The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie (4.184 joules). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Patterns (real or mathematical) which look similar at different scales, for example the network of airways in the lung which shows similar branching patterns at progressively higher magnifications. Natural fractals are self-similar across a finite range of scales while mathematical fractals are the same across an infinite range. Many natural, including biological, structures are fractal (or fractal-like). Fractals are related to "chaos" (see NONLINEAR DYNAMICS) in that chaotic processes can produce fractal structures in nature, and appropriate representations of chaotic processes usually reveal self-similarity over time.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.
Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)
Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
A persistent progressive non-elevated red scaly or crusted plaque which is due to an intradermal carcinoma and is potentially malignant. Atypical squamous cells proliferate through the whole thickness of the epidermis. The lesions may occur anywhere on the skin surface or on mucosal surfaces. The cause most frequently found is trivalent arsenic compounds. Freezing, cauterization or diathermy coagulation is often effective. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2428-9)
A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.
Short popular sayings effectively expressing or astutely professing general truths or useful thoughts. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p97, p1556)
The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.
A non-heme IRON enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of MYOINOSITOL to D-glucuronic acid. The reaction is the first committed step in MYOINOSITOL catabolic pathway. This enzyme was formerly characterized as EC 1.13.1.11 and 1.99.2.6.
A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
Increased salivary flow.
Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.
A method of differentiating individuals based on the analysis of qualitative or quantitative biological traits or patterns. This process which has applications in forensics and identity theft prevention includes DNA profiles or DNA fingerprints, hand fingerprints, automated facial recognition, iris scan, hand geometry, retinal scan, vascular patterns, automated voice pattern recognition, and ultrasound of fingers.
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
The study of the patterns of ridges of the skin of the fingers, palms, toes, and soles.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).
Enthalpy and entropy are related to Gibbs free energy through the equation (at a constant temperature): Δ G ∘ = Δ H ∘ − T Δ S ... The anti conformation is more stable by 0.9 kcal mol−1. We would expect that butane is roughly 82% anti and 18% gauche at room ... Therefore, entropy makes a contribution of 0.4 kcal in favor of the gauche conformation. We find that the actual conformational ... This isn't always the case; if the difference in enthalpy is small, entropy can have a larger effect on the equilibrium. For ...
The range of smoothing is provided by some fixed percentage of conditional entropy from total entropy. Roughly speaking, the ...
... which is roughly a symmetrization of conditional entropy. It is a metric on the set of partitions of a discrete probability ... is the entropy of P {\displaystyle P} (which is the same as the cross-entropy of P with itself). Relative entropy D KL ( P ∥ Q ... for which Shannon entropy ceases to be so useful (see differential entropy), but the relative entropy continues to be just as ... The entropy H ( P ) {\displaystyle \mathrm {H} (P)} thus sets a minimum value for the cross-entropy H ( P , Q ) {\displaystyle ...
See also: Entropy § Cosmology, and Entropy (arrow of time) § Cosmology. Proposals about the final state of the universe depend ... VID Another universe could possibly be created by random quantum fluctuations or quantum tunneling in roughly 10. 10. 10. 56. ... A 2010 analysis of entropy states, "The entropy of a general gravitational field is still not known", and "gravitational ... 2008). Entropy and the Time Evolution of Macroscopic Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-19-954617-6. .. ...
The context modeling is responsible for most of CABAC's roughly 10% savings in bit rate over the CAVLC entropy coding method. ... Context-adaptive binary arithmetic coding (CABAC) is a form of entropy encoding used in the H.264/MPEG-4 AVC and High ... CABAC is notable for providing much better compression than most other entropy encoding algorithms used in video encoding, and ...
Roughly, the fluctuation theorem relates to the probability distribution of the time-averaged irreversible entropy production, ... decreasing entropy should be just as likely as increasing entropy. It might seem that this is incompatible with the second law ... It does not imply that the ensemble averaged entropy production is non-negative at all times. This is untrue, as consideration ... While the second law of thermodynamics predicts that the entropy of an isolated system should tend to increase until it reaches ...
Again, the entropy-eigenvector is shown in this picture. The acoustic contents of the same mode is seen in the bottom half of ... Roughly a third of the spectrum was highly damped (large, negative λ r {\displaystyle \lambda _{r}} ) and is not shown. The ... The top half corresponds to the entropy mode as above. The DMD analysis assumes a pattern of the form q ( x 1 , x 2 , x 3 ... The DMD-analysis was applied to 90 sequential Entropy fields (animated gif (1.9MB)) and yield an approximated eigenvalue- ...
... in order to return to the roughly spherical conformation that maximizes entropy. The disentanglement of polymer chains is a ... Die swell is a phenomenon directly related to entropy and the relaxation of the polymer within the flow stream. Initially, a ... maximizing entropy. Extrusion through the die causes an increase in flow rate through the polymer flow stream. As the polymer ... flow stream has a constant rate before entering the die, and the polymers within the stream occupy a roughly spherical ...
The gas flow through a de Laval nozzle is isentropic (gas entropy is nearly constant). In a subsonic flow sound will propagate ... In practice, ambient pressure must be no higher than roughly 2-3 times the pressure in the supersonic gas at the exit for ... The gas flow is isentropic (i.e., at constant entropy). As a result, the flow is reversible (frictionless and no dissipative ...
The space they occupy is roughly equal to the size of the text T in entropy-compressed form, such as that obtained by ... It refers to a data structure whose operations are roughly as fast as those of a conventional data structure for the problem, ... R. Grossi, A. Gupta, and J. S. Vitter, High-Order Entropy-Compressed Text Indexes, Proceedings of the 14th Annual SIAM/ACM ... An important related notion is that of a succinct data structure, which uses space roughly equal to the information-theoretic ...
... thus with zero entropies). Its coarse grained entropy, however, rose from zero to its final nonzero value. Roughly half way ... The entropies of the two cases are called thermal entropy and von Neumann entropy respectively. They are also distinguished by ... As may be deduced from the foregoing arguments, this difference is roughly zero before the entanglement entropy (which is the ... Finally when all photons are in B, the coarse grained entropy of A as well as its fine grained entropy vanish and A is again in ...
Over an infinite amount of time, there could be a spontaneous entropy decrease, by a Poincaré recurrence or through thermal ... Hence, there will be roughly 0.51,000 (approximately 10−301) as many nucleons remaining as there are today; that is, zero ... doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.13.198.. See in particular equation (27). Frautschi, S (1982). "Entropy in an expanding universe". Science ... Xing, Xiu-San (2007) "Spontaneous entropy decrease and its statistical formula". arXiv:0710.4624. Bibcode:2007arXiv0710.4624X. ...
Entropy (although a broad concept used in somewhat different ways across disciplines) roughly describes the way that isolated ... Wiener believed that communication of information is essentially negentropic - it resists entropy -, because it relies on ...
For dynamical systems, entropy rate and algorithmic complexity of the trajectories are related by a theorem of Brudno, that the ... The conditional Kolmogorov complexity of two strings K ( x , y ) {\displaystyle K(x,y)} is, roughly speaking, defined as the ... doi:10.1016/S0019-9958(67)90546-3. Brudno, A. (1983). "Entropy and the complexity of the trajectories of a dynamical system". ... or algorithmic entropy. It is named after Andrey Kolmogorov, who first published on the subject in 1963. The notion of ...
The entropy rate of the genome differs significantly between coding and non-coding sequences. It is close to the maximum of 2 ... the variations of a given human's genome from a common reference can be losslessly compressed to roughly 4 megabytes. ... which has an entropy rate below 0.9 bits per base pair. The content of the human genome is commonly divided into coding and ...
... and oxygen is a gas with a much larger molar entropy. For the oxidation of each metal, the dominant contribution to the entropy ... change (ΔS) is the removal of 1⁄2 mol O 2, so that ΔS is negative and roughly equal for all metals. The slope of the plots d Δ ... where ΔH is the enthalpy change and ΔS is the entropy change. The Ellingham diagram plots the Gibbs free energy change (ΔG) for ...
Since the entropy is an exact differential, using the chain rule, the change in entropy when going from a reference state 0 to ... and the point at which the argument of the logarithm becomes zero is roughly equal to the point at which the average distance ... The Sackur-Tetrode equation also suffers from a divergent entropy at absolute zero, but is a good approximation for the entropy ... value of the constant in the sense that the predicted entropy is as close as possible to the actual entropy, given the flawed ...
The presence of these contributes an entropy of roughly Δ S = k B ln ⁡ ( L 2 / a 2 ) {\displaystyle \Delta S=k_{\rm {B}}\ln(L^{ ... of the color map where all spins have roughly the same color. To identify vortices (or antivortices) present as a result of the ...
He then claims that in roughly fifty years, humanity and technology will merge, hopefully creating a utopian future. The ... that he simulated the Miller-Urey experiment and coupled it with various components using the laws of physics and entropy, ...
First, the bins would have roughly the same size, because the entropies H ( X b ) {\displaystyle \mathrm {H} (X_{b})} and H ( Y ... And second, each bin of X will roughly correspond to a bin in Y. Because the variables X and Y are reals, it is almost always ... Also, joint entropy is minimized by having a one-to-one correspondence between bins. If we substitute such values in the ... Entropy is maximized by uniform probability distributions, or in this case, bins with the same number of elements. ...
His magnum opus, The Entropy Law and the Economic Process (1971), is credited by Daly as a fundamental text of the field, ... Additionally, this construction has led to a roughly 30% increase in work demands (Chen). The potential for the substitution of ... Georgescu-Roegen, N. (1999). The Entropy Law and the Economic Process. iUniverse Press, ISBN 1583486003. Gowdy, J.; Erickson, J ... Georgescu-Roegen, Nicholas (1971). The Entropy Law and the Economic Process (Full book accessible at Scribd). Cambridge, ...
... to estimate the loss of conformational entropy in a particular side chain on incorporation into a folded protein can roughly ... Conformational entropy is the entropy associated with the number of conformations of a molecule. The concept is most commonly ... Configuration entropy Folding funnel Loop entropy Molten globule Protein folding Doig AJ, Sternberg MJE. (1995). Side-chain ... Side-chain conformational entropies can be defined as Boltzmann sampling over all possible rotameric states: S = − R Σ i p i l ...
... rather than entropy. This is because biological processes on Earth take place at roughly constant temperature and pressure, a ... Entropy is well defined for equilibrium systems, so objections to the extension of the second law and of entropy to biological ... entropy The minimization of the Gibbs free energy is a form of the principle of minimum energy, which follows from the entropy ... and higher entropy arrangement to one of less probability, more order, and lower entropy (as is seen in biological ordering) ...
In cryptanalysis, entropy is often roughly used as a measure of the unpredictability of a cryptographic key, though its real ... Entropy estimation Entropy power inequality Fisher information Graph entropy Hamming distance History of entropy History of ... The relative entropy, and implicitly entropy and differential entropy, do depend on the "reference" measure m. Entropy has ... This formulation is also referred to as the normalized entropy, as the entropy is divided by the maximum entropy log b ⁡ ( n ...
The left-hand inequality can be roughly interpreted as saying that entropy can only be cancelled by an equal amount of entropy ... The von Neumann entropy is also used in different forms (conditional entropies, relative entropies, etc.) in the framework of ... Entropy (information theory) Linear entropy Partition function (mathematics) Quantum conditional entropy Quantum mutual ... While in Shannon's theory the entropy of a composite system can never be lower than the entropy of any of its parts, in quantum ...
of the entropy of x. {\displaystyle x}. conditional on t. {\displaystyle t}. plus the marginal (i.e. unconditional) entropy of ... with Bayesians being roughly divided into two schools: "objective Bayesians", who believe such priors exist in many useful ... The larger the entropy, the less information is provided by the distribution. Thus, by maximizing the entropy over a suitable ... The entropy of a normal density function is equal to half the logarithm of 2. π. e. v. {\displaystyle 2\pi ev}. where v. {\ ...
... for it to pass through all its possible microstates-a time that can be roughly estimated as τ e S {\displaystyle \tau e^{S}} , ... This joint entropy is equal to the marginal entropy (entropy assuming no correlations) plus the entropy of correlation (mutual ... then this joint entropy is just the marginal entropy, which is just the initial thermodynamic entropy of the system, divided by ... If the entropy is constant in either direction of time, there would be no preferred direction. However, the entropy can only be ...
This is also the roughly the magnitude of Ea for a reaction that proceeds over several hours at room temperature. Due to the ... entropy and Gibbs energy of activation are more correctly written as Δ‡Ho, Δ‡So and Δ‡Go respectively, where the o indicates a ... we can write the Gibbs free energy of activation in terms of enthalpy and entropy of activation: ΔG‡ = ΔH‡ - T ΔS‡. Then, for a ...
... except that the entropy, S[p], is replaced in the list by the enthalpy, H. It expresses the entropy representation. The state ... It corresponds roughly with p = 13 bar and T = 108 K. Throttling from this point to a pressure of 1 bar ends in the two-phase ... Entropy uses the Greek word τροπή (tropē) meaning transformation. Enthalpy uses the root of the Greek word θάλπος (thalpos) " ... The enthalpy of a closed homogeneous system is its energy function H(S,p), with natural state variables its entropy S[p] and ...
The trophic pyramid roughly represents the biomass (usually measured as total dry-weight) at each level. Plants generally have ... This is because energy is lost to the environment with each transfer as entropy increases. About eighty to ninety percent of ... There are different kinds of feeding relations that can be roughly divided into herbivory, carnivory, scavenging and parasitism ...
Time-of-flight (TOF) PET: For modern systems with a higher time resolution (roughly 3 nanoseconds) a technique called "Time-of- ... Miller, Michael I.; Snyder, Donald L. (1987). "The role of likelihood and entropy in incomplete data problems: Applications to ...
Yearly U.S. energy consumption amounts to roughly 94 EJ.. Zettajoule. The zettajoule (ZJ) is equal to one sextillion (1021) ... has a kinetic energy of roughly 13 TJ. In 2017 Hurricane Irma was estimated to have a peak wind energy of 112 TJ.[15][16]. ...
This means roughly that it is a "nonperiodic oscillator"; it produces an oscillating waveform that, unlike an ordinary ... A computer-assisted proof of chaotic behavior (more precisely, of positive topological entropy) in Chua's circuit was published ... Z. Galias, "Positive topological entropy of Chua's circuit: a computer-assisted proof", Int. J. Bifurcations and Chaos, 7 (1997 ...
To make this figure, Ωr is held constant (roughly equivalent to holding the CMB temperature constant) and the curvature density ... The concept of entropy dictates that if the universe (or any other closed system) were infinitely old, then everything inside ...
Entropy. d. −. c. +. b. −. a. 2. (. d. +. c. −. b. −. a. ). +. ln. ⁡. (. d. +. c. −. b. −. a. 2. ). {\displaystyle {\frac {d-c+ ... Likewise, trapezoidal distributions also roughly resemble mesas or plateaus. Each trapezoidal distribution has a lower bound a ...
This time happens to correspond roughly to the time of the formation of the Solar System and the evolutionary history of life. ... entropy state consisting of a bath of particles and low-energy radiation. It is not known however whether it eventually ... In inflationary models of cosmology, times before the end of inflation (roughly 10−32 second after the Big Bang) do not follow ... inflation ended at a temperature corresponding to roughly 10−32 second after the Big Bang, but this does not imply that the ...
One puzzling feature is that the entropy of a black hole scales with its area rather than with its volume, since entropy is ... The size of a black hole, as determined by the radius of the event horizon, or Schwarzschild radius, is roughly proportional to ... The radiation, however also carries away entropy, and it can be proven under general assumptions that the sum of the entropy of ... Page, Don N. (1993). "Average entropy of a subsystem". Phys. Rev. Lett. 71 (9): 1291-1294. arXiv:gr-qc/9305007. Bibcode: ...
1 barn, roughly the cross-sectional area of a uranium nucleus[5] ... Roughly the surface area of an Oort Cloud 300 Pm2 Roughly the ...
Complete polypeptide chain composition investigated by maximum entropy analysis of mass spectra". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (15): 8875 ... Hemoglobin's quaternary structure comes from its four subunits in roughly a tetrahedral arrangement.[34] ...
In mathematics, the dimension of an object is, roughly speaking, the number of degrees of freedom of a point that moves on this ... we perceive time as flowing in the direction of increasing entropy). ...
Under standard atmospheric conditions (25 °C and pressure of 1 bar), the dynamic viscosity of air is 18.5 μPa·s, roughly 50 ... at a rate of one drop roughly every decade. In this way the viscosity of pitch has been determined to be approximately 230 ...
Disorder, also known as entropy, is related to black holes. There is a scientific law that has to do with entropy. This law is ... If Pauli's exclusion principle did not exist, then everything in the universe would look the same, like a roughly uniform and ... The relation between the amount of entropy in a black hole and the size of the black hole's event horizon was first thought of ... called the second law of thermodynamics, and it says that entropy (or disorder) will always increase in an isolated system (for ...
This system stores a luma value roughly analogous to (and sometimes incorrectly identified as)[5][6] luminance, along with two ...
... the overall charge of a plasma is roughly zero). Although these particles are unbound, they are not "free" in the sense of not ...
It follows from the general formula for the entropy:. S. =. −. k. B. ∑. j. P. j. ln. ⁡. (. P. j. ). {\displaystyle S=-k_{\ ... From the thermodynamic viewpoint that considers (a), passages from one equilibrium state to another, only a roughly approximate ... Derivation of the entropy change for reversible processesEdit. The second part of the Second Law states that the entropy change ... the second law requires that the increment in system entropy be greater than that:. d. S. ,. δ. Q. T. (closed system, actually ...
... and roughly 44% of sunlight energy that reaches the ground is visible.[19] Another example is incandescent light bulbs, which ... Randomness · Information · Entropy · Mind Light · Particle · Wave. Branches. Applied · Experimental · Theoretical Mathematical ... This wavelength means a frequency range of roughly 430-750 terahertz (THz). ...
Sequence entropyEdit. Main article: Sequence entropy. In Bioinformatics, a sequence entropy, also known as sequence complexity ... Roughly speaking, high sequence identity suggests that the sequences in question have a comparatively young most recent common ... This approximation, which reflects the "molecular clock" hypothesis that a roughly constant rate of evolutionary change can be ...
... is roughly 10 times harder than 18k gold. In addition to its design and high polish, part of its attraction to ... entropy (S. o. 298). 32.1 J/mol·K Related compounds Other anions ...
Conformational flexibility in the molecule also tends to make crystallization less likely, due to entropy. Molecules that tend ... roughly) circular loop using magnetic fields. ...
Bou-Rabee, Nawaf (2014). "Time Integrators for Molecular Dynamics". Entropy. 16 (1): 138-162. Bibcode:2013Entrp..16..138B. doi: ... Using an explicit solvent is computationally expensive, requiring inclusion of roughly ten times more particles in the ... including the conformational entropy of the polypeptide chain (the main factor that destabilizes protein structure) and ...
For example, although roughly the mammal data fit with ​3⁄4 for the whole range of masses, when restricting to masses under 10 ... Shour, Robert (November 2012). "Entropy and its relationship to allometry". arXiv:0804.1924.. ...
It is equal to the amount of expansion since reheating, which is roughly Einflation/T0, where T0=2.7 K is the temperature of ... Their models failed, however, because of the buildup of entropy over several cycles. Misner made the (ultimately incorrect) ... However, the energy scale of dark energy is much lower, 10−12 GeV, roughly 27 orders of magnitude less than the scale of ... For, if the thermalization is actually doing anything [...] then it represents a definite increasing of the entropy. Thus, the ...
The muscle action potential lasts roughly 2-4 ms, the absolute refractory period is roughly 1-3 ms, and the conduction velocity ... Moreover, contradictory measurements of entropy changes and timing disputed the capacitance model as acting alone. ... For example, action potentials move at roughly the same speed (25 m/s) in a myelinated frog axon and an unmyelinated squid ... For comparison, a hormone molecule carried in the bloodstream moves at roughly 8 m/s in large arteries. Part of this function ...
"Information, Physics, Quantum: The Search for Links" in Complexity, Entropy and the Physics of Information (1990), ed. by ... Friedrich Engels extended the concept of materialism to elaborate a materialist conception of history centered on the roughly ...
For instance, the word entropy (about 10 bits per word) is similar to that of English or Latin texts.[3] In 2013, Diego Amancio ... The last two pages of this section were lost (Aquarius and Capricornus, roughly January and February), while Aries and Taurus ... Indeed, even Roger Bacon knew about ciphers, and the estimated date for the manuscript roughly coincides with the birth of ... which have been found to occur in Chinese and Vietnamese texts at roughly the same frequency as in the Voynich manuscript). It ...
Roughly speaking, the principle states that a person in a free-falling elevator cannot tell that they are in free fall. Every ... Introduction to entropy. *Introduction to evolution. *Introduction to gauge theory. *Introduction to general relativity ... roughly 14 billion years ago and has been expanding ever since.[41] ... corresponds to a distance of roughly 3,300 kilometers (2,100 mi). On the other hand, someone at a latitude of 55 degrees, ...
Roughly speaking, one can say that conservative systems are precisely those to which the recurrence theorem applies. ... Recurrence period density entropy. *Wandering set. *Boltzmann brain. References[edit]. *^ Poincaré, H. (1890). "Sur le problème ...
The basal and lateral surfaces thus remain roughly equivalent[clarification needed] to one another, yet distinct from the ... increasing the entropy of the system. This complex interaction can include noncovalent interactions such as van der Waals, ...
So how many ways can you order all the 52 cards in a pack? The sum is 52x51x50x49x48....x4x3x2x1 and the answer is roughly... ... The entropy decreases involved in evolution, by any estimate, remain many orders of magnitude less than the total entropy gain ... for that matter entropy will increase, as the Second Law predicts. Evolution as a whole represents a decrease in entropy (or an ... scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2008/11/10/entropy-and-evolution/ Styer, D.F., (2008), Entropy and evolution. Am J Phys 76(11):1031 ...
Conventional documentary photographs were soon superseded by enlarged multiple images, many in color, that he roughly spliced ... Reviews/Art; Entropy With Spirit in a Brooklyn Retrospective. By ROBERTA SMITH. MAY 27, 1988. ... But he was first and foremost a kind of urban earthwork artist, who, like Robert Smithson, took entropy - the cycles of life, ... Entropy With Spirit in a Brooklyn Retrospective. Order Reprints, Todays Paper,Subscribe ...
See also: Entropy § Cosmology, and Entropy (arrow of time) § Cosmology. Proposals about the final state of the universe depend ... VID Another universe could possibly be created by random quantum fluctuations or quantum tunneling in roughly 10. 10. 10. 56. ... A 2010 analysis of entropy states, "The entropy of a general gravitational field is still not known", and "gravitational ... 2008). Entropy and the Time Evolution of Macroscopic Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-19-954617-6. .. ...
Lately, researchers have achieved some success with high-entropy alloys (HEA), those with five or more elements in roughly ... "We have a good base for a new class of superalloys based on high-entropy alloys," he says. ... Multicomponent intermetallic nanoparticles strengthen high-entropy alloys. By Arthur L. Robinson January 28, 2019 ...
Enthalpy and entropy are related to Gibbs free energy through the equation (at a constant temperature): Δ G ∘ = Δ H ∘ − T Δ S ... The anti conformation is more stable by 0.9 kcal mol−1. We would expect that butane is roughly 82% anti and 18% gauche at room ... Therefore, entropy makes a contribution of 0.4 kcal in favor of the gauche conformation. We find that the actual conformational ... This isnt always the case; if the difference in enthalpy is small, entropy can have a larger effect on the equilibrium. For ...
Using a variational dropout-based entropy measure of uncertainty in the workflow speeds up the learning process by roughly 45 ... Using a variational dropout-based entropy measure of uncertainty in the workflow speeds up the learning process by roughly 45 ... but never eclipses the accuracy received using the Entropy H measure. This proves that the Entropy H uncertainty measure can be ... this can be expressed as the difference between entropy of the predictive distribution and the mean entropy of predictions ...
As a life force, we are increasing entropy in our environment, and the environment is starting to push back. This is to be ... This bounded chaotic oscillation will lead to roughly periodic variations in temperature at any point on the globe. The shape ... This bounded chaotic oscillation will lead to roughly periodic variations in temperature at any point on the globe. The shape ... Yes, the laws of physics and entropy manifest themselves in politics and economies, too. Im positive, youre negative, and ...
We wondered if it was to do with entropy, as entropy increases with temperature. Looking at it again, Im also thinking that ... The level I am currently studying is roughly equivalent to first year degree.. Any help is appreciated. ... So more [H+]. So smaller pH! And entropy was not the thing changing but energy.. Clearer now, at least for me. ... You are definitely on the right track thinking about the dissociation constant and entropy.. The pH of water is due to the ...
Roughly speaking, the suns luminosity increases by about 1% every 100 million years or so--ah, perhaps a little less than this ... In order to generate a low entropy (ordered) state from a higher entropy (less ordered) state, energy external to the system is ... In our particular dissipative system (the biosphere), the low-entropy external input is sunlight, and the higher entropy output ... In our particular dissipative system (the biosphere), the low-entropy external input is sunlight, and the higher entropy output ...
The range of smoothing is provided by some fixed percentage of conditional entropy from total entropy. Roughly speaking, the ...
... which is roughly a symmetrization of conditional entropy. It is a metric on the set of partitions of a discrete probability ... is the entropy of P {\displaystyle P} (which is the same as the cross-entropy of P with itself). Relative entropy D KL ( P ∥ Q ... for which Shannon entropy ceases to be so useful (see differential entropy), but the relative entropy continues to be just as ... The entropy H ( P ) {\displaystyle \mathrm {H} (P)} thus sets a minimum value for the cross-entropy H ( P , Q ) {\displaystyle ...
entropies, respectively. Entropies are computed over directed acyclic graphs (28, 46). Although SI Appendix presents a rigorous ... Roughly speaking, a system such that is considered as hierarchical.. Our measure of treeness is now obtained from the ... which is the general expression of the forward entropy of . In a similar way but in the bottom-up direction, a backward entropy ... will be given by the following path entropy,. where is the probability that the path is followed, starting from node . ...
Shannon estimates roughly 1 bit per character of English. RFC 1750 D. Eastlake, S. Crocker, J. Schiller, "Randomness ... What should the value of N be, such that the entropy of the users , string does not unnecessarily exceed the entropy of the ... Re: How much entropy in a key press?. *To: [email protected] (Anonymous) ... Adam , Can anyone tell me how many bits of entropy there are per 7-bit ASCII , character. More specifically, a program wishes ...
... is recently called the topological tail entropy. Roughly speaking it measures the amount of entropy that always escapes the ... Topological entropy for flows. For a flow \(\varphi:\Bbb R\times X\to X\) the topological entropy is defined as the entropy of ... Topological tail entropy and symbolic extension entropy. * In 1976, Misiurewicz [M] introduced an entropy-related parameter \(h ... Relation with Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy. The relation between topological entropy and measure theoretic entropy is established ...
... by miscalculation or accident in roughly 89.2% of the cases.. rare ebook circulation distribution entropy production revenues ... Ebook Circulation Distribution Entropy Production And Irreversibility Of Denumerable Markov Chains. Nukefix ver. 2.3. It has to ... ebook circulation distribution entropy reel islands in the ratingLow love was from 54 billion minutes in 2009 to 117 billion ... Ebook Circulation Distribution Entropy Production And Irreversibility Of Denumerable Markov Chains. by Ethel 3.6 ...
If we compare the entropy of these we can expect them to have roughly similar average amounts of information:. ... Tag Archives: entropy. Pixel Quipu November 30, 2015. Accidental art, rendering, Visual Programming, Weavingbinary, coding with ... cryptography, report, Teaching, Weavingcoding with knots, cryptography, entropy, inca, information theory, quipudave ... Although entropy is a very simplistic approach mathematically, its main use is to give us a tool for measuring the comparative ...
At first, it sounded to me like "Belle cuore", roughly translating to "beautiful heart." It seemed like an irony Donizetti ... Archive for the Entropy Category. 9. Dec. An Evening with Beethoven. Posted in College!, Entropy, NYC Arts (MCHC 1001), Reviews ... Posted in College!, Entropy, NYC Arts (MCHC 1001), Reviews , No Comments » Its always nice to walk into a café and find out ... Posted in Caribbean Art Objects, College!, Entropy, NYC Arts (MCHC 1001) , No Comments » Basic Facts: "Un mercado de line con ...
Entropy is simply a fact of nature. Entropy can be minimized in this Universe, but it cannot be eradicated. That is where ... T]he celebrated second law of thermodynamics…says, roughly speaking, that in any change the Universe becomes a slightly more ... in orig.). This principle is known as entropy. Simply put, entropy states that nature is tending towards disorder and chaos. ... Rifkin, Jeremy (1980), Entropy: A New World View (New York: Viking).. Spencer, Herbert (1882), First Principles: A System of ...
Each section roughly corresponded to one 90-minute lecture. I did not include the sections on probability and entropy in my ... I make no distinction between information entropy and thermodynamic entropy and entropy associated with rolling a die. Because ... The section on Entropy, however, is perhaps an unnecessary evil. You certainly dont need it to read the rest of the notes. I ... Entropy is just a number you calculate when you have a probability distribution. No more, no less. You may find many things ...
It is roughly as secure as just 6 chars and no numbers, but no, we have to have the numbers and the short-ish expiration. I am ... An AC makes a reasonable on topic first post with a more or less accurate entropy count (note that both sexconker and ... Really thats plenty - uppercase, lowercase, and numbers = 62 states per digit, or roughly 6 bits. To add just one more bit per ... Thats 26 (lower case) + 26 (upper case) + 10 (digits) = 62 characters, or about 6 bits of entropy per 8-bit byte. ...
where the first term on the right is the heat transferred into the system, expressed in terms of temperature T and entropy S ( ... Expressed roughly as carbon dioxide even when being at rest kinetic, and this mass always! The rate of reaction center, light- ... in which entropy increases and the change dS is positive when the system is heated), and the last term on the right hand side ... Maximum entropy production when the concentration of carbon dioxide + water + light?... A positive growth response than C4 ...
The fridge is not an isolated system by itself, it gives off heat so your system would (roughly) be the room enclosing the ... Related Threads on Decrease in entropy and 2nd Law of Thermodynamics! Insights Understanding Entropy and the 2nd Law of ... Your refer is pumping entropy into your kitchen.... Entropy in a closed system -- one where no energy crosses the boundary ... How can such a decrease in entropy be consistent with the 2nd law of thermodynamics?. 2nd law of thermodynamics:. The total ...
Using the concept of entropy [H], here we develop a new measure that considers both how focused the search is and the degree to ... Using the concept of entropy [H], here we develop a new measure that considers both how focused the search is and the degree to ... in roughly 84% of published water maze studies (Maei et al., 2009 ). The newer Z and P measures were introduced in the 1990s ( ... state of entropy. Therefore, we can start from the definition of entropy. In the context of information theory, entropy ...
However, assuming entropy and ZPVE contributions of similar size as for the dissociation of O2 or O−2, HO2 dissociation would ... but their contributions are roughly equal (around 45-55 kJ mol−1). The lack of solvation makes dissociation of the oxygen ... Note that the frequencies are from gas phase calculations and hence ZPVE and entropy effects are estimated from the gas phase ... For both dissociation reactions, the thermochemical corrections (ZPE and entropy) favour dissociation, ...
It turns out that, roughly speaking, this only happens when the solution is a gradient shrinking soliton, thus at any given ... Nash entropy, non-collapsing, Perelman entropy, Poincare inequality, semigroup method , by Terence Tao , 11 comments ... 21 May, 2008 in 285G - poincare conjecture, math.DG , Tags: gradient shrinking solitons, Perelman entropy, reduced volume, ... In this lecture, we content ourselves with a key step in this program, namely to characterise when the Perelman entropy or ...
The data from Brazil are aggregated in 97 basins, which correspond roughly to metropolitan areas (34, 35). The data that track ... Symbolic transfer entropy (STE) captures the intrinsic time scale of the information flow and allows a proper diagnosis of the ... 1)where the sum runs over each symbol in the sequence and δ = 1. The transfer entropy refers to the deviations of the cross- ... Permutation entropy: A natural complexity measure for time series. Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 174102 (2002).. ...
Limitations of entropy in cryptographyEdit. In cryptanalysis, entropy is often roughly used as a measure of the ... The entropy can explicitly be written as. H. (. X. ). =. ∑. i. =. 1. n. P. (. x. i. ). I. (. x. i. ). =. −. ∑. i. =. 1. n. P. ( ... This formulation is also referred to as the normalized entropy, as the entropy is divided by the maximum entropy log. b. ⁡. (. ... b-ary entropyEdit. In general the b-ary entropy of a source S. {\displaystyle {\mathcal {S}}}. = (S, P) with source alphabet S ...
... although the categories are the same and roughly equally represented in both data sets, there is little overlap in the genes ... As pointed out by Shannon (20), information and entropy are interlinked: the more information one has, the lower the entropy. ... We determine ρ(x) by maximizing the Shannon entropy, S = −Σ x ρ(x) lnρ(x), subject to the constraint that ρ(x) is normalized ... The maximum entropy network identifies connections between genes involved in diverse cellular processes. To emphasize this ...
Opposing trends in hint and hi are to be expected, although, because the sum hint + hi should roughly equal the constant value ... To minimize unnecessary assumptions, the probability distribution with maximum entropy was chosen. The maximum entropy ... Note that the entropy of the first-order model, S1, was always greater than the entropy of any higher-order models, S2,… SN, ... and was expressed as the difference between the entropy of the first-order model and entropy of the actual data (Schneidman et ...
  • The idea of heat death stems from the second law of thermodynamics , of which one version states that entropy tends to increase in an isolated system . (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the second law of thermodynamics, the overall entropy of a closed system must always increase. (wired.com)
  • The Second Law of Thermodynamics - the entropy of a closed system will not spontaneously decrease - was understood well before Boltzmann. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The most prominent use of entropy is in the context of the second law of thermodynamics. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Because the Second Law of Thermodynamics tells us that entropy increases, the history of the universe is the story of dissipation of free energy. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Lately, researchers have achieved some success with high-entropy alloys (HEA), those with five or more elements in roughly equal proportions. (cambridge.org)
  • These new multi-component alloys are called high-entropy alloys because they consist primarily of a simple solid solution phase, and therefore have a high entropy of mixing. (scienceblog.com)
  • In contrast, 'high-entropy' alloys consist of multiple metals mixed in approximately equal amounts. (materialstoday.com)
  • Despite significant interest from material scientists, high-entropy alloys have yet to make the leap from the lab to actual products. (materialstoday.com)
  • To date, scientists have only been able to re-create two types of packing structures in most high-entropy alloys - body-centered cubic and face-centered cubic. (materialstoday.com)
  • A small number of high-entropy alloys with the HCP structure have been made in the last few years, but they contain a lot of exotic elements such as alkali metals and rare earth metals,' Tracy said. (materialstoday.com)
  • Scientists have speculated that the reason high-entropy alloys don't undergo this shift naturally is because interacting magnetic forces between the metal atoms prevent it from happening. (materialstoday.com)
  • But a new Stanford study shows that high pressure could be used to control the final properties of advanced, high-entropy alloys that have five or more mixed metals. (stanford.edu)
  • However, entropy in the larger system must increase, in accordance with the laws of thermodynamics. (theoildrum.com)
  • A discussion of the thermodynamics of empire is not complete without discussing the implications of entropy. (theoildrum.com)
  • Decrease in entropy and 2nd Law of Thermodynamics! (physicsforums.com)
  • How can such a decrease in entropy be consistent with the 2nd law of thermodynamics? (physicsforums.com)
  • Related Threads on Decrease in entropy and 2nd Law of Thermodynamics! (physicsforums.com)
  • Generally, entropy refers to disorder or uncertainty, and the definition of entropy used in information theory is directly analogous to the definition used in statistical thermodynamics . (wikipedia.org)
  • Suddenly, a thermodynamics problem became a puzzle for cosmology: why did the early universe have such a low entropy? (discovermagazine.com)
  • In order to generate a low entropy (ordered) state from a higher entropy (less ordered) state, energy external to the system is needed to drive the concentration of energy within the system uphill. (theoildrum.com)
  • That is, given a change in entropy from one end of time to the other, we would always define the direction of lower entropy to be the past, and higher entropy to be the future. (discovermagazine.com)
  • sometimes a configuration with excess free energy can last a long time before something comes along to nudge it into a higher-entropy form. (discovermagazine.com)
  • We analyzed symbol sequences representing subjects' motion trajectories with five common complexity measures: predictability, compressibility, approximate entropy, Lempel-Ziv complexity, as well as effective measure complexity. (frontiersin.org)
  • A moving window approximate entropy (ApEn) is run over the Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal with the epileptic seizures. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Since enthalpy is usually more important, entropy can often be ignored. (wikipedia.org)
  • if the difference in enthalpy is small, entropy can have a larger effect on the equilibrium. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the autoionization of water, what sign do you expect for the change in enthalpy (ΔH) and change in entropy (ΔS). (physicsforums.com)
  • In their hands, some lead series are enthalpy-driven as they get better, some are entropy-driven, and some switch gears as the SAR evolves. (sciencemag.org)
  • One could do all the in vitro enthalpy and entropy measurement but only the in vivo numbers matter. (sciencemag.org)
  • The central idea of "enthalpy over entropy" is that entropic contribution could change significantly from in vitro to in vivo, such as viscosity, pH, dielectric constant and hetero protein-protein interactions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Applications include characterizing the relative (Shannon) entropy in information systems, randomness in continuous time-series, and information gain when comparing statistical models of inference. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shannon estimates roughly 1 bit per character of English. (venona.com)
  • As pointed out by Shannon ( 20 ), information and entropy are interlinked: the more information one has, the lower the entropy. (pnas.org)
  • We wondered if it was to do with entropy, as entropy increases with temperature. (physicsforums.com)
  • Entropy in a closed system -- one where no energy crosses the boundary between system and not-system -- always increases. (physicsforums.com)
  • When an ice cube in your glass melts and dilutes your lemonade, for instance, entropy increases. (wired.com)
  • When you scramble an egg, entropy increases. (wired.com)
  • That is to say: we know that entropy increases as the universe evolves. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Roughly speaking, the free energy is the total energy minus entropy times temperature, so free energy is used up as entropy increases. (discovermagazine.com)
  • In the language of physics , this is when the universe reaches thermodynamic equilibrium (maximum entropy). (wikipedia.org)
  • The proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP), based on statistical mechanics and information theory, states that thermodynamic processes far from thermodynamic equilibrium will adapt to steady states at which they dissipate energy and produce entropy at the maximum possible rate. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • While the use of 'entropy' is often surrounded with ambiguity, it can nevertheless be used in purely quantitative terms to measure the distance of a given state from thermodynamic equilibrium. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The total entropy of an isolated system cannot decrase, it may increase. (physicsforums.com)
  • The total entropy of an isolated system cannot decrease. (physicsforums.com)
  • The fridge is not an isolated system by itself, it gives off heat so your system would (roughly) be the room enclosing the refrigerator. (physicsforums.com)
  • My KeePass database lists my Hotmail address's password as having 99 bits of entropy. (slashdot.org)
  • with two coins there are four possible outcomes, and two bits of entropy. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, the entropy of a fair coin toss is 1 bit, and the entropy of m tosses is m bits. (wikipedia.org)
  • If these values are equally probable, the entropy (in bits) is equal to this number. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calculating the entropy for this distribution gives 4.08 bits per character. (britannica.com)
  • Because normally 8 bits per character are used in the most common coding standard, Shannon's theory shows that there exists an encoding that is roughly twice as efficient as the normal one for this simplified message alphabet. (britannica.com)
  • and the entropy of X is 3 bits. (lesswrong.com)
  • Then the entropy of Y would be 1.75 bits, meaning that we can find out its value by asking 1.75 yes-or-no questions. (lesswrong.com)
  • The solar energy subsidy available to the Romans allowed them to create a concentration of ordered socioeconomic complexity in a sea of relative disorder and and simplicity, driving entropy in reverse locally. (theoildrum.com)
  • Accordingly, here we use the concept of entropy ( H ) - a measure of the disorder of a system - to develop a new water maze performance metric. (frontiersin.org)
  • Most people who've thought about this arrow of time say it's determined by entropy, the amount of disorder in a system (like, say, a bowl of cereal, or the universe). (wired.com)
  • Then to define topological entropy for continuous maps they strictly imitated the definition of Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of a measure preserving transformation in ergodic theory. (scholarpedia.org)
  • The unit of the measurement depends on the base of the logarithm that is used to define the entropy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead of using entropy, the researchers describe their system with a quantity they call complexity, which they define as roughly the ratio of the distance between the two particles farthest from each other to the distance between the two particles closest to each other. (wired.com)
  • This document describes a way to measure both types of climate-induced variations, the behavioral variation of users, through the measurement of positional entropy, and the variation of physical parameters, through the measurement of the RSRP (4G LTE Reference Signal Received Power). (telecomitalia.com)
  • In the first section we analyze weather data of the Emilia Romagna (Bologna), in relation to the issue of positional entropy. (telecomitalia.com)
  • To avoid such assumptions, which are often either untestable or untenable, and address the underdetermination problem, we have developed an approach to gene network inference from gene expression data that relies on Boltzmann's concept of entropy maximization to support statistical inference with minimal reliance on the form of missing information ( 19 , 20 ). (pnas.org)
  • has attracted physicists' attention (although not as much as it might have) ever since Boltzmann explained the statistical origin of entropy over a hundred years ago. (discovermagazine.com)
  • With this understanding, Boltzmann was able to "derive" the Second Law in a statistical sense - roughly, there are simply far more ways to be high-entropy than to be low-entropy, so it's no surprise that low-entropy states will spontaneously evolve into high-entropy ones, but not vice-versa. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Most formulas involving relative entropy hold regardless of the base of the logarithm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The measure of information entropy associated with each possible data value is the negative logarithm of the probability mass function for the value. (wikipedia.org)
  • The logarithm of the probability distribution is useful as a measure of entropy because it is additive for independent sources. (wikipedia.org)
  • But he probably forgot that entropy is conventionally measured with its own factor of Boltzmann's constant, which cancels out the one in the temperature. (yarchive.net)
  • The rare ebook circulation distribution entropy production and irreversibility of denumerable markov chains is powered into payment with the spatial tracking by using the exclusive mushrooms. (nukefix.org)
  • We propose a novel algorithm, spatial entropy pursuit (SEP), which evaluates individual locations by using zippy estimation by sequential testing (ZEST) but additionally uses neighboring locations to estimate the sensitivity of related locations. (arvojournals.org)
  • In mathematical statistics, the Kullback-Leibler divergence, D KL {\displaystyle D_{\text{KL}}} (also called relative entropy), is a measure of how one probability distribution is different from a second, reference probability distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the concept of entropy ( H ), here we develop a new measure that considers both how focused the search is and the degree to which searching is centered on the former platform location. (frontiersin.org)
  • Entropy is a measure of unpredictability of the state, or equivalently, of its average information content . (wikipedia.org)
  • Shannon's concept of entropy (a measure of the maximum possible efficiency of any encoding scheme) can be used to determine the maximum theoretical compression for a given message alphabet. (britannica.com)
  • Pre-Boltzmann, entropy was thought of as a measure of the uselessness of arrangements of energy. (discovermagazine.com)
  • We would expect that butane is roughly 82% anti and 18% gauche at room temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Temperature is defined like this: 1/T = (dS/dU)_N, where S is entropy, U is energy, and "_N" means "keeping the number of particles constant. (yarchive.net)
  • Both λ and Δm decrease with increasing surface pressure, , although λ/Δm(2) remains roughly constant as the monolayer approaches the miscibility surface pressure. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For one thing, it often makes 'relative entropy' decrease. (wordpress.com)
  • We describe a method based on the principle of entropy maximization to identify the gene interaction network with the highest probability of giving rise to experimentally observed transcript profiles. (pnas.org)
  • The success of the present approach in extracting meaningful genetic connections suggests that the maximum entropy principle is a useful concept for understanding living systems, as it is for other complex, nonequilibrium systems. (pnas.org)
  • Here we explore the utility of the maximum entropy principle in extracting information about gene interactions from microarray data. (pnas.org)
  • The potential for some data to be surprising (or more specifically it's potential to reduce our uncertainty) can be measured statistically, with a quantity he called entropy, as it is analogous to states in thermodynamic systems. (pawfal.org)
  • Topological entropy is a nonnegative number which measures the complexity of the system. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Another advantage of this form of rendering is that we can draw data entropy within the quipu in order to provide a different view of how the data is structured, as a attempt to uncover hidden complexity. (pawfal.org)
  • But why, on the road from the simple and low-entropy early universe to the simple and high-entropy late universe, do we pass through our present era of marvelous complexity and organization, culminating in the intricate chemical reactions we know as life? (discovermagazine.com)
  • By looking only at the complexity terms of Table 1, one could expect that time performance on the Letter Recognition and Cover data sets would be roughly the same. (uci.edu)
  • To make these predictions, both groups used a model which considered only firing rates and pairwise interactions, and which was maximally uncommitted about all other features (a second-order maximum entropy model). (jneurosci.org)
  • These processes are generally complex with numerous interactions and feedbacks, and they are irreversible in their nature, thereby producing entropy. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Very roughly speaking, enthalpic interactions are often what med-chemists call "positive" ones like forming a new hydrogen bond or pi-stack, whereas entropic interactions are often just due to pushing water molecules off the protein with some greasy part of your molecule. (sciencemag.org)
  • When a room temp object is placed in a refrigerator, heat flows out of object and its entropy decreases. (physicsforums.com)
  • The heat the refrigerator is giving off generates more entropy than the cooling effect of the stuff in the fridge has decreasing entropy. (physicsforums.com)
  • the general struggle for existence of animate beings is not a struggle for raw materials-these, for organisms, are air, water and soil, all abundantly available, nor for energy which exists in plenty in any body in the form of heat, but a struggle for entropy, which becomes available through the transition of energy from the hot sun to the cold Earth. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • some of it gets converted into the motion of your car, while some gets dissipated into useless forms such as noise, heat, and exhaust, increasing entropy along the way. (discovermagazine.com)
  • We conclude that although a second-order maximum entropy model successfully predicts correlated states in cortical networks, it should be extended to account for temporal correlations observed between states. (jneurosci.org)
  • So -(1/8 * -3) = 0.375 is the contribution of state S 4 to the total entropy: 1/8 of the time, we have to ask 3 questions. (lesswrong.com)
  • And entropy was not the thing changing but energy. (physicsforums.com)
  • Without a continual input of energy from outside the system, entropy within the system would increase, meaning that the relative concentrations would tend to equalize over time. (theoildrum.com)
  • If the gas is already spread uniformly throughout the box, anything we could do to it would cost us energy - that's high entropy. (discovermagazine.com)
  • in which he suggested that the living cell maintains its organized structure in a state of thermodynamic disequilibrium by depleting sources of free energy and exporting high entropy waste. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The second law states that for isolated systems that do not exchange energy or mass with their surroundings, the entropy of that system can only increase. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The most probable domain radius was significantly smaller than that predicted by the energy alone, showing that the mixing entropy promotes a greater number of smaller domains. (biomedsearch.com)
  • If time's arrow follows the increase of entropy, and if the entropy in the universe is always increasing, then it means that at some point in the past, entropy must have been low. (wired.com)
  • K 2 "molecules" of HgO( s ) forming 3 "molecules" of Hg( l ) and O 2 ( g ) will have the largest increase in entropy due to: A) 2 particles going to 3 particles, and B) 2 solids forming 2 liquids and 1 gas molecule. (coursehero.com)
  • The microscopic definition explained why entropy would tend to increase, but didn't offer any insight into why it was so low in the first place. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The entropy quantifies these considerations when a probability distribution of the source data is known. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entropy only takes into account the probability of observing a specific event, so the information it encapsulates is information about the underlying probability distribution, not the meaning of the events themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Roughly, it measures the exponential growth rate of the number of distinguishable orbits as time advances. (scholarpedia.org)
  • We use the symbolic transfer entropy analysis of microblogging time series to extract directed networks of influence among geolocalized subunits in social systems. (sciencemag.org)
  • And time appears to travel in the same direction as rising entropy. (wired.com)
  • The problem of the arrow of time - why is the past different from the future, or equivalently, why was the entropy in the early universe so much smaller than it could have been? (discovermagazine.com)
  • Very roughly, a Lyapunov function is something that decreases with the passage of time, and is zero only at the unique stable state. (wordpress.com)
  • Where conditional entropy is a weak or negative predictor of eQTLs, such as innate immune genes, this would be consistent with balancing selection acting on such eQTLs over long time periods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Generally, information entropy is the average amount of information conveyed by an event, when considering all possible outcomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • What we managed to do is to make an HCP high-entropy alloy from common metals that are typically used in engineering applications. (materialstoday.com)
  • When comparing compounds of roughly similar size and molecular weight (MW), gasses will always have the highest entropy. (coursehero.com)
  • Between the 3 gas phase molecules, the one with the highest MW, H 2 Te (MW = 130), will have the highest entropy. (coursehero.com)
  • Therein lies the puzzle: why was the universe in such a low entropy state in the first place? (wired.com)
  • This is done hierarchically so a pendant's entropy is that of its data plus all the sub-pendants, which seemed most appropriate given the non-linear form that the data takes. (pawfal.org)
  • Information entropy is defined as the average amount of information produced by a stochastic source of data. (wikipedia.org)
  • If all of the gas in a certain box happens to be located in one half of the box, we can extract useful work from it by letting it leak into the other half - that's low entropy. (discovermagazine.com)
  • One of the first things that a cryptanalyst will do when inspecting an unknown system is to visualise it's entropy in order to get a handle on any structures or patterns in the underlying information. (pawfal.org)
  • Hence, it would seem that entropy can serve as an important concept to characterize the organization of the unique thermodynamic states of life and Earth's habitable environments and to understand the driving processes that result in these unique states. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In the simple case, a relative entropy of 0 indicates that the two distributions in question are identical. (wikipedia.org)
  • We introduce a new approach to enhance detection of genetic markers undergoing positive selection, using conditional entropy to capture recent local selection signals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • That's what appears to be happening here: compressing the high-entropy alloy makes it non-magnetic or close to non-magnetic, and an HCP phase is suddenly possible. (materialstoday.com)
  • For discrete probability distributions P {\displaystyle P} and Q {\displaystyle Q} defined on the same probability space, X {\displaystyle {\mathcal {X}}} , the relative entropy from Q {\displaystyle Q} to P {\displaystyle P} is defined to be D KL ( P ∥ Q ) = ∑ x ∈ X P ( x ) log ⁡ ( P ( x ) Q ( x ) ) . {\displaystyle D_{\text{KL}}(P\parallel Q)=\sum _{x\in {\mathcal {X}}}P(x)\log \left({\frac {P(x)}{Q(x)}}\right). (wikipedia.org)
  • Relative entropies D KL ( P ∥ Q ) {\displaystyle D_{\text{KL}}(P\parallel Q)} and D KL ( Q ∥ P ) {\displaystyle D_{\text{KL}}(Q\parallel P)} are calculated as follows. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5 pts) Which of the following substances has the highest absolute Entropy? (coursehero.com)
  • Malcolm Turnbull, we 're contact his ebook circulation distribution entropy production and irreversibility of. (nukefix.org)
  • run a ebook circulation distribution entropy production and irreversibility of every recommendation as down crammed responsibilities Please for the Fourth corner over a famous region for two. (nukefix.org)
  • 10 new plains from the ebook circulation distribution entropy down under that will count you malformed you are n't help in Australia. (nukefix.org)
  • We fit the size distribution of liquid-ordered (L(o)) domains measured from fluorescence images of model cytoplasmic myelin monolayers with an equilibrium thermodynamic expression that includes the competing effects of line tension, λ, dipole density difference, Δm, and the mixing entropy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The meaning of the events observed (the meaning of messages ) does not matter in the definition of entropy. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is how probability theory, and eventually entropy, gets into the game. (wordpress.com)