A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Infections with ASTROVIRUS, causing gastroenteritis in human infants, calves, lambs, and piglets.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Fluids restored to the body in order to maintain normal water-electrolyte balance.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
Therapy whose basic objective is to restore the volume and composition of the body fluids to normal with respect to WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Fluids may be administered intravenously, orally, by intermittent gavage, or by HYPODERMOCLYSIS.

A high-Mr glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk potent in inhibiting replication of human rotavirus in vitro. (1/2332)

Rotavirus is the major cause of infectious diarrhea in infants and young children all over the world. We have found that a high-M(r) glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk is potent in inhibiting replication of human rotaviruses in vitro. Since the activity seems to be unique and specific, this fraction may be useful as a novel agent for treatment or prevention of rotavirus diarrhea.  (+info)

Rotavirus G-type restriction, persistence, and herd type specificity in Swedish cattle herds. (2/2332)

G-typing of rotavirus strains enables the study of molecular epidemiology and gathering of information to promote disease prevention and control. Rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from neonatal calves in Swedish cattle herds were therefore characterized by using G1 to -4-, G6-, G8-, and G10-specific primers in reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Fecal samples were collected from one dairy herd (herd A) for 4 consecutive years and from 41 beef and dairy herds (herd B) experiencing calf diarrhea outbreaks. Altogether, 1, 700 samples were analyzed by group A rotavirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 98 rotavirus-positive specimens were selected for G-typing by RT-PCR. The effect of herd type, time, geographic region, and clinical symptoms on the G-type distribution was evaluated. Altogether (herds A and B), G10 was found in 59 (60. 2%) fecal specimens, G6 was found in 30 (30.6%) specimens, G3 was found in 1 (1.0%) specimen, and G8 was found in 1 (1.0%) specimen. Seven (7.1%) fecal specimens were not typeable. Herd type specificity in the G-type distribution was demonstrated in the herds in herd B. In the 6 beef suckler herds, only G6 was detected, while rotavirus strains from the 35 dairy herds were predominantly (54%) G10. The G-type distribution was restricted in herds A and B. Twenty-nine of 30 strains from herd A were characterized as G10. In the vast majority of herds in herd B, a single G-type was identified. The serotype G10 and the electropherotype persisted over time in herd A. No characteristic G-type variation in the geographic distribution of cattle herds in herd B was obvious. There was no difference in the G-type distributions between the strains from clinically and subclinically rotavirus-infected calves in dairy herd A. The results from this study strongly indicate a pronounced stability in the rotavirus G-type distribution in Swedish cattle herds, which emphasizes the importance of continuous preventive measures for control of neonatal calf diarrhea. A future bovine rotavirus vaccine in Sweden should contain G10 and G6 strains.  (+info)

Two non-structural rotavirus proteins, NSP2 and NSP5, form viroplasm-like structures in vivo. (3/2332)

In rotavirus-infected cells, the non-structural proteins NSP5 and NSP2 localize in complexes called viroplasms, where replication and assembly occur. Recently, we have demonstrated direct interaction of NSP5 with NSP2, and as a consequence of that, up-regulation of NSP5 hyperphosphorylation. To investigate a possible structural role for the NSP2-NSP5 interaction, we analysed the cytoplasmic distribution of the two proteins in transfected cells by immunofluorescence using specific antibodies. Here we report that NSP2 and NSP5 can drive the formation of viroplasm-like structures (VLS) in the absence of other rotaviral proteins and rotavirus replication. Several NSP5 deletion mutants were constructed and expressed in combination with NSP2. Both the N- and C-terminal domains of NSP5 were found to be essential for VLS formation. Only one mutant, with an internal deletion of residues 81-130, was able to interact with NSP2 to form VLS. Analysis of the phosphorylation capacity of the different mutants in vivo indicated that hyperphosphorylation of NSP5 is necessary, but not sufficient, for VLS formation. Our results suggest a role for the non-structural protein NSP5 in the structure of viroplasms mediated by its interaction with NSP2.  (+info)

Genetic and antigenic variation of capsid protein VP7 of serotype G1 human rotavirus isolates. (4/2332)

The deduced amino acid sequences of the outer capsid protein, VP7, of serotype G1 rotavirus clinical isolates collected over a 6 year period (1990-1995) in Melbourne, Australia, were examined. Phylogenetic analysis characterized the sequences into two discrete clusters representing two of the four global lineages of human G1 VP7 proteins. Antigenic characterization using a panel of serotype G1-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies classified lineage II isolates (1990-1993) as monotype G1a while lineage I isolates were classified as monotype G1b (1993-1995). Examination of the sequences of the neutralization epitope regions of VP7 revealed a particular amino acid substitution at residue 94 in region A (Asp --> Ser/Thr) that correlated with lineage and monotype designation. Our results indicated that temporal genetic variation of the VP7 of serotype G1 rotaviruses was associated with changes in the antigenicity of these isolates.  (+info)

Rotavirus capsid protein VP5* permeabilizes membranes. (5/2332)

Proteolytic cleavage of the VP4 outer capsid spike protein into VP8* and VP5* proteins is required for rotavirus infectivity and for rotavirus-induced membrane permeability. In this study we addressed the function of the VP5* cleavage fragment in permeabilizing membranes. Expressed VP5* and truncated VP5* proteins were purified by nickel affinity chromatography and assayed for their ability to permeabilize large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) preloaded with carboxyfluorescein (CF). VP5* and VP5* truncations, but not VP4 or VP8*, permeabilized LUVs as measured by fluorescence dequenching of released CF. Similar to virus-induced CF release, VP5*-induced CF release was concentration and temperature dependent, with a pH optimum of 7.35 at 37 degrees C, but independent of the presence of divalent cations or cholesterol. VP5*-induced permeability was completely inhibited by VP5*-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (2G4, M2, or M7) which recognize conformational epitopes on VP5* but was not inhibited by VP8*-specific neutralizing antibodies. In addition, N-terminal and C-terminal VP5* truncations including residues 265 to 474 are capable of permeabilizing LUVs. These findings demonstrate that VP5* permeabilizes membranes in the absence of other rotavirus proteins and that membrane-permeabilizing VP5* truncations contain the putative fusion region within predicted virion surface domains. The ability of recombinant expressed VP5* to permeabilize membranes should permit us to functionally define requirements for VP5*-membrane interactions. These findings indicate that VP5* is a specific membrane-permeabilizing capsid protein which is likely to play a role in the cellular entry of rotaviruses.  (+info)

Isolation of a human rotavirus strain with a super-short RNA pattern and a new P2 subtype. (6/2332)

Super-short rotavirus strains that have a rearranged gene segment 11 are rarely found in humans, and only five isolates, all from Southeast Asia, have been described in the literature. We report the first isolation in Japan from an infant with severe diarrhea of a rotavirus possessing a super-short RNA pattern. This strain, designated AU19, had a G1 VP7 and is also the first isolate in Japan that possesses a P2[6] VP4. Furthermore, the P2[6] VP4 carried by AU19 was divergent in the hypervariable region of the amino acid sequence from the P2A[6] VP4s carried by asymptomatic neonatal strains or from the P2B[6] VP4 carried by porcine rotavirus strain Gottfried. Thus, AU19 is likely to represent a new VP4 subtype, which we propose to call P2C. Given the recent emergence of the P2[6] VP4s in India, Brazil, and the United States and the role of VP4 in protective immunity, further scrutiny is justified to see whether the emergence of the previously underrepresented P2[6] VP4 serotype is related to this new P2 subtype.  (+info)

Genetic and antigenic characterization of a serotype P[6]G9 human rotavirus strain isolated in the United States. (7/2332)

During an epidemiologic survey of rotavirus infections established to monitor the prevalent G serotypes circulating in the United States, human P[6]G9, subgroup I rotavirus strains causing symptomatic infections were identified as the fourth most common serotype. In this report we describe the molecular and antigenic characterization of one of these P[6]G9 isolates (US1205). Neutralization and sequencing studies have demonstrated that both outer capsid proteins, VP7 and VP4, of US1205 are closely related to but genetically and antigenically distinguishable from those of standard G9 strains (e.g., F45, WI61) and standard P2A[6] strains (e. g., ST3, M37). Thus the complete antigenic type of US1205 is P2A[6]G9, subgroup I. Sequence analysis of the VP6 and NSP4 genes of US1205 indicates that strain US1205 possessed VP6 subgroup I and NSP4A genotype specificities. Finally, Northern hybridization studies suggest that the P[6]G9 strains are closely related to members of the DS-1 genogroup except for their P[6] VP4 gene, which has been commonly identified in strains of both major human genogroups, and their G9 VP7 gene, which may have been derived by reassortment with a Wa genogroup strain. Examination of historic collections and prospective surveillance of strains will be needed to determine whether this strain has been present for some time or if it is emerging to compete with the other common serotypes of rotavirus.  (+info)

Enteropathogens and other factors associated with severe disease in children with acute watery diarrhea in Lima, Peru. (8/2332)

To evaluate enteropathogens and other factors associated with severe disease in children with diarrhea, 381 children <5 years of age with diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration (in-patients) and 381 age-, sex-, and date-of-visit-matched children with mild diarrhea (out-patients) presenting to a hospital in Peru, were studied. Rotavirus was detected in 52% of the in-patients and 35% of the out-patients (odds ratio [OR]=2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]= 1.6-3.2); 95% of the rotaviruses among in-patients were of serotypes G1-G4. The risk of severe diarrhea was particularly great in children who were not exclusively breast-fed in early infancy and who also lacked piped water in their homes (for children with both characteristics OR=6.8, 95% CI=3.6-12.8). The high prevalence of rotavirus and its association with severe diarrhea underscores the need for rotavirus vaccines. Interventions to educate mothers and improve access to safe water should augment the impact of rotavirus vaccines in preventing severe diarrhea.  (+info)

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Since 2004, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has carried out rotavirus surveillance in Latin America and the Caribbean. Here we report the characterization of human rotavirus with the novel G-P combination of G4P[14], detected through PAHO surveillance in Barbados. Full genome sequencing of strain RVA/Human-wt/BRB/CDC1133/2012/G4P[14] revealed that its genotype is G4-P[14]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1. The possession of a Genogroup 1 (Wa-like) backbone distinguishes this strain from other P[14] rotavirus strains. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that this strain was likely generated by genetic reassortment between human, porcine and possibly other animal rotavirus strains and identified 7 lineages within the P[14] genotype. The results of this study reinforce the potential role of interspecies transmission in generating human rotavirus diversity through reassortment. Continued surveillance is important to determine if rotavirus vaccines will protect against strains that express the P[14] ...
Two oral rotavirus vaccines are available in Australia, and their efficacy and safety in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis have been extensively evaluated.33-39 Both are live attenuated vaccines administered orally to infants, but the component vaccine viruses differ. The human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline), is a live attenuated vaccine containing one strain of attenuated human rotavirus (G1P1A[8] strain). Rotarix protects against non-G1 serotypes on the basis of other shared epitopes. A pentavalent vaccine, RotaTeq (CSL Limited/Merck & Co Inc), contains five human-bovine rotavirus reassortants with the human serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and P1A[8] and the bovine serotypes G6 and P7.. In middle- and high-income countries, a course of vaccination with either Rotarix or RotaTeq prevents rotavirus gastroenteritis of any severity in approximately 70% of recipients and prevents severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and rotavirus hospitalisation for 85 to 100% of recipients for up to 3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of specific nucleic acid probes for the differentiation of porcine rotavirus serotypes. AU - Johnson, Michael E.. AU - Paul, Prem S.. AU - Gorziglia, Mario. AU - Rosenbusch, Ricardo. PY - 1990/9. Y1 - 1990/9. N2 - A dot blot hybridization assay is described for the detection and differentiation of porcine rotavirus serotypes. Recombinant complementary DNA (cDNA) representing gene 9 (the gene encoding the neutralization antigens in VP7 glycoprotein) from OSU (porcine rotavirus serotype 1) and Gottfried (porcine rotavirus serotype 2) strains were used to determine the optimal hybridization conditions which allow specific detection of group A porcine rotaviruses. Probes were prepared by excision of the inserts from the recombinant plasmids and radiolabeling of cDNA with 32P by the random primer extension method. Probes were hybridized at various stringencies with viral RNA from different rotavirus serotypes bound to nylon membranes. Hybridization at low stringency (26% ...
As with many other viruses, the initial cell attachment of rotaviruses, which are the major causative agent of infantile gastroenteritis, is mediated by interactions with specific cellular glycans. The distally located VP8* domain of the rotavirus spike protein VP4 (ref. 5) mediates such interactions. The existing paradigm is that sialidase-sensitive animal rotavirus strains bind to glycans with terminal sialic acid (Sia), whereas sialidase-insensitive human rotavirus strains bind to glycans with internal Sia such as GM1 (ref. 3). Although the involvement of Sia in the animal strains is firmly supported by crystallographic studies, it is not yet known how VP8* of human rotaviruses interacts with Sia and whether their cell attachment necessarily involves sialoglycans. Here we show that VP8* of a human rotavirus strain specifically recognizes A-type histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) using a glycan array screen comprised of 511 glycans, and that virus infectivity in HT-29 cells is abrogated by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Generation of recombinant rotavirus with an antigenic mosaic of cross-reactive neutralization epitopes on VP4. AU - Komoto, Satoshi. AU - Kugita, Masanori. AU - Sasaki, Jun. AU - Taniguchi, Koki. PY - 2008/7. Y1 - 2008/7. N2 - Recombinant rotavirus (RV) with cDNA-derived chimeric VP4 was generated using recently developed reverse genetics for RV. The rescued virus, KU//rVP4(SA11)-II(DS-1), contains SA11 (simian RV strain, G3P[2])-based VP4, in which a cross-reactive neutralization epitope (amino acids 381 to 401) on VP5* is replaced by the corresponding sequence of a different P-type DS-1 (human RV strain, G2P[4]). Serological analyses with a panel of anti-VP4- and -VP7-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies revealed that the rescued virus carries a novel antigenic mosaic of cross-reactive neutralization epitopes on its VP4 surface. This is the first report of the generation of a recombinant RV with artificial amino acid substitutions.. AB - Recombinant rotavirus (RV) with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity reduces rotavirus infection at a postbinding step. AU - Rossen, John W A. AU - Bouma, Janneke. AU - Raatgeep, Rolien H C. AU - Büller, Hans A. AU - Einerhand, Alexandra W C. N1 - Copyright 2004 American Society for Microbiology. PY - 2004/9. Y1 - 2004/9. N2 - Elevated levels of prostaglandins (PGs), products of cyclooxygenases (COXs), are found in the plasma and stool of rotavirus-infected children. We sought to determine the role of COXs, PGs, and the signal transduction pathways involved in rotavirus infection to elucidate possible new targets for antiviral therapy. Human intestinal Caco-2 cells were infected with human rotavirus Wa or simian rotavirus SA-11. COX-2 mRNA expression and secreted PGE2 levels were determined at different time points postinfection, and the effect of COX inhibitors on rotavirus infection was studied by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). To reveal the signal transduction pathways involved, the effect of MEK, ...
A total of 784 faecal samples collected during the 7 months period, January to July 2010 from children under 5 years old with diarrhoea who were admitted at the 3 referral hospitals; Parirenyatwa Hospital, Harare Hospital and Chitungwiza hospital, were tested for presence of rotavirus antigen using enzyme immune-assay (EIA). Fifty faecal samples from children without diarrhoea were also tested for rotavirus antigen. Sixteen (32 %) of 50 non-diarrhoeal samples and 515 (65.7 %) diarrhoea samples were rotavirus positive. The association between diarrhoea and detection of rotavirus in faecal samples was statistically significant with an overall odds ratio of diarrhoea patients of 4.08 (p,0.0001). The rotavirus diarrhoea prevalence (59.4 %) was high in children ≤ 18 months old diarrhoea patients. The high prevalence of rotavirus diarrhoea was found during the dry cool season in diarrhoea patients , 59 months of age. Fifty rotavirus positive isolates from diarrhoea patients were genotyped using ...
Rotavirus can cause a gastrointestinal infection and is common in young children. There are two vaccines available; both have to be administered via the mouth. The Dutch Health Council will advise the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport on how childhood vaccination against rotavirus will be made available. The Minister makes a decision on the basis of this advice. ,br, To support the Health Council, the RIVM has put together background information on rotavirus disease. The information includes the number of people in the Netherlands that become ill from rotavirus every year, the effectiveness and safety of rotavirus vaccines, and how the public thinks about rotavirus vaccination. ,br, A gastrointestinal infection caused by rotavirus is common during the winter months, particularly in children between six months and two years old. The disease is characterized by fever, vomiting and diarrhoea. Usually, rotavirus disease resolves by itself without problems, but can be severe resulting in ...
We have determined the nucleotide sequence of genes 6 and 10 of porcine rotavirus YM. When the amino acid sequences of VP6 and NS28, the protein products of genes 6 and 10 respectively, were compared with other published sequences it was evident that the proteins of human rotavirus Wa have the highest degree of identity with rotavirus YM. This is in contrast with the observation that when other proteins of these two strains have been compared they have been found to be among the most distantly related pairs of rotavirus strains. This observation is in accordance with the proposed receptor-ligand interaction between NS28 and VP6 during virus morphogenesis, and suggests a specificity in the interaction between these two proteins. In addition, when rotavirus YM VP6, which belongs to subgroup I, was compared with the VP6 proteins of rotavirus strains having different subgroup specificities, it was found to be more closely related to subgroup II rather than subgroup I proteins. This finding allowed us to
Rotavirus, the most common diarrheal pathogen in children worldwide, causes approximately one third of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations and 800,000 deaths per year. Because natural infection reduces the incidence and severity of subsequent episodes, rotavirus diarrhea might be controlled through vaccination. Serotype-specific immunity may play a role in protection from disease. Tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV) (which contains a rhesus rotavirus with serotype G3 specificity and reassortant rhesus-human rotaviruses with G1, G2, and G4 specificity) provides coverage against the four common serotypes of human rotavirus. In clinical trials in industrialized countries, RRV-TV conferred 49% to 68% protection against any rotavirus diarrhea and 61% to 100% protection against severe disease. This vaccine was licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on August 31, 1998, and should be cost-effective in reducing diarrheal diseases in industrialized countries. The vaccine&
Johannesburg - Global health dignitaries opened the 9th International Rotavirus Symposium in Johannesburg, South Africa, today. The worlds leading experts on rotavirus will focus on the global burden and the opportunity to significantly reduce child deaths through vaccination against rotavirus in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Over 300 scientists, policymakers, and public health professionals are attending the symposium, convened by four international nonprofit organizations and agencies.. Rotavirus, the leading cause of severe diarrhea, claims the lives of more than 500,000 children under five years of age every year and causes the hospitalization of millions more. Almost half of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Although six of the seven countries with the highest infant mortality rates from rotavirus are in Africa, only two percent of the continent has access to rotavirus vaccines. South Africa is the first and only African nation to have introduced rotavirus vaccine into ...
The bovine rotavirus (BRV) WC3 serves as the background strain in the development of a multivalent reassortant vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants. The genes encoding the outer capsid spike protein VP4, the inner capsid protein VP6, the outer capsid glycoprotein VP7, and the viral e …
VP4 is an unglycosylated protein of the outer layer of the capsid of rotavirus. It forms spikes that project from the outer layer of mature virions, which is mainly constituted by glycoprotein VP7. VP4 has been implicated in several important functions, such as cell attachment, penetration, hemagglutination, neutralization, virulence, and host range. Previous studies indicated that VP4 is located in the space between the periphery of the viroplasm and the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum in rotavirus-infected cells. Confocal microscopy of infected MA104 monolayers, immunostained with specific monoclonal antibodies, revealed that a significant fraction of VP4 was present at the plasma membrane early after infection. Another fraction of VP4 is cytoplasmic and colocalizes with β-tubulin. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that at the early stage of viral infection, VP4 was present on the plasma membrane and that its N-terminal region, the VP8* subunit, was accessible to antibodies. Biotin ...
Seasonality of rotavirus infection. We examined the seasonal patterns of disease by plotting the monthly detection of rotavirus in the studies that provided detailed data on rotavirus hospitalization by month (Figure 2). The 10 studies that were identified spanned latitudes from 10° north to 35° south. In most countries, rotavirus was detected throughout the year. The only locations where rotavirus was not detected for 2 consecutive months were Juiz de Fora and Porto Alegre in Brazil. We examined the hypothesis that the seasonality of rotaviruses was distinct in countries located in temperate versus tropical climatic zones. The five studies from cities in the tropics (between 23.5° north and south of the equator) all had winter peaks not unlike the five studies from cities in the temperate zone. As expected, the winter peaks in the northern hemisphere occurred roughly between November and February, while the peaks in the southern hemisphere occurred between May and August.. DISCUSSION. In ...
Rotavirus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/rotavirus/index.html. Updated August 12, 2016. Accessed December 21, 2017.. Rotavirus. Healthy Children-American Academy of Pediatrics website. Available at: http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/vaccine-preventable-diseases/Pages/Rotavirus.aspx. Updated February 12, 2016. Accessed December 21, 2017.. Rotavirus gastroenteritis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114180/Rotavirus-gastroenteritis. Updated November 16, 2017. Accessed December 21, 2017.. Rotavirus vaccine access and delivery. PATH website. Available at: http://sites.path.org/rotavirusvaccine. Published February 23, 2017. Accessed December 21, 2017.. Rotavirus vaccine live. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T356344/Rotavirus-Vaccine-Live. Updated December 6, 2017. Accessed December 21, 2017.. 12/14/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature ...
Rotavirus is a contagious disease caused by any one of three strains of rotavirus. Children who get infected may have severe diarrhea, often with vomiting, fever, and stomach pain. They can become severely dehydrated (loss of body fluids) and need to be hospitalized and can even die.. Infants and young children are most likely to get rotavirus; however, older children and adults can also get the disease. Among U.S. children, those at highest risk of getting the disease include those in child care centers or other settings with many young children. The most severe rotavirus disease occurs in unvaccinated children between 3-35 months old. Older adults and adults with certain risk factors are also at higher risk of getting rotavirus disease.. Rotavirus is easily spread. The virus is in the feces of infected people, and it can be spread by hands, diapers, toys, changing tables, or doorknobs that have a small amount of feces on them. Rotavirus can live on objects for several days unless it is killed ...
Knowledge of rotavirus epidemiology is necessary to make informed decisions about vaccine introduction and to evaluate vaccine impact. During April 2010-March 2012, rotavirus surveillance was conducted among 9,745 children &lt;5 years of age in 14 hospitals/health centers in Niger, where rotavirus vaccine has not been introduced. Study participants had acute watery diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration, and 20% of the children were enrolled in a nutrition program. Of the 9,745 children, 30.6% were rotavirus positive. Genotyping of a subset of positive samples showed a variety of genotypes during the first year, although G2P[4] predominated. G12 genotypes, including G12P[8], which has emerged as a predominant strain in western Africa, represented &gt;80% of isolates during the second year. Hospitalization and death rates and severe dehydration among rotavirus case-patients did not differ during the 2 years. The emergence of G12P[8] warrants close attention to the characteristics of
tab] [tab_item title=About Rotovirus] Rotavirus is a contagious virus that can cause gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines). Symptoms include severe watery diarrhea, often with vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. Infants and young children are most likely to get rotavirus disease. They can become severely dehydrated and need to be hospitalized and can even die. Rotavirus was the leading cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children in the United States before rotavirus vaccine was introduced in 2006. Prior to the vaccine, almost all U.S. children were infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Globally, rotavirus is still the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children. In 2008, rotavirus caused an estimated 453,000 deaths worldwide in children younger than 5 years of age.. [/tab_item] [tab_item title=Information for Patients ...
Each year, rotavirus kills more than 200,000 children and hospitalizes millions more. Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrheal hospitalizations and deaths among children worldwide. Development of a rotavirus vaccine has been a global health priority for many years, and with two vaccines currently on the market and several more under development, the promise of prevention is now becoming reality in several parts of the world.. Sabin is working on numerous fronts to address the burden of rotavirus and facilitate the introduction of a rotavirus vaccine across the globe. In 2011, Sabin, in partnership with the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, launched the ROTA Council, a rotavirus advocacy initiative, to call attention to this disease and its impact. The ROTA Council, which is comprised of a team of technical experts from around the world, works to provide the scientific and technical evidence that policymakers need to accelerate the introduction of rotavirus vaccines. Its ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polypeptide specificity of antiviral serum antibodies in children naturally infected with human rotavirus. AU - Brussow, H.. AU - Offit, P. A.. AU - Gerna, G.. AU - Bruttin, A.. AU - Sidoti, J.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Reassortants between serotype 3 SA11 and serotype 6 NCDV rotaviruses were used to determine the relative amounts of serum-neutralizing antibody to VP4 and VP7 of serotype 3 SA11 rotavirus in children after natural rotavirus exposure. Sera from Ecuadorian children of a population-based study and sera from children of a hospital-based study in Germany (excluding diarrhea patients) demonstrated high titers of VP7-specific but only low titers of VP4-specific antibodies. In contrast, paired sera from German children hospitalized with a symptomatic primary rotavirus gastroenteritis demonstrated a titer increase to VP4 more frequently than to VP7 protein by neutralization test and immunoblotting. For these rotavirus patients, we provided, previously, direct evidence ...
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) now recommends a rotavirus vaccine be included in the lineup of routine immunizations given to all infants.. The RotaTeq vaccine has been found to prevent approximately 75% of cases of rotavirus infection and 98% of severe cases. Another vaccine, Rotarix, also is available and is effective in preventing rotavirus infection. Your doctor will have the most current information about these vaccines.. A previous rotavirus vaccine was taken off the market in 1999 because it was linked to an increased risk for intussusception, a type of bowel obstruction, in young infants. Neither RotaTeq nor Rotarix have been found to have this increased risk.. Washing hands well and often is the best way to limit the spread of rotavirus infection. Kids who are infected should stay home from childcare groups until their diarrhea has ended. In hospitals, rotavirus outbreaks are controlled by isolating infected patients and following strict hand-washing procedures.. ...
Infectivity of rotavirus is dramatically enhanced by proteolytic cleavage of its outer layer VP4 spike protein into two function domains, VP8* and VP5*. The carbohydrate-recognising domain VP8* is proposed to bind sialic acid-containing host cell-surface glycans, followed by a series of subsequent virus-cell interactions. Live attenuated human and bovine rotavirus vaccine candidates to prevent gastroenteritis have been derived from bovine rotavirus strain NCDV. The NCDV VP8*64-224 was over-expressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in the presence of a N-acetylneuraminic acid derivative. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.0 Šand the crystallographic structure of NCDV VP8*64-224 determined by molecular replacement ...
PCR Max Ltd TM qpcr test Human Rotavirus B Non structural protein 5 (NSP5) 150 tests For general laboratory and research use only 1 Introduction to Human Rotavirus B Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded
Negar Aliabadi, MD1,2, Jacqueline E. Tate, PhD2, Amber K. Haynes, MPH2, and Umesh D. Parashar, MD2 (Author affiliations at end of text). Rotavirus infection is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide (1,2). Before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the United States in 2006, rotavirus infection caused significant morbidity among U.S. children, with an estimated 55,000-70,000 hospitalizations and 410,000 clinic visits annually (3). The disease showed a characteristic winter-spring seasonality and geographic pattern, with annual seasonal activity beginning in the West during December-January, extending across the country, and ending in the Northeast during April-May (4). To characterize changes in rotavirus disease trends and seasonality following introduction of rotavirus vaccines in the United States, CDC compared data from CDCs National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS), a passive laboratory reporting system, for ...
Almost all diarrhea deaths in young children occur in developing countries. Immunization against rotavirus, the leading cause of childhood severe dehydrating acute diarrhea may reduce the burden of severe diarrhea in developing countries. Ghana introduced rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccination in the national expanded program on immunization in May 2012. Review of all-cause diarrheal hospitalization data for children aged 59 months and younger at 2 pediatric referral hospitals in southern Ghana from 2008 to 2014. The proportion of acute diarrhea (defined as 3 or more watery, non-bloody stools within 24 hours that has lasted for less than 7 days) cases caused by rotavirus was determined. Temporal trend and age group distribution of all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus gastroenteritis before and after introduction of the new vaccines were compared. Of the 5847 children hospitalized with all-cause diarrhea during the 74 months (January 2008 - February 2014), 3963 (67.8%) children were recruited for rotavirus
Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children in 4 Regions in Brazil: A Hospital-Based Surveillance Study. Munford, Veridiana; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; de Souza, Eloisa Correa; Cardoso, Debora Morais; Cardoso, Divina das Dores de Paula; Borges, Ana Maria Tavares; da Costa, Paulo Sergio Sucasas; Melgaço, Irene Angela Melo; Rosa, Humberto; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Antonacci; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Moreira Jr.,, Edson Duarte; Santana, Ciria; El Khoury, Antoine; Ikedo, Fabio; Rácz, Maria Lucia // Journal of Infectious Diseases;11/2/2009, Vol. 200 Issue S1, pS106 Background. Rotavirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Knowledge of rotavirus genotypes is important for vaccination strategies. Methods. During 2005-2006, rotavirus surveillance studies were conducted in São Paulo, Salvador, Goiânia, and Porto Alegre, Brazil. Stool samples... ...
Summary The inner capsid structure of the OSU strain of porcine rotavirus was studied by electron microscopy of freeze-dried preparations and of negatively stained chemically disrupted virus particles. The analysis of the particles by the freeze-drying technique revealed a T:13 l (laevo) symmetry for the organization of the inner capsid. Treatment of single-capsid rotavirus particles with 30% formamide or 5 m-urea resulted in their degradation, giving rise to very similar products, corresponding to isolated vertices, edges and faces of the virus icosahedron. An analysis of such structures confirmed the triangulation number and handedness of the rotavirus inner capsid, and provided evidence for the open-mesh model, in which the five- and six-coordinated axes are represented by holes formed by smaller trimeric morphological subunits.
|strong|Mouse anti rotavirus antibody, clone 0531|/strong| reacts with intact rotavirus strains RRV, Wa and bovine, and specifically stains an epitope within the intermediate capsid protein VP6. Also …
Unless babies are vaccinated, almost all of them get rotavirus, the doctor told me. Having the vaccine available for free in Gaza can save babies and parents from so much suffering... - Majdoolin, first-time mother, Gaza City. The rotavirus vaccine, which RVF worked with the Palestinian Ministry of Health (MOH) to introduce in 2016, is already having a huge impact on young children in the West Bank and Gaza. In Gaza, there has already been a 28% reduction in rates of children aged three years and under hospitalized for diarrhea. In the West Bank, there are over a third fewer cases of severe diarrhea in children under five.. Rotavirus disease, which causes severe diarrhea, is a killer of infants and young children throughout the world. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent rotavirus infection. All Palestinian babies now receive this life-saving vaccine. To date, nearly 400,000 infants have been fully immunized with coverage rates over 95%.. RVF expects rates of severe diarrhea in ...
Group A Rotaviruses with serotypes G1-G4 and G9 are the common Rotavirus types of clinical importance. This study aimed at determining the different Rotavirus genotypes in stool sample of children bel
Whole-genome, sequence-independent amplification and 454 pyrosequencing of a rotavirus SA11 cell culture sample with an unknown passage history yielded consensus sequences of twelve complete genome segments. Two distinct sequences for genome segment 8 (encoding NSP2) were present, indicating a mixed infection with two rotavirus SA11 strains. The genotypes of the viruses were G3-P[2]-I2-R2-C5-M5-A5-Nx-T5-E2-H5, where x was either 5 or 2. The strains were named RVA/ Simian-tc/ZAF/SA11-N5/1958/G3P[2] and RVA/Simiantc/ ZAF/SA11-N2/1958/G3P[2]. The genotype (N2) and sequence of genome segment 8 of RVA/Simian-tc/ZAF/ SA11-N2/1958/G3P[2] were identical to that of the bovine rotavirus O agent. Five novel amino acids were detected in minor population variants of three genome segments. Genome segment 1 (VP1) has a high nucleotide substitution rate, but the substitutions are synonymous. Distance matrices and Bayesian molecular clock phylogenetics showed that SA11-N2 is a reassortant containing genome ...
by revere, cross-posted at Effect Measure. Earaches, respiratory infections and diarrhea are the bane of existence for young parents. All are potentially the result of contagious agents. The most common agent for diarrhea in infants and children is rotavirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, that CDC estimates causes 400,000 doctor visits, 200,000 emergency room visits and 55.000 to 70,000 hospitalizations each year in the under 5 year old age group. Infection produces significant immunity, and while there are seven different serotypes (A through G), 90% of infections are serotype A. In addition to diarrhea, rotavirus infections cause nausea, vomiting and fever, often with dehydration that can be fatal to an infant. By the time a child turns five, he or she is likely to have had a rotavirus infection. So this virus causes a lot of sickness and even more dollars. A recent estimate is that each hospitalization costs about $3600.. If rotavirus infection could be prevented by a vaccine it would have a ...
The advantages of convenience and room temperature stability associated with our quick dissolving thin film delivery system can be broadly used. The thin film system is applicable to all oral vaccines and oral protein based therapeutic drugs, as well as biopharmaceuticals that can be converted to the oral route. The impact on vaccines could be transformational for infectious diseases such as shigellosis and rotaviral gastroenteritis which combined cause over 1 million deaths in children every year in the developing world. Considering rotavirus alone, the demand for any vaccine will likely be high since all children by the age of five will have been infected by rotavirus and many children in third world countries will die. Currently, it is recommended that all new born infants in the U.S. be given rotavirus vaccine and it is highly likely that most of the world will follow this recommendation. It is estimated that the required annual worldwide rotavirus vaccine doses will be greater than 400 ...
Human rotavirus A (RVA) is the main etiological agent of watery diarrhea among children under 5 years of age worldwide. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and diversity of RVA genotypes circulating in Turkey during a 2-year sentinel surveillance study. A total of 1639 rotavirus antigen-positive stool samples were obtained from children younger than 5 years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with consensus primers for the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Rotavirus RNA was detected in 1396 (85.3%) of the samples tested. The highest detection rate (38.2%) was obtained among children in the 0-12 months age group, followed by children in the 13-24 months age group (36.2%). The most prevalent genotype was G1P[8] (24.6%) followed by G3P[8] (19.6%), G9P[8] (12.2%), G2P[4] (9.5%), G2P[8] (6.5%), and G4P[8] (4.8%). The ...
This white paper provides a comprehensive source of information on rotavirus disease and vaccines. The 50-page synthesis includes the latest evidence and programmatic information about: rotavirus disease burden; vaccines in global use, nationally available vaccines, and new vaccines on the horizon; World Health Organization recommendations and key guidance on vaccine administration; public health impact of vaccines in high-, middle-, and low-income countries; cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines; emerging data and areas for further research; and 21 recommendations for stakeholders to scale up coverage of rotavirus vaccines to all children.. Author: ROTA Council. Published: 2016 ...
The EuroRotaNet surveillance network has conducted rotavirus genotype surveillance since 2007 in 16 European countries. Using epidemiological and microbiological data from 39,786 genotyped rotavirus-positive specimens collected between September 2007 and August 2013, we assessed genotype distribution and age distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases in and out of peak season in 12 countries which were yet to implement routine rotavirus vaccination. In multinomial multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for year, country and age, the odds of infection caused by genotype-constellation 2 DS-1-like stains (adjusted multinomial odds ratio (aM-OR) = 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.37; p ...
A resurgence in rotavirus gastro cases among infants has prompted warnings from health authorities about the importance of hand hygiene and vaccination.. South Australian communicable disease experts have sounded the alarm after the number of rotavirus cases among infants more than doubled from 299 in 2016 to 658 so far in 2017.. Infants accounted for 60% of all rotavirus notifications, with total numbers across all age groups increasing almost threefold from 447 to 1255 in the last year.. SA Healths Chief Medical Officer Professor Paddy Phillips says the increase in rotavirus among infants is worrying but preventable with good hand hygiene and vaccination.. Following good hand hygiene, cleaning bathroom taps and toilets with diluted bleach, disposing of infants nappies immediately, and safely washing childrens toys helps to significantly prevent the spread of the disease, he said in a statement.. A rise in rotavirus cases is being seen in other states, according to Dr Louise Flood, Acting ...
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a membrane bound organelle composed of a network of cisternae stretching throughout the cytoplasm. Functionally, the ER performs many essential processes, such as glycosylation, and biosynthesis of lipids; it provides a redox potential condition for forming S-S linkages, and a quality control system, and functions as an intracellular calcium store. Rotavirus, a segmented dsRNA virus, is one of very few viruses that undergoes a unique maturation process in the ER and has therefore been an attractive model for the study of ER-translocation, retention and protein folding. In this thesis, I have studied how rotavirus and rotavirus proteins assemble in the eucaryotic cells. The rotavirus genome encodes 12 structural and nonstructural proteins; two of these proteins, the outer capsid VP7 protein and the nonstructural enterotoxin NSP4 protein, are associated with the ER and have been of particular interest in this thesis. We found that brefeldin A, a compound that ...
Comment: This is interesting news, since the Bharat Biotech vaccine for Rotavirus (116 E) made in India has already undergone the necessary testing & is likely to be launched in the next couple of months (possibly Jan 2015). Among all the newer vaccines, rotavirus is the only one where we have large amount of Indian data available regarding the disease from India through the IRSN - Indian Rotavirus Surveillance Network. This is probably one of the reasons why we are getting India specific vaccines for this disease. It is important to start vaccinating children early against this disease so as to prevent significant disease burden, since almost EVERY child will suffer from Rotavirus diarrhea if they are not vaccinated, probably by the age of 2 years. ...
In the United States, rotavirus infection outbreaks are common during the winter and spring months. Outbreaks are particularly problematic in childcare centers and childrens hospitals because the infection spreads so easily.. Rotavirus symptoms can last from 3-8 days and include fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and frequent, watery diarrhea. A cough and runny nose may also occur. Some rotavirus infections cause few or no symptoms at all, especially in adults.. The diarrhea from a rotavirus infection can be so severe that it quickly leads to dehydration, especially in infants and young children. If dehydration is severe, intravenous (IV) fluids given in the hospital can bring the bodys fluid and salt levels back to normal.. ...
RotaTeq dan Rotarix Vaksin Cegah Infeksi Diare Rotavirus Rotavirus adalah virus yang sering menyebabkan gastroenteritis akut (infeksi saluran pencernaan) pada anak, yang ditandai dengan muntah, diare, demam, dan nyeri perut. Pada bayi dan anak kecil, infeksi rotavirus dapat menyebabkan diare dan muntah berat sehingga anak menjadi kehilangan banyak cairan (dehidrasi). Infeksi rotavirus dapat dicegah salah…
Spike-forming protein that mediates virion attachment to the host epithelial cell receptors and plays a major role in cell penetration, determination of host range restriction and virulence. Rotavirus entry into the host cell probably involves multiple sequential contacts between the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, and the cell receptors. According to the considered strain, VP4 seems to essentially target sialic acid and/or the integrin heterodimer ITGA2/ITGB1 (By similarity).
Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is a non-enveloped dsRNA virus that cause neonatal calf diarrhea. Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enrich membrane mircodomains that play a vital role in many cellular processes. In this study, the effect of cellular cholesterol depletion on infection of MA-104 cells with bovine rotavirus was investigated. We demonstrated that cholesterol depletion of the plasma membrane by MβCD had no effect on BRV binding to cells but significantly impaired BRV entry in a dose-dependent manner and the effect was partially reversed by addition of exogenous cholesterol, suggesting the reduction of BRV infection by MβCD was specifically due to cholesterol depletion. Cholesterol depletion after virus entry did not reduce BRV replication, whereas affected virus assembly. Taken together, our results demonstrate that cell membrane cholesterol is essential to BRV infectivity.
Rotavirus particle, computer illustration. The virus particle consists of an RNA (ribonucleic acid) core surrounded by a triple layered capsid. Rotaviruses are probably the most common viruses to infect humans and animals. They are associated with gastroenteritis and diarrhoea - typically infecting the intestines of children aged from 6 months to 3 years. The viruses are spread in faeces. - Stock Image F019/2605
rotavirus; gastro; gastroenteritis; ; Rotavirus infections are the most common causes of infectious diarrhoea (gastroenteritis) in young children worldwide. In Australia the number of young children getting rotavirus infections is now less than several years ago because the immunisation of babies is very effective. Immunisation (given by mouth) is available free to babies up to 6 months old. It is given with other vaccines at 6 weeks and 4 months.. ...
Rotavirus oral vaccine contains up to five strains of rotavirus. It is made from both human and animal sources. Infection with rotavirus can affect the digestive system of babies and young children, causing severe stomach or intestinal illness. The rotavirus oral vaccine is used to help prevent this disease in children...
When you hear the words Rotavirus, you might be wondering what exactly it is. It sounds horrendous, but with this post we hope to shed some light on this virus and the steps you can take to protect your loved ones against it. Now first off, what is Rotavirus? Rotavirus is a very contagious virus that causes diarrhea. Its the most common cause of diarrhea in infants and children worldwide, resulting in over 215,000 deaths annually. Although rotavirus infections are unpleasant, you can usually tr
TY - JOUR. T1 - Demographic variability, vaccination, and the spatiotemporal dynamics of rotavirus epidemics. AU - Pitzer, Virginia E.. AU - Viboud, Cécile. AU - Simonsen, Lone. AU - Steiner, Claudia. AU - Panozzo, Catherine A.. AU - Alonso, Wladimir J.. AU - Miller, Mark A.. AU - Glass, Roger I.. AU - Glasser, John W.. AU - Parashar, Umesh D.. AU - Grenfell, Bryan T.. PY - 2009/7/17. Y1 - 2009/7/17. N2 - Historically, annual rotavirus activity in the United States has started in the southwest in late fall and ended in the northeast 3 months later; this trend has diminished in recent years. Traveling waves of infection or local environmental drivers cannot account for these patterns. A transmission model calibrated against epidemiological data shows that spatiotemporal variation in birth rate can explain the timing of rotavirus epidemics. The recent large-scale introduction of rotavirus vaccination provides a natural experiment to further test the impact of susceptible recruitment on disease ...
Dear Collegues, dear Friends,. Welcome to the 3rd European Expert Meeting on Rotavirus Vaccination! Join your colleagues to discuss and, hopefully, promote, rotavirus vaccination in Europe. Since the first and second European Expert meetings on Rotavirus vaccination in Helsinki (2009) and Padova (2011) our knowledge and experience on rotavirus vaccination has expanded considerably.. Rotavirus is still the main cause of severe acute diarrhoea in infancy and early childhood around the world. It is still associated with high mortality in poorer countries. Before licensure two rotavirus vaccines were tested worldwide for safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in 2 trials comprising over 60 000 infants each. One of these is a single-strain attenuated human rotavirus vaccine (RV1), while the other is a combination of five bovine-human reassortant rotaviruses (RV5). Although their presumed mechanism of action might be very different side effects and effectiveness are close to identical. Both vaccines ...
Dear Collegues, dear Friends,. Welcome to the 3rd European Expert Meeting on Rotavirus Vaccination! Join your colleagues to discuss and, hopefully, promote, rotavirus vaccination in Europe. Since the first and second European Expert meetings on Rotavirus vaccination in Helsinki (2009) and Padova (2011) our knowledge and experience on rotavirus vaccination has expanded considerably.. Rotavirus is still the main cause of severe acute diarrhoea in infancy and early childhood around the world. It is still associated with high mortality in poorer countries. Before licensure two rotavirus vaccines were tested worldwide for safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in 2 trials comprising over 60 000 infants each. One of these is a single-strain attenuated human rotavirus vaccine (RV1), while the other is a combination of five bovine-human reassortant rotaviruses (RV5). Although their presumed mechanism of action might be very different side effects and effectiveness are close to identical. Both vaccines ...
No. of Report Pages: 105. Price (Single User Licence): $ 4000. Purchase the Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Market Report at: https://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10612126 Several important topics included in the Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry research report are as follows:. • Overview of Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry. • Market Size (Value and Volume) analysis of Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry. • Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry Competition by Manufacturers, Type and Application. • Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry Major Regions Volume, Value and Sales Price Analysis. • Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry Technology and Development Trend. • Research Findings and Conclusion of Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry. To sum it up, the report concludes with an all-inclusive research result on the industry chain of Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry facilitating the market participants in making well-informed strategic decisions.. With a purpose of enlightening new entrants about the ...
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination among young children in Belgium. Design Prospective case-control study. Setting Random sample of 39 Belgian hospitals, February 2008 to June 2010. Participants 215 children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and 276 age and hospital matched controls. All children were of an eligible age to have received rotavirus vaccination (that is, born after 1 October 2006 and aged ≥14 weeks). Main outcome measure Vaccination status of children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis and matched controls. Results 99 children (48%) admitted with rotavirus gastroenteritis and 244 (91%) controls had received at least one dose of any rotavirus vaccine ( ...
Oral polio and rotavirus vaccines are significantly less effective in children living in the developing world. Tropical enteropathy, which is associated with intestinal inflammation, decreased absorption and increased permeability, may contribute substantially to oral vaccine failure in developing country settings. Other possible causes of oral vaccine underperformance include malnutrition, interference with maternal or breastmilk antibodies, changes in gut microbiota, and genetic susceptibility.. Primary Objective: to determine whether tropical enteropathy impairs the efficacy of oral polio and rotavirus vaccines in children in Bangladesh.. Secondary Objectives: 1) to determine the impact of an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) boost on the efficacy of oral polio vaccine and 2) to determine the efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccine to prevent rotavirus diarrhea. The polio and rotavirus randomized clinical trials are embedded as secondary objectives within the exploratory study of tropical ...
Results: A similar dramatic decline (,60% compared with the median of previous seasons) occurred in the rates of cases of both CA (P , .0001) rotavirus hospitalizations and HA (P , .01) rotavirus infections in the 2007-2008 season compared with previous seasons, whereas the rates of CA and HA influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, respectively, remained stable. Improvements in hand-hygiene compliance did not correlate with a reduction in the transmission rate of rotavirus in the hospital. Both CA and HA rotavirus rates remained much lower in the 2008 -2009 than in the 2003-2007 seasons. ...
Abstract. Diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and the majority of infections are of viral etiology. We aimed to compare the etiological prevalence of the major enteric viruses in an urban and a rural setting in southern Vietnam. We simultaneously screened fecal specimens from 362 children in Ho Chi Minh City and Dong Thap province that were hospitalized with acute diarrhea over a 1-month-long period for four viral gastrointestinal pathogens. Rotavirus was the most common pathogen identified, but there was a differential prevalence of rotavirus and norovirus between the urban and rural locations. Furthermore, rotavirus genotyping and phylogenetic analysis again differentiated the genotypes by the sampling location. Our data show a disproportional distribution of enteric viral pathogens in urban and rural locations, and we provide evidence of continual importation of new rotavirus strains into southern Vietnam and report the emergence of rotavirus
Import Data And Price Of RotaVirus Vaccine , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services will provide you the latest and relevant market intelligence reports of RotaVirus Vaccine Import Data. You can find live data of maximum number of ports of India which is based on updated shipment data of Indian Customs. Only previous two days data will be seen on website. You can use this RotaVirus Vaccine import data for multiple kinds of analysis; lets say Import price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. You can go through some of the sample shipment records for RotaVirus Vaccine import data mentioned above. Here on Eximpulse Services you will get all kind of free sample as well as detailed reports of Export/ Import data as per your requirement. To get in touch for any kind of enquiry related to free sample or detailed report contact on +91-120-408-4957, +91-120-408-4958,+91-120-428-4019.. Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not have ...
Outer capsid protein VP4: Spike-forming protein that mediates virion attachment to the host epithelial cell receptors and plays a major role in cell penetration, determination of host range restriction and virulence. Rotavirus attachment and entry into the host cell probably involves multiple sequential contacts between the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, and the cell receptors. It is subsequently lost, together with VP7, following virus entry into the host cell. Following entry into the host cell, low intracellular or intravesicular Ca(2+) concentration probably causes the calcium-stabilized VP7 trimers to dissociate from the virion. This step is probably necessary for the membrane-disrupting entry step and the release of VP4, which is locked onto the virion by VP7.
This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Mauritania. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Mauritanian children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines.. Corporate author(s): PATH. Publication date: November 2014. ...
Sibling Transmission of Vaccine-Derived Rotavirus (RotaTeq) Associated With Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Rotavirus (RotaTeq) Authors: Daniel C. Payne, PhD, MSPHa, Kathryn M. Edwards, MDb, Michael D. Bowen, PhDc, Erin Keckley, RNb, Jody Peters, MSb, Mathew D. Esona, PhDc, Elizabeth N. Teel, BSc, Diane Kent, RNb, Umesh D. Parashar, MBBS, MPHa, Jon R. Gentsch, PhDc Abstract Although rotavirus vaccines are known to be shed in stools, transmission of ...
In an announcement by Prime Minister Sibusiso Dlamini, 3,042 cases of diarrhea due to rotavirus were treated in outpatient departments of hospitals countrywide. More than 500 children affected required hospitalization for their illness.. Dlamini assured the public that all treatment requirements for the management of the disease have been distributed to all facilities and health workers have been refreshed on case management and treatment guidelines. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), rotavirus disease is most common in infants and young children, but adults and older children can also become infected with rotavirus. It is responsible for the death of over 600,000 children annually worldwide. Once a person has been exposed to rotavirus, it takes about 2 days for symptoms to appear.. Rotavirus is shed (passed from a persons body into the environment) in feces (stool) of infected persons. The virus spreads by the fecal-oral route; this means that the virus must ...
Abstract. Despite the high burden of rotavirus diarrhea, uptake of rotavirus vaccines in Asia remains low. This primarily stems from a perception of rotavirus as a non-life-threatening pathogen amidst a background of competing health priorities and limited resources. In the largest pediatric hospital of Bangladesh, where there is a fierce competition for beds, we found that between November 2015 and October 2016, 12% of 23,064 admissions were due to gastrointestinal infections, 54% of which were caused by rotavirus. One in four cases requiring hospitalization, or 5,879 cases, was refused because of unavailability of beds. Most refused cases were of pneumonia (22%), severe perinatal asphyxia (17%), preterm birth complications (7%), and meningitis (2%), all of which bear high risks of death or disability, if not treated timely. When determining vaccine policies and conducting vaccine impact studies, it would be shortsighted to not consider the impact on morbidity and mortality of cases that are refused
The investigators aim to establish the non-inferiority of concomitant administration of measles-rubella and rotavirus vaccines to measles-rubella vaccine given alone in terms of measles seroconversion rates. The primary study hypothesis is the measles seroconversion rate as defined by the percentage of children seroconverting to measles with a measles serum antibody concentration of ,=1:120 at 8 weeks post vaccination after the concomitant administration of measles-rubella and rotavirus vaccines is non-inferior to that obtained when measles-rubella vaccine is given alone in children 9 months of age who have received a primary rotavirus vaccine series with the first dose between 6 and 10 weeks and the second at least 4 weeks later and are seronegative for measles antibody in the pre-vaccination sample ...
Learning objectives At the end of the module, the participant will be able to: Describe the recommended immunization schedule for rotavirus vaccine Describe when an infant is eligible for rotavirus vaccine and when he/she is not eligible Describe ways to determine a childs eligibility for rotavirus vaccine when a written record is unavailable Describe the absolute contraindications for vaccination Duration 60
Rotavirus, a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhoea in young children, accounts for around 215,000 deaths annually worldwide. Rotavirus specifically infects the intestinal epithelial cells in the host small intestine and has evolved strategies to antagonize interferon and NF-κB signalling, raising the question as to whether other host factors ... read more participate in antiviral responses in intestinal mucosa. The mechanism by which enteric viruses are sensed and restricted in vivo, especially by NOD-like receptor (NLR) inflammasomes, is largely unknown. Here we uncover and mechanistically characterize the NLR Nlrp9b that is specifically expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and restricts rotavirus infection. Our data show that, via RNA helicase Dhx9, Nlrp9b recognizes short double-stranded RNA stretches and forms inflammasome complexes with the adaptor proteins Asc and caspase-1 to promote the maturation of interleukin (Il)-18 and gasdermin D (Gsdmd)-induced pyroptosis. ...
Rotavirus has been recognised for 30 years as the most common cause of infectious gastroenteritis in infants and young children. By contrast, the role of rotavirus as a pathogen in adults has long been underappreciated. Spread by faecal-oral transmission, rotavirus infection in adults typically mani …
We observed declines in rates of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits in US children ,5 years of age over four successive rotavirus seasons following implementation of rotavirus vaccination, with greater declines in later years when greater vaccine coverage had been achieved and during months of the year with peak rotavirus activity. Both RV5 and RV1 were highly effective in preventing rotavirus-coded hospitalizations and also prevented diarrhea-associated hospitalizations and emergency department visits; both vaccines conferred similar protection. The protection from RV5 vaccination against rotavirus-coded hospitalizations was sustained at a high level through four years of life, with no indication of waning immunity. The reduction in rotavirus-coded hospitalization rates among unvaccinated children in postvaccine years compared with prevaccine years indicates indirect benefits from vaccination; the magnitude of indirect benefit varied over ...
Uploaded on 24 Sep 2009: Diarrheal diseases kills 2 million children every year. Rotavirus is the leading cause of those deaths. And in Nicaragua, rotavirus was hitting children hard. But then a rotavirus vaccine arrived, and its impact was hugely positive. Meet a father and daughter who directly benefited ...
CNN) - Federal health authorities recommended Monday that doctors suspend using Rotarix, one of two vaccines licensed in the United States against rotavirus, saying the vaccine is contaminated with material from a pig virus.. There is no evidence at this time that this material poses a safety risk, Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Dr. Margaret Hamburg told reporters in a conference call.. via Rotarix rotavirus vaccine contaminated, officials say - CNN.com.. ...
GAITHERSBURG, Md. -- DNA from a pig virus has been detected in Mercks RotaTeq rotavirus vaccine, an FDA official announced during the opening session of a hearing on rotavirus vaccines.
There are currently two rotavirus vaccines available in the United States that are designed to eliminate severe gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus infection.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of acute asymptomatic group A and C rotavirus (RV-A and RV-C) infection in neonates with cholestasis. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were infants ,180 days of age with cholestasis (serum direct or conjugated bilirubin ,20% of total and ≥2 mg/dL) enrolled in the Childhood Liver Disease Research and Education Network during RV season (December-May). Forty infants with biliary atresia (BA), age 62 ± 29 days (range, 4.7-13 weeks) and 38 infants with cholestasis, age 67 ± 44 days (range, 3-15.8 weeks) were enrolled. RESULTS: At enrollment, RV-A IgM positivity rates did not differ between infants with BA (10%) vs those without (18%) (P = .349). RV-C IgM was positive in 0% of infants with BA vs 3% in those without BA (P = .49). RV-A IgG was lower in infants with BA: 51 ± 39 vs 56 ± 44 enzyme-linked immunoassay unit, P = .045 but this difference may lack biological relevance as maternal RV-A IgG titers were similar between groups. Infant RV-A IgM titers at 2-6 ...
Rotavirus vaccine (bad reaction): My lo had a bad reaction to the rotavirus vaccine, the first time. For 2 weeks he was refusing feeds, diarrhea and extreme digestive upset. Did ...
Duan Z-J, Liu N, Yang S-H, Zhang J, Sun L-W, Tang J-Y, Jin Y, Du Z-Q, Xu J, Wu Q-B, Tong Z-L, Gong S-T, Qian Y, Ma J-M, Liao X-C, Widdowson M-A, Jiang B, Fang Z-Y. Hospital-Based Surveillance of Rotavirus Diarrhea in the Peoples Republic of China, August 2003-July 2007. J Infect Dis. 2009; 200(Supp 1): S167-173 ...
This program discusses the diagnosis and treatment of rotavirus infections. Information about what causes these infections and what you can do to treat rotavirus is also included.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) may be the major defense response induced in the intestine by rotavirus disease, but vaccination with virus-like contaminants induces IgG predominantly, not IgA. both serum IgG and IgA and fecal IgA. Both IgA normal and IgA knockout mice were protected from rotavirus challenge at 42 times totally. Ten months carrying out a major disease, both IgA regular and knockout mice still got high degrees of serum and fecal antirotavirus antibody and had been totally shielded from rotavirus problem. To see whether compensatory mechanisms apart from IgG had been responsible for safety from rotavirus disease in IgA knockout mice, mice had been depleted of Compact disc4+ T cells or Compact disc8+ T cells. Zero noticeable adjustments in the amount of safety had been observed in depleted NXY-059 mice. These data display that fecal or systemic IgA isnt essential for safety from rotavirus disease and claim that in the PTPRR lack of IgA, IgG may play a substantial part in safety from ...
The Department of Health has announced that rotavirus vaccine will be added to the childhood vaccination programme with effect from September 2013.. Rotavirus is reported as causing approximately 140,000 cases of diarrhoea per year in the children under 5 years old. Of these some 14,000 cases result in a hospital admission. It is expected that the introduction of this vaccine will reduce hospital admissions by up to 70%. The vaccine is a live oral vaccine and two doses are recommended.. The JCVI statement recommending the vaccine provides further analysis and detail. Action: Clinicians involved in the delivery of the child immunisations should be aware of this change. More information about this vaccine should be expected before September 2013.. ...
A training DVD was produced to assist Ethiopia with the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in their national immunisation programme.. The DVD is being developed in Amharic, the main local language, and includes five chapters. After each chapter, a question and answer section is included to reinforce the key messages.. Rotavirus DVD Ethiopia. ...
To the Editor: Viral gastroenteritis is caused by many pathogens, each with unique characteristics requiring different laboratory test for identification1,2. In our country several groups emphasizes the role of the viral gastroenteritis in children3-4. Similar studies have been done in the european countries5-7, Asia8, America9 and Oceania10. In relation to these contributions and since we are geographically related and have a similar context we could like to point out three aspects: first, to bring forward or 16 years of experience in systematic detection of Rotavirus in children; second, to show our findings in detecting other virus causing gastroenteritis (Adenovirus and Astrovirus) and finally, to mark that both Rotavirus infection and that caused by the aforementioned virus are reported to National Epidemiological Surveillance System. Since 1986 we systematically search for Rotavirus in fecal samples from children under seven years. At that time Rotavirus antigen detection by means of a ...
The CDC Foundation has received three grants totaling $13.5 million from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to improve the lives of millions worldwide. The grants will enable the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to work in collaboration with partners to advance the implementation of meningitis and rotavirus vaccines, ensuring global disease protection. Meningococcal meningitis and rotavirus gastroenteritis are deadly diseases but are increasingly preventable now that immunization initiatives in the African meningitis belt and other resource-poor areas are reaching the most vulnerable populations, said Dr. Anne Schuchat, the director of CDCs National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. The Gates Foundation funding will allow CDC to work together with countries and international partners to assure that a strong science base is available to sustain prevention efforts. Policy makers need this ...
Comparisons of different rotavirus vaccines are difficult to make with a lot of precision because of the differing populations, protocols, attack rates, and study procedures which have been employed to assess the efficacy of the vaccines. Given the rather recent deployment of the vaccines, there are very limited evidence on their effectiveness in the population/community-setting.…
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), announced today a new license agreement aimed at helping to prevent hundreds of thousands of deaths annually from rotavirus diarrhea in children living in developing countries.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released today new safety data on a recently licensed rotavirus vaccine given to infants that indicate the vaccine does not pose an elevated risk for intussusception, the most common cause of bowel obstruction in infants.
The prevalence of antirotavirus antibodies in chickens and turkeys in the Gonzales, Texas and Llano, Texas areas was studied. Caged layer chicken flocks were found to have a prevalence of 64% when samples were taken randomly. This compares to 45% in chicken broiler breeder flocks and 92% in turkey breeding flocks. The natural occurrence of turkey rotavirus infection in two separate field studies showed an increase in mortality varying from 9% to 45% above expected death losses. Clinically, pasted vents, lacitude, and general malaise were noted in affected poults. Lesions noted on post mortem examination were; slight ballooning of the small intestine, excessively large ceca, and mild hyperemia of the small and large intestines. The use of maternal antibody from simian rotavirus immunized chickens eggs for preventing murine rotavirus infection in infant mice was investigated. There was a reduction from 91% to 15% incidence when infant mice were treated twice daily with egg yolk immunoglobulin. The need
Results show that S boulardii diminished the time of diarrhoea by 31.4% and shortened time with fever by 73% (table 3). Children receiving the multiple species product tended to have less time with diarrhoea and no patients vomited after the treatment was started. In previous studies that administered multiple species products similar to the one we used, other authors found a rather more pronounced effect, 30 hours [14, 19] and 30-36 hours reduction in diarrhoeal duration [20-23], in comparison with the 26 hours reduction we found. Infants hospitalized in our study were admitted with severe diarrhoea and had intense clinical manifestations in comparison to outpatients with rotavirus diarrhoea; this could explain the less intense results obtained. Although not significant, we consider relevant the trend to diminish time of diarrhoea in the group receiving the multiple probiotic products, because decreasing severity of diarrhoea may help reducing the nutritional impact of the diarrhoeal ...
During February and March 2005, one of the largest national recorded outbreaks of severe acute gastroenteritis occurred in Nicaragua, affecting ≥64,000 individuals and causing ≥56 deaths, predominantly in children under 5 years of age. Through a nationwide laboratory-based study, stool samples were collected and investigated for rotavirus. Of 108 stool samples examined, 72 (67%) were positive for rotavirus. While 69% (50/72) of the positive samples were found in children less than 2 years of age, 50% (6/12) of the adult samples were positive. A mutated G4P[8] strain was the most commonly recognized strain (85%), followed by mixed G strains (8%) and G9P[8] (7%) strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene revealed that the G4 strains belonged to the emerging lineage Ic and was distantly related to the ST3 and VA70 G4 strains. Secondary structure predictions of the VP7 G4 protein revealed an insert of an asparagine residue in position 76, which, combined with additional mutations, ...
Diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years along with its long-term impact on growth and cognitive development. Despite advances in the understanding of diarrheal disorders and management strategies, globally nearly 750,000 children die annually as a consequence of diarrhea. We conducted a systematic review of the efficacy and effectiveness studies. We used a standardized abstraction and grading format and performed meta-analyses for all outcomes. The estimated effect of cholera, shigella, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and rotavirus vaccines was determined by applying the standard Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) rules. A total of 24 papers were selected and analyzed for all the four vaccines. Based on the evidence, we propose a 74% mortality reduction in rotavirus specific mortality, 52% reduction in cholera incidence due to their respective vaccines. We did not find sufficient evidence and a suitable outcome to project mortality reductions for cholera
The Rotavirus vaccine - an American vaccine against childhood diarrhea and dehydration - has been found to cause pneumonia!. It has already been withdrawn once for causing intersuption of the bowel (where the bowel sticks together - the condition can be life threatening if not treated).. Now the FDA have said that according to 11 trials, rotavirus vaccine causes pneumonia, bronchitis, convulsions and death.. 63,000 children were given the vaccine and there was a statistically significant increase in the number of pneumonia deaths compared with the placebo, and the rotavirus vaccine group also had more bronchitis and a higher rate of convulsions.. The FDA now want to bring in an oral rotavirus vaccine instead of using the injection.. Source: Reuters, 15 February 2008.. ...
Background. More than 50,000 cases of acute gastroenteritis are registered in children in Ukraine annually. Statistical data concerning rotavirus i...
Previous studies on the serological diagnosis of rotavirus infection have utilised locally produced antibodies. In this study we have compared two commercially produced assays, an ELISA (Rotazyme, Abbott) and a newly developed assay--solid phase aggregation of coupled erythrocytes (SPACE) (Wellcome Research Laboratories), with electron microscopy (EM). The SPACE test appeared less sensitive than EM. The ELISA was shown to be as sensitive as EM but more versatile. Our experience suggests that the ELISA could be successfully incorporated into the routine of any diagnostic laboratory.. ...
Activation of the innate immune system with the bacterial protein flagellin could prevent and cure rotavirus infection, which is among the most common causes of severe diarrhea, says a Georgia State University research team that described the method as a novel means to prevent and treat viral infection.
We describe the emergence of serotype G12 rotaviruses (67 [6.9%] of 971 specimens tested) among children hospitalized with rotavirus gastroenteritis in Hungary during 2005. These findings are consistent with recent reports of the possible global spread and increasing epidemiologic importance of these strains, which may have implications for current rotavirus vaccination strategies.
We have previously reported that during the course of rotavirus infection of MA104 cells, there was a progressive increase in membrane permeability to molecules of increasing size. At early times after initiation of viral protein synthesis (4 to 6 h postinfection), permeability to monovalent cations such as Na+ and K+, as well as Ca2+, increased. Later, after 8 h postinfection, molecules which are normally impermeative in an uninfected cell, such as ethidium bromide and trypan blue, entered (17, 18).. The permeability pathway for Ca2+ in infected cells was studied by using step changes of extracellular Ca2+ concentration. Studies using fluorescent indicators have shown that the initial transient increase in [Ca2+]i following the extracellular Ca2+ change reflects the influx of Ca2+ from the external compartment (31). The fast increase in [Ca2+]i in response to Ca2+addition appeared to be directly related to the influx pathway, since it varied with the driving force for Ca2+ entry. The elevation ...
The work has included surveillance, epidemiology, and vaccine clinical trials of pneumococcal disease; rotavirus; Haemophilus ... Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine". New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (1): 23-33. doi:10.1056/NEJMOA052664. PMID 16394299. ...
"Rotavirus , Home , Gastroenteritis , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-11. Lu Z, Liu H, Fu S, et al. (2011). "Liao ning ... Rotavirus A-E cause infantile gastroenteritis in humans and farm animals. Many known Seadornaviruses cause encephalitis in ...
Structural studies of the rotavirus inner capsid. Gene sequence of some rotavirus proteins. Consistent with his advisory role ... Polypeptide composition and topography of bovine rotavirus. Molecular cloning of a human rotavirus genome. Antigenic variation ... Rotavirus. Esparza-Bracho researched on this area extensively, including aspects such as: Electron microscopic studies on ... He also applied such tools to the study of rotaviruses, a leading worldwide cause of infantile diarrhea which severely affects ...
Clark and Offit are two of the three inventors of the rotavirus vaccine RotaTeq,[12] which is credited with saving hundreds of ... Offit worked for 25 years on the development of a safe and effective vaccine against rotavirus, which is a cause of diarrhea,[8 ... He is the co-inventor of a rotavirus vaccine. Offit is the Maurice R. Hilleman Professor of Vaccinology, Professor of ... Along with his colleagues Fred Clark and Stanley Plotkin, Offit invented RotaTeq,[12] a pentavalent rotavirus vaccine ...
Avian Rotavirus; Avian Tuberculosis M. avium; Chicken Anemia Virus; Endogenous GS Antigen; Fowl Pox; Hemophilus paragallinarum ...
Rotaviruses (of Reoviridae) have been found to contain an enterotoxin which plays a role in viral pathogenesis. NSP4, is a ... Rotavirus (NSP4) Endotoxin Exotoxin "enterotoxin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Carlton Gyles, Magdalene So, Stanley Falkow, ... However, when NSP4 from group A Rotaviruses was purified (4 alleles tested), concentrated, and injected into a mouse model, ... "Diarrhea Induction by Rotavirus NSP4 in the Homologous Mouse Model System". Virology. 262 (2): 398-407. doi:10.1006/viro. ...
Rotavirus is spread through the mouth and skin, but the virus leaves those cells alone and only infects and reproduces in cells ... López Charretón won the award for Latin America for "identifying how rotaviruses cause the death of 600,000 children each year ... She has additionally studied how the rotavirus spreads in human populations, the immune response to it, and its replication ... Throughout her career, López Charretón has made advancements in our understanding of rotavirus. One of the most important ...
The company has been responsible for developing an eco-friendly recombinant and a naturally attenuated strain derived Rotavirus ... Serum Institute of India Hetero Drugs Cadila Healthcare "WHO prequalifies new rotavirus vaccine". WHO. Retrieved 2 July 2020. " ... Kang, G (October 2006). "Rotavirus vaccines". Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 24 (4): 252-7. doi:10.4103/0255- ... rotavirus vaccine in Indian infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial". The Lancet. 383 (9935): 2136-2143. ...
Rotashield rotavirus vaccine; and, FluMist influenza vaccine. Since retiring from Wyeth Siber has served on the boards of ... the first Rotavirus diarrhea vaccine, and FluMist, the first Live attenuated influenza vaccine. Siber became a diplomate with ...
"Effect of Human Rotavirus Vaccine on Severe Diarrhea in African Infants". New England Journal of Medicine. 362 (4): 289-298. 28 ... "Rotavirus vaccine support". www.gavi.org. GAVI. Retrieved 17 January 2021. Edwards, K. M.; Creech, C. B. (2017). "8. Vaccine ... Madhi led the first study that showed that a rotavirus vaccine could significantly prevent severe diarrhoea during the first ... The paper provided one of the key pieces of evidence for the WHO recommendations of universal rotavirus vaccination. In ...
The genome of rotavirus consists of eleven segments of dsRNA. Each genome segment codes for one protein with the exception of ... Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. This virus contains a ... 3: Rotavirus Structure". Patton 2008. pp. 45-. ISBN 9781904455219. Roy P (2008). "Structure and Function of Bluetongue Virus ... Double-stranded RNA viruses include the rotaviruses, known globally as a common cause of gastroenteritis in young children, and ...
Rotaviruses). (n.d.). Retrieved December 5, 2014, from "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-05-21. Retrieved ... a family of double-stranded RNA viruses that includes familiar genera Rotavirus (the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis ...
Flewett did much collaborative work on rotaviruses with others to establish the varieties of rotavirus which infect the young ... Following the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, worldwide the incidence of deaths of children caused by rotavirus has ... Clinical efficacy of the RIT 4237 live attenuated bovine rotavirus vaccine in infants vaccinated before a rotavirus epidemic" J ... because of the structural similarity of rotavirus to orbivirus. Ruth Bishop, who was the first to describe rotaviruses as a ...
"Withdrawal of Rotavirus Vaccine Recommendation". www.cdc.gov. DrugBank. "Sertindole". Archived from the original on 27 ...
"Rotavirus claims more in Solomons". Radio New Zealand International. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2014. UNICEF Solomon ... Over the following two months, a widespread rotavirus outbreak unfolded in Honiara, Guadalcanal, and Gizo, with more than 1,000 ... but occurred a year before it Total fatalities includes indirect deaths from a rotavirus outbreak related to the cyclone. ...
A rotavirus vaccine is available. This vaccine is highly effective and has been preventing half of the severe rotovirus ... Nearly every child in every country globally experiences at least one rotavirus infection in early childhood. However, in India ... India's implementation of the rotavirus vaccine in its Universal Immunization Programme has saved many children's lives. ... "Introducing rotavirus vaccine in the Universal Immunization Programme in India: From evidence to policy to implementation". ...
Rotavirus vaccine decrease the rates of diarrhea in a population. New vaccines against rotavirus, Shigella, Enterotoxigenic ... Norovirus is the most common cause of viral diarrhea in adults, but rotavirus is the most common cause in children under five ... In the case of Rotavirus, which was responsible for around 6% of diarrheal episodes and 20% of diarrheal disease deaths in the ... Acute diarrhea is most commonly due to viral gastroenteritis with rotavirus, which accounts for 40% of cases in children under ...
Estes has studied rotaviruses and noroviruses. Although rotaviruses can infect animals, the research Estes performs concerns ... In the 2009 article Rotaviruses: from pathogenesis to vaccination Estes explains the life-threatening side effects of rotavirus ... There are two main viruses that her research is based on, rotaviruses and noroviruses. The main goal of her research are to ... "CDC - Rotavirus vaccine - Vaccine safety". CDC Vaccine Safety. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 20 May ...
Li, Z; Baker, ML; Jiang, W; Estes, MK; Prasad, BV (2009). "Rotavirus Architecture at Subnanometer Resolution". Journal of ...
The dsRNA viruses (e.g. Rotavirus) according to the Baltimore classification. Group III introns, a class of introns found in ...
Roseto, A; Escaig, J; Delain, E; Cohen, J; Scherrer, R (1979). "Structure of rotaviruses as studied by the freeze-drying ... Jean Cohen (1941 - 2004 in Paris) was a French scientist, known for his studies on rotaviruses. Cohen, J; Laporte, J; ... Cohen, J; Dobos, P (1979). "Cell free transcription and translation of rotavirus RNA". Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... Corthier, G; Cohen, J; Scherrer, R (1980). "Isolation of pig rotavirus in France. Identification and experimental infections". ...
Rotaviruses and picornaviruses, however, rely on their viroporins to facilitate the formation of viroplasm, or specialized ... Likely exceptions to this scheme exist, such as the rotavirus protein non-structural protein 4. Most viroporins are not ... Hu L, Crawford SE, Hyser JM, Estes MK, Prasad BV (August 2012). "Rotavirus non-structural proteins: structure and function". ...
Additionally, within the five WHO-recommended live attenuated vaccines (tuberculosis, oral polio, measles, rotavirus, and ... Bruijning-Verhagen, Patricia; Groome, Michelle (July 2017). "Rotavirus Vaccine: Current Use and Future Considerations". The ... oral rotavirus vaccine) Vaccines function by encouraging the creation of cells, such as CD8+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes, or ... vaccine Polio vaccine Rotavirus vaccine Rubella vaccine Smallpox vaccine Varicella vaccine Yellow fever vaccine Zoster/shingles ...
Rotavirus is responsible for infecting 140 million people and causing 1 million deaths each year, mostly in children younger ... In Germany, 90% of cases of infectious enteritis are caused by four pathogens, Norovirus, Rotavirus, Campylobacter and ... Ramig, Robert F. (2004-10-01). "Pathogenesis of intestinal and systemic rotavirus infection". Journal of Virology. 78 (19): ...
Former PATH researcher John Wecker noted that rotavirus infections dropped in areas that began to use the vaccine after the WHO ... PATH also conducts research to show the impact of rotavirus vaccines and help countries choose whether to adopt the vaccines ... In 2006, PATH helped Nicaragua become the first developing country to introduce rotavirus vaccines within months of their ... PATH supports the introduction of vaccines against rotavirus in developing countries to protect young children from severe ...
Norovirus and rotavirus, common causes of viral gastroenteritis, are transmitted by the faecal-oral route, passed by hand-to- ... Rotaviruses have evolved to avoid this defence mechanism by not uncoating fully inside the cell, and releasing newly produced ... Many viruses, such as rotavirus, have more than 60 capsomers and appear spherical but they retain this symmetry. To achieve ... Jayaram H, Estes MK, Prasad BV (April 2004). "Emerging themes in rotavirus cell entry, genome organization, transcription and ...
"Bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus reuteri in rotavirus gastroenteritis". The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 16 (12): ...
"Bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus reuteri in rotavirus gastroenteritis". Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 16 (12): 1103-7. doi:10.1097 ...
Dennehy PH (2012). "Rotavirus infection: an update on management and prevention". Advances in Pediatrics. 59 (1): 47-74. doi: ... Bacterial Streptococcal pharyngitis Chlamydia Typhoid fever Tuberculosis Viral Rotavirus Hepatitis C Human papillomavirus (HPV ...
Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae. Rotaviruses are the most common cause of ... Rotavirus serotypes were first described in 1980, and in the following year, rotaviruses from humans were first grown in cell ... Rotaviruses elicit both B and T cell immune responses. Antibodies to the rotavirus VP4 and VP7 proteins neutralise viral ... Rotavirus B, also called adult diarrhoea rotavirus or ADRV, has caused major epidemics of severe diarrhoea affecting thousands ...
Rotavirus, Vaccine Resource Library Rotavirus ROTA Council Rotavirus Vaccines at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Rotavirus vaccine is a vaccine used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea ... The rotavirus A parent strains of the reassortants were isolated from human and bovine hosts. Four reassortant rotaviruses ... Rotavirus vaccines are licensed in more than 100 countries, and more than 80 countries have introduced routine rotavirus ...
Rotavirus commonly causes severe, watery diarrhea and vomiting in infants and young children. ... Rotavirus in the U.S.. Find more information about rotavirus burden, impact, seasonality and risk factors, and CDC surveillance ... Protect your child from rotavirus. Rotavirus commonly causes severe, watery diarrhea and vomiting in infants and young children ... You can get infected with rotavirus if you get rotavirus particles in your mouth. ...
... infection affects most kids and is one of the most common causes of diarrhea. A vaccine to prevent it is now ...
Rotavirus is a virus that causes symptoms of severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. It is easily spread; but ... Rotavirus (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Rotavirus Vaccines (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) ... Rotavirus antigen test (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Rotavirus Vaccine: What You Need to Know (Centers for Disease ... Rotavirus (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Vaccine (Drops) for Rotavirus (Centers for Disease Control and ...
... infection is due to a virus and is the most common cause of gastroenteritis (inflammation of the intestines) in ... What is rotavirus?. Rotavirus infection is due to a virus and is the most common cause of gastroenteritis (inflammation of the ... Rotavirus. Rotavirus infection is due to a virus and is the most common cause of gastroenteritis (inflammation of the ... How is rotavirus spread?. Unfortunately, rotavirus is a highly contagious virus and so is easily transmitted by the faecal-oral ...
Rotavirus infection affects most kids and is one of the most common causes of diarrhea. A vaccine to prevent it is now ... Rotavirus. What Is Rotavirus?. Rotavirus is a common virus that infects the linings of the intestines. It causes vomiting and ... Can Rotavirus Be Prevented?. The rotavirus vaccine can prevent many causes of rotavirus. The vaccine is a liquid given by mouth ... Is Rotavirus Contagious?. Yes, rotavirus passes easily from one person to another. Infections are common during the winter and ...
Rotavirus Gastroenteritis is a virus that infects the bowels and is most commonly found in unvaccinated children. It can cause ... rotavirus vaccine provided 85-98 percent protection against severe rotavirus illness and hospitalization from rotavirus illness ... The rotavirus vaccine was introduced in the U.S. in 2006. Before then, rotavirus was the main cause of severe diarrhea among ... There are different types of rotavirus, but five main strains are responsible for over 90 percent of rotavirus infections in ...
Rotaviruses are non-enveloped viruses of the family Reoviridae and a major cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea both in ... Rotavirus groups. Outbreaks of rotavirus group A diarrhea are widespread among hospitalized infants, young children in day-care ... Interspecies transmission plays a crucial role in the diversity of rotaviruses, and the ability of rotaviruses to exchange ... Rotaviruses are non-enveloped viruses of the family Reoviridae and a major cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea both in ...
This PrimeView focuses on the prevention of Rotavirus infection, for which, vaccination is crucial. ... Rotaviruses are one of the leading causes of diarrhoeal diseases in children ,5 years of age. ... Rotavirus infection. Nature Reviews Disease Primers volume 3, Article number: 17084 (2017) Cite this article ... Rotaviruses are one of the leading causes of diarrhoeal diseases in children ,5 years of age. This PrimeView focuses on the ...
Health Information on Rotavirus Infections: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Rotavirus Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Rotavirus: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Rotavirus Vaccine: What You Need to Know - Kreyol ayisyen (Haitian Creole) PDF ... Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Rotavirus Vaccine: What You Need to Know - English PDF Vaccine Information Statement ( ...
Description Rotavirus replicates in the epithelial (lining) cells of the intestine and is a cause ... Definition Rotavirus infection is the major cause of severely dehydrating diarrhea in early childhood. ... Rotavirus and other gastrointestinal viruses spread efficiently via the fecal-oral route. The virus is shed in stool at very ... Rotavirus infection typically starts with mild to moderate fever and vomiting, followed by the onset of watery stools. The ...
... Liz Szabo, USA TODAY Published 10:59 a.m. ET June 9, 2014 , Updated 12:43 p.m ... A nurse gives Rotavirus vaccine to a baby during a program to start vaccination against the virus. The vaccine is for children ... Rotavirus vaccines have saved nearly $1 billion. Vaccines against a common cause of infant diarrhea have kept hundreds of ... Rotavirus vaccines have saved nearly $1 billion Vaccines against a common cause of infant diarrhea have kept hundreds of ...
1999)‎. Rotavirus vaccines = Vaccins antirotavirus. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 74 (‎ ...
2007)‎. Rotavirus vaccines = Vaccins antirotavirus. Weekly Epidemiological Record = Relevé épidémiologique hebdomadaire, 82 (‎ ...
... one of two vaccines licensed in the United States against rotavirus, saying the vaccine is contaminated with material from a ... Rotavirus disease kills more than 500,000 infants around the world each year, primarily in low- and middle-income countries, ... Before rotavirus vaccine became available, the disease was blamed for more than 50,000 hospitalizations and several dozen ... Public health officials in countries where the incidence of rotavirus is more severe may decide that the benefits of continuing ...
... Articles. Impact of Rotavirus Vaccine in Gastroenteritis Hospitalizations This study describes the ... Rotavirus Burden in the United States. This study describes the hospitalization rates for rotavirus illness before universal ... reduction in acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations among children after introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the United States ...
Rotavirus) of reoviruses that have a three-layered protein capsid with no outer lipid envelope when mature and that include one ... species Rotavirus A) causing epidemics of severe and sometimes fatal diarrhea in infants and young children. ... Comments on rotavirus. What made you want to look up rotavirus? Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote ... Adel Mahmoud, Who Was Credited With HPV and Rotavirus Vaccines, Dies at 76," 19 June 2018 The problem with a rotavirus vaccine ...
Whats the rotavirus vaccine schedule? Who shouldnt get the rotavirus vaccine? Are there any side effects from the rotavirus ... vaccine? Is the rotavirus vaccine really necessary? Find answers to these questions here. ... Why does my baby need the rotavirus vaccine? ... Why does my kid need the rotavirus vaccine?. The rotavirus ... Is the rotavirus vaccine really necessary?. Though many children who come down with rotavirus will recover on their own, ...
Rotavirus infection was once called the winter vomiting disease.. Signs & Symptoms of Rotavirus. In most cases, viral GI ... What Parents Can Do to Prevent Rotavirus The rotavirus vaccine is one of the recommended childhood immunizations. It is ... Globally, rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children younger than 2 years. In fact, virtually all ... If Your Child Has Rotavirus. These viral illnesses resolve on their own with time and without any specific treatment. Make your ...
... About Rotavirus. Almost all kids have had a rotavirus infection by the time theyre 5 years old. Rotavirus is one of ... A previous rotavirus vaccine was taken off the market in 1999 because it was linked to an increased risk for intussusception, a ... Kids with a rotavirus infection have fever, nausea, and vomiting, often followed by abdominal cramps and frequent, watery ... Your doctor may need to test your childs blood, urine, or stool to confirm that the diarrhea is being caused by rotavirus and ...
... What Is Rotavirus?. Rotavirus is a common virus that infects the linings of the intestines. It causes vomiting and ... Can Rotavirus Be Prevented?. The rotavirus vaccine can prevent many causes of rotavirus. The vaccine is a liquid given by mouth ... Is Rotavirus Contagious?. Yes, rotavirus passes easily from one person to another. Infections are common during the winter and ... Washing hands well and often is the best way to limit the spread of rotavirus infection. Kids with rotavirus should stay home ...
Rotavirus vaccination cuts childhood intestinal infection hospitalizations in half. ... Rotavirus vaccine is proving its worth. Since vaccination became routine, U.S. childrens hospitalizations for intestinal woes ... GOING DOWN The number of kids hospitalized for gastroenteritis and for rotavirus infection dropped sharply after routine ...
O Rotavirus é o agente enteropatogénico mais frequente nas crianças, tanto nos países em vias de desenvolvimento, como nos ... Uma característica notável das infecções a rotavirus nos climas temperados, é a sua sazonalidade. Em contraste com outros ... O Rotavirus é o agente enteropatogénico mais frequente nas crianças, tanto nos países em vias de desenvolvimento, como nos ... Tipicamente são as crianças com menos de 2 anos de idade as mais afectadas e o rotavirus pode ser responsável por admissões nos ...
All about Rotavirus (Rotavirus). FACTS: Rotavirus (or "wheel" virus in Latin, after its microscopic appearance) is one of the ... 2006: Merck makes a safe rotavirus vaccine.. Big Outbreaks:. Rotavirus is a constant problem worldwide. However, vaccines ... In one year, about half a million children die from rotavirus.. The risk of contracting rotavirus is greatest in the winter and ... FACTS: Rotavirus (or "wheel" virus in Latin, after its microscopic appearance) is one of the most common viral infections among ...
Rotavirus. Say: RO-tuh-vy-rus. Have you ever had bad diarrhea or thrown up a lot? Then you might have had rotavirus. This is a ... Most cases of rotavirus happen in babies or young kids. There is a vaccine for rotavirus that babies now get to protect them. ...
Prevalence of rotavirus genotypes in children younger than 5 years of age before the introduction of a universal rotavirus ... Kang G. Rotavirus in India: 40 years of research. Indian Pediatr. 2016;53:569-73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Kang G. New-generation treatment? Targeted antiviral therapy for rotavirus. Gastroenterology. 2013;145:711-4.CrossRefPubMed ... Bulut Y, Yenişehirli G, Durmaz R. Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus strains in under five children. Indian J Pediatr. 2017; ...
The milk samples with rotavirus antibody were capable of inhibiting the replication of simian, bovine, and human rotaviruses in ... Antibody to human rotavirus in cows milk.. Yolken RH, Losonsky GA, Vonderfecht S, Leister F, Wee SB. ... Rotavirus infection is an important cause of gastroenteritis in infants and young children. Since the virus replicates in the ... In addition, they were capable of protecting mice from infection and disease in a murine model of rotavirus infection. On the ...
... announced today a new license agreement aimed at helping to prevent hundreds of thousands of deaths annually from rotavirus ... An effective oral rotavirus vaccine-created by NIAID scientists in the mid- to late 1980s and developed further through a ... Rotaviruses are consistently shown to be the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children. Worldwide, the ... Rotaviruses are egalitarian viruses: they readily infect and cause illness in infants and young children in both developed and ...
  • There is no specific medicine to treat rotavirus infection, but your doctor may recommend medicine to treat the symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • There is no specific treatment for rotavirus - antibiotics have no effect on viral infections - but if a child is not dehydrated and has no increased risk of dehydration then no treatment is necessary and the infection simply passes by itself. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • So, the doctor will not prescribe antibiotics to treat a rotavirus infection. (kidshealth.org)
  • Washing hands well and often is the best way to limit the spread of rotavirus infection. (kidshealth.org)
  • The dehydration that can result from rotavirus can be more serious than the infection itself. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 215,000 children worldwide died due to rotavirus infection, mostly in developing countries. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Touching a surface that has been contaminated with rotavirus and then touching the mouth area can result in infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This PrimeView focuses on the prevention of Rotavirus infection, for which, vaccination is crucial. (nature.com)
  • Rotavirus infection is the major cause of severely dehydrating diarrhea in early childhood. (healthcentral.com)
  • Rotavirus infection typically starts with mild to moderate fever and vomiting, followed by the onset of watery stools. (healthcentral.com)
  • NBC News , "Studies Find Small Risk From Rotavirus Vaccine," 20 Feb. 2018 Compare that to the case of RotaShield, the first vaccine licensed to protect against rotavirus infection. (merriam-webster.com)
  • A CHILD dies every minute from the severe diarrhoea associated with rotavirus infection. (newscientist.com)
  • Rotavirus infection was once called the 'winter vomiting disease. (healthychildren.org)
  • Almost all kids have had a rotavirus infection by the time they're 5 years old. (rchsd.org)
  • Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of diarrhea , and severe infection (rotavirus gastroenteritis) is the leading cause of severe, dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children. (rchsd.org)
  • Kids with a rotavirus infection have fever , nausea, and vomiting , often followed by abdominal cramps and frequent, watery diarrhea. (rchsd.org)
  • Sometimes the diarrhea that accompanies a rotavirus infection is so severe that it can quickly lead to dehydration. (rchsd.org)
  • In the United States, rotavirus infection outbreaks are common during the winter and spring months. (rchsd.org)
  • It is particularly a problem in childcare centers and children's hospitals because rotavirus infection is very contagious. (rchsd.org)
  • The RotaTeq vaccine has been found to prevent approximately 75% of cases of rotavirus infection and 98% of severe cases. (rchsd.org)
  • Another vaccine, Rotarix, also is available and is effective in preventing rotavirus infection. (rchsd.org)
  • Because antibiotics do not work against illnesses caused by viruses, the doctor will not prescribe antibiotics to treat a rotavirus infection. (rchsd.org)
  • Call the doctor for advice if your child has signs of a rotavirus infection, including watery diarrhea, fever, nausea, and vomiting. (rchsd.org)
  • GOING DOWN The number of kids hospitalized for gastroenteritis and for rotavirus infection dropped sharply after routine vaccinations began in 2006. (sciencenews.org)
  • Rotavirus infection is an important cause of gastroenteritis in infants and young children. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, they were capable of protecting mice from infection and disease in a murine model of rotavirus infection. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that the alteration of milk-processing procedures or the addition of effective antibodies to milk preparations commonly used in the nutrition of young children may alter the clinical course of rotavirus infection or decrease the transmission of rotavirus throughout susceptible populations. (nih.gov)
  • Symptoms of rotavirus infection develop quickly and in addition to diarrhea, may include vomiting, fever and dehydration. (news-medical.net)
  • Rice could be a vehicle to protect millions of the world's poor from rotavirus infection, results in mouse studies suggested. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Rice engineered to produce a rotavirus-specific antibody fragment protected both healthy and immunodeficient mice from the infection, researchers found. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Rotavirus is a common viral infection that affects mostly babies and young children, although adults sometimes develop a milder form of the illness. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Rotavirus is so common among children that the Centers for Disease Control estimates that nearly all children will have a rotavirus infection by the time they are 5 years old. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Symptoms of the illness usually appear about two days after exposure to someone with a rotavirus infection. (ehow.co.uk)
  • However, children with a rotavirus infection usually have a fever, nausea and vomiting followed by watery diarrhoea. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Rotavirus is an infection of the stomach and intestines. (denverhealth.org)
  • A rotavirus infection is caused by a specific type of virus. (denverhealth.org)
  • Before the introduction of vaccines, rotavirus infection resulted in more than 50,000 hospitalizations and several dozen deaths in the U.S. each year. (medpagetoday.com)
  • A new molecular portrait of rotavirus may help researchers design more effective vaccines against the lethal gastrointestinal infection that kills 500,000 children annually. (hhmi.org)
  • The images could help scientists design a more effective vaccine against rotavirus, a lethal infection that kills more than 500,000 children worldwide each year. (hhmi.org)
  • But each year an estimated two million children are hospitalized because rotavirus infection results in severe dehydration caused by diarrhea and vomiting. (hhmi.org)
  • At that time, a reevaluation of the health risks and costs of rotavirus vaccination versus the health risks and costs of natural rotavirus infection will be performed. (aappublications.org)
  • In the US, there are 20-40 deaths and about 50,000 people are hospitalized each year because of rotavirus infection. (kenyon.edu)
  • The National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) now reports low levels of rotavirus infection each year, with only about 5% of rotavirus tests now being positive during the peak of rotavirus season vs over 25% in the pre-vaccine era. (keepkidshealthy.com)
  • A Georgia State University research team says that activation of the innate immune system with the bacterial protein flagellin could prevent and cure rotavirus infection, which is among the most common causes of severe diarrhea. (medindia.net)
  • ATLANTA--Activation of the innate immune system with the bacterial protein flagellin could prevent and cure rotavirus infection, which is among the most common causes of severe diarrhea, says a Georgia State University research team that described the method as a novel means to prevent and treat viral infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • The period between the onset of the clinical findings of the rotavirus infection and the occurrence of the seizures was ranged from 12 to 48 h (mean 31.5 ± 12.2 h). (springer.com)
  • Rotavirus infection should be taken into consideration in infants with gastroenteritis and afebrile convulsions. (springer.com)
  • Gomara MI, Auchterloine A, Zaw W et al (2002) Rotavirus gastroenteritis and CNS infection: characterization of the VP7 and VP4 genes of rotavirus strains isolated from paired fecal and cerebrospinal fluid samples from a child with CNS disease. (springer.com)
  • Keidan I, Shif I, Keren G, Passwell JH (1992) Rotavirus encephalopathy: evidence of central nervous system involvement during rotavirus infection. (springer.com)
  • 2 The significant morbidity and mortality associated with rotavirus infection has led to the development of vaccines. (health.gov.au)
  • Rotarix® (GlaxoSmithKline) and RotaTeq® (Merck), have been shown to be safe and highly effective in the prevention of severe diarrhoea due to rotavirus infection. (health.gov.au)
  • In Australia, rotavirus infection accounted for up to 10,000 childhood hospitalisations for diarrhoea each year in the pre-vaccine era. (health.gov.au)
  • The risk of a child in the United States actually dying from a rotavirus infection is ridiculously small. (infowars.com)
  • Some children with rotavirus infection have to be hospitalized to treat dehydration. (marshfieldclinic.org)
  • Rotavirus vaccine is used to protect this infection. (openpr.com)
  • The primary symptom of a rotavirus infection is mild to moderate watery diarrhea. (petmd.com)
  • Infection is oral, and results from the consumption of feed or water contaminated with rotavirus particles. (pigprogress.net)
  • Rotavirus diarrhoea may recur as immunity to one type does not prevent infection with others. (pigprogress.net)
  • The ubiquity of rotavirus infection should lead to its consideration as a component of most diarrhoeas of sucking and recently-weaned piglets. (pigprogress.net)
  • While not conclusively linking the rotavirus vaccine with protection against type 1 diabetes, the discovery builds on earlier research suggesting natural rotavirus infection may be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Professor Len Harrison from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, who is the study senior author, said the discovery followed on from earlier research implicating rotavirus infection in the development of type 1 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Twenty years ago our team revealed an association between the appearance of immune markers of type 1 diabetes in children and rotavirus infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • Subsequent studies in laboratory models suggested rotavirus infection of pancreatic cells can trigger an immune attack against the insulin-producing cells - similar to what occurs in type 1 diabetes," he said. (eurekalert.org)
  • While not conclusive, our latest study suggests that preventing rotavirus infection in Australian infants by vaccination may also reduce their risk of type 1 diabetes. (eurekalert.org)
  • During May 2001, 246 children with acute gastroenteritis presented to the Emergency Department of the Alice Springs Hospital, resulting in 145 being admitted, of whom 137 were confirmed as having rotavirus infection. (health.gov.au)
  • The age distribution of acute gastroenteritis cases were typical of rotavirus infection (Figure). (health.gov.au)
  • A recent study out of Australia has found a connection between the common childhood infection, rotavirus, and the onset and progression of type 1 diabetes. (defeatdiabetes.org)
  • Rotavirus is an extremely common viral infection responsible for serious cases of diarrhea in infants and young children. (defeatdiabetes.org)
  • Rotavirus infection is the leading cause of severe acute diarrhea among young children worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • 5 years worldwide were attributed to rotavirus infection. (nih.gov)
  • Secretor and Lewis type) mediate susceptibility to rotavirus infection. (bioportfolio.com)
  • More precisely, non-secretors (i.e., children lacking a functional fucosyl transferse-2 [FUT2] gene) have substantially reduced risk of rotavirus infection of certain genotypes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Rotavirus commonly causes severe, watery diarrhea and vomiting in infants and young children. (cdc.gov)
  • The most common symptoms of rotavirus are severe watery diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and/or abdominal pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Rotavirus vaccine is a vaccine used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea among young children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent studies in developing countries that have introduced rotavirus vaccines have supported these findings, showing significant decreases in deaths and hospitalizations from rotavirus diarrhea after introduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • In April 2016, the World Health Organization released statistics for the period of 2000-2013, which showed developing countries that have introduced rotavirus vaccines experienced significant decreases in deaths and hospitalizations from rotavirus diarrhea after introduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe infections, called rotavirus gastroenteritis, are the leading cause of severe, dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children. (kidshealth.org)
  • But rotavirus-related diarrhea causes more than half a million deaths worldwide every year, especially in developing countries. (kidshealth.org)
  • Your doctor may need to test your child's blood, pee , or stool to confirm that the diarrhea is being caused by rotavirus and not by bacteria. (kidshealth.org)
  • Kids with rotavirus should stay home from childcare until the diarrhea is gone. (kidshealth.org)
  • Rotavirus causes severe diarrhea. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Rotaviruses are non-enveloped viruses of the family Reoviridae and a major cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea both in developed and developing countries. (news-medical.net)
  • Outbreaks of rotavirus group A diarrhea are widespread among hospitalized infants, young children in day-care centers and elderly people in nursing homes. (news-medical.net)
  • Rotavirus B is notable for causing major epidemics of severe diarrhea affecting thousands of people in China, primarily as a result of sewage contamination of drinking water. (news-medical.net)
  • Rotavirus replicates in the epithelial (lining) cells of the intestine and is a cause of acute gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines) with diarrhea , particularly in infants. (healthcentral.com)
  • Rotavirus vaccines have saved nearly $1 billion Vaccines against a common cause of infant diarrhea have kept hundreds of thousands of children out of the hospital, saving nearly $1 billion in their first four years, a new study shows. (usatoday.com)
  • The vaccine is for children aged 6 weeks to 6 months of age, to prevent diarrhea caused by rotavirus. (usatoday.com)
  • The first of the new studies focuses on rotavirus, which causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. (usatoday.com)
  • Both vaccines are given by mouth to infants to prevent rotavirus disease, which is marked by severe diarrhea and dehydration. (cnn.com)
  • USA TODAY , "Momoa at Mauna Kea, Confederate context, Guthrie garbage tribute: News from around our 50 states," 2 Aug. 2019 Diarrheal diseases, including contagious rotavirus causing watery diarrhea, vomiting, fever and abdominal pain (mostly among infants and young children), are another risk when children are too tightly housed. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Denise Grady, New York Times , "Dr. Adel Mahmoud, Who Was Credited With HPV and Rotavirus Vaccines, Dies at 76," 19 June 2018 Babies vaccinated against rotavirus , the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide, may have a small risk of a dangerous intestinal blockage, researchers reported Tuesday. (merriam-webster.com)
  • In studies, the rotavirus vaccine prevented 74 percent of all vomiting and diarrhea cases caused by rotavirus and 98 percent of severe ones. (parents.com)
  • If your child still manages to contract rotavirus (the vaccine isn't 100 percent effective), the severity of the illness will not be as bad (less vomiting, diarrhea, and risk of dehydration). (parents.com)
  • Globally, rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children younger than 2 years. (healthychildren.org)
  • In the U.S., rotavirus infections are responsible for about 3 million cases of diarrhea and 55,000 hospitalizations for diarrhea and dehydration in children younger than 5 years old each year. (rchsd.org)
  • Although these infections cause relatively few U.S. deaths, diarrhea caused by rotavirus causes more than half a million deaths worldwide every year. (rchsd.org)
  • Kumar A, Basu S, Vashishtha V, Choudhury P. Burden of rotavirus diarrhea in under five Indian children. (springer.com)
  • The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) , part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) , announced today a new license agreement aimed at helping to prevent hundreds of thousands of deaths annually from rotavirus diarrhea in children living in developing countries. (news-medical.net)
  • Rotaviruses are consistently shown to be the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children. (news-medical.net)
  • Rotavirus is a major cause of diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. (scoop.it)
  • Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among children and is responsible for over 200,000 under-5 deaths per year, as well as thousands of more hospitalizations. (jhsph.edu)
  • You may suspect that it is rotavirus when the fever and vomiting subside but the diarrhea continues, sometimes for weeks, writes Sears. (modernmom.com)
  • The diarrhea associated with the rotavirus has a sickly smell that parents tend to recognize once they are experienced with this virus. (modernmom.com)
  • Rotavirus is the most common cause of inflammation of the stomach and intestines (gastroenteritis), leading to severe diarrhea in infants and children throughout the world. (medicinenet.com)
  • How do the rotavirus NSP4 and bacterial enterotoxins lead differently to diarrhea? (nih.gov)
  • Physiopathology of Rotavirus diarrhea]. (nih.gov)
  • Both rotavirus vaccines are given orally to young infants to prevent rotavirus disease, which can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration and is deemed responsible for the deaths of more than 500,000 infants around the world each year, primarily in low- and middle-income countries. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Generally, rotavirus symptoms include fever, vomiting and three to eight days of watery diarrhea, explains Mayo Clinic. (reference.com)
  • Rotavirus symptoms include fever, vomiting, and watery diarrhea. (nfid.org)
  • As the leading worldwide cause of severe pediatric diarrhea, rotavirus, a double-stranded, segmented RNA virus, annually causes about 600,000 deaths globally, as well as about 50,000 hospitalizations and 20-40 deaths in the US. (jcvi.org)
  • The rotavirus genome sequencing project aims to begin filling the void of sequencing data by sequencing a subset of viruses isolated from 769 rotavirus-positive children in the classic Children's Hospital cohort study, hospitalized with severe diarrhea during 1974 to 1991. (jcvi.org)
  • Rotavirus is a human fecal pathogen that is shed in the diarrhea of ill persons, especially infants and young children. (osu.edu)
  • Rotavirus causes a mild to severe self-limiting illness with fever, watery diarrhea, and vomiting. (osu.edu)
  • Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea, responsible for 40% of all diarrhea related deaths in children worldwide. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Rotavirus infects children at a young age but older infants and young children tend to be more symptomatic with diarrhea. (kenyon.edu)
  • Rotavirus is a now vaccine-preventable disease that can cause vomiting and diarrhea in young children. (keepkidshealthy.com)
  • While rotavirus isn't the only cause of diarrhea in children, it was once the most common cause of severe diarrhea in young children. (keepkidshealthy.com)
  • While rotavirus was once the most common cause of severe diarrhea in children, leading to about 3 million cases of diarrhea, 55,000 hospitalizations, and 20 to 40 deaths in the United States each year, that has been greatly reduced in the post-vaccine era. (keepkidshealthy.com)
  • Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhea, the second largest killer of children across the world, and vaccines to contain the virus can change the situation dramatically, a study has confirmed. (medindia.net)
  • It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Mauritanian children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines. (path.org)
  • Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among children, resulting in the death of over 500,000 children annually worldwide. (stlouischildrens.org)
  • Parashar UD, Gibson CJ, Bresee JS, Glass RI (2006) Rotavirus and severe childhood diarrhea. (springer.com)
  • 1986 to 2000 on deaths caused by diarrhea and on Efforts are ongoing to develop other rotavirus vaccines, rotavirus infections in children. (cdc.gov)
  • WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9, 2017 -- Hundreds of thousands of cases of diarrhea in young children have been prevented since routine vaccination against rotavirus began in the United States a decade ago, a new study shows. (drugs.com)
  • Rotavirus is a common cause of diarrhea in infants and young children in the United States. (drugs.com)
  • The researchers analyzed data from community and academic hospitals in 26 states to compare rates of hospitalization for diarrhea among children younger than 5 before and after routine rotavirus vaccination began in 2006. (drugs.com)
  • Rotaviruses (RVs), an important cause of severe diarrhea in children, have been found to recognize sialic acid as receptors for host cell attachment. (mendeley.com)
  • Rotavirus causes diarrhea and inflammation and leads to more than two million hospitalizations and 600,000 deaths worldwide each year, primarily among young children in developing countries. (californiahealthline.org)
  • Our present focus is to develop the oral thin film delivery system for rotavirus vaccination in underdeveloped areas, as rotavirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis infecting virtually every child in the world resulting in severe diarrhea and death in approximately 600,000 children each year. (changemakers.com)
  • A probiotic formula containing Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 reduced the duration of rotavirus diarrhea. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Lactobacillus reuteri significantly shortens the duration of watery diarrhea associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis in children between 6 adn 36 months. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Rotavirus causes diarrhea, fever and vomiting which can lead to severe dehydration. (marshfieldclinic.org)
  • 6784/2000/ARN were amplifi ed by using consensus prim- man rotavirus (HRV) from a child in Cameroon who had diarrhea. (cdc.gov)
  • Any of a group of wheel-shaped viruses, of the genus Rotavirus, that causes gastroenteritis and diarrhea in children and animals. (wordnik.com)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, rotavirus is the most common cause of wintertime diarrhea and vomiting. (wordnik.com)
  • MCCARTHY: But things like the rotavirus which is a diarrhea vaccine, we say really? (wordnik.com)
  • Rotavirus causes severe diarrhea among children which lead to dehydration. (openpr.com)
  • Rotavirus, which as the article states is barely a household word, causes diarrhea and vomiting and is highly contagious. (vancouverobserver.com)
  • But since viruses easily mutate, the chances of a child catching a mutated rotavirus or some other virus causing diarrhea and vomiting is pretty much guaranteed - meaning parents still need to know how to prevent their child from becoming dehydrated and support their healthy recovery. (vancouverobserver.com)
  • A clinical trial of the new rotavirus vaccine from the Serum Institute of India shows that the vaccine increases the incidence of diarrhea instead of decreasing it. (ahrp.org)
  • The authors report that vaccine efficacy was 66.7% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. (ahrp.org)
  • The purpose of rotavirus vaccination is ultimately to reduce the incidence of diarrhea and diarrhea-related death. (ahrp.org)
  • Because laboratory testing and coding for rotavirus are not routinely performed for patients with diarrhea, we examined both all-cause acute gastroenteritis and rotavirus-coded hospitalizations among children younger than 5 years from 2000 through 2012. (healio.com)
  • Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhea, one of the world's leading killers of children. (sabin.org)
  • Two licensed rotavirus vaccines have shown efficacy of 85%-98% against severe rotavirus diarrhea in trials conducted in the Americas and Europe, and they have been introduced into routine immunization programs in 11 countries in these regions and in Australia. (nih.gov)
  • To collect epidemiologic and burden-of-disease data that could form the basis of vaccination policy worldwide, beginning in 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with partners, established networks of hospital-based sentinel surveillance sites for detection of rotavirus diarrhea and characterization of rotavirus strains. (nih.gov)
  • These data demonstrate the substantial burden of rotavirus diarrhea worldwide and highlight the potential health impact of vaccination. (nih.gov)
  • Rotarix is a monovalent, human, live attenuated rotavirus vaccine containing one rotavirus strain of G1P[8] specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rotarix is indicated for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by G1 and non-G1 types (G3, G4, and G9) when administered as a 2-dose series in infants and children. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CDC recommended the first rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq, in 2006, and began recommending another version, Rotarix, after it became available in 2008. (usatoday.com)
  • (CNN) -- Federal health authorities recommended Monday that doctors suspend using Rotarix, one of two vaccines licensed in the United States against rotavirus, saying the vaccine is contaminated with material from a pig virus. (cnn.com)
  • Two rotavirus vaccines are licensed in the U.S., RotaTeq since 2006 and Rotarix since 2008. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Although two effective vaccines against rotavirus exist -- Rotarix and RotaTeq -- vaccination has proven to be less effective in developing countries . (medpagetoday.com)
  • Live attenuated rotavirus vaccines are used to protect infants against severe rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis and, RotaTeq, a pentavalent bovine-based vaccine, and, Rotarix, a monovalent human rotavirus, are now currently licensed in many countries. (nih.gov)
  • For the new report, researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) analyzed data from Immunization Information System sentinel sites to determine how many infants received at least one dose of the vaccine (Rotarix or RotaTeq) from June 2006 to 2009, and to compare vaccination rates for rotavirus in the second quarter of 2009 with vaccinations for DTaP and PCV7. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Safety and effectiveness have not been evaluated if ROTARIX were administered for the first dose and another rotavirus vaccine were administered for the second dose or vice versa. (nih.gov)
  • Two vaccines against Rotavirus, Rotarix® and Rotateq® were licensed in many high and middle income countries in 2006, but lack of efficacy data in low income countries had prevented WHO from making a universal recommendation of their use until recently. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Rotavirus is a life-threatening disease that was once very common in childhood but can now be easily prevented with either the RotaTeq or Rotarix vaccines. (keepkidshealthy.com)
  • Live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix. (keepkidshealthy.com)
  • Rotarix ( rotavirus ) Vaccine, Live Oral Suspension is a "live" vaccine used to help prevent rotavirus disease in children. (rxlist.com)
  • Becoming infected with rotavirus is much more dangerous to your child's health than receiving of Rotarix vaccine. (rxlist.com)
  • Our Rotarix (rotavirus) Vaccine, Live Oral Suspension Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. (rxlist.com)
  • The rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix, is given orally to babies in two doses, at the age of two months and three months, alongside their first and second routine childhood immunisations. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • The company said in a press release that it used highly sensitive assays to test its vaccine after an independent testing laboratory found evidence of the virus in the other US-licensed rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix, made by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). (umn.edu)
  • By type the global human rotavirus vaccine market is segmented into Rotarix, Rotarix, Rotavac, Rotavin-M1, Lanzhou Lamb and others. (openpr.com)
  • "Pediatricians Want Kids to Get Rotavirus Vaccine " were headlines in The Vancouver Sun this week and it was an interesting read, particularly in the wake of the huge recall of Glaxo-Smith-Kline's rotavirus vaccine Rotarix last year in the US, when it was discovered to have been contaminated with a pig virus - discovered only after the vaccine had been injected into over one million children in the US alone. (vancouverobserver.com)
  • Currently, WHO recommends either of two licensed, live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines for all children worldwide: the pentavalent RotaTeq (RV5) and monovalent Rotarix (RV1). (bioportfolio.com)
  • The incidence and severity of rotavirus infections has declined significantly in countries that have added rotavirus vaccine to their routine childhood immunisation policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • [11] The incidence and severity of rotavirus infections has declined significantly in countries that have acted on the recommendation to introduce the rotavirus vaccine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two vaccines against rotavirus infections are available. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Rotavirus immunizations are recommended for most children, and can prevent many rotavirus infections. (kidshealth.org)
  • As with all viruses, though, some rotavirus infections cause few or no symptoms, especially in adults. (kidshealth.org)
  • There are different types of rotavirus, but five main strains are responsible for over 90 percent of rotavirus infections in humans. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Interspecies transmission plays a crucial role in the diversity of rotaviruses, and the ability of rotaviruses to exchange genetic material between human and animal viruses during co-infections results in the generation of novel viruses. (news-medical.net)
  • By using various surveillance and diagnostic methods and techniques, the estimations state that rotavirus infections cause around half of all gastroenteritides in children less than five years of age. (news-medical.net)
  • Infections due to endemic CAL-1 strain of rotavirus B occurred in 1998 in Kolkata, the capital of India's West Bengal state. (news-medical.net)
  • Although the number of rotavirus-related fatalities in this country is low, the economic effect of rotaviral infections remains significant, due to the considerable amount of time lost from school and work. (healthcentral.com)
  • Susan Scutti, CNN , "'Crowding diseases' threaten migrant children held in US border protection facilities, expert says," 24 June 2019 Globally, cervical cancer and rotavirus infections kill hundreds of thousands of women and children every year. (merriam-webster.com)
  • FACTS: Rotavirus (or "wheel" virus in Latin, after its microscopic appearance) is one of the most common viral infections among young children. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Because rotavirus is such a common childhood illness, most parents want to know how to recognise the symptoms, how long the virus will last and how to treat it and prevent future infections. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The Mayo Clinic stresses that thorough hand-washing is an important way to prevent the spread of rotavirus infections. (ehow.co.uk)
  • As of August 2009, two vaccines are approved in the U.S. to prevent rotavirus infections in young children, according to the CDC. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Chronic rotavirus infections in immunocompromised children may remain a problem and require the development of new treatments including antiviral drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Rotavirus is such a common disease that most people, adults and children alike, have had rotavirus at least once in their lives, although subsequent infections tend to be mild. (modernmom.com)
  • Washing hands, yours and your child's, regularly and before eating greatly helps to prevent rotavirus infections. (modernmom.com)
  • In the United States, before the availability of efficacious vaccines, rotavirus infections caused ∼410 000 physician visits, 205 000 to 270 000 emergency department visits, and 55 000 to 70 000 hospitalizations annually. (aappublications.org)
  • Rotavirus A, the most prevalent, causes more than 90% of infections in humans. (bionity.com)
  • Children can develop symptoms of rotavirus symptoms about 1 to 3 days after being exposed to someone else who is sick with a rotavirus infections (the incubation period). (keepkidshealthy.com)
  • A rapid antigen stool test is available to test for rotavirus, but the diagnosis a typically made clinically, which means without testing and based on your child's symptoms, especially if rotavirus infections are going around in your community. (keepkidshealthy.com)
  • The tremendous incidence of have declined substantially around the world, and a recent rotavirus disease underscores the urgent need for interven- analysis suggested that deaths from rotavirus infections tions, such as vaccines, particularly to prevent childhood might also have been reduced during this period (5,6). (cdc.gov)
  • Rotavirus infections are the most common causes of infectious diarrhoea (gastroenteritis) in young children worldwide. (cyh.com)
  • In Australia the number of young children getting rotavirus infections is now less than several years ago because the immunisation of babies is very effective. (cyh.com)
  • Public Health England (PHE) says the vaccine provides a cost-effective way of preventing rotavirus infections and hospitalisations. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • And although it can be seen in cats at any age, kittens are more prone to rotavirus infections. (petmd.com)
  • Dogs are also susceptible to rotavirus infections. (petmd.com)
  • Estimates suggest that in developing countries up to 500,000 children under age five die every year from rotavirus infections. (petmd.com)
  • Unfortunately, up to 25% of outbreaks of diarrhoea in pigs may contain rotavirus particles and mixed infections are common so that it is up to the clinician to decide the importance of rotavirus in each case. (pigprogress.net)
  • There is no necrosis on the epithelium in uncomplicated rotavirus infections. (pigprogress.net)
  • This program discusses the diagnosis and treatment of rotavirus infections. (patient-education.com)
  • Information about what causes these infections and what you can do to treat rotavirus is also included. (patient-education.com)
  • Additional trials of these vaccines are ongoing to assess efficacy in low-income countries of Asia and Africa, where vaccine performance might be affected by factors such as concurrent enteric infections, greater prevalence of malnutrition, and a greater prevalence of unusual rotavirus strains. (nih.gov)
  • RotaTeq is a live, oral pentavalent vaccine that contains five rotavirus strains produced by reassortment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rotavirus vaccine, called RotaTeq, protects your child against a bug called rotavirus, which causes a nasty stomach flu. (parents.com)
  • RotaTeq protects against the five main strains of rotavirus, but there's also some evidence that it may protect against more, says Neal Halsey, MD, director of the Institute for Vaccine Safety at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Maryland and a member of the Parents magazine board of advisors. (parents.com)
  • But before the Food and Drug Administration approved today's rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq), it was safely tested in more than 70,000 children with no serious side effects. (parents.com)
  • In 2006, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended three doses of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (Merck's RotaTeq), administered at ages 2, 4, and 6 months. (medpagetoday.com)
  • FDA earlier this month approved Merck 's rotavirus vaccine, which will be marketed under the brand name RotaTeq. (californiahealthline.org)
  • Sibling transmission of vaccine-derived rotavirus (RotaTeq) associated with rotavirus gastroenteritis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • May 7, 2010 (CIDRAP News) Merck, the company that makes the most commonly given rotavirus vaccine in the United States, yesterday said it has detected very low levels of DNA from porcine circovirus (PCV) in its Rotateq vaccine, making it the second rotavirus vaccine found to contain PCV. (umn.edu)
  • Four reassortant rotaviruses express one of the outer capsid, VP7, proteins (serotypes G1, G2, G3, or G4) from the human rotavirus parent strain and the attachment protein VP4 (type P7) from the bovine rotavirus parent strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fifth reassortant virus expresses the attachment protein VP4, (type P1A), from the human rotavirus parent strain and the outer capsid protein VP7 (serotype G6) from the bovine rotavirus parent strain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antibody to human rotavirus in cow's milk. (nih.gov)
  • Spike Protein VP8* of Human Rotavirus Rec. (mendeley.com)
  • Similarity matrices and phylogenetic trees based on Rotavirus surveillance and strain characterization, in nucleotide and amino acid sequences were constructed support of rotavirus vaccine development programs, have and compared with cognate gene sequences of human and detected many new human rotavirus (HRV) genotype spec- animal rotaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • Data Bridge Market Research provides new industry report "Global Human Rotavirus Vaccine Market" accounted to USD 5.5 billion in 2016 growing at a CAGR of 11.4% during the forecast period of 2017 to 2024. (openpr.com)
  • On the basis of end user the global human rotavirus vaccine market is segmented into hospitals, clinics, academic & research lab. (openpr.com)
  • On the basis of geography, global human rotavirus vaccine market report covers data points for 28 countries across multiple geographies such as North America & South America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. (openpr.com)
  • The global human rotavirus vaccine market is highly fragmented and is based on new product launches and clinical results of products. (openpr.com)
  • The report includes market shares of human rotavirus vaccine market for global, Europe, North America, Asia Pacific and South America. (openpr.com)
  • Some of the major players operating in global human rotavirus vaccine market are Merck & Co., Inc., Bharat Biotech, GlaxoSmithKline plc among others. (openpr.com)
  • The EIA employed a panel of MAbs specific for the major glycoprotein VP7 of the outer capsid of the 5 major group A human rotavirus serotypes (G1, G2, G3, G4 and G9). (health.gov.au)
  • Why does my kid need the rotavirus vaccine? (parents.com)
  • The typical rotavirus symptoms are of severe diarrhoea, stomach cramps, vomiting, dehydration and a mild fever ( temperature ). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Parents should watch their children closely and keep them hydrated, since dehydration is a common and serious side effect from rotavirus. (parents.com)
  • Rotavirus causes severe diarrhoea that is usually accompanied by vomiting, fever and sometimes dehydration. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The most severe affect of rotavirus is dehydration, with infants and young children most at risk. (modernmom.com)
  • Rotavirus is currently responsible for 130,000 visits to the GP each year and for 12,700 children ending up in hospital due to dehydration. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Third-world children living in poverty with poor sanitation are most at risk, however even in North America apparently death by Rotavirus dehydration causes between 20 - 60 deaths annually. (vancouverobserver.com)
  • Pathological findings suggesting rotavirus include dehydration in piglets, a stomach filled with milk and a small intestine distended with creamy fluid contents. (pigprogress.net)
  • Although Rotavirus was discovered in 1973 by Ruth Bishop and her colleagues by electron micrograph images and accounts for approximately one third of hospitalisations for severe diarrhoea in infants and children, its importance has historically been underestimated within the public health community, particularly in developing countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rotaviral enteritis is usually an easily managed disease of childhood, but in 2013, rotaviruses caused 37 percent of deaths of children from diarrhoea and 215,000 deaths worldwide, and almost two million more became severely ill. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the CDC, rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhoea in infants and young children both in the United States and around the world. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Because some children with rotavirus have severe or prolonged diarrhoea, they may become dehydrated due to the rapid loss of body fluids. (ehow.co.uk)
  • The vomiting and watery diarrhoea that accompany rotavirus may last from three to eight days, according to the CDC. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Although rotavirus accounts for 30-50% of infants and children hospitalised with severe diarrhoea, the major role of rotavirus in causing diarrhoea is not widely recognised. (bionity.com)
  • A new rotavirus vaccine developed in Melbourne is protecting newborn babies from a common cause of severe diarrhoea, which kills about five lakh children aged under five around the world each year. (medindia.net)
  • Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in young children worldwide and is estimated to cause up to 453,000 deaths annually. (health.gov.au)
  • Time from randomisation to hospitalisation for which rotavirus confirmed diarrhoea illness occurs before age 36 months. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Mexico against one of the most common causes of diarrhoea - a germ called rotavirus - has been shown to cut cases of diarrhoea and reduce deaths from diarrhoea-related illness in children. (wordnik.com)
  • Weaned pigs may also be affected, but in them no diarrhoea or only transient diarrhoea (mean duration 3 days) results when rotavirus is demonstrated in the faeces. (pigprogress.net)
  • Rotavirus is a contagious but, common virus amongst babies and preschool children that causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines leading to diarrhoea. (abc.net.au)
  • However, a new study that was released this morning has found that vaccination against rotavirus has led to a significant decrease in hospitalisations and deaths of children due to severe diarrhoea in the Pacific Island nation of Kiribati. (abc.net.au)
  • The rotavirus vaccine is routinely given to Australian infants aged 2 and 4 months to protect them against a severe, potentially life-threatening form of diarrhoea. (eurekalert.org)
  • Good hygiene is the best way to help reduce the spread of rotavirus. (denverhealth.org)
  • Handwashing is a very important means of preventing the spread of rotavirus. (stlouischildrens.org)
  • Haze is an important medium for the spread of rotavirus. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • What are the symptoms of rotavirus? (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • All of the aforementioned genotypes can cause disease in humans, with no clear evidence of any consistent strain-specific differences in the severity of disease or the age of person affected, albeit several reports indicate that the duration of symptoms and severity of associated gastroenteritis is greater than for those not caused by rotaviruses in age-matched subjects. (news-medical.net)
  • Healthy adults infected with rotavirus may have only mild symptoms or none at all, according to the Mayo Clinic. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Rotavirus can be present in a person's stool up to 10 days after symptoms of the virus are gone, according to Mayo Clinic. (reference.com)
  • Lynch M, Lee B, Azimi P et al (2001) Rotavirus and central nervous system symptoms: cause or contaminant? (springer.com)
  • In the United States, before initiation of the rotavirus vaccination programme in the 2000s, rotavirus caused about 2.7 million cases of severe gastroenteritis in children, almost 60,000 hospitalisations, and around 37 deaths each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2009 review estimated that vaccination against rotavirus would prevent about 45% of deaths due to rotavirus gastroenteritis, or about 228,000 deaths annually worldwide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Safety and efficacy trials in Africa and Asia found that the vaccines dramatically reduced severe disease among infants in developing countries, where a majority of rotavirus-related deaths occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rotaviruses are thought to cause more than 800 thousand deaths annually in children aged less than 5 years in developing countries, and are responsible for over 500 thousand visits to a medical practitioner annually in the United States alone. (news-medical.net)
  • In the U.S., rotaviruses are responsible for about 70,000 hospital admissions each year and over 100 deaths. (healthcentral.com)
  • Before rotavirus vaccine became available, the disease was blamed for more than 50,000 hospitalizations and several dozen deaths per year in the United States, she said. (cnn.com)
  • Approximately 1,600 rotavirus-related deaths each day occur predominantly in the developing countries, notes Albert Z. Kapikian, M.D., who led the NIAID team that developed the vaccine and serves as head of the epidemiology section in the Institute's Laboratory of Infectious Diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Rotavirus causes about 500,000 deaths annually worldwide in children younger than five years of age, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers said rotavirus gastroenteritis was predicted to account for about 130,000 episodes, 12,700 hospitalisations and 3.1 deaths over the first five years of life in a population cohort in England and Wales. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • To estimate the global illness and deaths caused by use of Rotashield was withdrawn and the manufacturer rotavirus disease, we reviewed studies published from stopped vaccine production. (cdc.gov)
  • Children in the poorest countries account for 82% of rotavirus deaths. (cdc.gov)
  • In the U.S., rotavirus causes about 70,000 hospitalizations and 20 to 70 deaths annually. (californiahealthline.org)
  • Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrheal hospitalizations and deaths among children worldwide, killing more than 200,000 children under five each year. (sabin.org)
  • In an article published today on Reuters, Sabin Executive Vice President Dr. Ciro de Quadros and Tony Nelson of the ROTA Council describe how actions taken by Latin American countries to protect children from rotavirus, the leading cause of diarhea hospitalizations and deaths, could be used in other regions of the world severely impacted by this killer disease of children. (sabin.org)
  • However, the vaccines have markedly decreased the number of hospitalizations and deaths from rotavirus. (aafp.org)
  • This study describes the hospitalization rates for rotavirus illness before universal rotavirus immunization began in the country. (immunizationinfo.org)
  • Rotavirus is most problematic in infants and young children, who can become severely dehydrated and require hospitalization. (medindia.net)
  • In addition to their safety and efficacy, the decision to requiring home care alone, moderate cases requiring a clinic visit, and severe cases requiring hospitalization) and implement these new rotavirus vaccines will be based on death rates in countries in different World Bank income considerations of risk-benefit and cost-effectiveness. (cdc.gov)
  • Following implementation of rotavirus vaccination in 2006, all-cause acute gastroenteritis hospitalization rates among U.S. children younger than 5 years of age declined by 31 percent - 55 percent in each of the post-vaccine years from 2008 through 2012, according to a study in the June 9 issue of JAMA . (eurekalert.org)
  • Compared with the pre-vaccine average annual rotavirus-coded hospitalization rate of 16 per 10,000 among children younger than 5 years, rates of rotavirus-coded hospitalizations post-vaccine introduction declined by 70 percent in 2008, 63 percent in 2009, 90 percent in 2010, 79 percent in 2011, and 94 percent in 2012. (eurekalert.org)
  • Rotavirus also infects animals, [6] which may provide a reservoir for new strains of rotavirus that could cause zoonotic epidemics in humans. (bionity.com)
  • Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rotavirus , a leading cause of death among infants and children under the age of five, is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the taxonomic family Reoviridae . (bionity.com)
  • Rotaviruses, member s of the Reoviridae family, exhibit a marked tropism for the intestinal epithelium. (hindawi.com)
  • Rotaviruses belong to the Reoviridae family and are triple layered dsRNA viruses that contain a segmented genome. (health.gov.au)
  • Unfortunately, rotavirus is a highly contagious virus and so is easily transmitted by the faecal-oral route (spread by touch and poor hygiene), although it can also be passed on by droplet (respiratory) transmission such as coughing or sneezing. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Is Rotavirus Contagious? (kidshealth.org)
  • Rotavirus is a highly contagious virus that causes inflammation, or gastroenteritis, of the stomach and intestines. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Rotavirus is very contagious and, as a result, very common in young kids. (parents.com)
  • Rotavirus is so contagious, especially during winter months, that it can be difficult to prevent. (parents.com)
  • Rotavirus is a highly contagious virus that infects nearly all children by their 5th birthday. (nfid.org)
  • Within rotavirus A there are different strains, called serotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Licensed test kits are available that are sensitive, specific and detect all serotypes of rotavirus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Until recently, G serotypes 1-4 associated with P[8] and P[4] genotypes were the major circulating rotavirus strains globally. (news-medical.net)
  • Rotavirus serotypes were first described in 1980. (bionity.com)
  • [22] Two independently inherited genes determine rotavirus serotypes, and a strain of rotavirus A is classified by its G and P type. (bionity.com)
  • The scarcity of complete genomic data in NCBI prevents a comprehensive study of rotavirus molecular evolution, and consequently little is known about spatial and temporal patterns of circulation, genesis of new serotypes (such as G9), extent of segment reassortment and genetic drift, and possible favorable genome constellations. (jcvi.org)
  • The serotypes of rotavirus strains that are responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis were determined for the period 1 June 2001 to 31 June 2002. (health.gov.au)
  • Older recommendations were to avoid rotavirus vaccination in babies who have had intussusception. (wikipedia.org)
  • A previous rotavirus vaccine was taken off the market in 1999 because it was linked to an increased risk for intussusception , a type of bowel obstruction, in young infants. (rchsd.org)
  • Moreover, this perspective reported an overall decrease in intussusception observed among infants less than 1 year old during the rotavirus vaccine exposure period. (news-medical.net)
  • New information indicates there may be an increased risk of intussusception during the first few weeks after receipt of the licensed tetravalent rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV), RotaShield. (aappublications.org)
  • The results of an ongoing case-control study of intussusception after rotavirus vaccination, conducted by the CDC, are anticipated to be available in a few months. (aappublications.org)
  • The first rotavirus vaccine, Rotashield was quickly taken off the market in 1999 after it was found to be associated with an increased risk of intussusception, a type of bowel obstruction. (keepkidshealthy.com)
  • Infants should not get a rotavirus vaccine if they have had a severe allergic to a previous dose of the vaccine, to latex, if they have a history of intussusception, or if they have severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). (keepkidshealthy.com)
  • A rotavirus vaccine that was approved by the FDA in 1998 was pulled from the market in 1999 because of an association between the vaccine and an increased risk for intussusception (form of bowel blockage) in infants aged one year or younger. (stlouischildrens.org)
  • The last vaccine developed to treat rotavirus, Wyeth 's RotaShield, was taken off the market because in rare cases it caused intussusception, a severe intestinal problem that can be life-threatening. (californiahealthline.org)
  • Rates of intussusception associated with rotavirus vaccines may be significantly underestimated. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Rotavirus vaccination has been associated with increased risk for gastroenteritis and intussusception. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Rotavirus vaccinations have a history of causing adverse effects such as intussusception. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Rotavirus oral vaccine may cause intussusception in some people. (rxlist.com)
  • An increased risk of intussusception from rotavirus vaccination and changes to delivery of the tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine were among topics discussed by the CDC's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) during its June 19-20 meeting (www.cdc.gov) in Atlanta. (aafp.org)
  • A slightly increased risk of intussusception has been seen with administration of both rotavirus vaccines currently marketed in the United States, but the CDC is not changing its immunization recommendations at this time. (aafp.org)
  • The data that have been presented indicate that there is a low, but real, increased risk of intussusception from rotavirus vaccines within the first six days after receiving it,' Campos-Outcalt said. (aafp.org)
  • An effective oral rotavirus vaccine-created by NIAID scientists in the mid- to late 1980s and developed further through a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with an industry partner-has now been licensed by the NIH Office of Technology Transfer to BIOVIRx, Inc., of Minneapolis, MN. (news-medical.net)
  • We observed the decline in the rate of type 1 diabetes in children born after 2007 coincided with the introduction of the oral rotavirus vaccine onto the Australian National Immunisation Program in 2007. (eurekalert.org)
  • A publication from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention described a biennial pattern of rotavirus activity in the postvaccine era. (aappublications.org)
  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has more on protecting children from rotavirus . (drugs.com)
  • Eyal Leshem, M.D., of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, and colleagues examined both all-cause gastroenteritis and rotavirus-related hospitalizations among children younger than 5 years from 2000 through 2012. (eurekalert.org)
  • [14] In the United States, vaccination has reduced rotavirus-related hospitalizations by as much as 86% since 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the first four years they were available, vaccines against rotavirus prevented more than 176,000 hospitalizations, 242,000 emergency department visits, and 1.1 million doctor's visits among children under 5, the study says. (usatoday.com)
  • This study describes the reduction in acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations among children after introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the United States. (immunizationinfo.org)
  • Rotavirus causes severe acute gastroenteritis among infants and young children, and results in tens of thousands of hospitalizations every year. (nytimes.com)
  • 2 , 3 The vaccines were found to be 70% to 84% effective against rotavirus-associated emergency department visits and hospitalizations combined. (aappublications.org)
  • Increasing vaccine coverage likely resulted in the larger declines of rotavirus hospitalizations observed in the later years studied," Leshem added. (drugs.com)
  • The analyses included 1,201,458 all-cause acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations among children younger than 5 years of age during 2000 through 2012, of which 199,812 (17 percent) were assigned a rotavirus-specific code. (eurekalert.org)
  • With an increase in vaccine coverage, herd protection may have contributed to larger declines in rotavirus hospitalizations. (eurekalert.org)
  • In 2012, when vaccine coverage was highest, the greatest reductions were observed for all-cause acute gastroenteritis (55 percent) and rotavirus-coded (94 percent) hospitalizations," the authors write. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hospitalizations for gastroenteritis were reduced significantly for children aged 5 years and younger from 2008 to 2012, following the introduction of routine rotavirus vaccination in the United States in 2006, according to a research letter published in JAMA . (healio.com)
  • They examined more than 1.2 million all-cause hospitalizations for acute gastroenteritis among children of study age, and assigned nearly 200,000 with a rotavirus-specific code. (healio.com)
  • Objective: To determine the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of complete and partial vaccination with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) in the prevention of rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations and emergency department visits during the first 3 rotavirus seasons after vaccine introduction. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In an infected cell this enzyme produces mRNA transcripts for the synthesis of viral proteins and produces copies of the rotavirus genome RNA segments for newly produced virus particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, although there has been a downward trend in the number of bacterial and parasitic gastroenteritides, viral ones (particularly those caused by rotavirus) have remained stable. (news-medical.net)
  • Yoshikazu Yuki, PhD, of the University of Tokyo, and colleagues reported in the Journal of Clinical Investigation on the development of rice that was genetically engineered to produce an antibody fragment to protect against rotavirus and, when fed to normal and immune-deficient mice, reduced viral load. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Coexpression of capsid viral proteins in the baculovirus expression system leads to the production of nonreplicative rotavirus derived virus-like particles (VLP) [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • While adults generally are affected only by caliciviruses, children may be infected by three more main viruses including astrovirus, adenovirus and rotavirus , which is the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in children under the age of five. (wordnik.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated the association of rotavirus vaccine introduction with reductions in health care use during the early postintroduction period or with limited insurance databases," Eyal Leshem, MD, medical epidemiologist for the CDC's division of viral diseases, and colleagues wrote. (healio.com)
  • In addition to its impact on human health, rotavirus also infects other animals, and is a pathogen of livestock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rotavirus is a common virus that infects the linings of the intestines . (kidshealth.org)
  • In susceptible people, rotavirus infects cells that line the small intestine , producing an enterotoxin. (bionity.com)
  • The rapid evolution of rotavirus strains and the emergence of new ones, most likely through the transmission of viruses across species by reassortment between animal and human rotaviruses, makes it necessary to include intensive strain surveillance of as an important component of any vaccine implementation program. (news-medical.net)
  • Rotavirus and other gastrointestinal viruses spread efficiently via the fecal-oral route. (healthcentral.com)
  • Viruses of the genus Rotavirus have a virion with a three-layered protein capsid lacking an outer lipid envelope when mature and a core of 11 discrete segments of double-stranded RNA. (merriam-webster.com)
  • As with other viruses, there's no quick treatment if your child contracts rotavirus -- you have to let the bug run its course. (parents.com)
  • Rotaviruses are egalitarian viruses: they readily infect and cause illness in infants and young children in both developed and developing countries. (news-medical.net)
  • And could there be other animal viruses DNA in rotavirus vaccines that still has not been detected with currently used technology? (nvic.org)
  • Rotaviruses are double stranded RNA viruses with the RNA arranged in 11 segments. (pigprogress.net)
  • Following the schedule, babies should be vaccinated against hepatitis B at birth and at two months are vaccinated against illnesses like rotavirus , diphtheria, and polio. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Most cases of rotavirus happen in babies or young kids. (rchsd.org)
  • There is a vaccine for rotavirus that babies now get to protect them. (rchsd.org)
  • There is a vaccine to prevent rotavirus in babies. (denverhealth.org)
  • He added: 'The new vaccine will provide protection to those young babies who are most vulnerable to complications arising from rotavirus. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Parents being told by federal health officials to give their babies three doses of live rotavirus vaccine before six months of age expect those vaccines and others to be free from adventitious agent contamination because the FDA legally requires vaccine manufacturers to adhere to binding regulations rather offering companies non-binding recommendations. (nvic.org)
  • The CDC has calculated an estimate of the number of cases of rotavirus based on corrections for under reporting, misdiagnosis, and the number of cases that are not caused by contaminated food. (osu.edu)
  • The CDC estimates that there are over 15,000 cases of rotavirus each year in this country, and less than 1% of the cases are caused by eating contaminated food. (osu.edu)
  • Children with laboratory-confirmed rotavirus AGE (cases) were matched according to date of birth and onset of illness to 2 sets of controls: children with rotavirus-negative AGE and children with ARI. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Vaccines against rotavirus have kept hundreds of thousands of children out of the hospital, saving nearly $1 billion in healthcare costs. (usatoday.com)
  • Rotaviruses are the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Public health campaigns to combat rotavirus focus on providing oral rehydration therapy for infected children and vaccination to prevent the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that rotavirus vaccine be included in national routine vaccinations programs, especially in areas where the disease is common. (wikipedia.org)
  • [12] In Mexico, which in 2006 was among the first countries in the world to introduce rotavirus vaccine, the diarrheal disease death rates from rotavirus dropped by more than 65% among children age two and under during the 2009 rotavirus season. (wikipedia.org)
  • Are there any tests that need to be done to diagnose rotavirus versus some other disease? (healthcentral.com)
  • Rotavirus disease kills more than 500,000 infants around the world each year, primarily in low- and middle-income countries, she said. (cnn.com)
  • Rotavirus is now a commonly occurring vaccine-preventable disease among children in developed countries and hopefully this also will soon be true for developing countries. (nih.gov)
  • Identifying and reducing barriers to vaccination and educating parents and providers about the health benefits of rotavirus vaccination should increase coverage and help prevent severe rotavirus disease," the report authors said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • There are seven species of rotavirus, referred to as A, B, C, D, E, F, and G. Humans are primarily infected by species A, B and C, most commonly by species A. All seven species cause disease in animals. (bionity.com)
  • Six rotavirus-focused briefs cover epidemiology and disease burden, available vaccine products, the impact of vaccination, economic costs of rotavirus disease and the value of vaccines, safety, and introduction and coverage status. (jhsph.edu)
  • This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Mauritania. (path.org)
  • The incubation period for rotavirus disease is approximately two days. (stlouischildrens.org)
  • Parashar UD, Burton A, Lanata C et al (2009) Global mortality associated with rotavirus disease among children in 2004. (springer.com)
  • 7 A significant impact on the disease burden has been observed since vaccine introduction, with state-based studies in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Victoria showing a substantial decline in both rotavirus coded and non-rotavirus coded hospitalisations and emergency room visits since vaccine introduction. (health.gov.au)
  • The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program has studied the annual circulation patterns of rotavirus genotypes causing disease in Australian children since 1997. (health.gov.au)
  • By age 5, nearly every child will have considers using a rotavirus vaccine may want to review the an episode of rotavirus gastroenteritis, 1 in 5 will visit a prevalence of rotavirus disease in their setting. (cdc.gov)
  • To provide review of the global prevalence of rotavirus disease (1). (cdc.gov)
  • We also present preliminary dence of rotavirus disease was observed to be similar in estimates of country-specific mortality rates from rotavirus both industrialized and developing countries, suggesting disease as targets for further study and refinement through that adequate control may not be achieved by improve- local definition of problems. (cdc.gov)
  • policy makers assess the magnitude of the problem of Consequently, the development, trial, and widespread use rotavirus disease in their own countries and set priorities of rotavirus vaccines were recommended to prevent severe for interventions to prevent this disease. (cdc.gov)
  • and fatal rotavirus disease. (cdc.gov)
  • A CDC analysis showed that the cost of immunizing the four million infants born in the U.S. each year against rotavirus would be higher than the cost of treating the disease. (californiahealthline.org)
  • Australian Indigenous children, particularly those living in remote communities, suffer a disproportionately high burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis disease. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • As we move forward with two vaccines, scientists and public health officials will continue to watch for decreases in rotavirus disease throughout the U.S. and abroad. (wordnik.com)
  • Most members said the benefits of the rotavirus vaccines clearly outweigh the risks, though several expressed concerns about the PCV2 findings in Merck's vaccine, due to the fact that it can cause disease in pigs. (umn.edu)
  • Since 2004, Sabin, in collaboration with various rotavirus stakeholders, has organized the International Rotavirus Symposium series to bring together scientists, policy makers and other key stakeholders in order to share knowledge and raise the profile of this deadly disease. (sabin.org)
  • There is wide acceptance of the need for a vaccine to prevent rotavirus disease in children under 5 years of age throughout the world. (health.gov.au)
  • Effectiveness of Pentavalent Rotavirus Vaccine Against Severe Disease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conclusion: RV5 was highly effective in preventing severe rotavirus disease, even after a partial series, with protection persisting throughout the second year of life. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Prevalence of rotavirus genotypes in children younger than 5 years of age before the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination program: report of rotavirus surveillance in Turkey. (springer.com)
  • This annual report describes the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of Australian children with acute gastroenteritis during 2014. (health.gov.au)
  • The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis. (health.gov.au)
  • This survey highlights the yearly fluctuations in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction. (health.gov.au)
  • 11 Therefore, characterisation of circulating rotavirus genotypes in the vaccine era will provide insight into whether vaccine introduction has impacted on virus epidemiology and altered circulating strains, which could have ongoing consequences for the success of the vaccination programs. (health.gov.au)
  • The VE of RV5 for 1, 2, and 3 doses against all rotavirus genotypes with the use of rotavirus-negative AGE controls was 74% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 37%-90%), 88% (95% CI: 66%-96%), and 87% (95% CI: 71%-94%), respectively, and with the use of ARI controls was 73% (95% CI: 43%-88%), 88% (95% CI: 68%-95%), and 85% (95% CI: 72%-91%), respectively. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The name rotavirus comes from the circular shape of the virus, and the Latin: rota=wheel. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • [16] The name rotavirus was coined in 1974 by Thomas Henry Flewett , who observed that, viewed through an electron microscope, a rotavirus particle looks like a wheel ( rota in Latin). (bionity.com)
  • The name rotavirus was first proposed in 1977. (wordnik.com)
  • On the other hand, little or no anti-rotavirus antibody was detected in commercially available infant formulas or other sterile milk preparations. (nih.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine if Aboriginal children who receive an additional dose of RV1 between the ages of 6 and 12 months, will have an increase anti-rotavirus serum IgA seroconversion and decreased medical presentations with gastroenteritis in the first three years of life, compared to those who receive placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • During the 2007-2008 rotavirus season, rotavirus activity decreased by more than 50% as compared to the 15 previous rotavirus seasons from 1991 to 2006. (keepkidshealthy.com)
  • An immune system problem that is not SCID, an episode of acute, moderate or severe gastroenteritis, or other acute illness would be considered precautions to getting the rotavirus vaccine. (keepkidshealthy.com)
  • Breastfeeding protects against acute gastroenteritis due to rotavirus in infants. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • 14% of stools obtained during post-vaccination diarrheal episodes were rotavirus-positive, some being vaccine strain-positive. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Regardless of their living conditions, almost all unvaccinated children will have experienced one or more rotavirus diarrheal episodes by the age of five. (abc.net.au)
  • The researchers write in The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report for June 27 that the changes in rotavirus activity appear greater than could be accounted for by vaccine use alone, and that there are indirect benefits to unvaccinated children who are protected by a general reduction in transmission. (nytimes.com)
  • Public health campaigns to reduce morbidity and mortality from rotavirus focus on increasing the use of oral rehydration therapy and vaccination . (bionity.com)
  • A whole genome genotyping system has been established for rotavirus A, which has been used to determine the origin of atypical strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of rotaviruses consists of 11 unique double helix molecules of RNA (dsRNA) which are 18,555 nucleotides in total. (wikipedia.org)
  • At least six of the twelve proteins encoded by the rotavirus genome bind RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • During 2005, the largest recorded epidemic occurred in Nicaragua as a result of mutations in rotavirus A genome. (news-medical.net)
  • The genome of rotavirus consists of eleven unique double helix molecules of RNA which are 18,555 nucleoside base-pairs in total. (bionity.com)
  • The genome of the rotavirus is segmented and consists of eleven segments of linear double-stranded RNA. (kenyon.edu)
  • Rotavirus vaccines are licensed in more than 100 countries, and more than 80 countries have introduced routine rotavirus vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) now recommends a rotavirus vaccine be included in the lineup of routine immunizations given to all infants. (rchsd.org)
  • The two rotavirus vaccines on the market are not cost-effective for routine immunisation, a Health Protection Agency analysis reveals. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • Dr Mark Jit, an author on the study and health economist at the HPA, said: 'Our analysis indicates routine rotavirus vaccination can have a substantial impact on the short-term morbidity burden. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • GPs in England and Wales will begin vaccinating infants against rotavirus from today, as the first of a number of changes to this year's routine immunisation schedule gets underway. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • A drop in the number of young children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes could be associated with the introduction of routine rotavirus vaccination of Australian infants, according to a new study by Melbourne researchers. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers investigated the number of Australian children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes from 2000 to 2015 and found that type 1 diabetes diagnoses in children aged 0-4 years declined from 2007 - the year that rotavirus vaccine was introduced as a routine infant vaccination. (eurekalert.org)
  • Lee SY, Hong JH, Lee SW, Lee M. Comparisons of latex agglutination, immunochromatography and enzyme immunoassay methods for the detection of rotavirus antigen. (springer.com)
  • To evaluate the long-term impact of vaccination, we analyzed 276 342 results of rotavirus antigen detection testing using enzyme immunoassay, conducted at a US national clinical reference laboratory over an 11-year period (September 2003 through August 2014). (aappublications.org)
  • Stool specimens of children were tested for the presence of rotavirus antigen using an enzyme immunoassay (Meridian Bioscience, Inc, Cincinnati, OH) at Quest Diagnostics laboratories throughout the study period. (aappublications.org)
  • Collaborating laboratories undertook rotavirus detection by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) or latex agglutination. (health.gov.au)
  • This article published in Communicable Diseases Intelligence Volume 26, No 4, December 2002 contains the annual report of the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, which has conducted rotavirus surveillance since June 1999. (health.gov.au)
  • Our results show that expression of rotavirus capsid proteins in baculovirus led to the auto assembly of VLP that display similar properties to rotavirus. (hindawi.com)
  • The virions of a rotavirus consist of a capsid, a core, and a nucleoprotein complex. (kenyon.edu)
  • During the replication, rotavirus ligands on the outer capsid hemagglitinating protein VP4 bind to sialic acid receptors on the cell about to be infected. (kenyon.edu)
  • With the help of a nonstructural glycoprotein, the rotavirus precursor buds off into the cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and acquires a temporary envelope which is later removed so that the entire outer capsid can be assembled by VP7. (kenyon.edu)
  • Rotavirus attachment and entry into the host cell probably involves multiple sequential contacts between the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, and the cell receptors. (uniprot.org)
  • Rotaviruses cause life-threatening gastroenteritis in children throughout the world. (nih.gov)
  • Rotavirus is mainly transmitted by the fecal-oral route. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Rotavirus is transmitted through fecal to oral contact and through saliva. (modernmom.com)
  • [5] Large numbers of rotavirus particles are excreted by infected people, and are spread via the fecal-oral route . (bionity.com)
  • Fecal shedding of rotavirus vaccine virus after the first dose of RV5 occurred over a wide range of post-vaccination days not previously studied. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The rotavirus is typically transmitted through contact with contaminated fecal matter. (petmd.com)
  • Last week the World Health Organization recommended that rotavirus vaccination be included in all national immunization programs worldwide. (hhmi.org)
  • Trends in national rotavirus activity before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization program in the United States, 2000 to 2012. (keepkidshealthy.com)
  • You can get infected with rotavirus if you get rotavirus particles in your mouth. (cdc.gov)
  • These soldiers of the immune system seek out and attach to rotavirus particles, rendering them unable to infect cells. (hhmi.org)
  • We propose here a new system based on virus-like particles (VLP) from rotavirus, with a marked tropism for the gut to deliver bio-active molecules to intestinal cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The presence of rotavirus can be confirmed by the electron microscopical examination of faeces or colon contents for the characteristic particles or by polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis to detect the characteristic double-stranded RNA. (pigprogress.net)
  • Bulut Y, Yenişehirli G, Durmaz R. Molecular epidemiology of rotavirus strains in under five children. (springer.com)
  • The NIAID/JCVI Rotavirus Genomics Project seeks to provide valuable insights into rotavirus molecular epidemiology and evolution. (jcvi.org)