Beds: Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.Bed Rest: Confinement of an individual to bed for therapeutic or experimental reasons.Bed Occupancy: A measure of inpatient health facility use based upon the average number or proportion of beds occupied for a given period of time.Hospital Bed Capacity: The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Bedbugs: Bugs of the family CIMICIDAE, genus Cimex. They are flattened, oval, reddish insects which inhabit houses, wallpaper, furniture, and beds. C. lectularius, of temperate regions, is the common bedbug that attacks humans and is frequently a serious pest in houses, hotels, barracks, and other living quarters. Experiments have shown that bedbugs can transmit a variety of diseases, but they are not normal vectors under natural conditions. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p272)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Bed Conversion: The reallocation of beds from one type of care service to another, as in converting acute care beds to long term care beds.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Head-Down Tilt: Posture while lying with the head lower than the rest of the body. Extended time in this position is associated with temporary physiologic disturbances.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Weightlessness Simulation: Condition under normal Earth gravity where the force of gravity itself is not actually altered but its influence or effect may be modified and studied. (From ASGSB Bull 1992;5(2):27)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overInfant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Hospital Planning: Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Mosquito Nets: Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.Weightlessness Countermeasures: Techniques and routines designed to prevent or reverse unwanted effects of weightlessness experienced during actual and simulated space flight, including physiologic changes related to removal of gravitational loading. Specific measures include creation of artificial gravity, exercise, low-level lower body negative pressure, and use of anti-deconditioning devices. (From Nicogossian, Space Physiology and Medicine, 2d ed, pp294-297)Hospital Bed Capacity, 300 to 499Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Insecticide-Treated Bednets: Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.EnglandInsecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Hospital Bed Capacity, under 100Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Splanchnic Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.Cardiovascular Deconditioning: A change in cardiovascular function resulting in a reduction in BLOOD VOLUME, and reflex DIURESIS. It occurs frequently after actual or simulated WEIGHTLESSNESS.United StatesPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Great BritainReagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Space Flight: Travel beyond the earth's atmosphere.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Unnecessary Procedures: Diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative procedures prescribed and performed by health professionals, the results of which do not justify the benefits or hazards and costs to the patient.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Hospital Bed Capacity, 100 to 299Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Gravity, Altered: A change in, or manipulation of, gravitational force. This may be a natural or artificial effect.GermanyAutomation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Hospital Units: Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.Permethrin: A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Health Facility Size: The physical space or dimensions of a facility. Size may be indicated by bed capacity.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Weightlessness: Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.LondonRadiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Beauty CultureInsect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Hospitals, District: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Nail Diseases: Diseases of the nail plate and tissues surrounding it. The concept is limited to primates.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.ScotlandStaining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Progressive Patient Care: Organization of medical and nursing care according to the degree of illness and care requirements in the hospital. The elements are intensive care, intermediate care, self-care, long-term care, and organized home care.IndiaCross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.WalesUganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Computers
  • The NEISS receives data from a network of ∼100 hospitals, representing a stratified probability sample of 6100 hospitals with at least 6 beds and a 24-hour ED. 14 The network includes urban, suburban, rural, and children's hospitals. (aappublications.org)
  • 13 Although most studies of bunk bed-related injuries have focused on pediatric populations, only 1 assessed bunk bed-related injuries among college students. (aappublications.org)
  • An estimated 572 580 children and adolescents aged ≤21 years were treated in US emergency departments for bunk bed-related injuries during the 16-year study period, yielding an average of 35 790 cases annually. (aappublications.org)
  • Bunk beds are a common source of injury among children and adolescents, and these injuries mostly involve the head and face. (aappublications.org)
  • Given the continuing large numbers of bunk bed-related injuries at homes and in schools, increased efforts are needed to prevent bunk bed-related injuries among children and adolescents. (aappublications.org)
  • 1 While playing or sleeping, children sustain bunk bed-related injuries that result from falls, jumps, bunk bed ladders, bed malfunctions, and striking the bed. (aappublications.org)
  • 1 , 2 , 5 - 8 Children younger than 6 years sustain the majority of bunk bed-related injuries. (aappublications.org)
  • 1 , 2 , 4 , 5 , 9 Because children younger than 6 years are at the highest risk for death resulting from head entrapment and collapsing mattresses, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has promulgated mandatory standards for bunk beds to prevent injuries. (aappublications.org)
  • 1 , 5 - 9 A recent study analyzed injuries associated with bunk beds by using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) during a 4-year period among children aged 0 to 9 years. (aappublications.org)
  • 4 We extend the previous work by Mack et al 4 by determining national patterns of bunk bed-related injuries for children, adolescents, and young adults aged ≤21 years treated in US emergency departments (EDs). (aappublications.org)
  • Our goal was to comprehensively examine bunk bed-related injuries in the United States by using a nationally representative sample. (aappublications.org)
  • Using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database, cases of nonfatal bunk bed-related injuries treated in US emergency departments from 1990 through 2005 were selected by using the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System bunk bed product code (0661). (aappublications.org)
  • The number of bunk bed-related injuries showed no significant trend from 1990 to 2005. (aappublications.org)
  • 10 - 12 College students are also at higher risk for bunk bed-related injuries. (aappublications.org)
  • To our knowledge, this is the first study to use nationally representative data to comprehensively examine patterns and trends of bunk bed-related injuries in this population. (aappublications.org)
  • Without further ado, find their full skin-care routines - including the drugstore cleanser four of them swear by - below. (allure.com)
  • After a long day, Nussbaum comes home and starts off her skin-care routine with Drunk Elephant's editor-favorite Beste No. 9 Jelly Cleanser , as it gently removes her makeup and all of the impurities her skin accumulated throughout the day. (allure.com)
  • You definitely don't need to engage in a 10-step skin care routine morning and night, but there are a few things you shouldn't skip out on if you want to keep your skin looking its most beautiful for years to come. (lorealparisusa.com)
  • You're really not going to want to skip out on cleansing before bed. (lorealparisusa.com)
  • Always make sure that you wash your face before you go to bed to avoid all these problems. (ayushveda.com)
  • Also, retinol is best applied at night before bed to avoid sun sensitivity. (self.com)
  • Green adds that you should avoid applying any other skin-care products with retinol, benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and glycolic acid as they can be too harsh on your skin during retinization. (self.com)
  • While these issues may be impossible to avoid, you must still exercise diligence in taking care of your teeth and monitoring them for signs of trouble. (justlanded.com)
  • Avoid wind-cold, regular daily life, have a good mood and take care of diet. (tcmtreatment.com)
  • Aides do routine tasks under the supervision of registered nurses and doctors. (act.org)
  • Nursing aides also known as nurse aides, nursing assistants, certified nursing assistants, geriatric aides, unlicensed assistive personnel, orderlies, or hospital attendants provide hands-on care and perform routine tasks under the supervision of nursing and medical staff. (allnurses.com)
  • To save the elderly and medically frail who are at greatest risk of death, hospitals quickly are erecting tents, protecting precious supplies and readying intensive care units and other special services. (mercurynews.com)
  • GERIATRIC AIDES help care for physically ill, injured, disabled, or infirm elderly people who are confined to nursing or residential care facilities. (act.org)
  • The letter is from the son of an elderly lady the applicant cared for over several years until the lady could no longer reside in her home. (greatsampleresume.com)
  • The Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) is accountable to the patient care team for providing direct patient care functions under the supervision of a registered nurse and performing clerical, communication and other related duties to facilitate the efficient functioning of Department services. (healthcaresource.com)
  • Nurse aides employed in nursing care facilities often are the principal caregivers, having far more contact with residents than do other members of the staff. (allnurses.com)
  • Similar Federal requirements exist for nurse aides who work in nursing care facilities. (allnurses.com)
  • This routine should set you in good stead with children of any age and will help them understand the importance of sleep. (ecochildsplay.com)
  • I try to keep a pretty good, simple skin routine. (wtop.com)
  • Good nutrition is the important thing that those women who desire to be beautiful should adopt in addition to whatever skincare routine they adopt. (ayushveda.com)
  • The gift baskets will include the NBC TODAY -lauded series' Let's Get Ready for Bed, released this month, and Nighty Night and Good Night along with a card from Smith congratulating the new parents. (prweb.com)
  • This is true for just about anything, but if you're living with asthma and/or allergies, you'll want to take good care of yourself during Asthma Peak Week. (forbes.com)
  • We rated the four core services we inspected (critical care, maternity and gynaecology, children and young people and outpatients and diagnostic imaging) as good overall. (cqc.org.uk)
  • All five key questions were rated as good (safe, effective, caring, responsive and well-led). (cqc.org.uk)
  • Lamb said it was concerning that the practice appeared to be increasing: "This is not good care. (communitycare.co.uk)
  • Cavies can be good pets for children over the age of six when parents supervise their handling and care. (petfinder.com)
  • Remember to take good care of yourself, and you'll be rocking that bombshell style before you know it. (wikihow.com)
  • Then, as your time in bed becomes good sleep time, move your going-to-bed time back 15 to 30 minutes a night and do that for a week or so. (linfield.edu)
  • With any kind of in-home support, the care is only as good as the individual caregivers. (caring.com)
  • My mom needed a team of 5 caregivers to provide round-the-clock care, and in the beginning there were a few that were not a good fit. (caring.com)
  • Below we highlight the most important elements of a good summer skin care routine to remember: sunscreen, oil control, lightweight moisturizer, and recovery. (askmen.com)
  • If you typically have oil skin, the skin care products that you have on hand may be doing your skin more harm than good - at least when it comes to addressing skin dryness. (lorealparisusa.com)
  • Good sleep hygiene is a key component of self-care for anyone with COPD or other chronic lung disease. (healthline.com)
  • Some babies seem to enjoy this and it's a good way to help them relax before bed. (nct.org.uk)
  • Come home, shower, and do my normal morning skin-care routine: a K-beauty face wash, fresh rose-water toner, TJ's antioxidant serum, First Aid Beauty eye cream (not a huge fan), and Philosophy Ultimate Miracle Worker face cream with SPF. (yahoo.com)
  • Follows all shift routines, policy and procedures regarding accurate performance of vital signs, weights, etc. (jobs.net)
  • Most pets can coexist if care is taken to ensure the guinea pigs' safety. (petfinder.com)
  • Guinea pigs very quickly get used to a routine of feeding, cleaning and human interaction. (omlet.us)
  • Guinea pigs soon get used to a routine, and will reward you with welcoming squeaks as soon as they hear you open your back door. (omlet.co.uk)
  • Cavies also require routine nail clipping, regular grooming and occasional ear cleaning. (petfinder.com)
  • s Wellness Wednesday series, the Broadway star is opening up about her self-care routine, including her go-to snacks and workout, as well as her three must-read book recommendations. (eonline.com)
  • SPONSORED: Practicing self-care is vital during stressful times. (adn.com)
  • Robinson advises including times for work and for self-care in your schedule. (adn.com)
  • Callie's goal is clear skin, but she also wants her brother to feel the confidence that comes from self-care . (yahoo.com)
  • So I really made a point to start doing self-care. (parade.com)
  • It's a form of self-care and a way of telling yourself that you matter. (parade.com)
  • Grooming newbies also come to the boards for advice like " a basic routine for most people with average skin . (yahoo.com)
  • If you are awake in bed for 15-20 minutes, get up and engage in a quiet activity in another room until drowsy. (nyee.edu)
  • Plus, more skin-care products that relieve itch and irritation. (allure.com)
  • Responses poured in, and commenters expressed support while doing what they do best - recommending skin care products. (yahoo.com)
  • The best anti aging skin care products to go for should additionally be made using exfoliates that produce collagens for revitalizing skin and Anti-inflammatory components too. (onegoodthingbyjillee.com)
  • And, if you tend to have dry skin in general, it can easily become even drier, and your usual batch of skin care products might not cover it. (lorealparisusa.com)
  • After exfoliating, be sure to replenish your skin with moisture by applying your hydrating skin care products. (lorealparisusa.com)
  • After cleansing, layer moisturizing skin care products to address excess dryness. (lorealparisusa.com)
  • If you're the kind of person who likes to keep things pared down as much as possible (or stay on top of trends), you'll want to switch to keeping your complexion in tip-top condition with only the most essential skin care products . (lorealparisusa.com)
  • is praised as the holy grail of skin-care products. (self.com)
  • Conclusions This study provides a unique insight into the local disease burden, resources available and challenges faced in providing paediatric intensive care. (bmj.com)
  • These can do a lot of damage to your skin even if you already have a rock-solid skin care routine - toner, serum, moisturizer, the whole nine yards . (askmen.com)
  • As the disease progresses, you'll need to provide a greater level of care. (alz.org)
  • Community resources are available that can provide you with supplies you need to care for your baby. (drugs.com)
  • The figure, although the best official barometer of out of area bed use, is likely to be an underestimate as several private sector providers that provide overspill beds to NHS trusts did not return data. (communitycare.co.uk)
  • I contacted Best Home Care and I was very pleased with the immediate temporary solution that Mike was able to provide. (caring.com)
  • While challenging, try to provide some stability in your other children's schedule or routine. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • At best, a province may provide basic dental care until the age of 12, or may provide coverage in the case of someone who is receiving social assistance. (justlanded.com)
  • Facilities that advertise, market, or otherwise promote their capacity to provide personal care services for people with Alzheimer's disease must be certified as a Type B facility. (hhs.gov)
  • Assisted living/residential care services provide a 24-hour living arrangement for persons who, because of a physical or mental limitation, are unable to continue independent functioning in their homes. (hhs.gov)
  • Occasionally, they change nonsterile dressings, give massages and provide skin care, or assist with braces and artificial limbs. (allnurses.com)
  • If early in-bed cycling during critical illness improves short-term physical and functional outcomes, it could accelerate recovery and reduce long-term disability in ICU survivors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 10 Tips For Choosing Healthy Cosmetics And Personal Care Products - by Christine H. Farlow, D.C. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The lack of staff also impacted on the activities programme as the activities co-ordinator was frequently providing personal care. (cqc.org.uk)
  • It provides accommodation and personal care services for older people. (cqc.org.uk)
  • Bathing is one of the most intimate kinds of personal care, second maybe only to diaper changing. (caring.com)
  • Assisted living facility is an establishment that furnishes, in one or more facilities, food and shelter to four or more persons who are unrelated to the proprietor of the establishment, and provides personal care services. (hhs.gov)