Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Mice, Inbred C57BLBiological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Mice, Inbred BALB CDrug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Mice, Inbred ICROrgan Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rats, Inbred F344Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Administration, Buccal: Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.United StatesInjections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.PiperazinesDrugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Mice, Inbred C3HDiazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Lethal Dose 50: The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Rats, Inbred LewOxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Routes of. administration. oral, sublingual, injection.. ATC code. *B03BA05 (WHO) Legal status. ...
Routes of. administration. oral, insufflation, Vaporization, IV, rectal, sublingual. Legal status. Legal status. *DE: Anlage I ... "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.. ... Acquisition of self-administration and fixed ratio dose-response curves in rats". Neuropharmacology. doi:
Other routes of administration include sublingual, intramuscular and transdermal. Medications are often managed at home by ... Routes of administration may differ from acute or chronic care, as many people in palliative care lose the ability to swallow. ... A common alternative route of administration is subcutaneous, as it is less traumatic and less difficult to maintain than ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) and Ettinger DS; Akerley W; Bepler G; Blum MG; Chang A; Cheney RT; Chirieac LR; ...
Buccal, sublingual or insufflated routes of administration are all viable options. Absorption rate buccally and sublingually ... "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015. " ... Drug Enforcement Administration (2015). "Schedules of Controlled Substances: Extension of Temporary Placement of Three ... Thomas M. Harrigan (10 October 2013). "Proposed Rules" (PDF). Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).
Routes of. administration. Oral, local/topical, transdermal, sublingual, inhaled. ATC code. *A04AD10 (WHO) ... US Food and Drug Administration. September 2004. Retrieved 14 January 2018.. *^ "Sativex Oromucosal Spray - Summary of Product ... "US Drug Enforcement Administration, Department of Justice. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2018.. ... such as in the United States where the National Institute on Drug Abuse and Drug Enforcement Administration continue to control ...
Routes of. administration. Oral, local/topical, transdermal, sublingual, inhaled. ATC code. *A04AD10 (WHO) ... US Food and Drug Administration. September 2004. Retrieved 14 January 2018.. *^ "Sativex Oromucosal Spray - Summary of Product ... no products have been approved for federal commerce by the Food and Drug Administration, a status that limits cultivation, ...
Some authors suggest a sublingual route is also effective. It is not recommended for diabetics, it is contraindicated in ... Following administration, marked peripheral vasoconstriction and bradycardia are noted. Often the dosage of induction agents (e ... would not allow the administration of the inductive agent without risk to the veterinarian. As such the use of alpha-two ... IM is the preferred route. Yohimbine may also be used in an emergency situation, but is not licensed. Veterinary anesthesia ...
The sublingual route takes advantage of the highly vascular quality of the oral cavity, and allows for the speedy application ... The sublingual region underneath the front of the tongue is an ideal location for the administration of certain medications ... This is the only convenient and efficacious route of administration (apart from Intravenous therapy) of nitroglycerin to a ...
This route of administration is used for the therapy of bladder cancer and interstitial cystitis. The retention of dosage forms ... However, the sublingual mucosa also produces more saliva, resulting in relatively low retention rates. Thus, sublingual mucosa ... With a 0.1-0.7 mm thick mucus layer, the oral cavity serves as an important route of administration for mucoadhesive dosages. ... With an active surface area of 160 cm2, the nasal cavity is another noteworthy route of mucoadhesive administration. Due to the ...
Parenteral administration is via a peripheral or central vein. In pharmacology, the route of drug administration is important ... Methods of administration include oral, sublingual (dissolving the drug under the tongue), and rectal. ... which occurs from routes outside the GI tract, such as intravenous routes. Enteral administration involves the esophagus, ... In general medicine, enteral administration (Greek enteros, "intestine") is food or drug administration via the human ...
... , literally "under the lip", from Latin, refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which ... Sublabial administration should not be confused with sublingual administration, which is under the tongue. The frenulum of the ... tongue may be irritated when in contact with corrosive materials but can be avoided with this route. It is usually used for ...
Sublabial administration Sublingual administration Route of administration Pharmacology Sattar, M; Sayed, OM; Lane, ME (Aug ... Buccal administration refers to a topical route of administration by which drugs held or applied in the buccal (/ˈbʌkəl/) area ... Buccal administration may provide better bioavailability of some drugs and a more rapid onset of action compared to oral ... Buccal administration of vaccines has been studied, but there are challenges to this approach due to immune tolerance ...
The use of drops is suggested for a more marked initial effect and the sublingual route for easier administration, especially ... and sublingual tablets. The formulations had similar systemic availability. Compared with oral tablets, the sublingual route ... "The pharmacokinetics of clotiazepam after oral and sublingual administration to volunteers". European Journal of Clinical ...
sublingual and buccal medication administration is a way of giving someone medicine orally (by mouth). Sublingual ... The rectal route is an effective route of administration for many medications, especially those used at the end of life. The ... The parenteral route is any route that is not enteral (par- + enteral). Parenteral administration can be performed by injection ... If defined strictly as having local effect, the topical route of administration can also include enteral administration of ...
Subcutaneous immunotherapy, also known as allergy shots, is the historical route of administration and consists of injections ... Later, sublingual formulations were found to be effective in symptom reduction in allergic rhinitis. Sublingual immunotherapy ... The cost for allergen immunotherapy varies by country and administration route. There is no clear and holistic transparency ... Sublingual immunotherapy involves putting drops or a tablet of allergen extracts under the tongue to swallow the extract. For ...
Its main route of administration is oral. Adverse effects include sedation, hypoventilation, constipation and miosis, in ... Methadone is available in traditional pill, sublingual tablet, and two different formulations designed for the person to drink ... Methadone and its two main metabolites Methadone EDDP EDMP The most common route of administration at a methadone clinic is in ... Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 2006-11-29. "Methadone". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on ...
With sublingual administration, it has at least 150 times the potency of progesterone and 50 times the potency of ethisterone ... It also has 10 times the potency of injected progesterone via this route. In addition to its progestogenic activity, ... when administered to women via the same route. ...
Therefore, it is critical to have knowledge of both the route of administration of the drug and the level of tolerance to ... Mendelson J, Upton RA, Everhart ET, Jacob P 3rd, Jones RT (1997). "Bioavailability of sublingual buprenorphine". Journal of ... Drug Enforcement Administration (July 2013). "Buprenorphine" (PDF). DEA. Retrieved 3 December 2017. "NADAC as of 2017-11-29". ... Obama administration's change on buprenorphine policy. Business Insider (2016-07-06). Retrieved on 2016-11-07. Practically a ...
Alternative routes of administration like suppository, intravenous, intramuscular, inhalational aerosol, transdermal and ... Drugs with high first pass effect have a considerably higher oral dose than sublingual or parenteral dose. There is marked ... "Influence of route of administration on drug availability". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 61 (1): 70-74. doi:10.1002/jps. ... National Library of Medicine, Toxicology Tutor II, Influence of Route of Exposure University of Nottingham School of Nursing, ...
As such, estrogen administered via other routes of administration that bypass the liver, such as transdermal (in the form of ... estrogen patches), sublingual, intranasal, intramuscular injection, and subcutaneous injection, may be significantly more ... "Effects of the route of oestrogen administration on IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in healthy postmenopausal women: results from a ... do not affect serum IGF-1 levels regardless of route of administration. However, androgenic progestins, such as 19- ...
Accepted Medical Use: Route of Administration. The 2002 Petition to Reschedule Cannabis (Marijuana). DrugScience.org. Retrieved ... sublingual, and even rectal administration, in addition to vaporizers, which release cannabis' active ingredients into the air ... Department of Health and Human Services Drug Enforcement Administration Food and Drug Administration Advocacy groups: Drug ... The Nixon administration took no action to implement the recommendation, however. Jon Gettman, former director of the National ...
... is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth. Per os (P.O.) is sometimes used ... dissolved under the lip Sublingual administration, dissolved under the tongue, but due to rapid absorption many consider SL a ... Oral administration is a part of enteral administration, which also includes Buccal, dissolved inside the cheek Sublabial, ... TheFreeDictionary > oral administration of medication Citing: Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. 2009. ...
... instead of using the sublingual (under the tongue) route of administration. In Switzerland, Germany, the Netherlands, and the ... Buprenorphine sublingual preparations are often used to manage opioid dependence (that is, dependence on heroin, oxycodone, ... p. 4. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: ... It can be given by many routes (e.g., intramuscular, intravenous, subcutaneous, intranasal, and inhalation) and acts quickly by ...
... instead of using the sublingual (under the tongue) route of administration. In some countries, such as Switzerland, Austria, ... Podymow T, Turnbull J, Coyle D, Yetisir E, Wells G (2006). "Shelter-based managed alcohol administration to chronically ... Giglio, Rebecca E; Li, Guohua; DiMaggio, Charles J (May 22, 2015). "Effectiveness of bystander naloxone administration and ... Goldberg, Dan; Pazmino, Gloria (28 September 2016). "Council, de Blasio administration to study supervised injection facilities ...
... detomidine may be administered by the intramuscular or sublingual routes. The dose range advised by the manufacturers is 20-40 ... Following administration there is an initial increase in blood pressure, followed by bradycardia and second degree ... The drug is normally administered by the intravenous route, and is fastest and most efficient when given intravenously . ... and in the concurrent administration of other arrhythmogenics. The concurrent use of potentiated sulfonamide antibiotics is ...
Therefore, a drug given by the intravenous route will have an absolute bioavailability of 100% (f = 1), whereas drugs given by other routes usually have an absolute bioavailability of less than one. If we compare the two different dosage forms having same active ingredients and compare the two drug bioavailability is called comparative bioavailability.. Although knowing the true extent of systemic absorption (referred to as absolute bioavailability) is clearly useful, in practice it is not determined as frequently as one may think. The reason for this is that its assessment requires an intravenous reference, that is, a route of administration that guarantees that all of the administered drug reaches the systemic circulation. Such studies come at considerable cost, not least of which is the necessity to conduct preclinical toxicity tests to ensure adequate safety, as well as there being potential problems due to solubility ...
As an adjunct therapy with cyclophosphamide for conditioning prior to bone marrow transplantation in adults and children ,12 kg, intravenous (IV) busulfan (Bulsulfex) is dosed at 0.8 mg/kg every six hours for 16 doses (four days). IV busulfan is usually administered over two hours. Both IV and oral formulations require prophylactic antiemetic agents administered prior to the busulfan dose and scheduled antiemetics administered thereafter. Oral bioavailability of busulfan shows a large interindividual variation.[6] Taking busulfan on an empty stomach is recommended to reduce the risk of nausea and emesis. Peak plasma concentrations are achieved within one hour of oral administration. About 30% of the drug is bound to plasma proteins, such as albumin. Busulfan therapeutic drug monitoring is completed based on trough (pre-dose) levels with a target six-hour area under the curve (AUC) of between 900 and 1500 micromolxmin. AUCs (six-hour) ,1500 micromolxmin are associated with ...
The Public Administration Campus (PAC) (जन प्रशासन क्याम्पस) is the constituent campus of Tribhuvan University (TU). It was the only one campus for public administration studies in Nepal for long time, now joined by two other colleges. It is currently located at Balkhu, Kathmandu. The campus operates under Central Department of Public Administration (CDPA). Initially, public administration education was started with one-year diploma in public administration for HMG Second Class Gazetted Officers under Center for Economic Development and Administration (CEDA) of the Tribhuvan University. Later in 1976, Public Administration Campus (PAC) - a full-fledged constituent campus of the Tribhuvan University was established. PAC was assumed the sole responsibility for education for ...
Pharmacokinetics refers to the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs (ADME). All psychoactive drugs are first absorbed into the bloodstream, carried in the blood to various parts of the body including the site of action (distribution), broken down in some fashion (metabolism), and ultimately removed from the body (excretion). All of these factors are very important determinants of crucial pharmacological properties of a drug, including its potency, side effects, and duration of action. Pharmacokinetic tolerance (dispositional tolerance) occurs because of a decreased quantity of the substance reaching the site it affects. This may be caused by an increase in induction of the enzymes required for degradation of the drug e.g. CYP450 enzymes. This is most commonly seen with substances such as ethanol. This type of tolerance is most evident with oral ingestion, because other routes of drug administration bypass first-pass metabolism. Enzyme ...
Therefore, a drug given by the intravenous route will have an absolute bioavailability of 100% (f = 1), whereas drugs given by other routes usually have an absolute bioavailability of less than one. If we compare the two different dosage forms having same active ingredients and compare the two drug bioavailability is called comparative bioavailability.[citation needed] Although knowing the true extent of systemic absorption (referred to as absolute bioavailability) is clearly useful, in practice it is not determined as frequently as one may think. The reason for this is that its assessment requires an intravenous reference; that is, a route of administration that guarantees all of the administered drug reaches systemic circulation. Such studies come at considerable cost, not least of which is the necessity to conduct preclinical toxicity tests to ensure adequate safety, as well as potential problems due to solubility ...
The pharmacokinetic data was collected from animal studies performed in mice and rats. The CMax was obtained 15 minutes after oral ingestion of Osemozotan, the area under the curve was 2,943 ng x hr/mL and the half-life was 1.3 hours.[6] The pharmacokinetic testing has been able to help explain the longer acting pharmacologic effects of Osemozotan, and the increased potency. Osemozotan was shown to have increased duration of pharmacologic effects compared to azapirones and requires a substantially lower dose to produce its pharmacologic effects.[6] This may be attractive to populations that will have to take this medication in that they may not have to take the medication as often throughout the day. In these studies there was a difference in dosage amount necessary for the indication it is used.[6] Osemozotan has not been found to be metabolized to 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)-piperazine, a common metabolite found with the azapirone class of medications.[6] 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)-piperazine has affinity for ...
The directly acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs) were introduced on and after 2008. There are five DOACs currently on the market: dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban and betrixaban.[15] They were also previously referred to as "new/novel" and "non-vitamin K antagonist" oral anticoagulants (NOACs). Between 2013/Q2 and 2014/Q4, DOAC use tripled, exhibiting how quickly these new drugs have been adopted by health care providers and patients.[16]. Compared to warfarin, NOACs have a rapid onset action and relatively short half-lives; hence, they carry out their function more rapidly and effectively, and allow for drugs to quickly reduce their anticoagulation effects.[17] Routine monitoring and dose adjustments of NOACs is less important than for warfarin, as they have better predictable anticoagulation activity. In certain circumstances, OCT angiography has the potential for evaluating the effects of intensified antithrombotic therapy.[11]. Both NOACs and warfarin are equivalently effective, ...
Florbetaben binding to β-amyloid plaques on human brain samples was originally demonstrated in 2005.[12] Highly selective binding for β-amyloid over other proteins (e.g., tau and a-synuclein) has been demonstrated in vitro.[13] Initial single-center studies demonstrated the potential for florbetaben PET imaging to discriminate between AD patients and non-AD patients or healthy volunteers.[14] Single dose pharmacokinetics of 300 MBq florbetaben of low or high mass dose (,=5 and 50-55 μg) showed no relevant differences between Japanese and Caucasian populations.[15] When compared to healthy subjects, cortical uptake of florbetaben was demonstrated to be generally higher in a large proportion of patients with a clinical diagnosis of AD or mild cognitive impairment.[16] Longitudinal data of 45 patients with MCI indicated that florbetaben PET imaging may be useful to identify patients who will progress to AD.[17] A substantial proportion of patients with a positive florbetaben PET scan progressed ...
Pharmacokinetic modelling is performed by noncompartmental or compartmental methods. Noncompartmental methods estimate the exposure to a drug by estimating the area under the curve of a concentration-time graph. Compartmental methods estimate the concentration-time graph using kinetic models. Noncompartmental methods are often more versatile in that they do not assume any specific compartmental model and produce accurate results also acceptable for bioequivalence studies. The final outcome of the transformations that a drug undergoes in an organism and the rules that determine this fate depend on a number of interrelated factors. A number of functional models have been developed in order to simplify the study of pharmacokinetics. These models are based on a consideration of an organism as a number of related compartments. The simplest idea is to think of an organism as only one homogenous compartment. This monocompartmental model presupposes that blood plasma concentrations of the drug are a ...
Greenberg B, Thomas I, Banish D, Goldman S, Havranek E, Massie BM, Zhu Y, Ticho B, Abraham WT (August 2007). "Effects of multiple oral doses of an A1 adenosine antagonist, BG9928, in patients with heart failure: results of a placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study". Journal of the American College of Cardiology 50 (7): 600-6. PMID 17692744. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2007.03.059. Cite uses deprecated parameter ...
Per os (/ˌpɜːrˈoʊs/; P.O.) is an adverbial phrase meaning literally from Latin "by opening" or "by way of the opening." The expression is used in medicine to describe a treatment that is taken orally. The abbreviated P.O. is often used on medical prescriptions. P.O. is also occasionally rendered per orem, which is sometimes corrupted to per oram. These are grammatically incorrect; "os" is a neuter noun of the 3rd declension and thus the accusative case is the same as the nominative case. ...
Drugbox-lat , verifiedrevid = 443383199 , IUPAC_name =(RS)-N-{3-[1-hidroksi-2-(metilamino)etil]fenil}metanesulfonamid , image = Amidephrine.svg , width = , image2 = , width2 =. , tradename = , pregnancy_category = , legal_status = , routes_of_administration =. , bioavailability = , metabolism = , elimination_half-life = , excretion =. , CAS_number_Ref = ...
ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್‌ನ ಎಲ್‌ಡಿ50 ಪ್ರಮಾಣ ಇಲಿಗಳಿಗೆ 50 ಮಿಗ್ರಾ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾ ಮತ್ತು ಮೂಗಿಲಿಗಳಿಗೆ 3 ಮಿಗ್ರಾ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾ. 40-60 ಮಿಗ್ರಾಂ. (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) ಇದು ವಯಸ್ಕ ಮನುಷ್ಯರಿಗೆ ಘಾತಕ ಪ್ರಮಾಣವಾಗಿರುತ್ತದೆ.[೪೩][೪೪] ಆದ್ದರಿಂದ, ಕೊಕೈನ್‌ನಂತಹ ಇತರ ಕ್ಷಾರಗಳಿಗೆ ತುಲನೆ ಮಾಡಿ ನೋಡಿದಾದ ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್ ಹೆಚ್ಚಿನ ವಿಷತ್ವವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ, ಅದು ಮೈಸ್‌ಗೆ ನಿರ್ವಹಣೆ ಮಾಡಿ ನೋಡಿದಾಗ 95.1 ಮಿಗ್ರಾಂ/ಕಿಗ್ರಾಂ ನ LD50 ಪ್ರಮಾಣವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿದೆ. ಆದಾಗ್ಯೂ, ಕೇವಲ ಧೂಮಪಾನದ ಮೂಲಕ ನಿಕೋಟಿನ್ ಅನ್ನು ಅತಿ ...
Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by ... Sublingual administration has certain advantages over oral administration. Being more direct, it is often faster,[quantify] and ... Pharmaceutical preparations for sublingual administration are manufactured in the form of:. *Sublingual tablets-tablets which ... "Evaluation of the Sublingual Route for Administration of Influenza H5N1 Virosomes in Combination with the Bacterial Second ...
... by sublingual route, by companies such as Novo Nordisk, Sanofi and BioLingus. The sublingual route may also be used for ... Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by ... Sublingual administration has certain advantages over oral administration. Being more direct, it is often faster,[quantify] and ... "Evaluation of the Sublingual Route for Administration of Influenza H5N1 Virosomes in Combination with the Bacterial Second ...
Misoprostol Use as Potent Induction Agent Grows : The drugs pharmacokinetics vary with the route of administration; sublingual ... The drugs pharmacokinetics are dependent on its route of administration. Orally, it is rapidly absorbed with a peak ... Peak concentration with vaginal administration is 1 hour, with a slow decline over the 4 hours post administration. ... Oral routes are sometimes used also: 400 mcg every 2 hours for 24 hours or 200 mcg every hour for 8 hours. Several studies have ...
Oscimin Sublingual Tablet official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, adverse ... Route of Administration. SUBLINGUAL. DEA Schedule. Active Ingredient/Active Moiety. Ingredient Name. Basis of Strength. ... Oscimin Sublingual Tablet Description. Each round, green, peppermint flavored tablet for sublingual administration contains:. ... This product is absorbed totally and completely by sublingual administration as well as oral administration. Once absorbed, ...
Nitroglycerin Sublingual Tablet official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, ... Route of Administration. SUBLINGUAL. DEA Schedule. Active Ingredient/Active Moiety. Ingredient Name. Basis of Strength. ... Nitroglycerin Sublingual Tablet Dosage and Administration. Administer one tablet under the tongue or in the buccal pouch at the ... Nitroglycerin is rapidly absorbed following sublingual administration of nitroglycerin tablets. Mean peak nitroglycerin plasma ...
Route of Administration NCI Thesaurus OID: 2.16.840.1.113883.3.26.1.1. NCI concept code for route of administration: C38114 ...
Routes of. administration. oral, sublingual, injection.. ATC code. *B03BA05 (WHO) Legal status. ...
Route of Administration. SUBLINGUAL. DEA Schedule. CIII Active Ingredient/Active Moiety. Ingredient Name. Basis of Strength. ... 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. 2.1 Important Dosage and Administration Instructions. Buprenorphine sublingual tablets are ... BUPRENORPHINE sublingual tablets, for sublingual administration CIII. Initial U.S. Approval: 2002 ... 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 2.1 Important Dosage and Administration Instructions 2.2 Induction 2.3 Maintenance 2.4 Method of ...
Routes of Administration 174. Inhalation (N2O) 176. Oral Sedation 183. Sublingual Administration 184 ...
Routes of Administration 174. Inhalation (N2O) 176. Oral Sedation 183. Sublingual Administration 184. Intravenous Sedation 185 ...
Route of Administration. SUBLINGUAL. Active Ingredient/Active Moiety. Ingredient Name. Basis of Strength. Strength. ... DISCLAIMER: This homeopathic product has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration for safety or efficacy. FDA is ...
The most successful method was oral route (82.1%), followed by vaginal route (80%), and sublingual route (70.4%). The abortion ... Oral route of administration was superior to vaginal or rectal use of misoprostol. ... They were randomly divided into three groups as follows: oral misoprostol (n=28), vaginal misoprostol (n=30), and sublingual ... sublingual misoprostol group). The dosage was similar in three groups (400 micrograms every four hours up to a maximum of five ...
Increasing evidence supports the effectiveness of the sublingual route of administration. Careful avoidance of the specific ... Sublingual immunotherapy for hazelnut food allergy: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with a standardized ... Coseasonal sublingual immunotherapy reduces the development of asthma in children with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. J Allergy ... However, if its efficacy for a broad range of allergens is proven, sublingual immunotherapy offers treatment that is probably ...
Purpose of Review An increasing amount of literature supports a multimodal approach to analgesic administration in the ... Sublingual absorption of selected opioid analgesics. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988;44(3):335-42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... The most common route of administration of analgesia in our study was via the parenteral route (29,962), and the least common ... Analysis of Multiple Routes of Analgesic Administration in the Immediate Postoperative Period: a 10-Year Experience. ...
Dosing: Routes of Administration *Oral Route (90% of cancer cases, preferred route). *Peak effect in 1 hour after dosing ... Sublingual Route. *Some medications may be given sublingually (e.g. Morphine, Lorazepam) ...
sublingual administration. Most dangerous route for medication administration. intraveous. Drug applied directly to a body site ... Which route is commonly used for the administration of insulin?. subcutaneous route. ... Intradermal Route. What type of administration involves the injection of solutions into the spinal subarachnoid space?. ... Refers to the route used when drugs are placed directly into the gastrointestinal tract by oral or rectal administration. ...
sublingual (under tongue). *buccal (between cheek and gums). *rectal. 40 The "sub" routes of parenteral administration ... Why is medication not just given sublingual or buccal to avoid the negative impact of the liver and kidneys? ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Drug Administration. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word ... Oral, Sublingual, Topical, Parenteral. The most common method of drug administration?. Oral Route. ... Sublingual Drug Administration. the drug is placed under the tongue and allowed to dissolve. Should NOT be swallowed!. ... a common sublingual drug is. nitroglycerin. Drugs for topical application have become available in a unit-dose device called a ...
It is controversially discussed whether subcutaneous or sublingual administration routes cause higher patients compliance. ... KG were retrospectively evaluated for 5 consecutive years, based on prescriptions per patient: pollen sublingual immunotherapy ... compliance with different administration routes for allergen immunotherapy in Germany Anne-Marie Egert-Schmidt, Jan-Marcel ... It is controversially discussed whether subcutaneous or sublingual administration routes cause higher patients compliance.. ...
Routes of. administration. Oral, local/topical, transdermal, sublingual, inhaled. ATC code. *A04AD10 (WHO) ... US Food and Drug Administration. September 2004. Retrieved 14 January 2018.. *^ "Sativex Oromucosal Spray - Summary of Product ... "US Drug Enforcement Administration, Department of Justice. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2018.. ... such as in the United States where the National Institute on Drug Abuse and Drug Enforcement Administration continue to control ...
Routes of. administration. Oral, local/topical, transdermal, sublingual, inhaled. ATC code. *A04AD10 (WHO) ... US Food and Drug Administration. September 2004. Retrieved 14 January 2018.. *^ "Sativex Oromucosal Spray - Summary of Product ... no products have been approved for federal commerce by the Food and Drug Administration, a status that limits cultivation, ...
Medical & Supportive Therapy  Administration of antibiotics.  Hydration of patient by I/V route.  Soft or liquid diet rich ... 5. Buccal space Sublingual Submandibular * 6. Canine Space It is the region between anterior surface of maxilla and overlying ... b) Hematogenous route to other organs such as brain. * 36. Pathway of Odontogenic Infection Intraoral soft tissue abscess ... Sublingual gland.  Lingual & hypoglossal nerves.  Terminal branches of lingual artery. * 16. Etiology Infected mandibular ...
Childrens compliance with allergen immunotherapy according to administration routes. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;116(6):1380- ... Sublingual immunotherapy: adherence based on timing and monitoring control visits. Allergy. 2010;65(5):668-9.CrossRefPubMed ... Sublingual immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis and asthma: a review of recent clinical evidence. J Appl Res. 2007;7(1):17-31. ... Sublingual immunotherapy: factors influencing adherence. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2012;22(6):458-9.PubMedGoogle ...
Disadvantage: Not convenient route of administration for bad-tasting medications or irritating medications. ... Generic name, indications, contraindications, adverse effects, dosage, and route of administration. -Additional references:. ... route of administration, dosage range, and what forms are available. ... an undesired effect of a medication that occurs within 30-90 minutes after administration of the first dose ...
Can an alternative route be used? eg, topical, sublingual, rectal, IV. *Is there a more suitable formulation within the same ... Do not mix medicines for enteral tube administration. *Prescribe for appropriate route on drug chart eg. NG, NJ, PEG and not PO ... Williams N. Medication administration through enteral feeding tubes. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2008;65:2347-2357. ... White R & Bradnam V. Handbook of Drug Administration Via Enteral Feeding Tubes - 3rd Ed. Pharmaceutical press. 2015.. ...
  • LSD , MDMA , morphine , alprazolam , clonazepam , and many other substances including the psychedelic tryptamines and phenethylamines are all viable candidates for administration via this route. (wikipedia.org)
  • This may be a preferred method to simple oral administration, because MAO is known to oxidize many drugs (especially the tryptamines such as DMT ) and because this route translates the chemical directly to the brain, where most psychoactives act. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a number of factors, such as pH , molecular weight , and lipid solubility , may determine whether the route is practical. (wikipedia.org)
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