Rubella Syndrome, Congenital
Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
Pregnancy Complications, Infectious
Simian virus 40
Molecular Sequence Data
Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral
Viral Envelope Proteins
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Viral Structural Proteins
Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype
Removal of non-specific serum inhibitors of haemagglutination of rubella virus by treatment with dodecylamine-gel. (1/550)The suitability of using dodecylamine-gel for removing the serum non-antibody-like inhibitors of haemagglutination by rubella was studied. Compared with kaolin and MnCl2/heparin treatment this new procedure appears to have a higher specificity since it removes the non-antibody-like inhibitors from serum without affecting the immunoglobulin level significantly. The potential application of this procedure in routine serological analysis for rubella virus infection is discussed. (+info)
Rubella virus-induced apoptosis varies among cell lines and is modulated by Bcl-XL and caspase inhibitors. (2/550)Rubella virus (RV) causes multisystem birth defects in the fetuses of infected women. To investigate the cellular basis of this pathology, we examined the cytopathic effect of RV in three permissive cell lines: Vero 76, RK13, and BHK21. Electron microscopy and the TUNEL assay showed that the cytopathic effect resulted from RV-induced programmed cell death (apoptosis) in all three cell lines, but the extent of apoptosis varied among these cells. At 48 h postinfection, the RK13 cell line showed the greatest number of apoptotic cells, the Vero 76 cell line was approximately 3-fold less, and BHK21 had very few. An increased multiplicity of infection and longer time postinfection were required for the BHK21 cell line to reach the level of apoptotic cells in Vero 76 at 48 h. Purified RV induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent fashion, but not UV-inactivated RV or virus-depleted culture supernatant. Specific inhibitors of the apoptosis-specific proteases caspases reduced RV-induced apoptosis and led to higher levels of RV components in infected cells. To address the role of regulatory proteins in RV-induced apoptosis, the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL was transfected into RK13 cells. Although a high level of Bcl-2 family proteins was expressed, no protection was observed from apoptosis induced by RV, Sindbis virus, or staurosporine in RK13 cells. In BHK21 cells, however, increased expression of Bcl-XL protected cells from apoptosis. The observed variability in apoptotic response to RV of these cell lines demonstrates that programmed cell death is dependent on the unique properties of each cell and may be indicative of how selective organ damage occurs in a congenital rubella syndrome fetus. (+info)
Mutations in the retinoblastoma protein-binding LXCXE motif of rubella virus putative replicase affect virus replication. (3/550)The rubella virus (RV)-encoded protein NSP90, which contains the retinoblastoma protein (Rb)-binding motif LXCXE, interacts with Rb and RV replication is reduced in cells lacking Rb. Whether the LXCXE motif of RV NSP90 itself is essential for Rb binding and virus replication is not known. Therefore, in the present study, the functional role of this motif was investigated by site-directed mutagenesis in a plasmid from which infectious RV RNA can be produced. Three critical mutations in the motif, two substitutions at the conserved cysteine residue (C --> G and C --> R) and a deletion of the entire motif, were created. A cell-free translated NSP90 C terminus polypeptide containing the deletion did not bind to Rb and a polypeptide carrying the C --> R substitution had barely detectable binding affinity for Rb. Rb binding by the C --> G mutant was reduced significantly compared to that of wild-type protein. Correlating with the binding results, mutant viruses containing the LXRXE and LXGXE motifs had a reduction in replication to < 0.5% and 47% of the wild-type, respectively, while deletion of the motif was found to be lethal. By the first serial passage, replication of the LXRXE-carrying virus had increased from < 0.5% to 2% of the wild-type. Sequencing of the genome of this virus revealed a nucleotide change that altered the motif from LXRXE to LXSXE, which is a known Rb-binding motif in two protein phosphatase subunits. Thus, our results clearly demonstrate that the LXCXE motif is required for efficient RV replication. (+info)
Mutagenic analysis of the 3' cis-acting elements of the rubella virus genome. (4/550)Thermodynamically predicted secondary structure analysis of the 3'-terminal 305 nucleotides (nt) of the rubella virus (RUB) genome, a region conserved in all RUB defective interfering RNAs, revealed four stem-loop (SL) structures; SL1 and SL2 are both located in the E1 coding region, while SL3 and SL4 are within the 59-nt 3' untranslated region (UTR) preceding the poly(A) tract. SL2 is a structure shown to interact with human calreticulin (CAL), an autoantigen potentially involved in RUB RNA replication and pathogenesis. RNase mapping indicated that SL2 and SL3 are in equilibrium between two conformations, in the second of which the previously proposed CAL binding site in SL2, a U-U bulge, is not formed. Site-directed mutagenesis of the 3' UTR with a RUB infectious clone, Robo302, revealed that most of the 3' UTR is required for viral viability except for the 3'-terminal 5 nt and the poly(A) tract, although poly(A) was rapidly regenerated during subsequent replication. Maintenance of the overall SL3 structure, the 11-nt single-stranded sequence between SL3 and SL4, and the sequences forming SL4 were all important for viral viability. Studies on the interaction between host factors and the 3' UTR showed the formation of three RNA-protein complexes by gel mobility shift assay, and UV-induced cross-linking detected six host protein species, with molecular masses of 120, 80, 66, 55, 48, and 36 kDa, interacting with the 3' UTR. Site-directed mutagenesis of SL2 by nucleotide substitutions showed that maintenance of SL2 stem rather than the U-U bulge was critical in CAL binding since mutants having the U-U bulge base paired had a similar binding activity for CAL as the native structure whereas mutants having the SL2 stem destabilized had much lower binding activity. However, all of these mutations gave rise to viable viruses when introduced into Robo302, indicating that binding of CAL to SL2 is independent of viral viability. (+info)
A modified rubella HI test using prestandardized reagents. (5/550)A modified haemagglutination inhibition test for rubella antibodies using prestandardized freeze-dried reagents was compared to a "standard" method. Tests of 707 serum samples showed that the modified test was sensitive and reliable by both macrotitration and microtitration techniques. The minor disadvantages of some reduction in antibody level when rubella sera were tested within one week of the rash and of spontaneous sheep erythrocyte agglutination in 0-7% of sera were out-weighed by the increased speed of the new test and the fact that it was carried out at room temperature. (+info)
Role of rubella virus glycoprotein domains in assembly of virus-like particles. (6/550)Rubella virus is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus that assembles on intracellular membranes in a variety of cell types. The virus structural proteins contain all of the information necessary to mediate the assembly of virus-like particles in the Golgi complex. We have recently identified intracellular retention signals within the two viral envelope glycoproteins. E2 contains a Golgi retention signal in its transmembrane domain, whereas a signal for retention in the endoplasmic reticulum has been localized to the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of E1 (T. C. Hobman, L. Woodward, and M. G. Farquhar, Mol. Biol. Cell 6:7-20, 1995; T. C. Hobman, H. F. Lemon, and K. Jewell, J. Virol. 71:7670-7680, 1997). In the present study, we have analyzed the role of these retention signals in the assembly of rubella virus-like particles. Deletion or replacement of these domains with analogous regions from other type I membrane glycoproteins resulted in failure of rubella virus-like particles to be secreted from transfected cells. The E1 transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains were not required for targeting of the structural proteins to the Golgi complex and, surprisingly, assembly and budding of virus particles into the lumen of this organelle; however, the resultant particles were not secreted. In contrast, replacement or alteration of the E2 transmembrane or cytoplasmic domain, respectively, abrogated the targeting of the structural proteins to the budding site, and consequently, no virion formation was observed. These results indicate that the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of E2 and E1 are required for early and late steps respectively in the viral assembly pathway and that rubella virus morphogenesis is very different from that of the structurally similar alphaviruses. (+info)
Mutational analysis, using a full-length rubella virus cDNA clone, of rubella virus E1 transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains required for virus release. (7/550)We report on the construction of a full-length cDNA clone, pBRM33, derived from wild-type rubella virus M33 strain. The RNA transcripts synthesized in vitro from pBRM33 are highly infectious, and the viruses produced retain the phenotypic characteristics of the parental M33 virus in growth rate and plaque size. This cDNA clone was used to study the role of E1 transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains in virus assembly by site-directed mutagenesis. Three different alanine substitutions were introduced in the transmembrane domain of E1. These included substitution of leucine 464, cysteine 466, cysteine 467, and both cysteines 466 and 467 to alanine. In the E1 cytoplasmic domain, cysteine 470 and leucine 471 were altered to alanine. We found that these mutations did not significantly affect viral RNA replication, viral structural protein synthesis and transport, or E2/E1 heterodimer formation. Except for the substitution of cysteine 470, these mutations did, however, lead to a reduction in virus release. Substitution of cysteine 467 in the transmembrane region and of leucine 471 in the cytoplasmic domain dramatically reduced virus yield, resulting in the production of only 1 and 10% of the parental virus yield, respectively, in a parallel infection. These data show that E1 transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains play an important role in late stages of virus assembly, possibly during virus budding, consistent with earlier studies indicating that the E1 cytoplasmic domain may interact with nucleocapsids and that this interaction drives virus budding. (+info)
Involvement of a p53-dependent pathway in rubella virus-induced apoptosis. (8/550)In light of the important role of apoptotic cell death in the pathogenesis of several viral infections, we asked whether the cytopathogenicity evoked by rubella virus (RV) might also involve apoptotic mechanisms. The To-336 strain of RV induced apoptosis in Vero and RK-13 cells, but not in fibroblast cell lines. UV-inactivated RV virions did not elicit the apoptotic response, indicating that productive infection is required for the induction of cell death. Both p53 and p21 protein levels were highly elevated in RV-infected Vero cells. The level of p21 mRNA was increased, while expression of the p53 gene was unaffected by RV infection. A dominant-negative p53 mutant (p53(W248)) conferred partial protection from RV-induced apoptosis. These data implicate a p53-dependent apoptotic pathway in the cytopathogenicity of RV, thereby suggesting a mechanism by which RV exerts its teratogenic effects. (+info)
Source: 'Rubella' in Duane Gubler (ed.), up-to-date online clinical reference, retrieved on March 14, 2023 from
The symptoms of CRS can vary widely depending on the severity of the infection and the stage of pregnancy at which it occurs. Some common birth defects associated with CRS include:
1. Heart defects: CRS can cause defects such as patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, and ventricular septal defect.
2. Neurological defects: CRS can lead to a range of neurological problems including microcephaly (small head size), mental retardation, and seizures.
3. Eye defects: CRS can cause eye problems such as cataracts, glaucoma, and blindness.
4. Ear defects: CRS can lead to ear problems such as hearing loss and deafness.
5. Thyroid disorders: CRS can cause thyroid problems including cretinism, a condition characterized by mental retardation and physical deformities.
6. Bone and joint defects: CRS can cause bone and joint problems such as arthrogryposis (a condition characterized by joint contractures) and clubfoot.
7. Skin defects: CRS can lead to skin problems such as macular rash, which is a red, itchy rash that appears on the skin.
8. Other defects: CRS can also cause other birth defects such as deafness, mutism, and cognitive impairment.
CRS is diagnosed based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. There is no specific treatment for CRS, but management of the condition involves supportive care to prevent complications and manage symptoms. Prevention of CRS relies on vaccination of pregnant women against rubella, which has led to a significant decline in the incidence of the condition.
The prognosis for children with CRS varies depending on the severity of the infection and the presence of any underlying medical conditions. Some children may have mild symptoms and recover fully, while others may experience more severe complications that can result in long-term disability or death. Early diagnosis and management are essential to improve outcomes for affected children.
Mumps is typically diagnosed based on a combination of symptoms and physical examination findings. Laboratory tests such as PCR or IgG antibody testing may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis. There is no specific treatment for mumps, but supportive care such as pain management and hydration may be provided to alleviate symptoms. Vaccines are available to prevent mumps, and they are most effective when given before exposure to the virus.
The medical field has a clear definition of mumps, which is essential for accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines mumps as "a contagious viral infection that affects the salivary glands, particularly the parotid gland." The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also provides guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mumps.
In conclusion, mumps is a viral infection that affects the salivary glands and can cause pain, discomfort, and potentially serious complications. The medical field has a clear definition of mumps, which is essential for accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease. Vaccines are available to prevent mumps, and they are most effective when given before exposure to the virus.
Measles is caused by a virus that is transmitted through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The virus can also be spread through direct contact with an infected person's saliva or mucus.
The symptoms of measles usually appear about 10-14 days after exposure to the virus, and may include:
* Runny nose
* Red, watery eyes
* Small white spots inside the mouth (Koplik spots)
* A rash that starts on the head and spreads to the rest of the body
Measles can be diagnosed through a physical examination, laboratory tests, or by observing the characteristic rash. There is no specific treatment for measles, but it can be treated with over-the-counter medications such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to relieve fever and pain.
Complications of measles can include:
* Ear infections
* Encephalitis (inflammation of the brain)
* Death (rare)
Measles is highly contagious and can spread easily through schools, workplaces, and other communities. Vaccination is the best way to prevent measles, and the Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) vaccine is recommended for all children and adults who have not been previously infected with the virus or vaccinated.
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1. Group B streptococcus (GBS): This type of bacterial infection is the leading cause of infections in newborns. GBS can cause a range of complications, including pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis.
2. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are common during pregnancy and can be caused by bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) or Staphylococcus saprophyticus. UTIs can lead to complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight.
3. HIV: Pregnant women who are infected with HIV can pass the virus to their baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
4. Toxoplasmosis: This is an infection caused by a parasite that can be transmitted to the fetus through the placenta. Toxoplasmosis can cause a range of complications, including birth defects and stillbirth.
5. Listeriosis: This is a rare infection caused by eating contaminated food, such as soft cheeses or hot dogs. Listeriosis can cause complications such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and premature labor.
6. Influenza: Pregnant women who contract the flu can be at higher risk for complications such as pneumonia and hospitalization.
7. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): This virus can cause complications such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and neonatal herpes.
8. Human parvovirus (HPV): This virus can cause complications such as preterm labor, low birth weight, and stillbirth.
9. Syphilis: This is a sexually transmitted infection that can be passed to the fetus during pregnancy, leading to complications such as stillbirth, premature birth, and congenital syphilis.
10. Chickenpox: Pregnant women who contract chickenpox can be at higher risk for complications such as preterm labor and low birth weight.
It's important to note that the risks associated with these infections are relatively low, and many pregnant women who contract them will have healthy pregnancies and healthy babies. However, it's still important to be aware of the risks and take steps to protect yourself and your baby.
Here are some ways to reduce your risk of infection during pregnancy:
1. Practice good hygiene: Wash your hands frequently, especially before preparing or eating food.
2. Avoid certain foods: Avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat, eggs, and dairy products, as well as unpasteurized juices and soft cheeses.
3. Get vaccinated: Get vaccinated against infections such as the flu and HPV.
4. Practice safe sex: Use condoms or other forms of barrier protection to prevent the spread of STIs.
5. Avoid close contact with people who are sick: If someone in your household is sick, try to avoid close contact with them if possible.
6. Keep your environment clean: Regularly clean and disinfect surfaces and objects that may be contaminated with germs.
7. Manage stress: High levels of stress can weaken your immune system and make you more susceptible to infection.
8. Get enough rest: Adequate sleep is essential for maintaining a healthy immune system.
9. Stay hydrated: Drink plenty of water throughout the day to help flush out harmful bacteria and viruses.
10. Consider taking prenatal vitamins: Prenatal vitamins can help support your immune system and overall health during pregnancy.
Remember, it's always better to be safe than sorry, so if you suspect that you may have been exposed to an infection or are experiencing symptoms of an infection during pregnancy, contact your healthcare provider right away. They can help determine the appropriate course of action and ensure that you and your baby stay healthy.
1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.
Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:
1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.
Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.
Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.
During convalescence, patients may be advised to follow specific dietary restrictions, engage in gentle exercise, and avoid strenuous activities that can exacerbate their condition or slow down the healing process. They may also receive medical treatment, such as physical therapy, medication, or other forms of supportive care, to aid in their recovery.
The duration of convalescence varies depending on the individual and the nature of their illness or injury. In general, convalescence can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks or even months, depending on the severity and complexity of the condition being treated.
Overall, the goal of convalescence is to allow the body to heal and recover fully, while also minimizing the risk of complications and promoting optimal functional outcomes.
Rubella virus 3′ cis-acting element
Merck & Co.
Kim Green (virologist)
Progressive rubella panencephalitis
Sheila Dorothy King
Alfred Fabian Hess
Franklin A. Neva
Non-specific effect of vaccines
Edwin Herman Lennette
Immunization during pregnancy
Dorothy M. Horstmann
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein
Vijendra K. Singh
Togavirus 5′ plus strand cis-regulatory element
Mir-198 microRNA precursor family
Workplace hazard controls for COVID-19
Correlates of immunity
Ross River virus
Division of Global Migration and Quarantine
Health in Turkey
Childhood immunizations in the United States
Sexual and reproductive health
Healthcare in Cuba
Risk factors of schizophrenia
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection
List of skin conditions
Cardiovirus cis-acting replication element
Health in Slovenia
Katharine, Duchess of Kent
DailyMed - Search Results for Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccine
Browsing by Subject "Rubella virus"
Before Zika Virus, Rubella Was A Pregnant Woman's Nightmare | WBUR
Global Distribution of Rubella Virus Genotypes - Volume 9, Number 12-December 2003 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
Genetic Characterization of Measles and Rubella Viruses Detected Through Global Measles and Rubella Elimination Surveillance,...
WHO EMRO | Distinguishing between primary infection and reinfection with rubella vaccine virus by IgG avidity assay in pregnant...
DailyMed - Search Results for Live Attenuated Rubella Virus Vaccine
Waa maxey cudurka 'Rubella Virus'?
Environmental Factor - December 2019: Rubella virus, some cancers mutated via same mechanism
ACIP: Rubella Prevention
CMU Intellectual Repository: Phylogenetic analysis of rubella viruses in vietnam during 2009-2010
Details for: A study of standard rubella virus and immune rabbit serum against rubella virus proposed for designation as...
Epidemiological Evaluation of Rubella Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Ibadan, Nigeria. | J Immunoassay Immunochem;36(6...
Progress Toward Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome Control and Elimination - Worldwide, 2000-2018 | MMWR
Microbiology Teaching Resources - Microbiology Education - Degrees & Guides
Congenital rubella: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
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List of Tests - MN Dept. of Health
- Concentration on comprehensive rubella vaccination has recently increased in developing countries in conjunction with measles elimination efforts, particularly in Latin America ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
- During the mass measles/rubella vaccination campaign in 2003 in Iran, many pregnant women were vaccinated mistakenly or became pregnant within 1 month of vaccination. (who.int)
- Lors de la campagne de vaccination de masse contre la rougeole et la rubéole réalisée en 2003 en Iran, de nombreuses femmes enceintes ont été vaccinées par erreur ou se sont trouvées enceintes un mois après la vaccination. (who.int)
- These revised Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP) recommendations for the prevention of rubella update the previous recommendations (MMWR 1981;30:37-42, 47) to include current information about vaccine effectiveness, duration of immunity, vaccination in pregnancy, and progress in controlling congenital rubella syndrome. (cdc.gov)
- Likewise, countries that have introduced RCV can achieve and maintain elimination with high vaccination coverage and surveillance for rubella and CRS. (cdc.gov)
- The preferred strategy for introducing RCV into national immunization schedules is to conduct an initial vaccination campaign targeting the majority of persons who might not have been naturally exposed to rubella, usually children aged ≤14 years ( 1 ), a strategy that can eliminate rubella and CRS ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- In Ethiopia, little is known about the extent of the disease and rubella vaccination is not widely available. (ejhd.org)
- In addition to a comprehensive surveillance approach and efforts to determine rubella susceptibility profile among school-aged girls and women of childbearing age, it is also important to consider rubella vaccine in a national vaccination program. (ejhd.org)
- As it is a disease that has few consequences in children, vaccination is mainly used to prevent rubella infection during pregnancy, so children are vaccinated so that they do not contaminate women of childbearing age. (topnotchparents.com)
- The best protection against rubella is the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine, which contains a weakened form of one rubella strain. (nih.gov)
- Cudurka rubella wuxuu u baahaa sida jadeecada (measles) iyo qaamo-qashiirta (mumps). (somalidoc.com)
- In the United States, measles virus vaccine is usually given along with attenuated rubella and mumps viruses as the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine. (medscape.com)
- The live MMR vaccine is used to induce active immunity against viruses that cause measles, mumps, and rubella. (medscape.com)
- This is a live vaccine that induces active immunity against viruses that cause measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella. (medscape.com)
- Blood Lead Concentrations and Antibody Levels to Measles, Mumps, and Rubella among U.S. Children. (nih.gov)
- The present study estimated the association between blood lead concentrations and antigen-specific antibody levels to measles, mumps, and rubella in a nationally representative sample of 7005 U.S. children aged 6-17 years. (nih.gov)
- The measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine protects people from 3 serious viral diseases. (stanfordchildrens.org)
- Mumps is also caused by a virus. (stanfordchildrens.org)
- Nonpregnant adults who don't have evidence of immunity to measles, mumps, or rubella, should be vaccinated as recommended, At least one dose is advised. (stanfordchildrens.org)
- M-M-R ® II (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live) is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of measles, mumps, and rubella in individuals 12 months of age or older. (merckvaccines.com)
- M-M-R ® II is a vaccine indicated for active immunization for the prevention of measles, mumps, and rubella in individuals 12 months of age or older. (merckvaccines.com)
- We haven't seen numbers like this since routine measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunizations began in the 1970s. (harvard.edu)
Global distribution of rubella virus genotypes1
- Results from genetic characterizations of rubella viruses are periodically summarized in updates on the global distribution of rubella virus genotypes ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- Effect of immunization against rubella on lactation products. (nih.gov)
- Preventing fetal infection and consequent congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is the objective of rubella immunization programs. (cdc.gov)
- Considerable political commitment and promotion of free rubella immunization specifically for women with childbearing potential were recommended. (bvsalud.org)
- This report on the progress toward rubella and CRS control and elimination updates the 2017 report ( 3 ), summarizing global progress toward the control and elimination of rubella and CRS from 2000 (the initiation of accelerated measles control activities) and 2012 (the initiation of accelerated rubella control activities) to 2018 (the most recent data) using WHO immunization and surveillance data. (cdc.gov)
- In patients with PID, the vaccine-derived rubella virus can become highly mutated. (nih.gov)
- This micrograph shows vaccine-derived rubella virus (red) surrounded by immune cells known as macrophages (green) in a skin nodule from a patient with PID. (nih.gov)
- Infectious vaccine-derived rubella viruses emerge, persist, and evolve in cutaneous granulomas of children with primary immunodeficiencies. (greenmedinfo.com)
Analysis of rubella2
Incidence of rubella2
Known as congenital2
- Because many rash illnesses may mimic rubella infection, and because many rubella infections are unrecognized, the only reliable evidence of immunity to rubella is the presence of specific antibody. (cdc.gov)
- This study appraises immunity to rubella , and consequently makes appropriate recommendations aimed at facilitating effective control. (bvsalud.org)
- If rubella IgG is present it can be confirmed with fever and malaise for a day or two that a patient has immunity to rubella. (who.int)
- 13. Rubella Virus Infected Macrophages and Neutrophils Define Patterns of Granulomatous Inflammation in Inborn and Acquired Errors of Immunity. (nih.gov)
- Rubella can cause fever, sore throat, and a distinctive red rash on the face and body. (nih.gov)
- Rubella is a common childhood rash disease. (cdc.gov)
- The most common--post-auricular and suboccipital lymphadenopathy, arthralgia, transient erythematous rash, and low fever--may not be recognized as rubella. (cdc.gov)
- Rubella is a vaccine -preventable, mild rash -inducing viral disease with complications that include a spectrum of birth defects in the developing fetus , especially if the infection is acquired in the early months of pregnancy . (bvsalud.org)
- Although rubella virus infection usually causes a mild febrile rash illness in children and adults, infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, fetal death, stillbirth, or a constellation of birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). (cdc.gov)
- Most people who get rubella usually have mild illness, with symptoms that can include a low-grade fever, sore throat, and a rash that starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. (ncha.org)
- Measles - a highly contagious virus that is spread by close contact with an infected person and causes fever, a cough and a rash. (hse.ie)
- To distinguish pregnant women who were affected by rubella vaccine as primary infection from those who had rubella reinfection from the vaccine, serum samples were collected 1-3 months after the campaign from 812 pregnant women. (who.int)
- Pregnant women who have not had the vaccine should avoid contact with people who have the rubella virus. (medlineplus.gov)
- Epidemiological Evaluation of Rubella Virus Infection among Pregnant Women in Ibadan, Nigeria. (bvsalud.org)
- Congenital rubella syndrome is caused by rubella virus infection of pregnant women. (cdc.gov)
- 211 pregnant women attending the prenatal consultation of mean age 27±5.99 years were randomly selected and screened for rubella IgG antibodies. (who.int)
- The main aim of this study was to assess the sero-prevalence of the rubella virus infection and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. (ejhd.org)
- The sero-prevalence of rubella virus infection among pregnant women was considered to be low, showing the high risk of a new infection. (ejhd.org)
- Pregnant women who get rubella have an increased chance of having babies with birth defects. (stanfordchildrens.org)
- Congenital Infections that a mother needs to be screened for include herpes virus, cytomegalovirus and rubella, to name a few. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
- Virologic surveillance in rubella-control and regional rubella-elimination programs since 2004 has resulted in approximately 100 new nucleotide sequences of wild-type rubella viruses available for analysis. (cdc.gov)
- While there are no basic changes in approach, the available epidemiologic data indicate that the elimination of congenital rubella syndrome can be achieved and even hastened by focusing particular attention on more effective delivery of vaccine to older individuals--particularly women of childbearing age. (cdc.gov)
- Despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines , and the elimination of the rubella virus in many developed countries , substantial commitment to rubella control has not been demonstrated in developing countries . (bvsalud.org)
- Since 2011, there has been an acceleration in the efforts to introduce rubella-containing vaccine using a strategy that can result in elimination. (cdc.gov)
- Progress toward rubella elimination has resulted in 168 (87%) of 194 countries protecting infants with RCV and 81 (42%) eliminating rubella transmission. (cdc.gov)
- To make further progress, it is important that the 26 remaining countries introduce rubella vaccine and the countries that have already introduced the vaccine achieve and maintain elimination. (cdc.gov)
- The Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 (GVAP) includes a target to achieve elimination of rubella in at least five of the six WHO regions by 2020 ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- Rubella elimination has been verified in 81 (42%) countries. (cdc.gov)
- Elimination of Endemic Measles, Rubella, and Congenital Rubella Syndrome From the Western Hemisphere: The US Experience. (medscape.com)
- The ACIP has specific recommendations for intervals between administration of antibody-containing products and live virus vaccines. (merckvaccines.com)
- 69% of the world's infants were vaccinated against rubella in 2018. (cdc.gov)
- A 5ml blood sample was also collected from all study participants and tested for Immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM antibodies against rubella virus infection using enzyme immune assay (EIA) test at the Amhara Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Bahir Dar. (ejhd.org)
- Immunoglobin G sublass antibodies to rubella viruses in chronic liver disease, acute rubella and healthy controls. (uib.no)
- Raised levels of antibodies to human viruses at the clinical onset of autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. (uib.no)
- Radioimmunoprecipitation and immunoblot studies of antibodies to rubella virus in patients with chronic liver disease. (uib.no)
- Elevated rubella antibodies in patients with chronic liver diseases. (uib.no)
- Rubella virus antibodies in autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. (uib.no)
- A group of vaccine-induced immune prepubertal children will not always prevent the spread of rubella into the rest of the community. (greenmedinfo.com)
- 1. Rubella Virus-Associated Cutaneous Granulomatous Disease: a Unique Complication in Immune-Deficient Patients, Not Limited to DNA Repair Disorders. (nih.gov)
- 12. Inhibition of rubella virus replication by the broad-spectrum drug nitazoxanide in cell culture and in a patient with a primary immune deficiency. (nih.gov)
- After having rubella, a person is immune for life. (topnotchparents.com)
- The group focuses partly on persistence, a common aspect of rubella infections. (nih.gov)
- Scientists at NIEHS, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and other research institutions reported an important discovery about how certain mutations occur in rubella viruses. (nih.gov)
- Consequently, the primary objective of global rubella control programs is prevention of congenital rubella infection and associated birth defects . (bvsalud.org)
- Medications used in the treatment or prevention of measles include vitamin A, antivirals (eg, ribavirin), measles virus vaccine, and human immunoglobulin (Ig). (medscape.com)
- Polio or poliomyelitis - a life-long paralysis with inability to walk caused by the polio virus. (mountsinai.org)
- These vaccinations have provided an enormous benefit to public health by preventing diseases that were common and sometimes deadly in the past, including polio, rubella, and whooping cough. (harvard.edu)
- Rubella virus infection during the first trimester of pregnancy can lead to severe birth defects (congenital rubella syndrome) ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- By far the most important consequences of rubella are the abortions, miscarriages, stillbirths, and fetal anomalies that result from rubella infection in early pregnancy, especially in the first trimester. (cdc.gov)
- Congenital rubella occurs when the rubella virus in the mother affects the developing baby in the first 3 months of pregnancy. (medlineplus.gov)
- Rubella virus is an infection caused by a with the rubella virus early in pregnancy she virus of the genus Rubivirus of the Togavirus has a 90% chance of passing the virus unto family . (who.int)
- Rubella virus infection during pregnancy is associated with adverse fetal outcomes and reproductive failures. (ejhd.org)
- The risk of serious birth defects or miscarriage is high if a woman contracts rubella in the first three months of pregnancy. (topnotchparents.com)
- After three months, the risk begins to decrease and the baby is almost completely at risk if the mother had rubella after her 20th week of pregnancy. (topnotchparents.com)
- Rubella is a fairly mild disease when it affects children. (topnotchparents.com)
- Genetic characterization of rubella viruses is conducted by the World Health Organization's measles and rubella laboratory network, a network of approximately 700 laboratories worldwide, including global specialized laboratories at the Health Protection Agency in the United Kingdom, National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan, and CDC in the United States ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
- Global measles and rubella laboratory network, January 2004--June 2005. (cdc.gov)
- CDC's rubella virus team, including Ludmila Perelygina, Ph.D., and Joseph Icenogle, Ph.D., serves as a national and international reference laboratory. (nih.gov)
- Icenogle serves as the rubella laboratory team lead. (nih.gov)
- Measles is a very contagious disease caused by a virus. (ncha.org)
- Rubella is a contagious disease caused by a virus. (ncha.org)
- Discover answers to key questions about MMR viruses and a downloadable educational resource for each disease state that you can give to your patients. (merckvaccines.com)
- A virus causes measles , a potentially serious disease that spreads easily. (medicinenet.com)
- Researchers developed one from a killed virus, and they developed the other using a live measles virus that was weakened (attenuated) and could no longer cause the disease. (medicinenet.com)
- Unfortunately, the killed measles virus (KMV) vaccine was not effective in preventing people from getting the disease, and medical professionals discontinued its use in 1967. (medicinenet.com)
- The live virus vaccine has been modified a number of times to make it safer (further attenuated) and today is extremely effective in preventing the disease. (medicinenet.com)
- The measles virus can remain in the air (and still be able to cause disease) for up to 2 hours after an infected person has left a room. (medicinenet.com)
- Among unimmunized people exposed to the virus, over 90% will contract the disease. (medicinenet.com)
- Rubella has been a reportable disease in Canada since 1924. (topnotchparents.com)
- Hepatitis B - contagious virus that is spread by contact with the blood or other body fluid of an infected person and causes liver disease. (hse.ie)
- A 6 years study from Senegal, Africa, details the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and rubella infection in one original article [ 9 ] while another article from Egypt describes the morbidity markers among Schistosoma mansoni patients. (lww.com)
- Phylogenetic analysis of a collection of 103 E1 gene sequences from rubella viruses isolated from 17 countries from 1961 to 2000 confirmed the existence of at least two genotypes. (cdc.gov)
- However, a limited number of viruses from Asia (China and India), and more recently Italy, formed a distant phylogenetic branch, differing from RGI viruses by 8% to 10%, which was designated Rubella Genotype II (RGII) ( 8 , 9 , 11 , 12 ). (cdc.gov)
- We have performed combined phylogenetic analysis on viruses from earlier studies ( 8 - 10 ) and, to gain further information on RGII viruses, we included viruses collected from the Eastern Hemisphere, namely Russia, South Korea, China, New Zealand, and Israel. (cdc.gov)
- Previous exposure and susceptibility of significant fraction of the population to rubella infection were confirmed. (bvsalud.org)
- Collaboration between the teams at CDC and NIEHS allowed studies of rubella persistence to be extended to fundamental observations about the generation of rubella virus variants,' she said. (nih.gov)
- 3. Live rubella virus vaccine long-term persistence as an antigenic trigger of cutaneous granulomas in patients with primary immunodeficiency. (nih.gov)
- Similar exanthematous illnesses are caused by adenoviruses, enteroviruses, and other common respiratory viruses. (cdc.gov)
World Health Organ1
- The recommended nomenclature for wild-type rubella viruses is being updated by the World Health Organization on June 15, 2007 ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- 2. Case Report: Rubella Virus-Induced Cutaneous Granulomas in Two Pediatric Patients With DNA Double Strand Breakage Repair Disorders - Outcome After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. (nih.gov)
- 4. "Noninfectious" Cutaneous Granulomas in Primary Immunodeficiency Patients and Association With Rubella Virus Vaccine Strain. (nih.gov)
- 10. Rubella vaccine-induced granulomas are a novel phenotype with incomplete penetrance of genetic defects in cytotoxicity. (nih.gov)
- complications include hearing loss, Rubella (which means "little red" and is also congenital heart defects, neurologic known as German measles) was originally problems (psychomotor retardation), thought to be a variant of measles. (who.int)
- Wild-type rubella virus nomenclature was first published in 2005 to facilitate 1) communication among persons involved in rubella control by establishing a standard naming convention for rubella viruses and 2) virologic surveillance by defining standard methods for the genetic characterization of these viruses. (cdc.gov)
- Genetic characterizations of rubella viruses have yielded data indicating that rubella is no longer endemic in the United States and confirming epidemiologic information on the source of imported cases ( 2, 3 ). (cdc.gov)
- Detailed descriptions of the rationale for nomenclature changes and other related technical matters described in this update should be reviewed by those involved in the genetic characterization of rubella viruses ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Standardization of the nomenclature for genetic characteristics of wild-type rubella viruses. (cdc.gov)
- Rubella genotype II (RGII) showed greater genetic diversity than did RGI and may actually consist of multiple genotypes. (cdc.gov)
- As part of the surveillance component of these efforts, an understanding of the worldwide molecular epidemiology of rubella virus, which is limited, is necessary. (cdc.gov)
Measles virus infected2
- Although CRS has been estimated to occur among 20%-25% or more of infants born to women who acquire rubella during the first trimester, the actual risk of infection and subsequent defects may be considerably higher. (cdc.gov)
- Virus Replication. (academicinfo.net)
- As with measles and most viral illnesses, there is no cure for rubella. (topnotchparents.com)
- Apart from the risks to the fetus which will be discussed later, the most common complication associated with rubella is a form of arthritis that affects adults and goes away on its own. (topnotchparents.com)
- Rubella virus is an RNA virus that is the sole member of the Rubivirus genus, within the Togaviridae family ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
- Herpes and CMV viruses are extremely problematic because they affect a great percentage of the human race and they tend to remain dormant in the human body. (home-remedies-for-you.com)
- The CDC-led team observed that the RNA genomes of rubella viruses in patients with PID differed significantly from the genomes in the MMR vaccine. (nih.gov)
- Icenogle said controlled research studies are now needed to assess the public health impact of viruses from patients with PID. (nih.gov)
- APOBEC enzymes produced nearly six times as many mutations as ADAR enzymes in rubella viruses from patients with PID. (nih.gov)
- 11. Outcomes for Nitazoxanide Treatment in a Case Series of Patients with Primary Immunodeficiencies and Rubella Virus-Associated Granuloma. (nih.gov)
- 8. Rubella virus-associated chronic inflammation in primary immunodeficiency diseases. (nih.gov)
- Rubella is the scientific name used of German measles, a different viral illness. (medicinenet.com)
- You or your children need a rubella vaccine. (medlineplus.gov)
- Once IgG exists, it persists for a incubation period is 13 to 20 days, during lifetime, but IgM antibody usually wanes which a viraemia occurs and virus over six months . (who.int)
- Altered antibody pattern to Epstein-Barr virus but not to other herpesviruses in multiple sclerosis: a population based case-control study from western Norway. (uib.no)
- The new research, which is part of a larger study on rubella viruses, is the first to report APOBEC-induced mutations of rubella viruses in human cells. (nih.gov)