevent or treat infection. If the baby is not yet full term, the mother may be given corticosteroids to help the baby's lungs mature. If the baby is at risk of low birth weight or other complications, the mother may be induced to deliver the baby as soon as possible.
Aneurysm, ruptured refers to a medical condition in which a weakened or bulging blood vessel in the brain or elsewhere in the body bursts or leaks, causing blood to leak out into the surrounding tissue. This can be a life-threatening emergency, as the leaked blood can cause damage to surrounding brain tissue, leading to brain swelling, bleeding, and potentially permanent brain damage or death. Ruptured aneurysms are often caused by high blood pressure, smoking, or a family history of aneurysms. Treatment typically involves surgery or endovascular coiling to repair or clip the ruptured aneurysm and prevent further bleeding.
Stomach rupture, also known as gastric rupture or gastric perforation, is a medical emergency that occurs when the stomach wall tears or ruptures, allowing the contents of the stomach to leak into the abdominal cavity. This can happen due to various causes, including trauma, infection, or certain medical conditions such as peptic ulcer disease or cancer. The symptoms of stomach rupture can include severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, distension of the abdomen, and a rapid heart rate. If left untreated, stomach rupture can lead to serious complications such as sepsis, peritonitis, and organ failure, which can be life-threatening. Diagnosis of stomach rupture typically involves a physical examination, imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans, and laboratory tests to evaluate the patient's blood and fluid levels. Treatment typically involves surgery to repair the tear in the stomach wall and remove any infected or necrotic tissue. In some cases, antibiotics may also be used to treat any underlying infection.
Tendon injuries refer to damage or injury to the tendons, which are the strong, fibrous connective tissues that connect muscles to bones. Tendons are responsible for transmitting the force generated by muscles to the bones, allowing for movement and stability in the joints. Tendon injuries can occur due to a variety of factors, including overuse, trauma, or sudden movements that put excessive stress on the tendons. Common types of tendon injuries include strains, tears, and ruptures. Tendon injuries can range from mild to severe, and the severity of the injury will depend on the extent of the damage to the tendon. Mild injuries may involve only minor inflammation and soreness, while more severe injuries may result in significant pain, swelling, and loss of function. Treatment for tendon injuries typically involves rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to reduce inflammation and pain. In some cases, physical therapy or other forms of rehabilitation may be necessary to help the tendon heal and regain strength and flexibility. In more severe cases, surgery may be required to repair or reconstruct the damaged tendon.
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a bulge or dilation in the abdominal aorta, which is the main artery that carries blood from the heart to the lower part of the body. The aorta is the largest artery in the body, and an aneurysm can occur at any point along its length, but abdominal aortic aneurysms are the most common type. AAA can occur due to a variety of factors, including age, smoking, high blood pressure, a family history of the condition, and certain medical conditions such as atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries) or Marfan syndrome. The aneurysm can grow slowly over time, and if it becomes too large, it can rupture, which is a life-threatening emergency. Symptoms of an abdominal aortic aneurysm may include a pulsating mass in the abdomen, abdominal pain or discomfort, and back pain. However, many people with AAA have no symptoms and the condition is often discovered incidentally during a routine medical examination. Treatment for AAA depends on the size of the aneurysm and the risk of rupture. Small aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging studies, while larger aneurysms may require surgery to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta. In some cases, endovascular repair, a minimally invasive procedure, may be an option. It is important for people with AAA to follow their doctor's recommendations for monitoring and treatment to reduce the risk of complications.
Hemoperitoneum is a medical condition in which there is bleeding into the abdominal cavity, typically caused by trauma or a ruptured abdominal organ. The blood accumulates in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space that surrounds the abdominal organs. Hemoperitoneum can be a life-threatening condition if not treated promptly, as it can lead to shock and organ failure. Symptoms of hemoperitoneum may include abdominal pain, distension, tenderness, and a rapid heart rate. Diagnosis is typically made through physical examination, abdominal imaging studies such as CT scan or ultrasound, and laboratory tests. Treatment may involve surgery to repair the ruptured organ or to remove blood from the abdominal cavity.
The Achilles tendon is a strong, fibrous band of tissue that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone (calcaneus) in the foot. It is the largest tendon in the body and plays a crucial role in allowing us to stand, walk, run, and jump. The Achilles tendon is located at the back of the ankle and is responsible for transmitting the force generated by the calf muscles to the heel bone, which in turn propels us forward. Injuries to the Achilles tendon are common, particularly in athletes who engage in high-impact activities such as running, jumping, and basketball. Achilles tendon injuries can range from mild strains to complete ruptures, which can require surgery to repair. Treatment for Achilles tendon injuries typically involves rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE), as well as physical therapy to strengthen the muscles around the tendon and promote healing.
Wounds, Nonpenetrating, also known as superficial wounds, are injuries to the skin and underlying tissues that do not penetrate through to the other side of the skin. These types of wounds can be caused by a variety of factors, including cuts, scrapes, burns, and bruises. Nonpenetrating wounds are typically less severe than penetrating wounds, which can damage underlying structures such as bones, muscles, and organs. Treatment for nonpenetrating wounds typically involves cleaning the wound, applying dressings, and monitoring for signs of infection. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent or treat infection.
An intracranial aneurysm is a bulge or balloon-like dilation of a blood vessel in the brain. It occurs when a weakened area in the wall of the blood vessel balloons out and forms a sac. This can cause the blood vessel to become stretched and prone to rupture, which can lead to a life-threatening brain hemorrhage. Intracranial aneurysms are most commonly found in the arteries that supply blood to the brain, particularly the anterior communicating artery, the middle cerebral artery, and the internal carotid artery. They can occur at any age, but are more common in people over the age of 50. Risk factors for developing an intracranial aneurysm include smoking, high blood pressure, a family history of the condition, and certain genetic disorders. Treatment options for intracranial aneurysms include surgery to clip or coagulate the aneurysm, or endovascular coiling, which involves inserting a catheter through a blood vessel in the groin and threading it up to the aneurysm, where a coil is placed to fill the aneurysm and prevent it from rupturing.
Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which a synthetic or biologic prosthesis is placed inside a blood vessel to replace or bypass a damaged or diseased section of the vessel. The prosthesis is typically made of materials such as polyester, silicone, or bovine jugular vein, and is designed to mimic the natural structure and function of the blood vessel it is replacing. The procedure is commonly used to treat conditions such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, and blocked or narrowed blood vessels. During the procedure, the surgeon makes a small incision in the skin and uses specialized instruments to access the blood vessel and implant the prosthesis. The procedure is typically performed under general anesthesia and may take several hours to complete. Recovery time and potential complications vary depending on the specific procedure and the individual patient.
Aortography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. It involves injecting a contrast dye into the aorta through a small catheter that is inserted into a blood vessel in the groin or arm. The dye makes the aorta visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to detect any abnormalities or blockages in the blood flow. Aortography is often used to diagnose conditions such as aneurysms, dissections, and stenosis (narrowing) of the aorta. It is a minimally invasive procedure that is generally considered safe, although there is a small risk of complications such as bleeding, infection, or damage to the blood vessels.
In the medical field, "aneurysm, false" refers to a condition where a blood vessel in the brain is weakened and bulges outwards, but it is not a true aneurysm. A true aneurysm is a bulge in a blood vessel that can rupture and cause bleeding in the brain, which can be life-threatening. A false aneurysm, also known as a pseudoaneurysm, is a bulge in a blood vessel that is caused by trauma or surgery, but it is not a true aneurysm because the blood vessel wall is not weakened. False aneurysms are typically smaller than true aneurysms and are less likely to rupture, but they can still cause symptoms such as headache, nausea, and vomiting. Treatment for a false aneurysm may involve medications to reduce blood pressure and prevent further bleeding, or surgery to repair the blood vessel. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you may have a false aneurysm, as it can be a serious condition if left untreated.
Heart injuries refer to any type of damage or trauma that affects the heart or its surrounding structures. These injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including blunt force trauma, penetration wounds, or sudden cardiac arrest. Some common types of heart injuries include: 1. Contusion: A bruise or contusion on the heart caused by blunt force trauma. 2. Pericardial injury: Damage to the sac that surrounds the heart, which can cause bleeding or inflammation. 3. Cardiac tamponade: A life-threatening condition in which blood or other fluid builds up around the heart, compressing it and preventing it from functioning properly. 4. Myocardial contusion: Damage to the heart muscle caused by blunt force trauma. 5. Cardiac rupture: A tear in the heart muscle or wall, which can cause significant bleeding and be life-threatening. 6. Pericarditis: Inflammation of the pericardium, which can cause chest pain, fever, and other symptoms. 7. Cardiac arrest: A sudden and complete loss of heart function, which can be caused by a variety of factors, including heart attack, electrical disturbances, or sudden cardiac death. Heart injuries can be serious and require prompt medical attention. Treatment may include medications, surgery, or other interventions depending on the severity and type of injury.
The abdominal aorta is the largest artery in the human body, responsible for carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to the lower half of the body, including the abdominal organs, legs, and feet. It is located in the abdominal cavity, between the diaphragm and the pelvic floor, and is approximately 10-12 inches long. The abdominal aorta begins at the level of the aortic hiatus in the diaphragm, where it emerges from the thoracic aorta. It then passes through the abdominal cavity, where it is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the adventitia. The abdominal aorta branches into several smaller arteries, including the superior mesenteric artery, the renal arteries, and the common iliac arteries. Abnormalities of the abdominal aorta can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including aneurysms, dissections, and occlusions. These conditions can be serious and may require medical intervention, such as surgery or endovascular procedures.
A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used to replace or repair damaged or diseased blood vessels. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, polyurethane, or silicone, and is designed to mimic the natural structure and function of the blood vessel it is replacing. Blood vessel prostheses are used in a variety of medical procedures, including coronary artery bypass surgery, where a blocked or narrowed coronary artery is bypassed with a synthetic vessel, and peripheral artery bypass surgery, where a blocked or narrowed artery in the legs is bypassed with a synthetic vessel. Blood vessel prostheses can also be used to treat aneurysms, where a weakened or bulging blood vessel is repaired with a synthetic vessel, and to treat venous insufficiency, where the valves in the veins are damaged and the blood flows backwards, causing swelling and discomfort. Blood vessel prostheses are typically inserted into the body through a small incision and are secured in place with stitches or clips. They are designed to be biocompatible, meaning that they are not rejected by the body's immune system, and are intended to last for many years.
An aneurysm is a bulge or dilation in the wall of a blood vessel, typically a artery. It occurs when the weakened wall of the vessel balloons out and becomes distended, creating a sac-like structure. Aneurysms can occur in any part of the body, but they are most commonly found in the brain, aorta, and legs. Aneurysms can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), trauma, and genetic predisposition. They can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning they do not cause any symptoms, or they can cause symptoms such as headache, neck pain, visual changes, or weakness or numbness in the extremities. If an aneurysm ruptures, it can cause a life-threatening bleeding episode. Treatment for aneurysms depends on the size, location, and risk of rupture. Small aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging studies, while larger aneurysms or those at high risk of rupture may require surgical repair or endovascular coiling, a minimally invasive procedure in which a catheter is inserted into the aneurysm and a coil is placed to fill the sac and prevent further expansion.
Chordae tendineae are thin, fibrous bands of tissue that connect the papillary muscles of the heart to the openings in the heart valves. They play a crucial role in maintaining the proper function of the heart valves by helping to keep them closed when the heart is relaxed and preventing them from prolapsing (bulging) when the heart is contracting. The chordae tendineae are essential for the proper flow of blood through the heart and preventing backflow (regurgitation) of blood from the heart's chambers. Damage or dysfunction of the chordae tendineae can lead to heart valve problems and heart failure.
An aortic aneurysm is a bulge or dilation in the wall of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. It occurs when the wall of the aorta becomes weakened and begins to balloon outwards. Aneurysms can occur in any part of the aorta, but the most common location is in the abdominal aorta, just below the kidneys. Aneurysms can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), smoking, and genetic conditions such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. They can also be caused by injury or infection. Aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning that they do not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, if the aneurysm becomes large enough, it can cause pain in the abdomen or back, and in severe cases, it can rupture, leading to life-threatening internal bleeding. Treatment for aortic aneurysms depends on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Small aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests, while larger aneurysms may require surgery to repair or replace the affected section of the aorta. In some cases, endovascular repair, a minimally invasive procedure, may be used to treat aneurysms.
Aortic aneurysm, thoracic refers to a bulge or dilation in the thoracic aorta, which is the largest artery in the body that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The bulge can occur at any point along the length of the thoracic aorta, but it is most commonly found in the ascending aorta, just below the heart. Aortic aneurysms can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), and genetic conditions such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. They can also be caused by trauma or surgery. Aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning that they do not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, if the aneurysm becomes large enough, it can cause symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and a pulsating sensation in the abdomen. If the aneurysm ruptures, it can be life-threatening. Treatment for aortic aneurysms depends on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health. Small aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests, while larger aneurysms may require surgery or endovascular repair. It is important for people with aortic aneurysms to follow their doctor's recommendations for monitoring and treatment to prevent complications.
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a strong, fibrous connective tissue structure located in the knee joint. It is one of the four main ligaments that stabilize the knee and prevent excessive movement within the joint. The ACL runs diagonally from the back of the femur (thigh bone) to the front of the tibia (shin bone) and helps to prevent the tibia from sliding too far forward in relation to the femur. The ACL is an important structure for maintaining the stability and proper function of the knee joint, and injuries to the ACL are common in sports and other activities that involve sudden changes in direction or force.
Hematoma is a medical term that refers to the accumulation of blood in a tissue or organ. It occurs when a blood vessel breaks or leaks, causing blood to leak out into the surrounding tissue. Hematomas can be classified as either acute or chronic, depending on the length of time that the blood has been accumulating. Acute hematomas occur suddenly and are usually the result of trauma, such as a blow to the head or a fall. They can be painful and may cause swelling and discoloration of the affected area. Acute hematomas can be treated with ice packs, compression, and elevation of the affected area. Chronic hematomas, on the other hand, occur over a longer period of time and are often the result of a slow leak of blood from a blood vessel. They can be more difficult to treat and may require surgery to remove the accumulated blood. Hematomas can occur in any part of the body, but are most commonly found in the brain, liver, and muscles. They can be serious if they are large or if they occur in critical areas of the body, such as the brain or spinal cord. Treatment for hematomas depends on the size, location, and cause of the hematoma, as well as the overall health of the patient.
Hernia, Diaphragmatic, Traumatic refers to a type of hernia that occurs when an organ or tissue in the abdomen or chest wall passes through a weakened or damaged area of the diaphragm, which is a muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. This type of hernia is typically caused by a traumatic event, such as a blow to the abdomen or chest, and can result in the protrusion of the stomach, intestines, or other organs into the chest cavity. Symptoms of a traumatic diaphragmatic hernia may include difficulty breathing, chest pain, and abdominal pain. Treatment typically involves surgery to repair the hernia and restore the normal position of the affected organ or tissue.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a medical condition that occurs when blood leaks into the space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater, which are two layers of tissue that cover the surface of the brain. This can happen due to a ruptured aneurysm, which is a bulge in a blood vessel in the brain that can burst and cause bleeding. SAH is a serious medical emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. The symptoms of SAH can include severe headache, nausea and vomiting, sensitivity to light, confusion, and loss of consciousness. If left untreated, SAH can lead to brain damage, stroke, and even death. Treatment for SAH typically involves surgery to repair or remove the ruptured aneurysm, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent further bleeding. The prognosis for SAH depends on several factors, including the severity of the bleeding, the location of the aneurysm, and the patient's overall health.
Atherosclerotic plaque is a hard, fatty deposit that builds up inside the walls of arteries. It is a common condition that can lead to serious health problems, such as heart attack and stroke. Atherosclerosis is the medical term for the buildup of plaque in the arteries. The plaque can narrow the arteries, reducing blood flow to the heart or brain. Over time, the plaque can rupture, causing a blood clot that can block blood flow and lead to a heart attack or stroke.
Aneurysm, dissecting refers to a medical condition in which a blood vessel in the body becomes weakened and bulges outwards, creating a tear or split in the vessel wall. This can cause blood to flow into the surrounding tissue, which can lead to serious complications if left untreated. Dissecting aneurysms are typically caused by high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), or trauma to the affected vessel. They can occur in any blood vessel in the body, but are most commonly found in the aorta, the main artery that carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Treatment for dissecting aneurysms may include medications to lower blood pressure, surgery to repair or replace the affected vessel, or endovascular procedures to repair the aneurysm from within the blood vessel.
Cardiac tamponade is a medical emergency that occurs when excess fluid builds up around the heart, causing the heart to become compressed and unable to pump blood effectively. This can lead to a drop in blood pressure, rapid heart rate, and other serious symptoms. The fluid that builds up around the heart can come from a variety of sources, including bleeding from a heart attack, trauma to the chest, or certain medical conditions such as cancer or connective tissue disorders. When the fluid accumulates, it can put pressure on the heart and interfere with its ability to fill with blood and pump it out to the rest of the body. Treatment for cardiac tamponade typically involves removing the excess fluid from around the heart. This can be done through a procedure called pericardiocentesis, in which a needle is inserted through the chest wall to drain the fluid. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the underlying cause of the fluid buildup or to remove any damaged tissue. Cardiac tamponade is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. If you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, or rapid heart rate, seek medical help immediately.
Knee injuries refer to any type of damage or trauma that affects the knee joint, which is located at the lower end of the leg. The knee is a complex joint that allows for movement in multiple directions, and it is subject to a wide range of injuries, including: 1. Sprains: A sprain occurs when the ligaments that connect the bones in the knee joint are stretched or torn. This can happen when the knee is twisted or turned beyond its normal range of motion. 2. Strains: A strain occurs when the muscles or tendons surrounding the knee joint are stretched or torn. This can happen when the knee is subjected to sudden or excessive force. 3. Fractures: A fracture occurs when one or more bones in the knee joint are broken. This can happen as a result of a direct blow to the knee or from a fall or other injury. 4. Dislocations: A dislocation occurs when the bones in the knee joint are forced out of their normal position. This can happen as a result of a severe impact or from a sudden twist or turn of the knee. 5. Meniscal tears: The menisci are two C-shaped pads of cartilage that sit between the bones in the knee joint. A tear in one of these menisci can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the knee. 6. ACL tears: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the four major ligaments in the knee joint. A tear in the ACL can cause instability in the knee and may require surgery to repair. 7. Patellar dislocations: The patella, or kneecap, is a small bone that sits in front of the knee joint. A dislocation occurs when the patella is forced out of its normal position, usually as a result of a direct blow to the knee. Knee injuries can range from minor to severe and can affect people of all ages and activity levels. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the injury, and may include rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE), physical therapy, medications, or surgery.
Postoperative complications are adverse events that occur after a surgical procedure. They can range from minor issues, such as bruising or discomfort, to more serious problems, such as infection, bleeding, or organ damage. Postoperative complications can occur for a variety of reasons, including surgical errors, anesthesia errors, infections, allergic reactions to medications, and underlying medical conditions. They can also be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, dehydration, and smoking. Postoperative complications can have serious consequences for patients, including prolonged hospital stays, additional surgeries, and even death. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent postoperative complications and to promptly recognize and treat them if they do occur.
Chorioamnionitis is an inflammation of the membranes that surround the fetus in the uterus, as well as the amniotic fluid that cushions the fetus. It is a serious medical condition that can occur during pregnancy, particularly during the third trimester. Chorioamnionitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacterial infections, viral infections, and sexually transmitted infections. It can also be caused by complications during pregnancy, such as preterm labor or ruptured membranes. Symptoms of chorioamnionitis may include fever, abdominal pain, vaginal discharge, and contractions. If left untreated, chorioamnionitis can lead to serious complications for both the mother and the fetus, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and neonatal sepsis. Treatment for chorioamnionitis typically involves antibiotics to treat the underlying infection. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor the mother and fetus for complications. If the infection is severe or if there are other complications, delivery of the baby may be necessary.
Splenic diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the spleen, which is an organ located in the upper left part of the abdomen. The spleen plays a vital role in the immune system, filtering blood and removing old or damaged red blood cells. Some common splenic diseases include: 1. Splenomegaly: This is an enlargement of the spleen, which can be caused by various conditions such as infections, liver disease, or blood disorders. 2. Spleen abscess: This is a collection of pus in the spleen, which can be caused by bacterial or fungal infections. 3. Spleen rupture: This is a serious condition in which the spleen ruptures, causing internal bleeding. 4. Spleen cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the spleen. 5. Spleen infarction: This is a blockage of blood flow to the spleen, which can be caused by blood clots or other conditions. 6. Spleen cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in the spleen, which are usually benign but can sometimes cause symptoms. 7. Spleen fibrosis: This is a thickening of the spleen's tissue, which can be caused by chronic inflammation or other conditions. Treatment for splenic diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the spleen or treat an abscess or rupture. Medications may also be used to manage symptoms or treat infections.
A heart aneurysm is a bulge or balloon-like enlargement of a weakened portion of the wall of a blood vessel in the heart. It occurs when a section of the wall becomes thin and weak, causing it to balloon outwards. Aneurysms can occur in any blood vessel in the body, but they are most commonly found in the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body and carries blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Heart aneurysms can be caused by a variety of factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque in the arteries), infections, and injuries. They can also be caused by genetic factors, such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Heart aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning that they do not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, if an aneurysm becomes large enough, it can cause symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and palpitations. In some cases, an aneurysm can rupture, which is a life-threatening emergency that requires immediate medical attention. Treatment for heart aneurysms depends on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the underlying cause. Small aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests, while larger aneurysms may require surgery or other interventions to prevent rupture. Medications may also be prescribed to manage symptoms or lower the risk of complications.
Esophageal diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the esophagus, a muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. The esophagus is responsible for moving food and liquid from the mouth to the stomach. Esophageal diseases can be classified into two main categories: structural and functional. Structural esophageal diseases are those that involve changes in the physical structure of the esophagus. Examples include esophageal cancer, Barrett's esophagus, achalasia, and esophageal strictures. These conditions can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, and weight loss. Functional esophageal diseases, on the other hand, are those that involve changes in the way the esophagus functions. Examples include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), and nutcracker esophagus. These conditions can cause symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, difficulty swallowing, and difficulty breathing. Esophageal diseases can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including endoscopy, manometry, and imaging studies such as CT scans or MRI. Treatment for esophageal diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, lifestyle changes, endoscopic procedures, or surgery.
Abdominal injuries refer to any type of damage or trauma that affects the abdominal organs, including the liver, spleen, stomach, intestines, pancreas, and kidneys. These injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including blunt force trauma, penetrating trauma, or internal bleeding. Abdominal injuries can range from minor to life-threatening, and the severity of the injury depends on the extent of the damage to the organs and the amount of bleeding. Symptoms of abdominal injuries may include pain, tenderness, swelling, nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing. Diagnosis of abdominal injuries typically involves a physical examination, imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or ultrasounds, and laboratory tests to assess blood loss and organ function. Treatment of abdominal injuries may involve surgery to repair or remove damaged organs, medications to control pain and bleeding, and supportive care to manage complications such as infection or shock.
Eye injuries refer to any damage or trauma that affects the structures of the eye, including the cornea, iris, lens, retina, optic nerve, and surrounding tissues. These injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including physical trauma, chemical exposure, radiation, or infection. Eye injuries can range from minor to severe and can cause temporary or permanent vision loss, depending on the extent of the damage. Some common types of eye injuries include corneal abrasions, conjunctivitis, chemical burns, foreign body injuries, and retinal detachment. Treatment for eye injuries depends on the severity and type of injury. Minor injuries may be treated with eye drops or ointments, while more severe injuries may require surgery or other medical interventions. It is important to seek medical attention immediately if you suspect that you or someone else has suffered an eye injury to prevent further damage and promote the best possible outcome.
A hemothorax is a medical condition in which there is bleeding into the pleural cavity, which is the space between the lungs and the chest wall. This can occur due to trauma, such as a blow to the chest, or as a complication of other medical conditions, such as cancer or blood disorders. Symptoms of a hemothorax may include chest pain, shortness of breath, and a rapid heart rate. In severe cases, a hemothorax can compress the lungs and cause difficulty breathing. Diagnosis of a hemothorax typically involves imaging tests, such as chest X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans. Treatment may involve draining the blood from the pleural cavity, either through a small incision in the chest or using a needle and syringe. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair the underlying cause of the hemothorax.
The thoracic aorta is the largest artery in the human body, located in the chest region. It is responsible for carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body, specifically to the head, neck, arms, and upper torso. The thoracic aorta begins at the base of the heart and extends up to the diaphragm, where it becomes the abdominal aorta. The thoracic aorta is divided into three main sections: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta is the portion of the aorta that ascends from the heart to the aortic arch. The aortic arch is the curved portion of the aorta that arches over the top of the heart and connects the ascending aorta to the descending aorta. The descending aorta is the portion of the aorta that descends from the aortic arch to the diaphragm. The thoracic aorta is surrounded by a layer of connective tissue called the adventitia, which provides support and protection to the aorta. The aorta is also surrounded by the pericardium, a sac-like structure that surrounds the heart and helps to protect it from injury. The thoracic aorta is an important part of the circulatory system and plays a critical role in maintaining blood flow to the body's vital organs.
An infected aneurysm is a medical condition in which an aneurysm, which is a bulge or dilation in a blood vessel, becomes infected. This can occur when bacteria or other microorganisms enter the bloodstream and travel to the aneurysm, causing an infection. Symptoms of an infected aneurysm may include fever, chills, fatigue, and pain in the affected area. Treatment typically involves antibiotics to treat the infection and, in some cases, surgical repair of the aneurysm.，，。
Myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, is a medical condition that occurs when blood flow to a part of the heart muscle is blocked, usually by a blood clot. This lack of blood flow can cause damage to the heart muscle, which can lead to serious complications and even death if not treated promptly. The most common cause of a heart attack is atherosclerosis, a condition in which plaque builds up in the arteries that supply blood to the heart. When a plaque ruptures or becomes unstable, it can form a blood clot that blocks the flow of blood to the heart muscle. Other causes of heart attacks include coronary artery spasms, blood clots that travel to the heart from other parts of the body, and certain medical conditions such as Kawasaki disease. Symptoms of a heart attack may include chest pain or discomfort, shortness of breath, nausea or vomiting, lightheadedness or dizziness, and pain or discomfort in the arms, back, neck, jaw, or stomach. If you suspect that you or someone else is having a heart attack, it is important to call emergency services immediately. Early treatment with medications and possibly surgery can help to reduce the risk of serious complications and improve the chances of a full recovery.
Pericardial effusion is a medical condition characterized by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac, which is a sac-like structure that surrounds the heart. The pericardial sac is filled with a small amount of fluid that helps to lubricate and protect the heart. When there is an excessive amount of fluid in the pericardial sac, it can lead to a condition called pericardial effusion. Pericardial effusion can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, heart failure, cancer, and autoimmune disorders. Symptoms of pericardial effusion may include chest pain, shortness of breath, coughing, and fatigue. In some cases, pericardial effusion may be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during a routine medical examination. Diagnosis of pericardial effusion typically involves imaging tests such as echocardiography, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment for pericardial effusion depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, drainage of the fluid, or surgery.，，，。
Obstetric labor, premature refers to the delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation. Premature labor is a common complication of pregnancy and can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, hormonal imbalances, and structural abnormalities of the uterus or cervix. Premature labor can be classified as either "incomplete" or "complete." Incomplete premature labor is characterized by contractions that are not strong enough to dilate the cervix and deliver the baby. Complete premature labor, on the other hand, is characterized by regular, painful contractions that are strong enough to dilate the cervix and progress towards delivery. Premature labor can be managed with medications to slow or stop labor, or in some cases, with surgery to deliver the baby. Premature babies may require special care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to help them grow and develop properly.
Posterior Capsular Rupture (PCR) is a condition that occurs when the posterior capsule of the lens in the eye ruptures. The posterior capsule is a thin layer of tissue that covers the back of the lens and helps to hold it in place. When this capsule ruptures, it can cause the lens to dislocate or move out of position, which can lead to a variety of complications. PCR is often associated with cataract surgery, where the natural lens of the eye is removed and replaced with an artificial lens. During surgery, the posterior capsule can be damaged or ruptured, which can increase the risk of complications such as PCO (Posterior Capsular Opacification) or retinal detachment. PCR can also occur spontaneously, without any surgical intervention, as a result of trauma or other factors. In these cases, it can lead to similar complications as those associated with surgical PCRs. Treatment for PCR depends on the severity of the condition and the underlying cause. In some cases, the lens may be able to be repositioned or replaced to correct the problem. In other cases, more invasive procedures such as vitrectomy or lens exchange may be necessary to treat the complications associated with PCR.
In the medical field, "Abdomen, Acute" refers to a sudden and severe condition that affects the abdominal region of the body. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, injuries, blockages, or other medical conditions. Symptoms of an acute abdomen may include severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, fever, constipation or diarrhea, bloating, and loss of appetite. In some cases, an acute abdomen may also be accompanied by symptoms such as difficulty breathing, dizziness, or fainting. Diagnosis of an acute abdomen typically involves a physical examination, medical history review, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include medications, surgery, or other medical interventions. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience symptoms of an acute abdomen, as delay in treatment can lead to serious complications.
Amniotic fluid is a clear, yellowish liquid that fills the amniotic sac, which is a membrane that surrounds and protects the developing fetus during pregnancy. The amniotic fluid is produced by the fetus and the placenta, and it serves several important functions for the developing fetus, including cushioning and supporting the fetus, regulating the temperature and chemical environment of the uterus, and providing nutrients and oxygen to the fetus. The amount of amniotic fluid in the uterus varies throughout pregnancy, but it typically reaches its peak level around 36 weeks of gestation. During labor and delivery, the amniotic fluid is released from the uterus and can be observed by healthcare providers as part of the assessment of fetal well-being. Abnormalities in the amount or composition of amniotic fluid can be a sign of a problem with the developing fetus or the placenta, and may require further evaluation and monitoring by healthcare providers.
Biomechanical phenomena refer to the study of the mechanical properties and behavior of living organisms, particularly in relation to movement and function. In the medical field, biomechanical phenomena are often studied in the context of musculoskeletal disorders, sports injuries, and rehabilitation. This involves analyzing the forces and movements involved in various activities, such as walking, running, or lifting, and how they affect the body's tissues and structures. Biomechanical engineers and researchers use a variety of techniques, including computer simulations, imaging technologies, and physical measurements, to study biomechanical phenomena and develop new treatments and interventions for a range of medical conditions.
A Cesarean section, also known as a C-section, is a surgical procedure in which a baby is delivered through an incision made in the mother's abdomen and uterus. It is typically performed when a vaginal delivery is not possible or poses a significant risk to the health of the mother or baby. Cesarean sections can be planned (elective) or unplanned (emergency). They are one of the most common surgical procedures performed in the United States, with about one-third of all births being delivered by C-section.
Urinary bladder diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the urinary bladder, a muscular sac located in the pelvis that stores urine until it is eliminated from the body through the urethra. These diseases can affect the bladder's ability to empty completely, leading to urinary retention, or cause pain, discomfort, and other symptoms. Some common urinary bladder diseases include: 1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in the urinary tract, including the bladder, urethra, kidneys, and ureters. UTIs can cause symptoms such as pain, burning, and frequent urination. 2. Overactive bladder (OAB): This is a condition in which the bladder contracts involuntarily, leading to frequent and urgent urination. OAB can be caused by a variety of factors, including age, genetics, and certain medical conditions. 3. Interstitial cystitis (IC): This is a chronic condition that causes pain, pressure, and discomfort in the bladder and surrounding areas. The exact cause of IC is not known, but it is thought to be related to inflammation and damage to the bladder lining. 4. Bladder stones: These are hard deposits that form in the bladder and can cause pain, discomfort, and difficulty urinating. Bladder stones can be caused by a variety of factors, including dehydration, certain medical conditions, and certain medications. 5. Bladder cancer: This is a type of cancer that starts in the cells of the bladder lining. Bladder cancer can cause symptoms such as blood in the urine, pain, and frequent urination.
Abdominal pain is a common symptom that refers to discomfort or pain in the abdominal region, which includes the stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and other organs in the abdomen. It can be acute or chronic, and can range from mild to severe. In the medical field, abdominal pain is often evaluated based on its location, duration, severity, and associated symptoms. The location of the pain can help identify which organ or organ system may be causing the discomfort. For example, pain in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen may indicate a problem with the liver or gallbladder, while pain in the lower left quadrant may indicate a problem with the colon or appendix. The duration and severity of the pain can also provide important clues about the underlying cause. For example, sudden, severe abdominal pain may indicate a medical emergency, such as a ruptured appendix or a perforated ulcer. Associated symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, or fever, can also help doctors diagnose the cause of abdominal pain. In some cases, further diagnostic tests, such as blood tests, imaging studies, or endoscopy, may be necessary to determine the underlying cause of the pain.
In the medical field, the amnion is a thin, transparent membrane that surrounds and protects the developing fetus in the womb. It is one of the three layers that make up the placenta, along with the chorion and the decidua. The amnion is filled with amniotic fluid, which provides cushioning and buoyancy for the fetus, as well as helping to regulate the temperature and chemical environment of the womb. The amnion also plays a role in the development of the fetus's lungs and immune system. In some cases, the amnion may be ruptured or torn, which can lead to complications during pregnancy or childbirth.
Echinococcosis, hepatic, also known as hydatid disease, is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The infection occurs when the tapeworm's eggs are ingested and hatch in the small intestine, releasing larvae that can migrate to various parts of the body, including the liver. In the liver, the larvae form cysts that can grow and cause damage to the surrounding tissue. The cysts can be asymptomatic or cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, and jaundice. In some cases, the cysts can rupture, leading to severe complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure. The diagnosis of hepatic echinococcosis is typically made through imaging studies such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment options include surgery to remove the cysts, medical therapy with anti-parasitic drugs, or a combination of both. The prognosis for patients with hepatic echinococcosis depends on the size and location of the cysts, as well as the patient's overall health and response to treatment.
In the medical field, "Casts, Surgical" refers to a type of medical device used to immobilize and support a broken or injured bone or joint. Surgical casts are typically made of a plaster-like material and are applied by a healthcare professional in a hospital or clinic setting. They are designed to provide stability and protection to the affected area while the bone heals. Surgical casts may also be used to hold organs in place during surgery or to provide support for soft tissues. They are typically removed by a healthcare professional once the bone has healed.
Tendinopathy is a medical condition that refers to the damage or inflammation of tendons, which are the strong, fibrous connective tissues that connect muscles to bones. Tendons can become damaged due to overuse, repetitive motion, injury, or age-related degeneration. Symptoms of tendinopathy may include pain, stiffness, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected joint or muscle. Tendinopathy can affect any tendon in the body, but common sites of tendinopathy include the rotator cuff tendons in the shoulder, the Achilles tendon in the heel, and the patellar tendon behind the knee. Treatment for tendinopathy typically involves a combination of rest, physical therapy, and medication to reduce pain and inflammation. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or remove damaged tissue. Prevention of tendinopathy involves proper warm-up and cool-down exercises, stretching, and avoiding repetitive motions or overuse of the affected tendon.
The brachiocephalic trunk is a large artery that arises from the right side of the aortic arch. It is responsible for supplying blood to the head and neck, including the brain, face, and upper extremities. The brachiocephalic trunk divides into three smaller arteries: the right subclavian artery, the right common carotid artery, and the right internal jugular vein. The right subclavian artery supplies blood to the right arm and shoulder, while the right common carotid artery supplies blood to the right side of the head and neck. The right internal jugular vein carries deoxygenated blood from the head and neck back to the heart.
Iatrogenic disease refers to a medical condition that is caused by the actions or treatments of a healthcare provider, such as a doctor, nurse, or other medical professional. This can include both intentional and unintentional actions, such as administering the wrong medication or performing a surgical procedure that results in harm to the patient. Examples of iatrogenic diseases include infections acquired during medical procedures, allergic reactions to medications, and complications from surgeries or other medical treatments. These conditions can range from minor to life-threatening, and can have long-term effects on a patient's health and well-being. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the potential for iatrogenic disease and to take steps to prevent it from occurring. This can include careful monitoring of patients during medical procedures, using appropriate medications and dosages, and communicating effectively with other members of the healthcare team to ensure that all aspects of a patient's care are coordinated and safe.
Athletic injuries refer to injuries that occur as a result of physical activity or sports. These injuries can range from minor sprains and strains to more severe fractures, dislocations, and concussions. They can occur in any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including overuse, sudden movements, collisions, and poor technique. Athletic injuries can be prevented through proper conditioning, warm-up and cool-down exercises, and the use of appropriate protective gear. Treatment for athletic injuries may include rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE), physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.
Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is a group of inherited connective tissue disorders that affect the body's ability to produce collagen, a protein that provides strength and flexibility to connective tissues. There are several types of EDS, each with its own set of symptoms and severity. The most common type of EDS is classical EDS, which is characterized by loose and stretchy skin, joint hypermobility, and easy bruising. Other types of EDS include hypermobile EDS, which is similar to classical EDS but with less severe skin symptoms, and vascular EDS, which is characterized by abnormal blood vessels and an increased risk of spontaneous bleeding. Symptoms of EDS can vary widely depending on the type and severity of the disorder. In addition to joint hypermobility and loose skin, symptoms may include chronic pain, gastrointestinal problems, and cardiovascular issues. Treatment for EDS typically involves managing symptoms and preventing complications, such as joint dislocations and bleeding episodes.
Atherosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the hardening and narrowing of the arteries due to the buildup of plaque. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances that accumulate on the inner walls of the arteries over time. As the plaque builds up, it can restrict blood flow to the organs and tissues that the arteries supply, leading to a range of health problems. Atherosclerosis is a common condition that can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly associated with the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart. When atherosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to the development of coronary artery disease (CAD), which is a major cause of heart attacks and strokes. Atherosclerosis can also affect the arteries that supply blood to the brain, legs, kidneys, and other organs, leading to a range of health problems such as peripheral artery disease, stroke, and kidney disease. Risk factors for atherosclerosis include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of the condition.
Oligohydramnios is a medical condition characterized by a decrease in the amount of amniotic fluid present in the uterus during pregnancy. The normal amount of amniotic fluid is around 500-2,000 milliliters, and oligohydramnios is defined as having less than 500 milliliters of amniotic fluid present. Oligohydramnios can be caused by a variety of factors, including placental insufficiency, fetal abnormalities, and maternal medical conditions such as diabetes or hypertension. It can also be a complication of certain medications or procedures, such as the use of diuretics or amniocentesis. Oligohydramnios can have serious consequences for both the mother and the fetus. In some cases, it can lead to premature birth, low birth weight, and other complications. It can also increase the risk of fetal distress, which can lead to respiratory distress, brain damage, or even death. Treatment for oligohydramnios depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, it may be necessary to monitor the pregnancy closely and deliver the baby early. In other cases, treatment may involve medications or procedures to increase the amount of amniotic fluid, such as intravenous fluids or amniotic fluid replacement.
Aortic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the aorta, which is the largest artery in the human body. The aorta carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Aortic diseases can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developing over time). Some common aortic diseases include: 1. Aortic aneurysm: A bulge or dilation in the wall of the aorta that can rupture and cause life-threatening bleeding. 2. Aortic dissection: A tear in the inner lining of the aorta that can cause blood to flow between the layers of the artery, leading to severe pain and potential organ damage. 3. Aortic stenosis: Narrowing of the aortic valve that can restrict blood flow from the heart to the rest of the body. 4. Aortic regurgitation: Backflow of blood from the aorta into the heart due to a damaged or insufficient aortic valve. 5. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue and can lead to aortic aneurysms and dissections. 6. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome: A group of genetic disorders that can affect the connective tissue and increase the risk of aortic aneurysms and dissections. Treatment for aortic diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. In some cases, medications or lifestyle changes may be sufficient, while in others, surgery or other medical procedures may be necessary. Early detection and treatment are crucial for preventing complications and improving outcomes.
Hemorrhage is the medical term used to describe the loss of blood from a vessel or vessel system. It can occur due to a variety of reasons, including injury, disease, or abnormal blood vessel function. Hemorrhage can be classified based on the location of the bleeding, the amount of blood lost, and the severity of the condition. For example, internal hemorrhage occurs within the body's organs or tissues, while external hemorrhage occurs outside the body, such as through a wound or broken skin. The severity of hemorrhage can range from mild to life-threatening, depending on the amount of blood lost and the body's ability to compensate for the loss. In severe cases, hemorrhage can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition characterized by low blood pressure and inadequate blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. Treatment for hemorrhage depends on the cause and severity of the bleeding. In some cases, simple measures such as applying pressure to the wound or elevating the affected limb may be sufficient to stop the bleeding. In more severe cases, medical intervention such as surgery or blood transfusions may be necessary to control the bleeding and prevent further complications.
Coronary vessels, also known as coronary arteries, are blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. There are two main coronary arteries, the left coronary artery and the right coronary artery, which branch off from the aorta and travel through the heart muscle to supply blood to the heart's various chambers and valves. The coronary arteries are responsible for delivering oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle, which is essential for its proper function. If the coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked due to atherosclerosis (the buildup of plaque), it can lead to a condition called coronary artery disease (CAD), which can cause chest pain, heart attack, and other serious cardiovascular problems. In some cases, coronary artery disease can be treated with medications, lifestyle changes, or procedures such as angioplasty or coronary artery bypass surgery. It is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and not smoking, to reduce the risk of developing coronary artery disease and other cardiovascular problems.
Angiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels in the body. It involves injecting a contrast dye into a blood vessel, usually through a small puncture in the skin, and then using an X-ray machine or other imaging device to capture images of the dye as it flows through the blood vessels. This allows doctors to see any blockages, narrowing, or other abnormalities in the blood vessels, which can help them diagnose and treat a variety of medical conditions, including heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Angiography is often used in conjunction with other imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to provide a more complete picture of the patient's condition.
Coronary thrombosis is a medical condition in which a blood clot forms in one of the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. This can lead to a blockage of blood flow to the heart, which can cause chest pain (angina), heart attack, or even sudden death. Coronary thrombosis is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention. It is often caused by the buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries, which can rupture and form a blood clot. Risk factors for coronary thrombosis include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of heart disease. Treatment for coronary thrombosis may include medications to dissolve the clot or surgery to open the blocked artery.
Thrombosis is a medical condition in which a blood clot forms within a blood vessel. This can occur when the blood flow is slow or when the blood vessel is damaged, allowing the blood to clot. Thrombosis can occur in any blood vessel in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the veins of the legs, which can lead to a condition called deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Thrombosis can also occur in the arteries, which can lead to a condition called（arterial thrombosis）. Arterial thrombosis can cause serious complications, such as heart attack or stroke, if the clot breaks off and travels to the lungs or brain. Thrombosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to the blood vessel, prolonged immobility, certain medical conditions such as cancer or diabetes, and the use of certain medications such as birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy. Treatment for thrombosis depends on the severity of the condition and the location of the clot, but may include anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing or breaking off, and in some cases, surgical removal of the clot.
In the medical field, "Accidents, Traffic" typically refers to injuries or illnesses that result from being involved in a motor vehicle accident. These injuries can range from minor cuts and bruises to more serious injuries such as broken bones, head trauma, and spinal cord injuries. Traffic accidents can also result in fatalities, which are considered a type of sudden unexpected death (SUD). Medical professionals who treat patients injured in traffic accidents may include emergency room doctors, trauma surgeons, orthopedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, and rehabilitation specialists. In addition to providing medical treatment, these professionals may also work with insurance companies, legal representatives, and other stakeholders to ensure that patients receive the appropriate care and compensation for their injuries. Preventing traffic accidents is also an important aspect of medical practice, as it can help reduce the number of injuries and fatalities on the road. This may involve educating the public about safe driving practices, advocating for safer road designs and infrastructure, and promoting the use of seat belts and other safety devices.
Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that involves the use of a small camera and specialized instruments to examine and treat problems within a joint. The camera, called an arthroscope, is inserted into the joint through a small incision, allowing the surgeon to view the joint on a video monitor. The surgeon can then use specialized instruments to diagnose and treat a variety of conditions, including injuries, degenerative diseases, and joint disorders. Arthroscopy is commonly used to treat conditions in the knee, shoulder, hip, elbow, wrist, and ankle joints. It is a safe and effective procedure that typically results in less pain, faster recovery times, and fewer complications compared to traditional open surgery.
Intraoperative complications refer to any unexpected events or problems that occur during a surgical procedure. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or infection, to more serious problems, such as organ damage or death. Intraoperative complications can be caused by a variety of factors, including surgical errors, anesthesia errors, or underlying medical conditions of the patient. It is important for surgeons and other medical professionals to be aware of the potential for intraoperative complications and to take steps to prevent them whenever possible. If a complication does occur, it is important to address it promptly and appropriately to minimize the risk of further harm to the patient.
Arteriosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the hardening and thickening of the walls of arteries due to the buildup of plaque. This buildup can restrict blood flow to the organs and tissues that the arteries supply, leading to a range of health problems, including heart disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. The process of arteriosclerosis involves the accumulation of fatty deposits, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the arteries. Over time, these deposits can harden and form plaques, which can narrow the arteries and reduce blood flow. The plaques can also rupture, causing blood clots that can block blood flow and lead to serious complications. Arteriosclerosis is a common condition that can affect people of all ages, but it is more likely to occur in older adults and people with certain risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, and a family history of heart disease. Treatment for arteriosclerosis typically involves lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly, as well as medications to lower blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar levels. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove plaque or open blocked arteries.
Capillary fragility is a condition in which the walls of small blood vessels, or capillaries, become weak and prone to rupture. This can lead to easy bruising, nosebleeds, and other bleeding disorders. Capillary fragility can be caused by a variety of factors, including vitamin deficiencies, certain medications, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes, kidney disease, and connective tissue disorders. Treatment for capillary fragility typically involves addressing the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, vitamin supplements, and medications to help strengthen the blood vessels.
Prosthesis failure refers to the malfunction or breakdown of a medical device or implant, such as a prosthetic limb, heart valve, or joint replacement, that is intended to replace or support a missing or damaged body part. Prosthesis failure can occur due to a variety of factors, including design flaws, manufacturing defects, inappropriate use or care, or the natural wear and tear of the device over time. Symptoms of prosthesis failure may include pain, swelling, infection, movement restrictions, or the device becoming loose or dislodged. Treatment for prosthesis failure may involve repairing or replacing the device, adjusting the device's fit or function, or administering medications or other therapies to manage symptoms or complications.
Carotid artery diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the carotid arteries, which are the main blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain. These diseases can lead to a reduced blood flow to the brain, which can cause symptoms such as dizziness, weakness, and even stroke. The most common types of carotid artery diseases are carotid artery stenosis and carotid artery dissection. Carotid artery stenosis occurs when the inside of the carotid artery becomes narrowed or blocked by a buildup of plaque, which is made up of fat, cholesterol, and other substances. Carotid artery dissection occurs when the inner lining of the carotid artery is torn, which can cause a blood clot to form and block the flow of blood. Other types of carotid artery diseases include carotid artery aneurysm, carotid artery occlusion, and carotid artery inflammation. Carotid artery aneurysm occurs when a section of the carotid artery becomes weakened and bulges outwards. Carotid artery occlusion occurs when the carotid artery is completely blocked, which can cause a stroke. Carotid artery inflammation, also known as carotid artery vasculitis, is an inflammatory condition that can cause the walls of the carotid artery to become thickened and narrowed. Treatment for carotid artery diseases depends on the specific type and severity of the condition. In some cases, lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet, and exercising regularly may be sufficient to manage the condition. In more severe cases, medications such as blood thinners or cholesterol-lowering drugs may be prescribed. In some cases, surgery or endovascular procedures may be necessary to remove plaque or repair damaged arteries.
An iliac aneurysm is a bulge or dilation in the iliac artery, which is one of the main arteries in the body that carries blood from the heart to the lower limbs and pelvic region. The iliac artery branches into two main arteries, the external iliac artery and the internal iliac artery, which supply blood to the legs and pelvic organs, respectively. An iliac aneurysm can occur at any point along the length of the iliac artery, but it is most commonly found in the portion of the artery that lies just above the inguinal ligament, which is the ligament that separates the upper and lower legs. Iliac aneurysms can be caused by a variety of factors, including atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), high blood pressure, and genetic factors. They can also be caused by injury or infection. Iliac aneurysms can be asymptomatic, meaning that they do not cause any noticeable symptoms. However, as the aneurysm grows, it can cause pain in the lower abdomen or back, and in severe cases, it can rupture, which can be life-threatening. Treatment options for iliac aneurysms include medication to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes to reduce risk factors, and surgical repair or replacement of the affected artery.
Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs) are abnormal connections between arteries and veins in the brain. These connections can cause blood to flow in the wrong direction, leading to high blood pressure and an increased risk of stroke, seizures, and other complications. AVMs can occur anywhere in the brain, but they are most commonly found in the brainstem, cerebellum, and temporal lobes. They can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired (developing later in life). Treatment options for AVMs include medication, radiation therapy, and surgery.
An ulcer is a sore or open wound that forms on the surface of the skin, mucous membranes, or other tissues in the body. In the medical field, ulcers can occur in various locations, including the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, esophagus, and mouth. Stomach ulcers, also known as peptic ulcers, are the most common type of ulcer and are caused by a combination of factors, including the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and stress. Small intestine ulcers are often caused by Crohn's disease or celiac disease, while large intestine ulcers are often caused by ulcerative colitis. Esophageal ulcers, also known as Barrett's esophagus, are caused by chronic acid reflux and can increase the risk of esophageal cancer. Mouth ulcers, also known as canker sores, are usually harmless and resolve on their own within a few days to a week. Treatment for ulcers depends on the location and cause of the ulcer. In some cases, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat H. pylori infection, while NSAIDs may be stopped or replaced with other medications. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the affected tissue.
An endoleak is a type of leakage that occurs within a blood vessel after a procedure called endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). EVAR is a minimally invasive surgical procedure used to treat abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs), which are bulges in the wall of the aorta, the largest artery in the body. During EVAR, a stent graft is placed inside the aorta to reinforce the weakened area and prevent the aneurysm from expanding further. However, sometimes blood can leak through small tears or holes in the stent graft, which can lead to an endoleak. There are several types of endoleaks, including type I, type II, and type III. Type I endoleaks occur when blood leaks through the stent graft into the aneurysm sac, while type II endoleaks occur when blood leaks through the stent graft into the aorta. Type III endoleaks are the most serious and occur when blood leaks through a tear in the aorta into the peritoneal cavity, which is the space that surrounds the abdominal organs. Endoleaks can be detected using imaging tests such as computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options for endoleaks depend on the type and severity of the leak, but may include additional procedures to repair the leak or medications to reduce blood flow to the aneurysm.
Pregnancy complications refer to any medical conditions or problems that arise during pregnancy that can potentially harm the mother or the developing fetus. These complications can range from minor issues that can be easily managed to life-threatening conditions that require immediate medical attention. Some common examples of pregnancy complications include gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, placenta previa, preterm labor, and miscarriage. Other complications may include infections, such as urinary tract infections or sexually transmitted infections, as well as conditions that can affect the baby, such as congenital anomalies or birth defects. Pregnancy complications can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, underlying medical conditions, and environmental factors. Proper prenatal care and regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help identify and manage pregnancy complications early on, reducing the risk of complications and improving outcomes for both the mother and the baby.
In the medical field, an acute disease is a condition that develops suddenly and progresses rapidly over a short period of time. Acute diseases are typically characterized by severe symptoms and a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Examples of acute diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and heart attacks. These diseases require prompt medical attention and treatment to prevent complications and improve outcomes. In contrast, chronic diseases are long-term conditions that develop gradually over time and may persist for years or even decades.
Extravasation of diagnostic and therapeutic materials refers to the unintended leakage or spillage of a diagnostic or therapeutic agent, such as a contrast dye or medication, outside of its intended target area in the body. This can occur during medical procedures such as injections, infusions, or surgeries, and can cause a range of complications depending on the type and amount of material that has been extravasated. The most common complication of extravasation is tissue damage, which can range from mild irritation to severe necrosis (tissue death) depending on the type of material and the duration of exposure. Other complications can include inflammation, infection, and allergic reactions. Treatment for extravasation typically involves removing the extravasated material, administering medications to manage pain and inflammation, and providing wound care to promote healing. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissue or remove infected material. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of the risks of extravasation and to take appropriate precautions to prevent it from occurring.
Bursa, Synovial refers to a small, fluid-filled sac that cushions and lubricates the joints and other body tissues. Synovial bursae are found in many areas of the body, including the knees, shoulders, and hips, and they help to reduce friction between bones and other tissues as they move against each other. When a synovial bursa becomes inflamed or infected, it can cause pain, swelling, and stiffness in the affected joint. This condition is known as bursitis.
Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) is a type of protein that belongs to the matrix metalloproteinase family. It is also known as gelatinase B or 92 kDa gelatinase. MMP-9 is a protease that breaks down and remodels the extracellular matrix, which is a network of proteins and carbohydrates that provides structural support to cells and tissues. In the medical field, MMP-9 plays a role in various physiological and pathological processes, including tissue remodeling, wound healing, angiogenesis, and cancer invasion and metastasis. MMP-9 is also involved in the development of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and atherosclerosis. MMP-9 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory disorders. However, the overexpression of MMP-9 can also contribute to tissue damage and disease progression, making it a double-edged sword. Therefore, the regulation of MMP-9 activity is crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis and preventing disease.
Pneumoperitoneum is a medical condition in which air or gas enters the abdominal cavity, causing a buildup of pressure within the abdomen. This can occur due to a variety of causes, including trauma, perforation of the gastrointestinal tract, or rupture of a fluid-filled organ such as the spleen or liver. Symptoms of pneumoperitoneum may include abdominal pain, distension, and tenderness, as well as nausea, vomiting, and difficulty breathing. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as bowel obstruction, sepsis, and shock. Diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum typically involves imaging studies such as abdominal X-rays or computed tomography (CT) scans. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include surgery, drainage of the air or gas, or other medical interventions.
Lacerations are cuts or tears in the skin that are typically caused by a sharp object or forceful trauma. They can range in severity from minor scrapes to deep, gaping wounds that require surgical repair. Lacerations can occur on any part of the body and can be accompanied by bleeding, bruising, and swelling. In some cases, they may also result in nerve or tissue damage. Treatment for lacerations depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and suturing the wound, administering antibiotics to prevent infection, and providing pain medication as needed.
Foreign-body migration is a medical condition in which a foreign object, such as a piece of food, a splinter, or a surgical implant, moves from its original location in the body to a new location. This can occur due to various factors, including the body's natural movements, changes in the shape or size of the foreign object, or the body's immune response to the object. Foreign-body migration can be a serious medical problem, as it can cause inflammation, infection, or damage to surrounding tissues. In some cases, the foreign object may become trapped in a narrow passage or obstruct a vital organ, leading to serious complications. Treatment for foreign-body migration depends on the location and size of the object, as well as the severity of any associated complications. In some cases, the object may be able to be removed through minimally invasive procedures, such as endoscopy or laparoscopy. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the object and repair any damage caused by its migration.
An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a abnormal connection between an artery and a vein. This connection can occur naturally or as a result of surgery or injury. In some cases, an AVF may be intentionally created by a medical professional to provide access to the bloodstream for dialysis or other medical treatments. AVFs can be classified as either high flow or low flow, depending on the rate at which blood flows through the fistula. High flow AVFs are those in which blood flows rapidly through the fistula, while low flow AVFs have a slower flow of blood. AVFs can be found in various locations throughout the body, but are most commonly found in the arms or legs. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including swelling, pain, and difficulty moving the affected limb. In some cases, an AVF may require treatment to prevent complications or to improve blood flow.
Necrosis is a type of cell death that occurs when cells in the body die due to injury, infection, or lack of oxygen and nutrients. In necrosis, the cells break down and release their contents into the surrounding tissue, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. Necrosis can occur in any part of the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, infection, toxins, and certain diseases. It is different from apoptosis, which is a programmed cell death that occurs as part of normal development and tissue turnover. In the medical field, necrosis is often seen as a sign of tissue injury or disease, and it can be a serious condition if it affects vital organs or tissues. Treatment for necrosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the underlying condition and promote healing.
What's Your Rupture?
Rupture (1983 film)
Patellar tendon rupture
Rupture (2017 film)
Rupture (2016 film)
Achilles tendon rupture
Buried rupture earthquake
Plantar fascial rupture
Quadriceps tendon rupture
Rupture of membranes
Traumatic aortic rupture
Biceps tendon rupture
Uproot - DJ /rupture | Last.fm
Tracheal rupture: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
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- Another source of left upper abdominal pain can be a ruptured spleen (synonym to splenic rupture). (nethealthbook.com)
- A CT scan will confirm a splenic rupture. (nethealthbook.com)
- In the rapid course the cause of the ruptured spleen is perhaps more obvious because of the trauma that is apparent, however, with multiple injuries such as bone fractures elsewhere the splenic rupture may initially be overlooked. (nethealthbook.com)
- We report an unusual case of splenic rupture presenting after "uncomplicated" LC. (medscape.com)
- Abdominal computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis of splenic rupture, and the patient required an urgent splenectomy through midline incision. (medscape.com)
- Conclusions Splenic rupture is an unusual but life-threatening complication of LC. (medscape.com)
- A computed tomographic scan showed hemoperitoneum secondary to a ruptured subcapsular splenic hematoma ( Appendix Figure ), and an emergency splenectomy was performed. (cdc.gov)
- We postulate that congenital or post-traumatic adhesions of the parietal peritoneum to the spleen may have been stretched from the splenic capsule during pneumoperitoneum establishment, resulting in subcapsular hematoma and subsequent delayed rupture. (medscape.com)
- What Does Ruptured Membranes Look Like? (dane101.com)
- In most cases, these membranes rupture during labor or within 24 hours before starting labor. (mountsinai.org)
- Premature rupture of the membranes (PROM) is said to occur when the membranes break before the 37th week of pregnancy. (mountsinai.org)
- Often, the membranes rupture (break) during labor. (mountsinai.org)
- When the water breaks early, it is called premature rupture of membranes (PROM). (mountsinai.org)
- If the water breaks before the 37th week of pregnancy, it is called preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). (mountsinai.org)
- If you think your membranes have ruptured, call your health care provider right away. (mountsinai.org)
- At the hospital, simple tests can confirm that your membranes have ruptured. (mountsinai.org)
- Have amniotic membranes been ruptured ≥18 hours? (cdc.gov)
- Has rupture of membranes occurred? (cdc.gov)
- Has labor begun or have membranes ruptured? (cdc.gov)
- Close attention will be paid to the symptoms of the rupture. (medlineplus.gov)
- This article looks at the relationship between endometriosis and ruptured cysts, the symptoms, when to contact a doctor, and more. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- What are the symptoms of a ruptured cyst? (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A ruptured cyst may not always cause symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- With a direct rupture of the splenic capsule there is massive blood loss into the abdominal cavity with acute symptoms and development of shock. (nethealthbook.com)
- Or, you might not have any symptoms, making it impossible to know you have a rupture. (breastimplantinfo.org)
- Because most women don't notice when a silicone gel implant ruptures, the FDA recommends having breast MRIs regularly to detect ruptures that have no symptoms. (breastimplantinfo.org)
- It was renamed The Rupture in 2019. (wikipedia.org)
- The most common cause of a ruptured spleen is trauma to the left lower chest wall through an automobile accident, a sports injury or a personal injury. (nethealthbook.com)
- Typically the story is that the patient who has a ruptured spleen has been involved in a rollover accident or was kicked into the left lower chest during a sports event. (nethealthbook.com)
- Its main cause is spontaneous rupture due to cephalopelvic disproportion and malpresentations resulting in an obstructed labour . (who.int)
- Endoscopic procedures are the primary cause of esophageal rupture, but spontaneous rupture may occur, typically related to vomiting, retching, or swallowing a large food bolus. (msdmanuals.com)
- Diagnosis of esophageal rupture is confirmed by esophagography with a water-soluble contrast agent, which avoids potential mediastinal irritation from barium. (msdmanuals.com)
- [ 1 ] The differential diagnosis of postinfarction cardiogenic shock should exclude free ventricular wall rupture and rupture of the papillary muscles. (medscape.com)
- Traumatic optic neuropathy and choroidal rupture are observed. (medscape.com)
- There are no known guidelines to prevent an Achilles tendon rupture. (denverhealth.org)
- Hypertrophic synovial tissue begins to invade and weaken the tendon, eventually leading to rupture. (medscape.com)
- Tendon rupture may also be a result of attrition of the tendon from bony spicules and osteophytes. (medscape.com)
- If an aneurysm ruptures, it can leak blood into the space around the brain. (kornfeldlaw.com)
- When a saline (salt water) breast implant ruptures, it will probably leak very quickly. (breastimplantinfo.org)
- When a silicone implant ruptures, the silicone can either stay inside the capsule (the thick layer of scar tissue that naturally grows around the implant) or it can leak outside the capsule. (breastimplantinfo.org)
- The longer a woman waits to have a ruptured silicone gel implant removed, the more silicone is likely to leak inside her body and cause health problems. (breastimplantinfo.org)
- Chest radiography and computed tomography 4 days later showed right diaphragmatic rupture, through which small bowel loops had herniated into the right hemithorax. (nih.gov)
- En bloc removal is when the scar tissue (or capsule) and implant are removed at the same time, with the implant still inside the intact scar tissue capsule. (breastimplantinfo.org)
- En bloc removal allows the silicone and other chemicals to stay inside the intact scar tissue capsule as it is removed. (breastimplantinfo.org)
- A 40-Year-Old Man With Painful, Rupturing Lesions - Medscape - Jul 27, 2021. (medscape.com)
- People with trauma who develop a tracheal or bronchial rupture often have other injuries. (medlineplus.gov)
- Choroidal ruptures are breaks in the choroid, the Bruch membrane, and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that result from blunt ocular trauma (the most common eye injury). (medscape.com)
- Choroidal rupture can be secondary to indirect or direct trauma. (medscape.com)
- En bloc removal prevents silicone and other chemicals from leaking into the woman's body during surgery. (breastimplantinfo.org)
- Indirect choroidal ruptures are almost 4 times more common than direct ruptures. (medscape.com)
- Ruptured cysts are more common during pregnancy, due to hormonal changes, in people with larger cysts. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The most common site of rupture is the distal esophagus on the left side. (msdmanuals.com)
- At a briefing this morning near the site, officials said the sinkhole that resulted from the rupture measures about 20 feet in diameter and about five feet deep. (smmirror.com)
- Risk factors for ruptured cysts may include cysts that are larger than 6 cm and hormonal changes during pregnancy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Older age and macular rupture, the length of the rupture, and the distance of the rupture to the center of the fovea may be risk factors for CNV. (medscape.com)
- This lowers the risk of it rupturing again. (denverhealth.org)
- These induce clotting (embolization) of the aneurysm, eliminating the risk of a rupture. (kornfeldlaw.com)
- The Rupture (formerly named The Collagist) is a literary journal founded in 2009 by American author Matt Bell. (wikipedia.org)
- The local government said that nearly all of the 1,500 fish that were inside at the time of the rupture died but "a few fish at the bottom of the tank" were saved. (newsmax.com)
- Over time they grow to a larger size and eventually rupture into the abdomen. (nethealthbook.com)
- For example, if your implants were put in at the same time, and one is ruptured, it is likely that the other will rupture soon. (breastimplantinfo.org)
- This model was used to analyze samples from 338 cerebral aneurysm cases (35 ruptured, 303 unruptured). (easychair.org)
- Once a doctor diagnoses a patient with a brain aneurysm, the goal is to prevent a rupture by treating the pressure or leaking of the aneurysm. (kornfeldlaw.com)
- A doctor may perform a surgical clipping, a technique that cuts off blood supply to the brain to prevent it either from rupturing or to control bleeding if a rupture has already occurred. (kornfeldlaw.com)
- If your saline implant has ruptured, you should see a doctor. (breastimplantinfo.org)
- Images may be taken to confirm the rupture. (denverhealth.org)
- Last week, a BP pipeline ruptured in Colorado for "unknown" reasons, spilling coal-bed methane-contaminated wastewater into the river. (nationofchange.org)
- Most eyes have a single rupture, but up to 25% of eyes have multiple ruptures. (medscape.com)
- However, because of the expense and the reluctance of plastic surgeons to encourage MRIs for silent ruptures, very few women followed the FDA's advice. (breastimplantinfo.org)
- A stroke occurs when blood supply to the brain has been blocked or when there is a ruptured blood vessel in the brain. (kornfeldlaw.com)