A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Infections with ASTROVIRUS, causing gastroenteritis in human infants, calves, lambs, and piglets.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.

A high-Mr glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk potent in inhibiting replication of human rotavirus in vitro. (1/2332)

Rotavirus is the major cause of infectious diarrhea in infants and young children all over the world. We have found that a high-M(r) glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk is potent in inhibiting replication of human rotaviruses in vitro. Since the activity seems to be unique and specific, this fraction may be useful as a novel agent for treatment or prevention of rotavirus diarrhea.  (+info)

Rotavirus G-type restriction, persistence, and herd type specificity in Swedish cattle herds. (2/2332)

G-typing of rotavirus strains enables the study of molecular epidemiology and gathering of information to promote disease prevention and control. Rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from neonatal calves in Swedish cattle herds were therefore characterized by using G1 to -4-, G6-, G8-, and G10-specific primers in reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Fecal samples were collected from one dairy herd (herd A) for 4 consecutive years and from 41 beef and dairy herds (herd B) experiencing calf diarrhea outbreaks. Altogether, 1, 700 samples were analyzed by group A rotavirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 98 rotavirus-positive specimens were selected for G-typing by RT-PCR. The effect of herd type, time, geographic region, and clinical symptoms on the G-type distribution was evaluated. Altogether (herds A and B), G10 was found in 59 (60. 2%) fecal specimens, G6 was found in 30 (30.6%) specimens, G3 was found in 1 (1.0%) specimen, and G8 was found in 1 (1.0%) specimen. Seven (7.1%) fecal specimens were not typeable. Herd type specificity in the G-type distribution was demonstrated in the herds in herd B. In the 6 beef suckler herds, only G6 was detected, while rotavirus strains from the 35 dairy herds were predominantly (54%) G10. The G-type distribution was restricted in herds A and B. Twenty-nine of 30 strains from herd A were characterized as G10. In the vast majority of herds in herd B, a single G-type was identified. The serotype G10 and the electropherotype persisted over time in herd A. No characteristic G-type variation in the geographic distribution of cattle herds in herd B was obvious. There was no difference in the G-type distributions between the strains from clinically and subclinically rotavirus-infected calves in dairy herd A. The results from this study strongly indicate a pronounced stability in the rotavirus G-type distribution in Swedish cattle herds, which emphasizes the importance of continuous preventive measures for control of neonatal calf diarrhea. A future bovine rotavirus vaccine in Sweden should contain G10 and G6 strains.  (+info)

Two non-structural rotavirus proteins, NSP2 and NSP5, form viroplasm-like structures in vivo. (3/2332)

In rotavirus-infected cells, the non-structural proteins NSP5 and NSP2 localize in complexes called viroplasms, where replication and assembly occur. Recently, we have demonstrated direct interaction of NSP5 with NSP2, and as a consequence of that, up-regulation of NSP5 hyperphosphorylation. To investigate a possible structural role for the NSP2-NSP5 interaction, we analysed the cytoplasmic distribution of the two proteins in transfected cells by immunofluorescence using specific antibodies. Here we report that NSP2 and NSP5 can drive the formation of viroplasm-like structures (VLS) in the absence of other rotaviral proteins and rotavirus replication. Several NSP5 deletion mutants were constructed and expressed in combination with NSP2. Both the N- and C-terminal domains of NSP5 were found to be essential for VLS formation. Only one mutant, with an internal deletion of residues 81-130, was able to interact with NSP2 to form VLS. Analysis of the phosphorylation capacity of the different mutants in vivo indicated that hyperphosphorylation of NSP5 is necessary, but not sufficient, for VLS formation. Our results suggest a role for the non-structural protein NSP5 in the structure of viroplasms mediated by its interaction with NSP2.  (+info)

Genetic and antigenic variation of capsid protein VP7 of serotype G1 human rotavirus isolates. (4/2332)

The deduced amino acid sequences of the outer capsid protein, VP7, of serotype G1 rotavirus clinical isolates collected over a 6 year period (1990-1995) in Melbourne, Australia, were examined. Phylogenetic analysis characterized the sequences into two discrete clusters representing two of the four global lineages of human G1 VP7 proteins. Antigenic characterization using a panel of serotype G1-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies classified lineage II isolates (1990-1993) as monotype G1a while lineage I isolates were classified as monotype G1b (1993-1995). Examination of the sequences of the neutralization epitope regions of VP7 revealed a particular amino acid substitution at residue 94 in region A (Asp --> Ser/Thr) that correlated with lineage and monotype designation. Our results indicated that temporal genetic variation of the VP7 of serotype G1 rotaviruses was associated with changes in the antigenicity of these isolates.  (+info)

Rotavirus capsid protein VP5* permeabilizes membranes. (5/2332)

Proteolytic cleavage of the VP4 outer capsid spike protein into VP8* and VP5* proteins is required for rotavirus infectivity and for rotavirus-induced membrane permeability. In this study we addressed the function of the VP5* cleavage fragment in permeabilizing membranes. Expressed VP5* and truncated VP5* proteins were purified by nickel affinity chromatography and assayed for their ability to permeabilize large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) preloaded with carboxyfluorescein (CF). VP5* and VP5* truncations, but not VP4 or VP8*, permeabilized LUVs as measured by fluorescence dequenching of released CF. Similar to virus-induced CF release, VP5*-induced CF release was concentration and temperature dependent, with a pH optimum of 7.35 at 37 degrees C, but independent of the presence of divalent cations or cholesterol. VP5*-induced permeability was completely inhibited by VP5*-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (2G4, M2, or M7) which recognize conformational epitopes on VP5* but was not inhibited by VP8*-specific neutralizing antibodies. In addition, N-terminal and C-terminal VP5* truncations including residues 265 to 474 are capable of permeabilizing LUVs. These findings demonstrate that VP5* permeabilizes membranes in the absence of other rotavirus proteins and that membrane-permeabilizing VP5* truncations contain the putative fusion region within predicted virion surface domains. The ability of recombinant expressed VP5* to permeabilize membranes should permit us to functionally define requirements for VP5*-membrane interactions. These findings indicate that VP5* is a specific membrane-permeabilizing capsid protein which is likely to play a role in the cellular entry of rotaviruses.  (+info)

Isolation of a human rotavirus strain with a super-short RNA pattern and a new P2 subtype. (6/2332)

Super-short rotavirus strains that have a rearranged gene segment 11 are rarely found in humans, and only five isolates, all from Southeast Asia, have been described in the literature. We report the first isolation in Japan from an infant with severe diarrhea of a rotavirus possessing a super-short RNA pattern. This strain, designated AU19, had a G1 VP7 and is also the first isolate in Japan that possesses a P2[6] VP4. Furthermore, the P2[6] VP4 carried by AU19 was divergent in the hypervariable region of the amino acid sequence from the P2A[6] VP4s carried by asymptomatic neonatal strains or from the P2B[6] VP4 carried by porcine rotavirus strain Gottfried. Thus, AU19 is likely to represent a new VP4 subtype, which we propose to call P2C. Given the recent emergence of the P2[6] VP4s in India, Brazil, and the United States and the role of VP4 in protective immunity, further scrutiny is justified to see whether the emergence of the previously underrepresented P2[6] VP4 serotype is related to this new P2 subtype.  (+info)

Genetic and antigenic characterization of a serotype P[6]G9 human rotavirus strain isolated in the United States. (7/2332)

During an epidemiologic survey of rotavirus infections established to monitor the prevalent G serotypes circulating in the United States, human P[6]G9, subgroup I rotavirus strains causing symptomatic infections were identified as the fourth most common serotype. In this report we describe the molecular and antigenic characterization of one of these P[6]G9 isolates (US1205). Neutralization and sequencing studies have demonstrated that both outer capsid proteins, VP7 and VP4, of US1205 are closely related to but genetically and antigenically distinguishable from those of standard G9 strains (e.g., F45, WI61) and standard P2A[6] strains (e. g., ST3, M37). Thus the complete antigenic type of US1205 is P2A[6]G9, subgroup I. Sequence analysis of the VP6 and NSP4 genes of US1205 indicates that strain US1205 possessed VP6 subgroup I and NSP4A genotype specificities. Finally, Northern hybridization studies suggest that the P[6]G9 strains are closely related to members of the DS-1 genogroup except for their P[6] VP4 gene, which has been commonly identified in strains of both major human genogroups, and their G9 VP7 gene, which may have been derived by reassortment with a Wa genogroup strain. Examination of historic collections and prospective surveillance of strains will be needed to determine whether this strain has been present for some time or if it is emerging to compete with the other common serotypes of rotavirus.  (+info)

Enteropathogens and other factors associated with severe disease in children with acute watery diarrhea in Lima, Peru. (8/2332)

To evaluate enteropathogens and other factors associated with severe disease in children with diarrhea, 381 children <5 years of age with diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration (in-patients) and 381 age-, sex-, and date-of-visit-matched children with mild diarrhea (out-patients) presenting to a hospital in Peru, were studied. Rotavirus was detected in 52% of the in-patients and 35% of the out-patients (odds ratio [OR]=2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]= 1.6-3.2); 95% of the rotaviruses among in-patients were of serotypes G1-G4. The risk of severe diarrhea was particularly great in children who were not exclusively breast-fed in early infancy and who also lacked piped water in their homes (for children with both characteristics OR=6.8, 95% CI=3.6-12.8). The high prevalence of rotavirus and its association with severe diarrhea underscores the need for rotavirus vaccines. Interventions to educate mothers and improve access to safe water should augment the impact of rotavirus vaccines in preventing severe diarrhea.  (+info)

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Since 2004, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has carried out rotavirus surveillance in Latin America and the Caribbean. Here we report the characterization of human rotavirus with the novel G-P combination of G4P[14], detected through PAHO surveillance in Barbados. Full genome sequencing of strain RVA/Human-wt/BRB/CDC1133/2012/G4P[14] revealed that its genotype is G4-P[14]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A8-N1-T1-E1-H1. The possession of a Genogroup 1 (Wa-like) backbone distinguishes this strain from other P[14] rotavirus strains. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that this strain was likely generated by genetic reassortment between human, porcine and possibly other animal rotavirus strains and identified 7 lineages within the P[14] genotype. The results of this study reinforce the potential role of interspecies transmission in generating human rotavirus diversity through reassortment. Continued surveillance is important to determine if rotavirus vaccines will protect against strains that express the P[14] ...
Two oral rotavirus vaccines are available in Australia, and their efficacy and safety in the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis have been extensively evaluated.33-39 Both are live attenuated vaccines administered orally to infants, but the component vaccine viruses differ. The human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline), is a live attenuated vaccine containing one strain of attenuated human rotavirus (G1P1A[8] strain). Rotarix protects against non-G1 serotypes on the basis of other shared epitopes. A pentavalent vaccine, RotaTeq (CSL Limited/Merck & Co Inc), contains five human-bovine rotavirus reassortants with the human serotypes G1, G2, G3, G4 and P1A[8] and the bovine serotypes G6 and P7.. In middle- and high-income countries, a course of vaccination with either Rotarix or RotaTeq prevents rotavirus gastroenteritis of any severity in approximately 70% of recipients and prevents severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and rotavirus hospitalisation for 85 to 100% of recipients for up to 3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Development of specific nucleic acid probes for the differentiation of porcine rotavirus serotypes. AU - Johnson, Michael E.. AU - Paul, Prem S.. AU - Gorziglia, Mario. AU - Rosenbusch, Ricardo. PY - 1990/9. Y1 - 1990/9. N2 - A dot blot hybridization assay is described for the detection and differentiation of porcine rotavirus serotypes. Recombinant complementary DNA (cDNA) representing gene 9 (the gene encoding the neutralization antigens in VP7 glycoprotein) from OSU (porcine rotavirus serotype 1) and Gottfried (porcine rotavirus serotype 2) strains were used to determine the optimal hybridization conditions which allow specific detection of group A porcine rotaviruses. Probes were prepared by excision of the inserts from the recombinant plasmids and radiolabeling of cDNA with 32P by the random primer extension method. Probes were hybridized at various stringencies with viral RNA from different rotavirus serotypes bound to nylon membranes. Hybridization at low stringency (26% ...
As with many other viruses, the initial cell attachment of rotaviruses, which are the major causative agent of infantile gastroenteritis, is mediated by interactions with specific cellular glycans. The distally located VP8* domain of the rotavirus spike protein VP4 (ref. 5) mediates such interactions. The existing paradigm is that sialidase-sensitive animal rotavirus strains bind to glycans with terminal sialic acid (Sia), whereas sialidase-insensitive human rotavirus strains bind to glycans with internal Sia such as GM1 (ref. 3). Although the involvement of Sia in the animal strains is firmly supported by crystallographic studies, it is not yet known how VP8* of human rotaviruses interacts with Sia and whether their cell attachment necessarily involves sialoglycans. Here we show that VP8* of a human rotavirus strain specifically recognizes A-type histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) using a glycan array screen comprised of 511 glycans, and that virus infectivity in HT-29 cells is abrogated by ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Generation of recombinant rotavirus with an antigenic mosaic of cross-reactive neutralization epitopes on VP4. AU - Komoto, Satoshi. AU - Kugita, Masanori. AU - Sasaki, Jun. AU - Taniguchi, Koki. PY - 2008/7. Y1 - 2008/7. N2 - Recombinant rotavirus (RV) with cDNA-derived chimeric VP4 was generated using recently developed reverse genetics for RV. The rescued virus, KU//rVP4(SA11)-II(DS-1), contains SA11 (simian RV strain, G3P[2])-based VP4, in which a cross-reactive neutralization epitope (amino acids 381 to 401) on VP5* is replaced by the corresponding sequence of a different P-type DS-1 (human RV strain, G2P[4]). Serological analyses with a panel of anti-VP4- and -VP7-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies revealed that the rescued virus carries a novel antigenic mosaic of cross-reactive neutralization epitopes on its VP4 surface. This is the first report of the generation of a recombinant RV with artificial amino acid substitutions.. AB - Recombinant rotavirus (RV) with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity reduces rotavirus infection at a postbinding step. AU - Rossen, John W A. AU - Bouma, Janneke. AU - Raatgeep, Rolien H C. AU - Büller, Hans A. AU - Einerhand, Alexandra W C. N1 - Copyright 2004 American Society for Microbiology. PY - 2004/9. Y1 - 2004/9. N2 - Elevated levels of prostaglandins (PGs), products of cyclooxygenases (COXs), are found in the plasma and stool of rotavirus-infected children. We sought to determine the role of COXs, PGs, and the signal transduction pathways involved in rotavirus infection to elucidate possible new targets for antiviral therapy. Human intestinal Caco-2 cells were infected with human rotavirus Wa or simian rotavirus SA-11. COX-2 mRNA expression and secreted PGE2 levels were determined at different time points postinfection, and the effect of COX inhibitors on rotavirus infection was studied by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). To reveal the signal transduction pathways involved, the effect of MEK, ...
A total of 784 faecal samples collected during the 7 months period, January to July 2010 from children under 5 years old with diarrhoea who were admitted at the 3 referral hospitals; Parirenyatwa Hospital, Harare Hospital and Chitungwiza hospital, were tested for presence of rotavirus antigen using enzyme immune-assay (EIA). Fifty faecal samples from children without diarrhoea were also tested for rotavirus antigen. Sixteen (32 %) of 50 non-diarrhoeal samples and 515 (65.7 %) diarrhoea samples were rotavirus positive. The association between diarrhoea and detection of rotavirus in faecal samples was statistically significant with an overall odds ratio of diarrhoea patients of 4.08 (p,0.0001). The rotavirus diarrhoea prevalence (59.4 %) was high in children ≤ 18 months old diarrhoea patients. The high prevalence of rotavirus diarrhoea was found during the dry cool season in diarrhoea patients , 59 months of age. Fifty rotavirus positive isolates from diarrhoea patients were genotyped using ...
Rotavirus can cause a gastrointestinal infection and is common in young children. There are two vaccines available; both have to be administered via the mouth. The Dutch Health Council will advise the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport on how childhood vaccination against rotavirus will be made available. The Minister makes a decision on the basis of this advice. ,br, To support the Health Council, the RIVM has put together background information on rotavirus disease. The information includes the number of people in the Netherlands that become ill from rotavirus every year, the effectiveness and safety of rotavirus vaccines, and how the public thinks about rotavirus vaccination. ,br, A gastrointestinal infection caused by rotavirus is common during the winter months, particularly in children between six months and two years old. The disease is characterized by fever, vomiting and diarrhoea. Usually, rotavirus disease resolves by itself without problems, but can be severe resulting in ...
We have determined the nucleotide sequence of genes 6 and 10 of porcine rotavirus YM. When the amino acid sequences of VP6 and NS28, the protein products of genes 6 and 10 respectively, were compared with other published sequences it was evident that the proteins of human rotavirus Wa have the highest degree of identity with rotavirus YM. This is in contrast with the observation that when other proteins of these two strains have been compared they have been found to be among the most distantly related pairs of rotavirus strains. This observation is in accordance with the proposed receptor-ligand interaction between NS28 and VP6 during virus morphogenesis, and suggests a specificity in the interaction between these two proteins. In addition, when rotavirus YM VP6, which belongs to subgroup I, was compared with the VP6 proteins of rotavirus strains having different subgroup specificities, it was found to be more closely related to subgroup II rather than subgroup I proteins. This finding allowed us to
Rotavirus, the most common diarrheal pathogen in children worldwide, causes approximately one third of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations and 800,000 deaths per year. Because natural infection reduces the incidence and severity of subsequent episodes, rotavirus diarrhea might be controlled through vaccination. Serotype-specific immunity may play a role in protection from disease. Tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV) (which contains a rhesus rotavirus with serotype G3 specificity and reassortant rhesus-human rotaviruses with G1, G2, and G4 specificity) provides coverage against the four common serotypes of human rotavirus. In clinical trials in industrialized countries, RRV-TV conferred 49% to 68% protection against any rotavirus diarrhea and 61% to 100% protection against severe disease. This vaccine was licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on August 31, 1998, and should be cost-effective in reducing diarrheal diseases in industrialized countries. The vaccine&
Johannesburg - Global health dignitaries opened the 9th International Rotavirus Symposium in Johannesburg, South Africa, today. The worlds leading experts on rotavirus will focus on the global burden and the opportunity to significantly reduce child deaths through vaccination against rotavirus in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Over 300 scientists, policymakers, and public health professionals are attending the symposium, convened by four international nonprofit organizations and agencies.. Rotavirus, the leading cause of severe diarrhea, claims the lives of more than 500,000 children under five years of age every year and causes the hospitalization of millions more. Almost half of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Although six of the seven countries with the highest infant mortality rates from rotavirus are in Africa, only two percent of the continent has access to rotavirus vaccines. South Africa is the first and only African nation to have introduced rotavirus vaccine into ...
The bovine rotavirus (BRV) WC3 serves as the background strain in the development of a multivalent reassortant vaccine against rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants. The genes encoding the outer capsid spike protein VP4, the inner capsid protein VP6, the outer capsid glycoprotein VP7, and the viral e …
VP4 is an unglycosylated protein of the outer layer of the capsid of rotavirus. It forms spikes that project from the outer layer of mature virions, which is mainly constituted by glycoprotein VP7. VP4 has been implicated in several important functions, such as cell attachment, penetration, hemagglutination, neutralization, virulence, and host range. Previous studies indicated that VP4 is located in the space between the periphery of the viroplasm and the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum in rotavirus-infected cells. Confocal microscopy of infected MA104 monolayers, immunostained with specific monoclonal antibodies, revealed that a significant fraction of VP4 was present at the plasma membrane early after infection. Another fraction of VP4 is cytoplasmic and colocalizes with β-tubulin. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed that at the early stage of viral infection, VP4 was present on the plasma membrane and that its N-terminal region, the VP8* subunit, was accessible to antibodies. Biotin ...
Seasonality of rotavirus infection. We examined the seasonal patterns of disease by plotting the monthly detection of rotavirus in the studies that provided detailed data on rotavirus hospitalization by month (Figure 2). The 10 studies that were identified spanned latitudes from 10° north to 35° south. In most countries, rotavirus was detected throughout the year. The only locations where rotavirus was not detected for 2 consecutive months were Juiz de Fora and Porto Alegre in Brazil. We examined the hypothesis that the seasonality of rotaviruses was distinct in countries located in temperate versus tropical climatic zones. The five studies from cities in the tropics (between 23.5° north and south of the equator) all had winter peaks not unlike the five studies from cities in the temperate zone. As expected, the winter peaks in the northern hemisphere occurred roughly between November and February, while the peaks in the southern hemisphere occurred between May and August.. DISCUSSION. In ...
Rotavirus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/rotavirus/index.html. Updated August 12, 2016. Accessed December 21, 2017.. Rotavirus. Healthy Children-American Academy of Pediatrics website. Available at: http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/vaccine-preventable-diseases/Pages/Rotavirus.aspx. Updated February 12, 2016. Accessed December 21, 2017.. Rotavirus gastroenteritis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114180/Rotavirus-gastroenteritis. Updated November 16, 2017. Accessed December 21, 2017.. Rotavirus vaccine access and delivery. PATH website. Available at: http://sites.path.org/rotavirusvaccine. Published February 23, 2017. Accessed December 21, 2017.. Rotavirus vaccine live. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T356344/Rotavirus-Vaccine-Live. Updated December 6, 2017. Accessed December 21, 2017.. 12/14/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature ...
Rotavirus is a contagious disease caused by any one of three strains of rotavirus. Children who get infected may have severe diarrhea, often with vomiting, fever, and stomach pain. They can become severely dehydrated (loss of body fluids) and need to be hospitalized and can even die.. Infants and young children are most likely to get rotavirus; however, older children and adults can also get the disease. Among U.S. children, those at highest risk of getting the disease include those in child care centers or other settings with many young children. The most severe rotavirus disease occurs in unvaccinated children between 3-35 months old. Older adults and adults with certain risk factors are also at higher risk of getting rotavirus disease.. Rotavirus is easily spread. The virus is in the feces of infected people, and it can be spread by hands, diapers, toys, changing tables, or doorknobs that have a small amount of feces on them. Rotavirus can live on objects for several days unless it is killed ...
Knowledge of rotavirus epidemiology is necessary to make informed decisions about vaccine introduction and to evaluate vaccine impact. During April 2010-March 2012, rotavirus surveillance was conducted among 9,745 children &lt;5 years of age in 14 hospitals/health centers in Niger, where rotavirus vaccine has not been introduced. Study participants had acute watery diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration, and 20% of the children were enrolled in a nutrition program. Of the 9,745 children, 30.6% were rotavirus positive. Genotyping of a subset of positive samples showed a variety of genotypes during the first year, although G2P[4] predominated. G12 genotypes, including G12P[8], which has emerged as a predominant strain in western Africa, represented &gt;80% of isolates during the second year. Hospitalization and death rates and severe dehydration among rotavirus case-patients did not differ during the 2 years. The emergence of G12P[8] warrants close attention to the characteristics of
tab] [tab_item title=About Rotovirus] Rotavirus is a contagious virus that can cause gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines). Symptoms include severe watery diarrhea, often with vomiting, fever, and abdominal pain. Infants and young children are most likely to get rotavirus disease. They can become severely dehydrated and need to be hospitalized and can even die. Rotavirus was the leading cause of severe diarrhea among infants and young children in the United States before rotavirus vaccine was introduced in 2006. Prior to the vaccine, almost all U.S. children were infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. Globally, rotavirus is still the leading cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children. In 2008, rotavirus caused an estimated 453,000 deaths worldwide in children younger than 5 years of age.. [/tab_item] [tab_item title=Information for Patients ...
Each year, rotavirus kills more than 200,000 children and hospitalizes millions more. Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrheal hospitalizations and deaths among children worldwide. Development of a rotavirus vaccine has been a global health priority for many years, and with two vaccines currently on the market and several more under development, the promise of prevention is now becoming reality in several parts of the world.. Sabin is working on numerous fronts to address the burden of rotavirus and facilitate the introduction of a rotavirus vaccine across the globe. In 2011, Sabin, in partnership with the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, launched the ROTA Council, a rotavirus advocacy initiative, to call attention to this disease and its impact. The ROTA Council, which is comprised of a team of technical experts from around the world, works to provide the scientific and technical evidence that policymakers need to accelerate the introduction of rotavirus vaccines. Its ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polypeptide specificity of antiviral serum antibodies in children naturally infected with human rotavirus. AU - Brussow, H.. AU - Offit, P. A.. AU - Gerna, G.. AU - Bruttin, A.. AU - Sidoti, J.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Reassortants between serotype 3 SA11 and serotype 6 NCDV rotaviruses were used to determine the relative amounts of serum-neutralizing antibody to VP4 and VP7 of serotype 3 SA11 rotavirus in children after natural rotavirus exposure. Sera from Ecuadorian children of a population-based study and sera from children of a hospital-based study in Germany (excluding diarrhea patients) demonstrated high titers of VP7-specific but only low titers of VP4-specific antibodies. In contrast, paired sera from German children hospitalized with a symptomatic primary rotavirus gastroenteritis demonstrated a titer increase to VP4 more frequently than to VP7 protein by neutralization test and immunoblotting. For these rotavirus patients, we provided, previously, direct evidence ...
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) now recommends a rotavirus vaccine be included in the lineup of routine immunizations given to all infants.. The RotaTeq vaccine has been found to prevent approximately 75% of cases of rotavirus infection and 98% of severe cases. Another vaccine, Rotarix, also is available and is effective in preventing rotavirus infection. Your doctor will have the most current information about these vaccines.. A previous rotavirus vaccine was taken off the market in 1999 because it was linked to an increased risk for intussusception, a type of bowel obstruction, in young infants. Neither RotaTeq nor Rotarix have been found to have this increased risk.. Washing hands well and often is the best way to limit the spread of rotavirus infection. Kids who are infected should stay home from childcare groups until their diarrhea has ended. In hospitals, rotavirus outbreaks are controlled by isolating infected patients and following strict hand-washing procedures.. ...
Infectivity of rotavirus is dramatically enhanced by proteolytic cleavage of its outer layer VP4 spike protein into two function domains, VP8* and VP5*. The carbohydrate-recognising domain VP8* is proposed to bind sialic acid-containing host cell-surface glycans, followed by a series of subsequent virus-cell interactions. Live attenuated human and bovine rotavirus vaccine candidates to prevent gastroenteritis have been derived from bovine rotavirus strain NCDV. The NCDV VP8*64-224 was over-expressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in the presence of a N-acetylneuraminic acid derivative. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 2.0 Šand the crystallographic structure of NCDV VP8*64-224 determined by molecular replacement ...
PCR Max Ltd TM qpcr test Human Rotavirus B Non structural protein 5 (NSP5) 150 tests For general laboratory and research use only 1 Introduction to Human Rotavirus B Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded
Negar Aliabadi, MD1,2, Jacqueline E. Tate, PhD2, Amber K. Haynes, MPH2, and Umesh D. Parashar, MD2 (Author affiliations at end of text). Rotavirus infection is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis among infants and young children worldwide (1,2). Before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in the United States in 2006, rotavirus infection caused significant morbidity among U.S. children, with an estimated 55,000-70,000 hospitalizations and 410,000 clinic visits annually (3). The disease showed a characteristic winter-spring seasonality and geographic pattern, with annual seasonal activity beginning in the West during December-January, extending across the country, and ending in the Northeast during April-May (4). To characterize changes in rotavirus disease trends and seasonality following introduction of rotavirus vaccines in the United States, CDC compared data from CDCs National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS), a passive laboratory reporting system, for ...
ROTA : Rotavirus is a major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis, especially in infants and very young children (6 months-2 years of age) who have not received the rotavirus vaccine. Infection may be entirely asymptomatic or produce a spectrum of disease ranging from mild gastroenteritis to severe diarrhea and vomiting with dehydration. Infection usually begins acutely and lasts for 4 to 8 days. In temperate climates, rotaviral infections are seasonal; they peak in frequency during the winter months and are uncommon during the summer. Rotaviral gastroenteritis is, therefore, sometimes called "winter vomiting disease."   Infection is more likely to be symptomatic in preterm infants, immunosuppressed patients, and elderly individuals, especially those living in nursing homes or other confined quarters. In other children and adults, rotavirus infections are usually subclinical and may be associated with asymptomatic shedding of rotavirus in the feces.   Rapid and accurate detection
Almost all diarrhea deaths in young children occur in developing countries. Immunization against rotavirus, the leading cause of childhood severe dehydrating acute diarrhea may reduce the burden of severe diarrhea in developing countries. Ghana introduced rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccination in the national expanded program on immunization in May 2012. Review of all-cause diarrheal hospitalization data for children aged 59 months and younger at 2 pediatric referral hospitals in southern Ghana from 2008 to 2014. The proportion of acute diarrhea (defined as 3 or more watery, non-bloody stools within 24 hours that has lasted for less than 7 days) cases caused by rotavirus was determined. Temporal trend and age group distribution of all-cause diarrhea and rotavirus gastroenteritis before and after introduction of the new vaccines were compared. Of the 5847 children hospitalized with all-cause diarrhea during the 74 months (January 2008 - February 2014), 3963 (67.8%) children were recruited for rotavirus
Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in Children in 4 Regions in Brazil: A Hospital-Based Surveillance Study. Munford, Veridiana; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; de Souza, Eloisa Correa; Cardoso, Debora Morais; Cardoso, Divina das Dores de Paula; Borges, Ana Maria Tavares; da Costa, Paulo Sergio Sucasas; Melgaço, Irene Angela Melo; Rosa, Humberto; Carvalho, Paulo Roberto Antonacci; Goldani, Marcelo Zubaran; Moreira Jr.,, Edson Duarte; Santana, Ciria; El Khoury, Antoine; Ikedo, Fabio; Rácz, Maria Lucia // Journal of Infectious Diseases;11/2/2009, Vol. 200 Issue S1, pS106 Background. Rotavirus is a major cause of gastroenteritis in children. Knowledge of rotavirus genotypes is important for vaccination strategies. Methods. During 2005-2006, rotavirus surveillance studies were conducted in São Paulo, Salvador, Goiânia, and Porto Alegre, Brazil. Stool samples... ...
Summary The inner capsid structure of the OSU strain of porcine rotavirus was studied by electron microscopy of freeze-dried preparations and of negatively stained chemically disrupted virus particles. The analysis of the particles by the freeze-drying technique revealed a T:13 l (laevo) symmetry for the organization of the inner capsid. Treatment of single-capsid rotavirus particles with 30% formamide or 5 m-urea resulted in their degradation, giving rise to very similar products, corresponding to isolated vertices, edges and faces of the virus icosahedron. An analysis of such structures confirmed the triangulation number and handedness of the rotavirus inner capsid, and provided evidence for the open-mesh model, in which the five- and six-coordinated axes are represented by holes formed by smaller trimeric morphological subunits.
|strong|Mouse anti rotavirus antibody, clone 0531|/strong| reacts with intact rotavirus strains RRV, Wa and bovine, and specifically stains an epitope within the intermediate capsid protein VP6. Also …
Unless babies are vaccinated, almost all of them get rotavirus, the doctor told me. Having the vaccine available for free in Gaza can save babies and parents from so much suffering... - Majdoolin, first-time mother, Gaza City. The rotavirus vaccine, which RVF worked with the Palestinian Ministry of Health (MOH) to introduce in 2016, is already having a huge impact on young children in the West Bank and Gaza. In Gaza, there has already been a 28% reduction in rates of children aged three years and under hospitalized for diarrhea. In the West Bank, there are over a third fewer cases of severe diarrhea in children under five.. Rotavirus disease, which causes severe diarrhea, is a killer of infants and young children throughout the world. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent rotavirus infection. All Palestinian babies now receive this life-saving vaccine. To date, nearly 400,000 infants have been fully immunized with coverage rates over 95%.. RVF expects rates of severe diarrhea in ...
Group A Rotaviruses with serotypes G1-G4 and G9 are the common Rotavirus types of clinical importance. This study aimed at determining the different Rotavirus genotypes in stool sample of children bel
Whole-genome, sequence-independent amplification and 454 pyrosequencing of a rotavirus SA11 cell culture sample with an unknown passage history yielded consensus sequences of twelve complete genome segments. Two distinct sequences for genome segment 8 (encoding NSP2) were present, indicating a mixed infection with two rotavirus SA11 strains. The genotypes of the viruses were G3-P[2]-I2-R2-C5-M5-A5-Nx-T5-E2-H5, where x was either 5 or 2. The strains were named RVA/ Simian-tc/ZAF/SA11-N5/1958/G3P[2] and RVA/Simiantc/ ZAF/SA11-N2/1958/G3P[2]. The genotype (N2) and sequence of genome segment 8 of RVA/Simian-tc/ZAF/ SA11-N2/1958/G3P[2] were identical to that of the bovine rotavirus O agent. Five novel amino acids were detected in minor population variants of three genome segments. Genome segment 1 (VP1) has a high nucleotide substitution rate, but the substitutions are synonymous. Distance matrices and Bayesian molecular clock phylogenetics showed that SA11-N2 is a reassortant containing genome ...
by revere, cross-posted at Effect Measure. Earaches, respiratory infections and diarrhea are the bane of existence for young parents. All are potentially the result of contagious agents. The most common agent for diarrhea in infants and children is rotavirus, a double-stranded DNA virus, that CDC estimates causes 400,000 doctor visits, 200,000 emergency room visits and 55.000 to 70,000 hospitalizations each year in the under 5 year old age group. Infection produces significant immunity, and while there are seven different serotypes (A through G), 90% of infections are serotype A. In addition to diarrhea, rotavirus infections cause nausea, vomiting and fever, often with dehydration that can be fatal to an infant. By the time a child turns five, he or she is likely to have had a rotavirus infection. So this virus causes a lot of sickness and even more dollars. A recent estimate is that each hospitalization costs about $3600.. If rotavirus infection could be prevented by a vaccine it would have a ...
The advantages of convenience and room temperature stability associated with our quick dissolving thin film delivery system can be broadly used. The thin film system is applicable to all oral vaccines and oral protein based therapeutic drugs, as well as biopharmaceuticals that can be converted to the oral route. The impact on vaccines could be transformational for infectious diseases such as shigellosis and rotaviral gastroenteritis which combined cause over 1 million deaths in children every year in the developing world. Considering rotavirus alone, the demand for any vaccine will likely be high since all children by the age of five will have been infected by rotavirus and many children in third world countries will die. Currently, it is recommended that all new born infants in the U.S. be given rotavirus vaccine and it is highly likely that most of the world will follow this recommendation. It is estimated that the required annual worldwide rotavirus vaccine doses will be greater than 400 ...
Human rotavirus A (RVA) is the main etiological agent of watery diarrhea among children under 5 years of age worldwide. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and diversity of RVA genotypes circulating in Turkey during a 2-year sentinel surveillance study. A total of 1639 rotavirus antigen-positive stool samples were obtained from children younger than 5 years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with consensus primers for the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR. Rotavirus RNA was detected in 1396 (85.3%) of the samples tested. The highest detection rate (38.2%) was obtained among children in the 0-12 months age group, followed by children in the 13-24 months age group (36.2%). The most prevalent genotype was G1P[8] (24.6%) followed by G3P[8] (19.6%), G9P[8] (12.2%), G2P[4] (9.5%), G2P[8] (6.5%), and G4P[8] (4.8%). The ...
This white paper provides a comprehensive source of information on rotavirus disease and vaccines. The 50-page synthesis includes the latest evidence and programmatic information about: rotavirus disease burden; vaccines in global use, nationally available vaccines, and new vaccines on the horizon; World Health Organization recommendations and key guidance on vaccine administration; public health impact of vaccines in high-, middle-, and low-income countries; cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines; emerging data and areas for further research; and 21 recommendations for stakeholders to scale up coverage of rotavirus vaccines to all children.. Author: ROTA Council. Published: 2016 ...
The EuroRotaNet surveillance network has conducted rotavirus genotype surveillance since 2007 in 16 European countries. Using epidemiological and microbiological data from 39,786 genotyped rotavirus-positive specimens collected between September 2007 and August 2013, we assessed genotype distribution and age distribution of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) cases in and out of peak season in 12 countries which were yet to implement routine rotavirus vaccination. In multinomial multivariate logistic regression, adjusting for year, country and age, the odds of infection caused by genotype-constellation 2 DS-1-like stains (adjusted multinomial odds ratio (aM-OR) = 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.37; p ...
A resurgence in rotavirus gastro cases among infants has prompted warnings from health authorities about the importance of hand hygiene and vaccination.. South Australian communicable disease experts have sounded the alarm after the number of rotavirus cases among infants more than doubled from 299 in 2016 to 658 so far in 2017.. Infants accounted for 60% of all rotavirus notifications, with total numbers across all age groups increasing almost threefold from 447 to 1255 in the last year.. SA Healths Chief Medical Officer Professor Paddy Phillips says the increase in rotavirus among infants is worrying but preventable with good hand hygiene and vaccination.. Following good hand hygiene, cleaning bathroom taps and toilets with diluted bleach, disposing of infants nappies immediately, and safely washing childrens toys helps to significantly prevent the spread of the disease, he said in a statement.. A rise in rotavirus cases is being seen in other states, according to Dr Louise Flood, Acting ...
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a membrane bound organelle composed of a network of cisternae stretching throughout the cytoplasm. Functionally, the ER performs many essential processes, such as glycosylation, and biosynthesis of lipids; it provides a redox potential condition for forming S-S linkages, and a quality control system, and functions as an intracellular calcium store. Rotavirus, a segmented dsRNA virus, is one of very few viruses that undergoes a unique maturation process in the ER and has therefore been an attractive model for the study of ER-translocation, retention and protein folding. In this thesis, I have studied how rotavirus and rotavirus proteins assemble in the eucaryotic cells. The rotavirus genome encodes 12 structural and nonstructural proteins; two of these proteins, the outer capsid VP7 protein and the nonstructural enterotoxin NSP4 protein, are associated with the ER and have been of particular interest in this thesis. We found that brefeldin A, a compound that ...
Comment: This is interesting news, since the Bharat Biotech vaccine for Rotavirus (116 E) made in India has already undergone the necessary testing & is likely to be launched in the next couple of months (possibly Jan 2015). Among all the newer vaccines, rotavirus is the only one where we have large amount of Indian data available regarding the disease from India through the IRSN - Indian Rotavirus Surveillance Network. This is probably one of the reasons why we are getting India specific vaccines for this disease. It is important to start vaccinating children early against this disease so as to prevent significant disease burden, since almost EVERY child will suffer from Rotavirus diarrhea if they are not vaccinated, probably by the age of 2 years. ...
In the United States, rotavirus infection outbreaks are common during the winter and spring months. Outbreaks are particularly problematic in childcare centers and childrens hospitals because the infection spreads so easily.. Rotavirus symptoms can last from 3-8 days and include fever, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and frequent, watery diarrhea. A cough and runny nose may also occur. Some rotavirus infections cause few or no symptoms at all, especially in adults.. The diarrhea from a rotavirus infection can be so severe that it quickly leads to dehydration, especially in infants and young children. If dehydration is severe, intravenous (IV) fluids given in the hospital can bring the bodys fluid and salt levels back to normal.. ...
RotaTeq dan Rotarix Vaksin Cegah Infeksi Diare Rotavirus Rotavirus adalah virus yang sering menyebabkan gastroenteritis akut (infeksi saluran pencernaan) pada anak, yang ditandai dengan muntah, diare, demam, dan nyeri perut. Pada bayi dan anak kecil, infeksi rotavirus dapat menyebabkan diare dan muntah berat sehingga anak menjadi kehilangan banyak cairan (dehidrasi). Infeksi rotavirus dapat dicegah salah…
Spike-forming protein that mediates virion attachment to the host epithelial cell receptors and plays a major role in cell penetration, determination of host range restriction and virulence. Rotavirus entry into the host cell probably involves multiple sequential contacts between the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, and the cell receptors. According to the considered strain, VP4 seems to essentially target sialic acid and/or the integrin heterodimer ITGA2/ITGB1 (By similarity).
Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is a non-enveloped dsRNA virus that cause neonatal calf diarrhea. Lipid rafts are cholesterol-enrich membrane mircodomains that play a vital role in many cellular processes. In this study, the effect of cellular cholesterol depletion on infection of MA-104 cells with bovine rotavirus was investigated. We demonstrated that cholesterol depletion of the plasma membrane by MβCD had no effect on BRV binding to cells but significantly impaired BRV entry in a dose-dependent manner and the effect was partially reversed by addition of exogenous cholesterol, suggesting the reduction of BRV infection by MβCD was specifically due to cholesterol depletion. Cholesterol depletion after virus entry did not reduce BRV replication, whereas affected virus assembly. Taken together, our results demonstrate that cell membrane cholesterol is essential to BRV infectivity.
Rotavirus particle, computer illustration. The virus particle consists of an RNA (ribonucleic acid) core surrounded by a triple layered capsid. Rotaviruses are probably the most common viruses to infect humans and animals. They are associated with gastroenteritis and diarrhoea - typically infecting the intestines of children aged from 6 months to 3 years. The viruses are spread in faeces. - Stock Image F019/2605
rotavirus; gastro; gastroenteritis; ; Rotavirus infections are the most common causes of infectious diarrhoea (gastroenteritis) in young children worldwide. In Australia the number of young children getting rotavirus infections is now less than several years ago because the immunisation of babies is very effective. Immunisation (given by mouth) is available free to babies up to 6 months old. It is given with other vaccines at 6 weeks and 4 months.. ...
Rotavirus oral vaccine contains up to five strains of rotavirus. It is made from both human and animal sources. Infection with rotavirus can affect the digestive system of babies and young children, causing severe stomach or intestinal illness. The rotavirus oral vaccine is used to help prevent this disease in children...
When you hear the words Rotavirus, you might be wondering what exactly it is. It sounds horrendous, but with this post we hope to shed some light on this virus and the steps you can take to protect your loved ones against it. Now first off, what is Rotavirus? Rotavirus is a very contagious virus that causes diarrhea. Its the most common cause of diarrhea in infants and children worldwide, resulting in over 215,000 deaths annually. Although rotavirus infections are unpleasant, you can usually tr
Dear Collegues, dear Friends,. Welcome to the 3rd European Expert Meeting on Rotavirus Vaccination! Join your colleagues to discuss and, hopefully, promote, rotavirus vaccination in Europe. Since the first and second European Expert meetings on Rotavirus vaccination in Helsinki (2009) and Padova (2011) our knowledge and experience on rotavirus vaccination has expanded considerably.. Rotavirus is still the main cause of severe acute diarrhoea in infancy and early childhood around the world. It is still associated with high mortality in poorer countries. Before licensure two rotavirus vaccines were tested worldwide for safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in 2 trials comprising over 60 000 infants each. One of these is a single-strain attenuated human rotavirus vaccine (RV1), while the other is a combination of five bovine-human reassortant rotaviruses (RV5). Although their presumed mechanism of action might be very different side effects and effectiveness are close to identical. Both vaccines ...
Dear Collegues, dear Friends,. Welcome to the 3rd European Expert Meeting on Rotavirus Vaccination! Join your colleagues to discuss and, hopefully, promote, rotavirus vaccination in Europe. Since the first and second European Expert meetings on Rotavirus vaccination in Helsinki (2009) and Padova (2011) our knowledge and experience on rotavirus vaccination has expanded considerably.. Rotavirus is still the main cause of severe acute diarrhoea in infancy and early childhood around the world. It is still associated with high mortality in poorer countries. Before licensure two rotavirus vaccines were tested worldwide for safety, immunogenicity and efficacy in 2 trials comprising over 60 000 infants each. One of these is a single-strain attenuated human rotavirus vaccine (RV1), while the other is a combination of five bovine-human reassortant rotaviruses (RV5). Although their presumed mechanism of action might be very different side effects and effectiveness are close to identical. Both vaccines ...
No. of Report Pages: 105. Price (Single User Licence): $ 4000. Purchase the Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Market Report at: https://www.absolutereports.com/purchase/10612126 Several important topics included in the Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry research report are as follows:. • Overview of Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry. • Market Size (Value and Volume) analysis of Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry. • Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry Competition by Manufacturers, Type and Application. • Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry Major Regions Volume, Value and Sales Price Analysis. • Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry Technology and Development Trend. • Research Findings and Conclusion of Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry. To sum it up, the report concludes with an all-inclusive research result on the industry chain of Rotavirus Vaccine Sales Industry facilitating the market participants in making well-informed strategic decisions.. With a purpose of enlightening new entrants about the ...
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination among young children in Belgium. Design Prospective case-control study. Setting Random sample of 39 Belgian hospitals, February 2008 to June 2010. Participants 215 children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and 276 age and hospital matched controls. All children were of an eligible age to have received rotavirus vaccination (that is, born after 1 October 2006 and aged ≥14 weeks). Main outcome measure Vaccination status of children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis and matched controls. Results 99 children (48%) admitted with rotavirus gastroenteritis and 244 (91%) controls had received at least one dose of any rotavirus vaccine ( ...
Oral polio and rotavirus vaccines are significantly less effective in children living in the developing world. Tropical enteropathy, which is associated with intestinal inflammation, decreased absorption and increased permeability, may contribute substantially to oral vaccine failure in developing country settings. Other possible causes of oral vaccine underperformance include malnutrition, interference with maternal or breastmilk antibodies, changes in gut microbiota, and genetic susceptibility.. Primary Objective: to determine whether tropical enteropathy impairs the efficacy of oral polio and rotavirus vaccines in children in Bangladesh.. Secondary Objectives: 1) to determine the impact of an inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) boost on the efficacy of oral polio vaccine and 2) to determine the efficacy of oral rotavirus vaccine to prevent rotavirus diarrhea. The polio and rotavirus randomized clinical trials are embedded as secondary objectives within the exploratory study of tropical ...
Results: A similar dramatic decline (,60% compared with the median of previous seasons) occurred in the rates of cases of both CA (P , .0001) rotavirus hospitalizations and HA (P , .01) rotavirus infections in the 2007-2008 season compared with previous seasons, whereas the rates of CA and HA influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, respectively, remained stable. Improvements in hand-hygiene compliance did not correlate with a reduction in the transmission rate of rotavirus in the hospital. Both CA and HA rotavirus rates remained much lower in the 2008 -2009 than in the 2003-2007 seasons. ...
Abstract. Diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries, and the majority of infections are of viral etiology. We aimed to compare the etiological prevalence of the major enteric viruses in an urban and a rural setting in southern Vietnam. We simultaneously screened fecal specimens from 362 children in Ho Chi Minh City and Dong Thap province that were hospitalized with acute diarrhea over a 1-month-long period for four viral gastrointestinal pathogens. Rotavirus was the most common pathogen identified, but there was a differential prevalence of rotavirus and norovirus between the urban and rural locations. Furthermore, rotavirus genotyping and phylogenetic analysis again differentiated the genotypes by the sampling location. Our data show a disproportional distribution of enteric viral pathogens in urban and rural locations, and we provide evidence of continual importation of new rotavirus strains into southern Vietnam and report the emergence of rotavirus
Import Data And Price Of RotaVirus Vaccine , www.eximpulse.com Eximpulse Services will provide you the latest and relevant market intelligence reports of RotaVirus Vaccine Import Data. You can find live data of maximum number of ports of India which is based on updated shipment data of Indian Customs. Only previous two days data will be seen on website. You can use this RotaVirus Vaccine import data for multiple kinds of analysis; lets say Import price, Quantity, market scenarios, Price trends, Duty optimization and many more. You can go through some of the sample shipment records for RotaVirus Vaccine import data mentioned above. Here on Eximpulse Services you will get all kind of free sample as well as detailed reports of Export/ Import data as per your requirement. To get in touch for any kind of enquiry related to free sample or detailed report contact on +91-120-408-4957, +91-120-408-4958,+91-120-428-4019.. Data post 2012 as per Notification No.18/2012 - Customs(N.T.) and does not have ...
Outer capsid protein VP4: Spike-forming protein that mediates virion attachment to the host epithelial cell receptors and plays a major role in cell penetration, determination of host range restriction and virulence. Rotavirus attachment and entry into the host cell probably involves multiple sequential contacts between the outer capsid proteins VP4 and VP7, and the cell receptors. It is subsequently lost, together with VP7, following virus entry into the host cell. Following entry into the host cell, low intracellular or intravesicular Ca(2+) concentration probably causes the calcium-stabilized VP7 trimers to dissociate from the virion. This step is probably necessary for the membrane-disrupting entry step and the release of VP4, which is locked onto the virion by VP7.
This fact sheet provides an overview of rotavirus disease and vaccines in Mauritania. It includes information about the tremendous burden of rotavirus diarrhea in Mauritanian children, rotavirus diarrhea treatment and prevention strategies, and the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccines.. Corporate author(s): PATH. Publication date: November 2014. ...
Sibling Transmission of Vaccine-Derived Rotavirus (RotaTeq) Associated With Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Rotavirus (RotaTeq) Authors: Daniel C. Payne, PhD, MSPHa, Kathryn M. Edwards, MDb, Michael D. Bowen, PhDc, Erin Keckley, RNb, Jody Peters, MSb, Mathew D. Esona, PhDc, Elizabeth N. Teel, BSc, Diane Kent, RNb, Umesh D. Parashar, MBBS, MPHa, Jon R. Gentsch, PhDc Abstract Although rotavirus vaccines are known to be shed in stools, transmission of ...
In an announcement by Prime Minister Sibusiso Dlamini, 3,042 cases of diarrhea due to rotavirus were treated in outpatient departments of hospitals countrywide. More than 500 children affected required hospitalization for their illness.. Dlamini assured the public that all treatment requirements for the management of the disease have been distributed to all facilities and health workers have been refreshed on case management and treatment guidelines. According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), rotavirus disease is most common in infants and young children, but adults and older children can also become infected with rotavirus. It is responsible for the death of over 600,000 children annually worldwide. Once a person has been exposed to rotavirus, it takes about 2 days for symptoms to appear.. Rotavirus is shed (passed from a persons body into the environment) in feces (stool) of infected persons. The virus spreads by the fecal-oral route; this means that the virus must ...
Abstract. Despite the high burden of rotavirus diarrhea, uptake of rotavirus vaccines in Asia remains low. This primarily stems from a perception of rotavirus as a non-life-threatening pathogen amidst a background of competing health priorities and limited resources. In the largest pediatric hospital of Bangladesh, where there is a fierce competition for beds, we found that between November 2015 and October 2016, 12% of 23,064 admissions were due to gastrointestinal infections, 54% of which were caused by rotavirus. One in four cases requiring hospitalization, or 5,879 cases, was refused because of unavailability of beds. Most refused cases were of pneumonia (22%), severe perinatal asphyxia (17%), preterm birth complications (7%), and meningitis (2%), all of which bear high risks of death or disability, if not treated timely. When determining vaccine policies and conducting vaccine impact studies, it would be shortsighted to not consider the impact on morbidity and mortality of cases that are refused
The investigators aim to establish the non-inferiority of concomitant administration of measles-rubella and rotavirus vaccines to measles-rubella vaccine given alone in terms of measles seroconversion rates. The primary study hypothesis is the measles seroconversion rate as defined by the percentage of children seroconverting to measles with a measles serum antibody concentration of ,=1:120 at 8 weeks post vaccination after the concomitant administration of measles-rubella and rotavirus vaccines is non-inferior to that obtained when measles-rubella vaccine is given alone in children 9 months of age who have received a primary rotavirus vaccine series with the first dose between 6 and 10 weeks and the second at least 4 weeks later and are seronegative for measles antibody in the pre-vaccination sample ...
Learning objectives At the end of the module, the participant will be able to: Describe the recommended immunization schedule for rotavirus vaccine Describe when an infant is eligible for rotavirus vaccine and when he/she is not eligible Describe ways to determine a childs eligibility for rotavirus vaccine when a written record is unavailable Describe the absolute contraindications for vaccination Duration 60
Rotavirus, a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis and diarrhoea in young children, accounts for around 215,000 deaths annually worldwide. Rotavirus specifically infects the intestinal epithelial cells in the host small intestine and has evolved strategies to antagonize interferon and NF-κB signalling, raising the question as to whether other host factors ... read more participate in antiviral responses in intestinal mucosa. The mechanism by which enteric viruses are sensed and restricted in vivo, especially by NOD-like receptor (NLR) inflammasomes, is largely unknown. Here we uncover and mechanistically characterize the NLR Nlrp9b that is specifically expressed in intestinal epithelial cells and restricts rotavirus infection. Our data show that, via RNA helicase Dhx9, Nlrp9b recognizes short double-stranded RNA stretches and forms inflammasome complexes with the adaptor proteins Asc and caspase-1 to promote the maturation of interleukin (Il)-18 and gasdermin D (Gsdmd)-induced pyroptosis. ...
Rotavirus has been recognised for 30 years as the most common cause of infectious gastroenteritis in infants and young children. By contrast, the role of rotavirus as a pathogen in adults has long been underappreciated. Spread by faecal-oral transmission, rotavirus infection in adults typically mani …
We observed declines in rates of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and outpatient visits in US children ,5 years of age over four successive rotavirus seasons following implementation of rotavirus vaccination, with greater declines in later years when greater vaccine coverage had been achieved and during months of the year with peak rotavirus activity. Both RV5 and RV1 were highly effective in preventing rotavirus-coded hospitalizations and also prevented diarrhea-associated hospitalizations and emergency department visits; both vaccines conferred similar protection. The protection from RV5 vaccination against rotavirus-coded hospitalizations was sustained at a high level through four years of life, with no indication of waning immunity. The reduction in rotavirus-coded hospitalization rates among unvaccinated children in postvaccine years compared with prevaccine years indicates indirect benefits from vaccination; the magnitude of indirect benefit varied over ...
Uploaded on 24 Sep 2009: Diarrheal diseases kills 2 million children every year. Rotavirus is the leading cause of those deaths. And in Nicaragua, rotavirus was hitting children hard. But then a rotavirus vaccine arrived, and its impact was hugely positive. Meet a father and daughter who directly benefited ...
CNN) - Federal health authorities recommended Monday that doctors suspend using Rotarix, one of two vaccines licensed in the United States against rotavirus, saying the vaccine is contaminated with material from a pig virus.. There is no evidence at this time that this material poses a safety risk, Food and Drug Administration Commissioner Dr. Margaret Hamburg told reporters in a conference call.. via Rotarix rotavirus vaccine contaminated, officials say - CNN.com.. ...
GAITHERSBURG, Md. -- DNA from a pig virus has been detected in Mercks RotaTeq rotavirus vaccine, an FDA official announced during the opening session of a hearing on rotavirus vaccines.
There are currently two rotavirus vaccines available in the United States that are designed to eliminate severe gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus infection.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of acute asymptomatic group A and C rotavirus (RV-A and RV-C) infection in neonates with cholestasis. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were infants ,180 days of age with cholestasis (serum direct or conjugated bilirubin ,20% of total and ≥2 mg/dL) enrolled in the Childhood Liver Disease Research and Education Network during RV season (December-May). Forty infants with biliary atresia (BA), age 62 ± 29 days (range, 4.7-13 weeks) and 38 infants with cholestasis, age 67 ± 44 days (range, 3-15.8 weeks) were enrolled. RESULTS: At enrollment, RV-A IgM positivity rates did not differ between infants with BA (10%) vs those without (18%) (P = .349). RV-C IgM was positive in 0% of infants with BA vs 3% in those without BA (P = .49). RV-A IgG was lower in infants with BA: 51 ± 39 vs 56 ± 44 enzyme-linked immunoassay unit, P = .045 but this difference may lack biological relevance as maternal RV-A IgG titers were similar between groups. Infant RV-A IgM titers at 2-6 ...
Rotavirus vaccine (bad reaction): My lo had a bad reaction to the rotavirus vaccine, the first time. For 2 weeks he was refusing feeds, diarrhea and extreme digestive upset. Did ...
Duan Z-J, Liu N, Yang S-H, Zhang J, Sun L-W, Tang J-Y, Jin Y, Du Z-Q, Xu J, Wu Q-B, Tong Z-L, Gong S-T, Qian Y, Ma J-M, Liao X-C, Widdowson M-A, Jiang B, Fang Z-Y. Hospital-Based Surveillance of Rotavirus Diarrhea in the Peoples Republic of China, August 2003-July 2007. J Infect Dis. 2009; 200(Supp 1): S167-173 ...
This program discusses the diagnosis and treatment of rotavirus infections. Information about what causes these infections and what you can do to treat rotavirus is also included.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) may be the major defense response induced in the intestine by rotavirus disease, but vaccination with virus-like contaminants induces IgG predominantly, not IgA. both serum IgG and IgA and fecal IgA. Both IgA normal and IgA knockout mice were protected from rotavirus challenge at 42 times totally. Ten months carrying out a major disease, both IgA regular and knockout mice still got high degrees of serum and fecal antirotavirus antibody and had been totally shielded from rotavirus problem. To see whether compensatory mechanisms apart from IgG had been responsible for safety from rotavirus disease in IgA knockout mice, mice had been depleted of Compact disc4+ T cells or Compact disc8+ T cells. Zero noticeable adjustments in the amount of safety had been observed in depleted NXY-059 mice. These data display that fecal or systemic IgA isnt essential for safety from rotavirus disease and claim that in the PTPRR lack of IgA, IgG may play a substantial part in safety from ...
The Department of Health has announced that rotavirus vaccine will be added to the childhood vaccination programme with effect from September 2013.. Rotavirus is reported as causing approximately 140,000 cases of diarrhoea per year in the children under 5 years old. Of these some 14,000 cases result in a hospital admission. It is expected that the introduction of this vaccine will reduce hospital admissions by up to 70%. The vaccine is a live oral vaccine and two doses are recommended.. The JCVI statement recommending the vaccine provides further analysis and detail. Action: Clinicians involved in the delivery of the child immunisations should be aware of this change. More information about this vaccine should be expected before September 2013.. ...
A training DVD was produced to assist Ethiopia with the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in their national immunisation programme.. The DVD is being developed in Amharic, the main local language, and includes five chapters. After each chapter, a question and answer section is included to reinforce the key messages.. Rotavirus DVD Ethiopia. ...
To the Editor: Viral gastroenteritis is caused by many pathogens, each with unique characteristics requiring different laboratory test for identification1,2. In our country several groups emphasizes the role of the viral gastroenteritis in children3-4. Similar studies have been done in the european countries5-7, Asia8, America9 and Oceania10. In relation to these contributions and since we are geographically related and have a similar context we could like to point out three aspects: first, to bring forward or 16 years of experience in systematic detection of Rotavirus in children; second, to show our findings in detecting other virus causing gastroenteritis (Adenovirus and Astrovirus) and finally, to mark that both Rotavirus infection and that caused by the aforementioned virus are reported to National Epidemiological Surveillance System. Since 1986 we systematically search for Rotavirus in fecal samples from children under seven years. At that time Rotavirus antigen detection by means of a ...
The CDC Foundation has received three grants totaling $13.5 million from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to improve the lives of millions worldwide. The grants will enable the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to work in collaboration with partners to advance the implementation of meningitis and rotavirus vaccines, ensuring global disease protection. Meningococcal meningitis and rotavirus gastroenteritis are deadly diseases but are increasingly preventable now that immunization initiatives in the African meningitis belt and other resource-poor areas are reaching the most vulnerable populations, said Dr. Anne Schuchat, the director of CDCs National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. The Gates Foundation funding will allow CDC to work together with countries and international partners to assure that a strong science base is available to sustain prevention efforts. Policy makers need this ...
Comparisons of different rotavirus vaccines are difficult to make with a lot of precision because of the differing populations, protocols, attack rates, and study procedures which have been employed to assess the efficacy of the vaccines. Given the rather recent deployment of the vaccines, there are very limited evidence on their effectiveness in the population/community-setting.…
The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), announced today a new license agreement aimed at helping to prevent hundreds of thousands of deaths annually from rotavirus diarrhea in children living in developing countries.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released today new safety data on a recently licensed rotavirus vaccine given to infants that indicate the vaccine does not pose an elevated risk for intussusception, the most common cause of bowel obstruction in infants.
The prevalence of antirotavirus antibodies in chickens and turkeys in the Gonzales, Texas and Llano, Texas areas was studied. Caged layer chicken flocks were found to have a prevalence of 64% when samples were taken randomly. This compares to 45% in chicken broiler breeder flocks and 92% in turkey breeding flocks. The natural occurrence of turkey rotavirus infection in two separate field studies showed an increase in mortality varying from 9% to 45% above expected death losses. Clinically, pasted vents, lacitude, and general malaise were noted in affected poults. Lesions noted on post mortem examination were; slight ballooning of the small intestine, excessively large ceca, and mild hyperemia of the small and large intestines. The use of maternal antibody from simian rotavirus immunized chickens eggs for preventing murine rotavirus infection in infant mice was investigated. There was a reduction from 91% to 15% incidence when infant mice were treated twice daily with egg yolk immunoglobulin. The need
Results show that S boulardii diminished the time of diarrhoea by 31.4% and shortened time with fever by 73% (table 3). Children receiving the multiple species product tended to have less time with diarrhoea and no patients vomited after the treatment was started. In previous studies that administered multiple species products similar to the one we used, other authors found a rather more pronounced effect, 30 hours [14, 19] and 30-36 hours reduction in diarrhoeal duration [20-23], in comparison with the 26 hours reduction we found. Infants hospitalized in our study were admitted with severe diarrhoea and had intense clinical manifestations in comparison to outpatients with rotavirus diarrhoea; this could explain the less intense results obtained. Although not significant, we consider relevant the trend to diminish time of diarrhoea in the group receiving the multiple probiotic products, because decreasing severity of diarrhoea may help reducing the nutritional impact of the diarrhoeal ...
During February and March 2005, one of the largest national recorded outbreaks of severe acute gastroenteritis occurred in Nicaragua, affecting ≥64,000 individuals and causing ≥56 deaths, predominantly in children under 5 years of age. Through a nationwide laboratory-based study, stool samples were collected and investigated for rotavirus. Of 108 stool samples examined, 72 (67%) were positive for rotavirus. While 69% (50/72) of the positive samples were found in children less than 2 years of age, 50% (6/12) of the adult samples were positive. A mutated G4P[8] strain was the most commonly recognized strain (85%), followed by mixed G strains (8%) and G9P[8] (7%) strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP7 gene revealed that the G4 strains belonged to the emerging lineage Ic and was distantly related to the ST3 and VA70 G4 strains. Secondary structure predictions of the VP7 G4 protein revealed an insert of an asparagine residue in position 76, which, combined with additional mutations, ...
Diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality in children under 5 years along with its long-term impact on growth and cognitive development. Despite advances in the understanding of diarrheal disorders and management strategies, globally nearly 750,000 children die annually as a consequence of diarrhea. We conducted a systematic review of the efficacy and effectiveness studies. We used a standardized abstraction and grading format and performed meta-analyses for all outcomes. The estimated effect of cholera, shigella, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and rotavirus vaccines was determined by applying the standard Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) rules. A total of 24 papers were selected and analyzed for all the four vaccines. Based on the evidence, we propose a 74% mortality reduction in rotavirus specific mortality, 52% reduction in cholera incidence due to their respective vaccines. We did not find sufficient evidence and a suitable outcome to project mortality reductions for cholera
The Rotavirus vaccine - an American vaccine against childhood diarrhea and dehydration - has been found to cause pneumonia!. It has already been withdrawn once for causing intersuption of the bowel (where the bowel sticks together - the condition can be life threatening if not treated).. Now the FDA have said that according to 11 trials, rotavirus vaccine causes pneumonia, bronchitis, convulsions and death.. 63,000 children were given the vaccine and there was a statistically significant increase in the number of pneumonia deaths compared with the placebo, and the rotavirus vaccine group also had more bronchitis and a higher rate of convulsions.. The FDA now want to bring in an oral rotavirus vaccine instead of using the injection.. Source: Reuters, 15 February 2008.. ...
Background. More than 50,000 cases of acute gastroenteritis are registered in children in Ukraine annually. Statistical data concerning rotavirus i...
Previous studies on the serological diagnosis of rotavirus infection have utilised locally produced antibodies. In this study we have compared two commercially produced assays, an ELISA (Rotazyme, Abbott) and a newly developed assay--solid phase aggregation of coupled erythrocytes (SPACE) (Wellcome Research Laboratories), with electron microscopy (EM). The SPACE test appeared less sensitive than EM. The ELISA was shown to be as sensitive as EM but more versatile. Our experience suggests that the ELISA could be successfully incorporated into the routine of any diagnostic laboratory.. ...
Activation of the innate immune system with the bacterial protein flagellin could prevent and cure rotavirus infection, which is among the most common causes of severe diarrhea, says a Georgia State University research team that described the method as a novel means to prevent and treat viral infection.
We describe the emergence of serotype G12 rotaviruses (67 [6.9%] of 971 specimens tested) among children hospitalized with rotavirus gastroenteritis in Hungary during 2005. These findings are consistent with recent reports of the possible global spread and increasing epidemiologic importance of these strains, which may have implications for current rotavirus vaccination strategies.
We have previously reported that during the course of rotavirus infection of MA104 cells, there was a progressive increase in membrane permeability to molecules of increasing size. At early times after initiation of viral protein synthesis (4 to 6 h postinfection), permeability to monovalent cations such as Na+ and K+, as well as Ca2+, increased. Later, after 8 h postinfection, molecules which are normally impermeative in an uninfected cell, such as ethidium bromide and trypan blue, entered (17, 18).. The permeability pathway for Ca2+ in infected cells was studied by using step changes of extracellular Ca2+ concentration. Studies using fluorescent indicators have shown that the initial transient increase in [Ca2+]i following the extracellular Ca2+ change reflects the influx of Ca2+ from the external compartment (31). The fast increase in [Ca2+]i in response to Ca2+addition appeared to be directly related to the influx pathway, since it varied with the driving force for Ca2+ entry. The elevation ...
... is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae. Rotaviruses are the most common cause of ... Rotavirus serotypes were first described in 1980, and in the following year, rotaviruses from humans were first grown in cell ... Rotaviruses elicit both B and T cell immune responses. Antibodies to the rotavirus VP4 and VP7 proteins neutralise viral ... Rotavirus B, also called adult diarrhoea rotavirus or ADRV, has caused major epidemics of severe diarrhoea affecting thousands ...
Rotavirus, Vaccine Resource Library Rotavirus ROTA Council Rotavirus Vaccines at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Rotavirus vaccine is a vaccine used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea ... The rotavirus A parent strains of the reassortants were isolated from human and bovine hosts. Four reassortant rotaviruses ... Rotavirus vaccines are licensed in more than 100 countries, and more than 80 countries have introduced routine rotavirus ...
v t e v t e v t e (Protein pages needing a picture, Rotaviruses, Viral nonstructural proteins, All stub articles, Molecular and ... In contrast to the other rotavirus non-structural proteins, NSP6 was found to have a high rate of turnover, being completely ... Rainsford, Edward W.; McCrae, Malcolm A. (2007-12-01). "Characterization of the NSP6 protein product of rotavirus gene 11". ... is one of the two non-structural proteins that gene 11 in rotavirus encodes for alongside NSP5. NSP6 is composed of six ...
v t e v t e v t e (Rotaviruses, Viral nonstructural proteins, All stub articles, Molecular and cellular biology stubs, Cell ... Kattoura MD, Chen X, Patton JT (August 1994). "The rotavirus RNA-binding protein NS35 (NSP2) forms 10S multimers and interacts ... Aponte C, Poncet D, Cohen J (February 1996). "Recovery and characterization of a replicase complex in rotavirus-infected cells ... Fabbretti E, Afrikanova I, Vascotto F, Burrone OR (February 1999). "Two non-structural rotavirus proteins, NSP2 and NSP5, form ...
Rotavirus protein NSP3 (NS34) is bound to the 3' end consensus sequence of viral mRNAs in infected cells. Four nucleotides are ... Rotavirus RNA-binding protein NSP3 interacts with eIF4GI and evicts the poly(A)-binding protein from eIF4F. And NSP3A, by ... Poncet D, Aponte C, Cohen J (June 1993). "Rotavirus protein NSP3 (NS34) is bound to the 3' end consensus sequence of viral ... Piron M, Vende P, Cohen J, Poncet D (October 1998). "Rotavirus RNA-binding protein NSP3 interacts with eIF4GI and evicts the ...
The carboxyl-half of the rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP1 is not required for virus replication. NSP1 could play a role in ... NSP1 (NS53), the product of rotavirus gene 5, is a nonstructural RNA-binding protein that contains a cysteine-rich region and ... Hua J, Patton JT (February 1994). "The carboxyl-half of the rotavirus nonstructural protein NS53 (NSP1) is not required for ... Graff JW, Ewen J, Ettayebi K, Hardy ME (February 2007). "Zinc-binding domain of rotavirus NSP1 is required for proteasome- ...
Rotavirus NSP3 presents several similarities to PABP; in rotavirus-infected cells, NSP3 can be cross-linked to the 3' end of ... Rotavirus translation, the process of translating mRNA into proteins, occurs in a different way in Rotaviruses. Unlike the vast ... The Rotavirus replication cycle occurs entirely in the cytoplasm. Upon virus entry, the viral transcriptase synthesizes capped ... Poncet, Didier; Carlos Aponte; Jean Cohen (June 1993). "Rotavirus protein NSP3 (NS34) is bound to the 3' end consensus sequence ...
v t e v t e v t e (CS1: long volume value, Protein pages needing a picture, Rotaviruses, Viral nonstructural proteins, All stub ... In rotavirus-infected cells, the non-structural proteins NSP5 and NSP2 localize in complexes called viroplasms, where ... NSP5 (nonstructural protein 5) encoded by genome segment 11 of group A rotaviruses. In virus-infected cells NSP5 accumulates in ... Fabbretti E, Afrikanova I, Vascotto F, Burrone OR (February 1999). "Two non-structural rotavirus proteins, NSP2 and NSP5, form ...
The rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP4 was the first viral enterotoxin discovered. It is a viroporin and induces diarrhea and ... Pham T, Perry JL, Dosey TL, Delcour AH, Hyser JM (March 2017). "The Rotavirus NSP4 Viroporin Domain is a Calcium-conducting Ion ... v t e v t e (CS1: long volume value, Protein pages needing a picture, Rotaviruses, Viral nonstructural proteins, All stub ... Dong Y, Zeng CQ, Ball JM, Estes MK, Morris AP (April 1997). "The rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 mobilizes intracellular calcium in ...
This family represents a rotavirus cis-acting replication element (CRE) found at the 3'-end of rotavirus mRNAs. The family is ... Page for Rotavirus cis-acting replication element (CRE) at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, All stub articles, ... Chen D, Barros M, Spencer E, Patton JT (April 2001). "Features of the 3'-consensus sequence of rotavirus mRNAs critical to ...
The work has included surveillance, epidemiology, and vaccine clinical trials of pneumococcal disease; rotavirus; Haemophilus ... Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine". New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (1): 23-33. doi:10.1056/NEJMOA052664. PMID 16394299. ...
"Rotavirus , Home , Gastroenteritis , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-11. Lu Z, Liu H, Fu S, et al. (2011). "Liao ning ... Rotavirus A-E cause infantile gastroenteritis in humans and farm animals. Many known Seadornaviruses cause encephalitis in ...
Structural studies of the rotavirus inner capsid. Gene sequence of some rotavirus proteins. Consistent with his advisory role ... Polypeptide composition and topography of bovine rotavirus. Molecular cloning of a human rotavirus genome. Antigenic variation ... Rotavirus. Esparza-Bracho researched on this area extensively, including aspects such as: Electron microscopic studies on ... He also applied such tools to the study of rotaviruses, a leading worldwide cause of infantile diarrhea which severely affects ...
"Rotavirus Symptoms". CDC. CDC. Retrieved 10 April 2014. "Rotavirus Vaccination". CDC. CDC. Retrieved 1 November 2020. " ... Studies show that this vaccine is 85-98% effective against severe rotavirus disease and is 74-87% effective against rotavirus ... The rotavirus is shed in the feces of infected persons and is spread by the fecal oral route, so this virus can be picked up ... The rotavirus is most commonly found in infants and young children, but older children and adults can also become infected. ...
Avian Rotavirus; Avian Tuberculosis M. avium; Chicken Anemia Virus; Endogenous GS Antigen; Fowl Pox; Hemophilus paragallinarum ...
Rotaviruses (of Reoviridae) have been found to contain an enterotoxin which plays a role in viral pathogenesis. NSP4, is a ... Rotavirus (NSP4) Endotoxin Exotoxin "enterotoxin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Carlton Gyles, Magdalene So, Stanley Falkow, ... However, when NSP4 from group A Rotaviruses was purified (4 alleles tested), concentrated, and injected into a mouse model, ... "Diarrhea Induction by Rotavirus NSP4 in the Homologous Mouse Model System". Virology. 262 (2): 398-407. doi:10.1006/viro. ...
Rotavirus is spread through the mouth and skin, but the virus leaves those cells alone and only infects and reproduces in cells ... López Charretón won the award for Latin America for "identifying how rotaviruses cause the death of 600,000 children each year ... She has additionally studied how the rotavirus spreads in human populations, the immune response to it, and its replication ... Throughout her career, López Charretón has made advancements in our understanding of rotavirus. One of the most important ...
The company has been responsible for developing an eco-friendly recombinant and a naturally attenuated strain derived Rotavirus ... Serum Institute of India Cadila Healthcare Biotechnology in India "WHO prequalifies new rotavirus vaccine". WHO. Archived from ... Kang, G (October 2006). "Rotavirus vaccines". Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 24 (4): 252-7. doi:10.4103/0255- ... rotavirus vaccine in Indian infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial". The Lancet. 383 (9935): 2136-2143. ...
Rotashield rotavirus vaccine; and, FluMist influenza vaccine. Since retiring from Wyeth Siber has served on the boards of ... the first Rotavirus diarrhea vaccine, and FluMist, the first Live attenuated influenza vaccine. Siber became a diplomate with ...
"Rotavirus vaccine support". www.gavi.org. GAVI. Retrieved 17 January 2021. Edwards, K. M.; Creech, C. B. (2017). "8. Vaccine ... Madhi led the first study that showed that a rotavirus vaccine could significantly prevent severe diarrhoea during the first ... The paper provided one of the key pieces of evidence for the WHO recommendations of universal rotavirus vaccination. In ... "Rotarix™ significantly reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in African babies during their first year of life , GSK". www. ...
The genome of rotavirus consists of eleven segments of dsRNA. Each genome segment codes for one protein with the exception of ... Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. This virus contains a ... 3: Rotavirus Structure". Patton 2008. pp. 45-. ISBN 9781904455219. Roy P (2008). "Structure and Function of Bluetongue Virus ... Double-stranded RNA viruses include the rotaviruses, known globally as a common cause of gastroenteritis in young children, and ...
"Learn more about Rotavirus". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. March 26, 2021. NIH news HAROLD M. SCHMECK Jr. (13 ... was an Armenian-American virologist who developed the first licensed vaccine against rotavirus, the most common cause of severe ...
Rotaviruses). (n.d.). Retrieved December 5, 2014, from "Reoviruses". Archived from the original on 2015-05-21. Retrieved 2014- ... a family of double-stranded RNA viruses that includes familiar genera Rotavirus (the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis ...
Flewett did much collaborative work on rotaviruses with others to establish the varieties of rotavirus which infect the young ... Following the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, worldwide the incidence of deaths of children caused by rotavirus has ... Clinical efficacy of the RIT 4237 live attenuated bovine rotavirus vaccine in infants vaccinated before a rotavirus epidemic" J ... because of the structural similarity of rotavirus to orbivirus. Ruth Bishop, who was the first to describe rotaviruses as a ...
"Withdrawal of Rotavirus Vaccine Recommendation". www.cdc.gov. DrugBank. "Sertindole". Archived from the original on 27 ...
"Rotavirus claims more in Solomons". Radio New Zealand International. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2014. UNICEF Solomon ... Over the following two months, a widespread rotavirus outbreak unfolded in Honiara, Guadalcanal, and Gizo, with more than 1,000 ... but occurred a year before it Total fatalities includes indirect deaths from a rotavirus outbreak related to the cyclone. ...
A rotavirus vaccine is available. This vaccine is highly effective and has been preventing half of the severe rotovirus ... Nearly every child in every country globally experiences at least one rotavirus infection in early childhood. However, in India ... India's implementation of the rotavirus vaccine in its Universal Immunisation Programme has saved many children's lives. ... "Introducing rotavirus vaccine in the Universal Immunization Programme in India: From evidence to policy to implementation". ...
Rotavirus vaccine decrease the rates of diarrhea in a population. New vaccines against rotavirus, Shigella, Enterotoxigenic ... Norovirus is the most common cause of viral diarrhea in adults, but rotavirus is the most common cause in children under five ... In the case of Rotavirus, which was responsible for around 6% of diarrheal episodes and 20% of diarrheal disease deaths in the ... Acute diarrhea is most commonly due to viral gastroenteritis with rotavirus, which accounts for 40% of cases in children under ...
Later, during studies on rotavirus diarrhoea, the wider use of electron microscopy resulted in detecting previously ... the most common being rotavirus. In 2016, the Global Burden of Disease Study estimated that globally, around 75 million ...
Estes has studied rotaviruses and noroviruses. Although rotaviruses can infect animals, the research Estes performs concerns ... In the 2009 article Rotaviruses: from pathogenesis to vaccination Estes explains the life-threatening side effects of rotavirus ... There are two main viruses that her research is based on, rotaviruses and noroviruses. The main goal of her research are to ... "CDC - Rotavirus vaccine - Vaccine safety". CDC Vaccine Safety. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 20 May ...
Rotavirus vaccine can prevent rotavirus disease.. Rotavirus commonly causes severe, watery diarrhea, mostly in babies and young ... Rotavirus vaccine. Rotavirus vaccine is administered by putting drops in the childs mouth. Babies should get 2 or 3 doses of ... Almost all babies who get rotavirus vaccine will be protected from severe rotavirus diarrhea. ... Rotavirus Vaccine (10/15/21). 42 U.S.C. § 300aa-26. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and ...
Rotavirus is a virus that causes symptoms of severe diarrhea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. It is easily spread; but ... Rotavirus (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Rotavirus Vaccines (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) ... Rotavirus antigen test (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Rotavirus Vaccine: What You Need to Know (Centers for Disease ... Rotavirus (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Vaccine (Drops) for Rotavirus (Centers for Disease Control and ...
The pentavalent rotavirus vaccine is safe and effective and greatly reduces resource use and expenditures related to diarrheal ... Nosocomial Transmission of Rotavirus Has Declined Speaking to an indirect effect of the rotavirus vaccine, a separate poster ... The pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, recommended for routine infant vaccination in the United States since 2006, is safe and has ... During the rotavirus season, decreases in these parameters were even greater, with a 47% decline in hospitalizations, a 20% ...
The rotavirus genome consists of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA enclosed in a double-shelled capsid. ... Rotavirus is one of several viruses known to cause gastroenteritis. ... Human Neonatal Rotavirus Vaccine (RV3-BB) to Target Rotavirus from Birth. N Engl J Med. 2018 Feb 22. 378 (8):719-730. [QxMD ... Defeating rotavirus? The global recommendation for rotavirus vaccination. N Engl J Med. 2009 Nov 12. 361(20):1919-21. [QxMD ...
2009)‎. Manual of rotavirus detection and characterization methods. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle ...
1989)‎. Rotavirus vaccines. World Health Organization. https://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted/handle/10665/61802 ...
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Rotavirus gastroenteritis is common in infants and young children. Children under five years of age, especially those between 6 ... Rotavirus gastroenteritis is caused by rotavirus that infects the stomach and bowel. ... Rotavirus gastroenteritis is caused by rotavirus that infects the stomach and bowel. Rotavirus gastroenteritis is common in ... Manual of Rotavirus Detection and Characterization Methods, October 2009. [pdf 3.8 Mb] ...
Pioquinto Medical Clinic and Pharmacy - Pasig City - Rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix)
NSP5 of bat rotavirus strain Bat/KE4852/07 (boldface) from Kenya with representatives of known human and animal rotavirus ... Reassortant Group A Rotavirus from Straw-colored Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum) Mathew D. Esona, Slavica Mijatovic-Rustempasic, ... Reassortant Group A Rotavirus from Straw-colored Fruit Bat (Eidolon helvum). ...
Learn more about rotavirus through a variety of textbook chapters and publications. ... Rotavirus surveillance - Worldwide, 2009. MMWR. 2011; 60(16):514-6.. *Crotese, MM, Parashar U. Prevention of Rotavirus ... Trends in national rotavirus activity before and after introduction of rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization program ... Trends in the Laboratory Detection of Rotavirus Before and After Implementation of Routine Rotavirus Vaccination - United ...
Rotavirus is a contagious infection in the stomach and intestines that causes severe diarrhea. Learn the symptoms. ... A rotavirus vaccination or having a previous case of rotavirus does not mean that a child will not get rotavirus. However, if ... What is Pediatric Rotavirus?. Rotavirus is a contagious infection that causes inflammation in the stomach and intestines that ... What are the causes of Pediatric Rotavirus?. Rotavirus is extremely contagious and is caused by a specific viral infection that ...
Rotavirus (RV) encounters intestinal epithelial cells amidst diverse microbiota, opening possibilities of microbes influencing ... Segmented Filamentous Bacteria Prevent and Cure Rotavirus Infection Cell. 2019 Oct 17;179(3):644-658.e13. doi: 10.1016/j.cell. ... Rotavirus (RV) encounters intestinal epithelial cells amidst diverse microbiota, opening possibilities of microbes influencing ... Keywords: fecal transplant; germ-free mice; infectious diarrhea; microbiota-virus interactions; rotavirus; segmented ...
She described Rotavirus as a very contagious virus that makes life difficult for children but can only be prevented through ... Tuesday flagged-off rotavirus vaccination in the state.. The exercise which was flagged off at the Aba North Council ... appealed to parents to take the vaccination seriously in view of the deadly nature of the rotavirus.. ... the Abia State government for their being very supportive of health-related issues and expressed joy that the deadly Rotavirus ...
Rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhoea in young children worldwide, and is responsible for over half a million deaths and ... Rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhoea in young children worldwide, and is responsible for over half a million deaths and ... New rotavirus vaccines protect against diarrhoea in children. Euro Surveill. 2006;11(3):pii=2880. https://doi.org/10.2807/esw. ...
Co and the Wellcome Trust have announced plans to work on a rotavirus vaccine designed specifically with developing country ... Merck & Co and the Wellcome Trust have announced plans to work on a rotavirus vaccine "designed specifically with developing ... If the initial study is successful, options to further develop the technology for rotavirus "and other oral vaccines of ... This project has been selected because of "the tremendous global impact of rotavirus diarrhoea on childhood mortality", Merck ...
Listo Pediatrics & Family Clinic - Parañaque City - Rotavirus (Rotateq)
Rotavirus Vaccine, Live, Oral, Pentavalent) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, ... Four reassortant rotaviruses express one of the outer capsid proteins (G1, G2, G3, or G4) from the human rotavirus parent ... Multiple Rotavirus Seasons. The efficacy of RotaTeq through a second rotavirus season was evaluated in a single study (REST). ... Rotavirus Efficacy And Safety Trial. Primary efficacy against any grade of severity of rotavirus gastroenteritis caused by ...
Rotavirus Infection - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... How can I prevent my child from getting rotavirus infection? *. Get your children vaccinated Rotavirus Vaccine The rotavirus ... Most babies get the rotavirus vaccine Rotavirus Vaccine The rotavirus vaccine is a live-virus vaccine that helps protect ... What causes rotavirus infection? Rotavirus is a virus that spreads when you touch something with infected stool on it, such as ...
Zoetis Rotavirus is for vaccination of pregnant mares to provide passive transfer of antibodies to foals against equine ... Zoetis Rotavirus. Low Price-Match Guarantee * 10 dose Vial. We will ship all cooler items Next Day Air. No refunds/guarantees ... EQUINE ROTAVIRUS Vaccine is for the vaccination of pregnant mares to provide passive transfer of antibodies to foals against ... equine rotavirus. Dose. *Pregnant mares, inject one 1 mL dose intramuscularly at the eighth month of pregnancy using aseptic ...
Tag: rotavirus. Resources What to Expect During Your Babys First Year of Life - Part I. Part I , Part II Last year, when the ...
Rotavirus infection is a common cause of diarrhea and a variety of vaccines are used to try to prevent it ... Like with previous rotavirus vaccines, monitoring for these events is ongoing in countries that have introduced rotavirus ... Rotavirus infection is a common cause of diarrhoea and a variety of vaccines are used to try to prevent it. The evidence for ... "Rotavirus infection is common across the world and although some babies and young children might not develop any symptoms, ...
VOA] Abuja, Nigeria -- Nigeria this week added a rotavirus vaccine to its national program that is expected to prevent 50,000 ... More News: African Health , Cameroon Health , Children , Kenya Health , Nigeria Health , Rotavirus , Rotavirus Vaccine , ... VOA] Abuja, Nigeria -- Nigeria this week added a rotavirus vaccine to its national program that is expected to prevent 50,000 ...
Canada introduced a rotavirus immunization program using Rotarix™ vaccine. No assessments of rotavirus vaccine coverage have ... Rotavirus Is the Subject Area "Rotavirus" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Rotavirus is a contagious virus that causes nausea and diarrhea. It is the leading cause of severe infectious diarrhea in ... Rotavirus Infection in Children. What is rotavirus in children?. Rotavirus is a contagious virus that causes nausea and ... What causes rotavirus in a child?. Rotavirus is most often spread through a fecal-oral route. This is often because a child ... How can I help prevent rotavirus in my child?. If your child has rotavirus, they may not be able to attend daycare or school ...
Immunocard STAT!® Rotavirus. One step lateral flow immunoassay for the direct detection of rotavirus antigen in human stool.. ... An Enzyme Immunoassay for the detection of rotavirus antigen in human fecal samples. ...
How to Treat Rotavirus. Symptoms can last anywhere from five to seven days and the results are unpleasant for the whole house ... While rotavirus is common and will run its course within about a week, it can severely deplete a young child of liquids. "They ... Rotavirus is a viral infection thats easily spread among young kids and can also be passed to family members or anyone else in ... "It is quite common that a baby with rotavirus needs to stay in the hospital to receive hydration through an IV. Preventing this ...
Surveillance networks for rotavirus document the burden of the disease using the proportion of children hospitalized with ... One Year Survey of Human Rotavirus Strains Suggests the Emergence of Genotype G12 in Cameroon Cite ... Title : One Year Survey of Human Rotavirus Strains Suggests the Emergence of Genotype G12 in Cameroon Personal Author(s) : Ndze ... Title : Detection of G12 Human Rotaviruses in Nepal Personal Author(s) : Pun, Sher Bahadur;Nakagomi, Toyoko;Sherchand, Jeevan ...
No correlation was found between rotavirus concentration in sewage and oysters and cases of rotavirus-associated ... Concentrations of rotavirus A, in sewage and oysters collected weekly from September 2014 to April 2016 in Japan, were ... Rotavirus A was quantified from the cDNAs by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting rotavirus on a CFX96 Touch Real-Time ... In samples where rotavirus was not detected positively, the incidence of rotavirus was estimated to be half of the limit of ...
  • Infants who are moderately or severely ill should usually wait until they recover before getting rotavirus vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • In some cases, your child's health care provider may decide to postpone rotavirus vaccination until a future visit. (cdc.gov)
  • There is also a small risk of intussusception from rotavirus vaccination, usually within a week after the first or second vaccine dose. (cdc.gov)
  • These signs would usually happen during the first week after the first or second dose of rotavirus vaccine, but look for them any time after vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • The pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, recommended for routine infant vaccination in the United States since 2006, is safe and has had a strong effect in reducing diarrhea-related hospitalizations, healthcare use, and expenditures in the United States according to several presentations here. (medscape.com)
  • She also said that there appeared to be an indirect benefit from vaccination in preventing transmission of rotavirus infection, as reflected by decreased rotavirus-coded events in older unvaccinated children. (medscape.com)
  • Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America. (medscape.com)
  • The global recommendation for rotavirus vaccination. (medscape.com)
  • Gastroenteritis hospitalizations in older children and adults in the United States before and after implementation of infant rotavirus vaccination. (medscape.com)
  • Generic protocols for monitoring impact of rotavirus vaccination on gastroenteritis disease burden and viral strains, January 2009. (who.int)
  • Sustained decrease in laboratory detection of rotavirus after implementation of routine vaccination-United States, 2000-2014. (cdc.gov)
  • Decline in Emergency Department Visits for Acute Gastroenteritis Among Children in 10 US States After Implementation of Rotavirus Vaccination, 2003 to 2013. (cdc.gov)
  • A rotavirus vaccination or having a previous case of rotavirus does not mean that a child will not get rotavirus. (childrens.com)
  • and the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA), Tuesday flagged-off rotavirus vaccination in the state. (vanguardngr.com)
  • Flagging off the vaccination, the Deputy Governor, Sir Ude Oko-Chukwu, appealed to parents to take the vaccination seriously in view of the deadly nature of the rotavirus. (vanguardngr.com)
  • She described Rotavirus as a very contagious virus that makes life difficult for children but can only be prevented through vaccination. (vanguardngr.com)
  • EQUINE ROTAVIRUS Vaccine is for the vaccination of pregnant mares to provide passive transfer of antibodies to foals against equine rotavirus. (heartlandvetsupply.com)
  • Pooling the trial results suggests that the total number of cases of severe rotavirus diarrhoea were reduced by between 35 and 63% after vaccination in high mortality countries and by 82 to 92% after vaccination in low mortality countries, in the couple of years after vaccination. (cochrane.org)
  • We also found a small reduction in diarrhoea from any cause and a large reduction in rotavirus-related hospitalizations and healthcare encounters as a result of vaccination. (cochrane.org)
  • Nibbe's Laurel Heights pediatrics colleague Sara Huberman agrees: "Rotavirus vaccination is very important for babies as the virus causes such a large amount of watery diarrhea, many babies are unable to keep themselves hydrated via their normal feeds," she says. (onemedical.com)
  • It is predicted that rotavirus vaccination could prevent more than 2 million rotavirus deaths over the next decade. (gsk.com)
  • These data represent administrative and official Rotavirus vaccination coverage reported annually through the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form on Immunization (JRF). (who.int)
  • Intussusception from rotavirus vaccination usually occurs within a week of receiving a dose of vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • The risk of intussusception from rotavirus vaccination is estimated to range from about 1 in 20,000 to 1 in 100,000 US infants who get rotavirus vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Rotavirus vaccination should be considered as an adjunct to other comprehensive enteric disease control measures as recommended by the World Health Organization. (who.int)
  • Rotavirus vaccination has 87% to 100% effectiveness against severe rotavirus acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in healthy infants in high- income countries. (bvsalud.org)
  • Estimating the impacts of rotavirus vaccination on gender disparities. (cdc.gov)
  • Objective: This study aims to assess how temporal changes in gender disparities in routine vaccination coverage impact the estimated benefits of introducing rotavirus vaccination in various geographic and socioeconomic settings in India. (cdc.gov)
  • Increases in gender parity are associates with increases in benefits and more favorable cost effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination introduction. (cdc.gov)
  • Conclusion: It is of immense importance to sustain the efforts of bridging the gender gap in health care utilization and create enabling conditions to further improve the impacts of rotavirus vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Despite these sobering statistics, strides made over the last 20 years have shown that, in addition to rotavirus vaccination and breastfeeding, diarrhea prevention focused on safe water and improved hygiene and sanitation is not only possible, but cost effective: every $1 invested yields an average return of $25.50. (cdc.gov)
  • The immediate effect of the bill is to add several additional vaccinations - for rotavirus, hepatitis A, meningitis, and human papillomavirus (HPV) - to the Commonwealth's vaccination schedule. (arlnow.com)
  • The physical examination findings for rotavirus infection are often unremarkable except for signs of dehydration . (medscape.com)
  • The most significant risk factor for rotavirus infection appears to be participation in group daycare, presumably because the virus is spread through fecal-oral contact by the children themselves and by the daycare workers who are responsible for diapering. (medscape.com)
  • Rotavirus is a highly contagious gastrointestinal (stomach and intestines) infection. (childrens.com)
  • Rotavirus is a contagious infection that causes inflammation in the stomach and intestines that can result in severe diarrhea and dehydration. (childrens.com)
  • Rotavirus is extremely contagious and is caused by a specific viral infection that is passed from person-to-person. (childrens.com)
  • Rotavirus (RV) encounters intestinal epithelial cells amidst diverse microbiota, opening possibilities of microbes influencing RV infection. (nih.gov)
  • What is rotavirus infection? (msdmanuals.com)
  • What are the symptoms of rotavirus infection? (msdmanuals.com)
  • How can doctors tell if my child has rotavirus infection? (msdmanuals.com)
  • How do doctors treat rotavirus infection? (msdmanuals.com)
  • How can I prevent my child from getting rotavirus infection? (msdmanuals.com)
  • Rotavirus infection is a common cause of diarrhoea and a variety of vaccines are used to try to prevent it. (cochrane.org)
  • Rotavirus infection is common across the world and although some babies and young children might not develop any symptoms, others might get so ill that they need to go into hospital and some may die. (cochrane.org)
  • Before children started being vaccinated, rotavirus infection caused almost half a million deaths per year in children under five. (cochrane.org)
  • Rotavirus is a viral infection that's easily spread among young kids and can also be passed to family members or anyone else in close contact. (onemedical.com)
  • In the meantime, the company will continue to manufacture Rotarix in accordance with the approved production methods and quality standards agreed with regulatory authorities worldwide in order to help meet public health needs in fighting against rotavirus infection. (gsk.com)
  • Rotarix is indicated for the active immunisation of infants from the age of 6 weeks for prevention of gastro-enteritis due to rotavirus infection. (gsk.com)
  • Rotavirus is an infection that causes gastroenteritis, vomitting and diarrhea in infants and children. (abc7chicago.com)
  • The rotavirus vaccine protects against rotavirus infection. (alberta.ca)
  • The rotavirus vaccine protects your child against diarrhea from the rotavirus infection. (alberta.ca)
  • Rotavirus is a common infection that causes fever and vomiting. (alberta.ca)
  • Almost all children who don't get immunized will get the rotavirus infection by age 5 years. (alberta.ca)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of rotavirus infection and characterized group A rotavirus in stool by immunochromatographic test and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. (scialert.net)
  • The antigenic detection of rotaviruses carry out by immunochromatographic has revealed the presence of group A rotavirus antigen in 21 (14%), adenovirus were also found in 8 (5.33%) and a co-infection rota-adenovirus in 2 (1.33%) of the 150 stool samples tested. (scialert.net)
  • Based on migration patterns of RNA segments of 21 rotavirus isolates, two distinct groups of electropherotypes of group A rotaviruses were identified: 7 (36.84%) isolates were Long (L) and 12 (63.15%) were Short (S) electrophoretypes but any co-infection by both was identified. (scialert.net)
  • 3 In Australia, it has been estimated that rotavirus infection is the cause of diarrhoea in 10,000 of the nearly 20,000 children admitted to hospital each year with severe diarrhoea. (alcohol.gov.au)
  • Activation of the innate immune system with the bacterial protein flagellin could prevent and cure rotavirus infection, which is among the most common causes of severe diarrhea, says a Georgia State University research team that described the method as a novel means to prevent and treat viral infection. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Rotavirus infection is the leading cause of severe diarrhoea in children under five years of age globally and is responsible for up to 200,000 deaths per year. (msfaccess.org)
  • Due to the high price and lack of availability of the rotavirus vaccine, many children have been left unprotected against rotavirus infection. (msfaccess.org)
  • In 2019, only 39% of children globally under the age of one had been immunised against rotavirus infection. (msfaccess.org)
  • October 23, 2011 (Boston, Massachusetts) - Calculated risk-to-benefit ratios argue strongly in favor of continued immunization with the currently available vaccines against rotavirus infection to prevent rotavirus gastroenteritis in young children. (medscape.com)
  • Bishop R.F., Barnes G.L., Cipriani E., Lund J.S.: Clinical immunity after neonatal rotavirus infection. (sciendo.com)
  • RotaNet-Italy Study Group 2017, ' Group A rotavirus genotypes in hospital-acquired gastroenteritis in Italy, 2012-14 ', Journal of Hospital Infection , vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 262-267. (elsevier.com)
  • This VP3 structure, with such a confluence of enzymatic activities, provides a rational platform for designing antivirals to counter rotavirus infection. (lbl.gov)
  • That is, people get sick with rotavirus infection after putting something in their mouth that has been contaminated with fecal material containing the virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Rotaviruses can be zoonotic, that is, become an infection that is passed from animals to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • We need to find out just how common rotavirus infection is in bats, and if similar natural reassortment strains exist in bats in other regions of the world. (cdc.gov)
  • We studied the seroprevalence of antibodies to group A rotavirus in cattle in 67 smallholder farms from Uruará municipality, using counterimmunoelectroosmophoresis with the NCDV strain as a standard antigen. (usp.br)
  • This project has been selected because of "the tremendous global impact of rotavirus diarrhoea on childhood mortality", Merck and the Trust say. (pharmatimes.com)
  • To finish and as the take home message, our review shows that Rotarix, RotaTeq and Rotavac do prevent rotavirus diarrhoea and have comparable safety and efficacy profiles. (cochrane.org)
  • Rotavirus is a major cause of diarrhoea in childhood. (pap.es)
  • Rotavirus is one of the leading causes of childhood diarrhoea worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In particular, we could show an association with diarrhoea for rotavirus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Guidelines for estimating the economic burden of diarrhoeal disease, with focus on assessing the costs of rotavirus diarrhoea. (who.int)
  • Just recently the Travelers rotavirus diarrhoea vaccine started to be given. (ohmyheartsiegirl.com)
  • Two vaccines against rotavirus infections are available. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Extraintestinal rotavirus infections in children with immunodeficiency. (medscape.com)
  • In this report, surveillance data for rotavirus infections in Australia are analysed from four sources: the Laboratory Virology and Serology Reporting Scheme (LabVISE), the National Hospital Morbidity database, the Northern Territory notifiable diseases data and the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Programme. (alcohol.gov.au)
  • 7 Within hospital nurseries rotavirus may be endemic with a single strain circulating for years 8,9 and nosocomial infections are common. (alcohol.gov.au)
  • Avian rotavirus (AvRV) infections range from subclinical to acute with enteritis and diarrhea. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Rotavirus infections have become one of the most common causes of infectious gastroenteritis in children. (tropmedres.ac)
  • Although rotavirus infections have been intensively studied in infants and young children, the study in adults has been limited. (tropmedres.ac)
  • About half a million children under the age of five die every year from rotavirus infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Speaking to an indirect effect of the rotavirus vaccine, a separate poster provides circumstantial evidence for the effect of rotavirus immunization on hospitalizations for community-acquired rotavirus. (medscape.com)
  • Community acquired rotavirus immunization correlated with a dramatic decrease in the substantial burden of hospital-acquired rotavirus," Dr. Anderson said. (medscape.com)
  • Prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis among infants and children: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). (medscape.com)
  • Shuaib represented by Mrs Lami Lebechukwu commended the Abia State government for their being very supportive of health-related issues and expressed joy that the deadly Rotavirus has been adedd to routine immunization given to Nigerian children. (vanguardngr.com)
  • RotaTeq is a prescription medicine used as a vaccine for immunization to prevent rotavirus gastroenteritis. (rxlist.com)
  • Since 2009, the World Health Organization has recommended that a rotavirus vaccine be included in all national infant and child immunization programmes, and almost 100 countries currently do so. (cochrane.org)
  • Giving your baby the rotavirus immunization is an important way to protect your little one from this illness," says Yasmin Nibbe, a San Francisco pediatrician . (onemedical.com)
  • Title : Rotavirus and Hepatitis A Personal Author(s) : Freedman, Mark Corporate Authors(s) : National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (U.S.). Immunization Services Division. (cdc.gov)
  • The immunological basis for immunization series: module 21: rotavirus. (who.int)
  • The Netherlands has no national rotavirus immunization program , but HRV was implemented in routine care for MRC infants in 13 Dutch hospitals . (bvsalud.org)
  • Leshem E, Lopman B, Glass R, Gentsch J, Bányai K, Parashar U, Patel M. Distribution of rotavirus strains and strain-specific effectiveness of the rotavirus vaccine after its introduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis external icon . (cdc.gov)
  • The rotavirus parent strains of the reassortants were isolated from human and bovine hosts. (rxlist.com)
  • In a similar manner to the classification of influenza virus strains, serotypes of Group A rotaviruses are defined by the characteristics of the two outer proteins (e.g. (alcohol.gov.au)
  • Because of the detection of rare rotavirus genotypes, such as G8, the surveillance of rotavirus epidemiology is crucial in monitoring new emergences of rotavirus strains, leading to a better understanding of the effects of strain variation for further vaccine development. (tropmedres.ac)
  • The aim of the study was to develop a method to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious particles of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and two strains of rotavirus (RV) following thermal inactivation by using intercalating dyes combined with RT-qPCR. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The results of this study underline the importance of whole-genome characterisation of rotavirus strains and provide insights into interspecies transmissions from porcine to humans. (smu.ac.za)
  • Rotavirus commonly causes severe, watery diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. (cdc.gov)
  • Almost all babies who get rotavirus vaccine will be protected from severe rotavirus diarrhea. (cdc.gov)
  • Irritability or mild, temporary diarrhea or vomiting can happen after rotavirus vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Diarrhea-associated healthcare events, particularly hospitalizations, declined after introduction of rotavirus vaccine," said Jennifer Cortes, MD, from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Cortes presented a late-breaking poster on a retrospective study that estimated vaccine coverage and postvaccine rates of healthcare use for diarrhea in 29 million privately insured US children younger than 5 years of age after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine (July 2007 - June 2008) compared with mean prevaccine rates from July 2001 to June 2006. (medscape.com)
  • Rotavirus is a common virus that causes diarrhea (frequent, loose watery stool) and throwing up. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Rotavirus Vaccine The rotavirus vaccine is a live-virus vaccine that helps protect against gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus, which causes vomiting, diarrhea, and, if symptoms persist, dehydration and organ. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Therefore, we have updated this review in order to examine the latest evidence on both the benefits and the potential side effects of the rotavirus vaccines that have been prequalified by the WHO for preventing diarrhea and deaths in infants and young children. (cochrane.org)
  • Rotavirus is a contagious virus that causes nausea and diarrhea. (ahealthyme.com)
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhea in infants and children worldwide. (onemedical.com)
  • The two available vaccines are considered highly effective (between 85 and 98 percent) in preventing rotavirus in infants and young kids, although they won't prevent diarrhea or vomiting caused by other viruses. (onemedical.com)
  • Of 731 stool specimens collected from children with diarrhea in Kathmandu, Nepal, from August 2004 through July 2005, 170 (23.3%) tested positive for rotavirus. (cdc.gov)
  • Diarrhea mortality remains a leading cause of child death and rotavirus vaccine an effective tool for preventing severe rotavirus diarrhea. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We reviewed published vaccine efficacy trials to estimate a regional-specific effect of vaccine efficacy on severe rotavirus diarrhea and hospitalizations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effect sizes observed for preventing severe rotavirus diarrhea will be used in LiST as the effect size for rotavirus vaccine on rotavirus-specific diarrhea mortality. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using hospitalization data as a best estimate of severe diarrheal disease and a proxy for diarrhea mortality, it has been estimated that rotavirus may be responsible for up to 39% of child deaths, the majority of which occur in low and middle income countries [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We previously conducted and published the results of a systematic review to identify studies assessing the effect of rotavirus vaccine on diarrhea incidence and mortality using the guidelines established by the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG) [ 3 , 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Calling it a milestone achievement, health minister JP Nadda said , "Adding this life-saving vaccine to our immunisation programme will not only improve the health of our children but also reduce hospitalisation and other conditions associated with diarrhea due to Rotavirus such as malnutrition, delayed physical and mental development among children. (thebetterindia.com)
  • Faecal specimens collected from individuals with acute diarrhea were frozen, stored at -70°C and forwarded to the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program in Melbourne, Australia. (cdc.gov)
  • Rotavirus is a worldwide etiologic agent of diarrhea, responsible for large economic losses. (usp.br)
  • Rotavirus is the most lethal form of childhood diarrhea, and unlike many other diarrhea pathogens, even hygiene and sanitation are ineffective against it. (defeatdd.org)
  • About 9 out of 10 children who get the vaccine will be protected from severe rotavirus illness (fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and changes in behavior), while about seven to eight out of 10 children will be completely protected from rotavirus illness. (cdc.gov)
  • This can include being irritable or having mild, temporary diarrhea, or vomiting after getting a dose of rotavirus vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Rotavirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis, which leads to severe diarrhea and vomiting. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute diarrhea in children. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Two types of diarrhea can be prevented - rotavirus diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea. (medlineplus.gov)
  • B. Percentage of diarrhea hospitalization attributable to rotavirus for countries in different World Bank income groups, by GNP per capita of the country. (cdc.gov)
  • Rotavirus is a scourge of infants and young children especially in the developing world as it can cause diarrhea and fatal dehydration. (acsh.org)
  • Mathew Esona] Rotaviruses are the most common cause of diarrhea in infants and young children, and are a serious public health issue. (cdc.gov)
  • Rotavirus can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting in the U. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) announced today. (thebritishbottlecompany.com)
  • Rotavirus can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting in infants and young children. (thedaywerodetherainbow.com)
  • Rotavirus can cause severe diarrhea and vomiting in the United States. (potbaker.com)
  • Merck Sharp and Dohme will contribute components of its existing rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq. (pharmatimes.com)
  • RotaTeq is a live, oral pentavalent vaccine that contains 5 live reassortant rotaviruses. (rxlist.com)
  • RotaTeq® is indicated for the prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants and children caused by the serotypes G1, G2, G3, and G4 when administered as a 3-dose series to infants between the ages of 6 to 32 weeks. (rxlist.com)
  • BACKGROUND: A pentavalent, bovine-derived rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq, Merck) was licensed in 2006 for use in infants. (healthpartners.com)
  • Both rotavirus vaccines (Rotarix® and RotaTeq®) were tested in large clinical trials that involved thousands of infants and were found to be safe and effective. (cdc.gov)
  • DTaP, Prevnar7 (pneumococcal) and Rotateq (Rotavirus vaccine). (yogaesoteric.net)
  • Another virus called "porcine circovirus" can be found in one brand of rotavirus vaccine (Rotarix). (cdc.gov)
  • Rotarix is a two-dose, orally-administered vaccine that offers protection against rotavirus to infants. (gsk.com)
  • Patient information including age, date of sample collection, sex, immunisation status with regard to the Rotarix rotavirus vaccine and Indigenous status was obtained. (cdc.gov)
  • FDA safety communication: FDA releases final study results of a Mini-Sentinel Postlicensure Observational Study of rotavirus vaccines and intussusception [press release]. (medscape.com)
  • A previously licensed rotavirus vaccine was withdrawn due to elevated risk of intussusception. (healthpartners.com)
  • There is a very low risk (1 to 7 cases per 100 000) of intussusception after the rotavirus vaccine. (alberta.ca)
  • A previous oral rotavirus vaccine ( RotaShield , Wyeth-Ayerst) was withdrawn from the market in 1999 after being associated with approximately 10 excess intussusception cases per 100,000 vaccinated infants. (medscape.com)
  • Baseline rates for intussusception hospitalizations were from pooled global estimates, and the researchers estimated the number of rotavirus deaths and hospitalizations prevented using published data on prevaccine rotavirus burden and vaccine effectiveness estimates. (medscape.com)
  • We found that essentially for every 1 child who dies of vaccine-associated intussusception, we would save about 400 children from death from rotavirus, and for every 1 child who is hospitalized for intussusception because of the vaccine, we would prevent about 841 children from being hospitalized for rotavirus," Dr. Desai told Medscape Medical News . (medscape.com)
  • Intussusception among recipients of rotavirus vaccine - United States, 1998- 1999. (sciendo.com)
  • Most babies who get rotavirus vaccine do not have any side effects. (cdc.gov)
  • Rotavirus vaccine is administered by putting drops in the child's mouth. (cdc.gov)
  • But if they do, doctors test your child's stool for rotavirus. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Ask your child's healthcare provider about the rotavirus vaccine. (ahealthyme.com)
  • But anyone with a weak immune system should not change your child's diapers for 10 days after they had the rotavirus vaccine (if this is possible). (alberta.ca)
  • A happy family awaits their child's receipt of rotavirus vaccine at Rwanda's launch in 2012. (defeatdd.org)
  • Your child's doctor can help you choose which rotavirus vaccine to use. (cdc.gov)
  • Flagellin triggered the innate immune system, which provides an immediate response to pathogens, to produce two proteins: Interleukin-22, which prevented the virus from entering cells, and Interleukin-18, which removed existing rotavirus from infected cells. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Segmented RNA viruses are ubiquitous pathogens, which include influenza viruses and rotaviruses. (cipsm.de)
  • We aimed to analyse the diagnostic performance of the Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogens panel, a multiplex PCR, to detect rotavirus in stool samples from Ghanaian children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The viruses studied at the Department are either major pathogens ( rabies virus, herpesvirus, rotavirus and human immunodeficiency virus ) or excellent models for the precise dissection of the different stages of the viral cycle ( bacteriophages SPP1 and T5, virus of vesicular stomatitis ). (paris-saclay.fr)
  • Phylograms indicating genetic relationships of partial or complete nucleotide sequences of A) nonstructural protein 2 (NSP2), B) NSP3, C) NSP4, and D) NSP5 of bat rotavirus strain Bat/KE4852/07 ( boldface ) from Kenya with representatives of known human and animal rotavirus genotypes. (cdc.gov)
  • Of 76 rotavirus reference assay positive samples, 64 were successfully genotyped and the Luminex xTAG assay was able to detect all rotavirus genotypes present in the study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The first dose of rotavirus vaccine should be given before a child is 15 weeks of age. (cdc.gov)
  • Starting at 2 months old, infants should get two or three doses depending on the brand of rotavirus vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • Babies should get 2 or 3 doses of rotavirus vaccine, depending on the brand of vaccine used. (cdc.gov)
  • Children should receive all doses of rotavirus vaccine before they turn 8 months of age. (cdc.gov)
  • The introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine in India. (sciendo.com)
  • and Carl Kirkwood, an associate professor at the Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, and head of the Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • The continued availability of rotavirus vaccines around the world remains critical from a public health perspective to protect children from rotavirus disease. (gsk.com)
  • There are vaccines to protect children from rotavirus, but in many parts of the world it isn't widely available. (cdc.gov)
  • FDA Approves New Vaccine to Prevent Gastroenteritis Caused by Rotavirus. (medscape.com)
  • Rota + Adeno + Noro GI + GII - One step, immunochromatographic assay for the differential detection of Rotavirus and Adenovirus and Norovirus genogroups I and II from faecal specimens. (bio-medicallabs.com)
  • Viruses such as the flu , norovirus , or rotavirus . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Illustration of membrane-bound vesicles containing clusters of viruses, including rotavirus and norovirus, within the gut. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers studied norovirus and rotavirus --hard-to-treat viruses that are the most common cause of stomach illness, or gastroenteritis, and that afflicts millions of people each year. (nih.gov)
  • Variations in the two proteins making up the outer layer, viral protein 4 (VP-4, or P (protease-sensitive) and viral protein 7 (VP-7, or G (glyco-protein) are used to further classify rotaviruses. (alcohol.gov.au)
  • Avian rotavirus (AvRV) is a major cause of viral GI disease in mammals and birds . (msdvetmanual.com)
  • We show that binding of the rotavirus-encoded non-structural protein NSP2 to viral ssRNAs results in the remodeling of RNA, which is conducive to formation of stable inter-segment contacts. (cipsm.de)
  • Of the six proteins that form the rotavirus particle, only one-viral protein 3 (VP3)-had a structure that remained unsolved after 30 years. (lbl.gov)
  • Combining cryo-electron microscopy, biochemical assays, and protein crystallography at Advanced Light Source Beamline 5.0.2 (part of the Berkeley Center for Structural Biology ), researchers from the Baylor College of Medicine discovered that VP3 incorporates in one place all the enzymatic activities required to effectively cap rotavirus mRNA, making it unique among viral-capping enzymes. (lbl.gov)
  • Almost all children in the U.S. are likely to be infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Burden of rotavirus disease among children visiting pediatric emergency departments in Cincinnati, Ohio, and Oakland, California, in 1999-2000. (medscape.com)
  • Rotavirus gastroenteritis is common in infants and young children. (who.int)
  • Children with rotavirus may need to be hospitalized. (childrens.com)
  • Children are at greater risk of having rotavirus if they attend daycare or if they live with someone who currently has rotavirus. (childrens.com)
  • Most of the deaths associated with rotavirus occur in children in low- and middle-income countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent. (cochrane.org)
  • VOA] Abuja, Nigeria -- Nigeria this week added a rotavirus vaccine to its national program that is expected to prevent 50,000 deaths of children per year from the diarrheal disease. (medworm.com)
  • What is rotavirus in children? (ahealthyme.com)
  • Which children are at risk for rotavirus? (ahealthyme.com)
  • Although it most commonly affects infants and young kids, rotavirus can also strike older children and adults, causing symptoms to appear about two days after exposure to the virus. (onemedical.com)
  • According to Hsu, the gastrointestinal symptoms of rotavirus can hit young children really hard. (onemedical.com)
  • During his three-day visit to India, President Barack Obama issued a joint statement with Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi praising the "highly successful collaboration" that led to the availability of a newly developed Indian rotavirus vaccine, which is expected to save 80,000 children in India alone each year. (stanford.edu)
  • Greenberg was the lead inventor of the first-generation vaccine for rotavirus, a severe diarrheal disease that kills between 300,000 and 400,000 children each in the developing world. (stanford.edu)
  • Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis among children below five years of age and it is estimated that more than half a million children die of rotavirus gastroenteritis each year- a child a minute worldwide. (gsk.com)
  • Infants were most frequently affected, 15 (71, 43%) of the 21 children rotavirus-positive, were infants ≤ 1 year of age. (scialert.net)
  • Since the discovery of rotaviruses in 1973, at the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, 1 they have been recognised as a leading cause of severe and acute diarrhoeal illness in young children throughout the world. (alcohol.gov.au)
  • Rotavirus infects almost all infants by the age of five years, although severe disease appears almost always in children of three to thirty-six months. (pap.es)
  • Rotavirus appears in high concentrations in the stools of infected children having an increasing capacity of transmission person to person. (pap.es)
  • Rotavirus is most problematic in infants and young children, who can become severely dehydrated and require hospitalization. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Rotavirus causes about 500,000 deaths annually worldwide in children younger than five years of age, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Rotavirus spreads easily among infants and young children. (cdc.gov)
  • Children who get rotavirus disease can become dehydrated and may need to be hospitalized. (cdc.gov)
  • Before a vaccine was available, many children who became ill with rotavirus were hospitalized. (cdc.gov)
  • Currently, very few vaccinated children are hospitalized because of rotavirus illness (94% to 96% are protected from hospitalization). (cdc.gov)
  • We aimed to evaluate the performance of the Luminex xTAG GPP multiplex PCR in comparison to a reference quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to detect rotavirus in stool samples from Ghanaian children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rotavirus, a major cause of infantile gastroenteritis, is responsible for the deaths of about 200,000 children per year, mostly in developing countries. (lbl.gov)
  • During the rotavirus season, decreases in these parameters were even greater, with a 47% decline in hospitalizations, a 20% decline in emergency department visits, and a 17% decline in outpatient visits for diarrheal illness. (medscape.com)
  • This study, presented by Evan J. Anderson, MD, from Northwestern Memorial Hospital in Chicago, Illinois, looked at the numbers of hospitalizations for community-acquired rotavirus for September through May for each of the years 2003 through 2008. (medscape.com)
  • By the investigators' calculations, rotavirus vaccine would avert 144,746 hospitalizations for rotavirus gastroenteritis and 4124 rotavirus deaths if a hypothetical cohort of 9.5 million infants in 14 Latin American countries was vaccinated. (medscape.com)
  • Overall, the observed number of rotavirus hospitalizations was low and not significantly different between the cohorts (2 and 2, respectively). (bvsalud.org)
  • Methods We build a financial risk protection model to evaluate the impact of immunisation against measles, severe pneumococcal disease and severe rotavirus for birth cohorts vaccinated over 2016-2030 for three scenarios in 41 Gavi-eligible countries: no immunisation, current immunisation coverage forecasts and the current immunisation coverage enhanced with funding support. (eur.nl)
  • Results In the absence of any vaccine coverage, the number of CHC cases attributable to measles, severe pneumococcal disease and severe rotavirus would be approximately 18.9 million, 6.6 million and 2.2 million, respectively. (eur.nl)
  • Although there are many viruses that cause the same symptoms as rotavirus, doctors don't always need to tell them apart. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Rotaviruses comprise a genus within the family Reoviridae that includes viruses that inhabit both the respiratory and enteric systems of birds and mammals. (alcohol.gov.au)
  • Our findings elucidate the molecular basis underlying inter-segment interactions in rotaviruses, paving the way for delineating similar RNA-RNA interactions that govern assembly of other segmented RNA viruses. (cipsm.de)
  • Four reassortant rotaviruses express one of the outer capsid proteins (G1, G2, G3, or G4) from the human rotavirus parent strain and the attachment protein ( serotype P7) from the bovine rotavirus parent strain. (rxlist.com)
  • The fifth reassortant virus expresses the attachment protein, P1A ( genotype P[8]), herein referred to as serotype P1A[8], from the human rotavirus parent strain and the outer capsid protein of serotype G6 from the bovine rotavirus parent strain (see Table 7). (rxlist.com)
  • The current vaccines include a monovalent attenuated human rotavirus vaccine and a pentavalent human-bovine reassortant vaccine. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Samuel Katz, MD, professor and chair emeritus of the Department of Pediatrics at Duke University Medical School in Durham, North Carolina, told Medscape Medical News that this is "a well-conducted amalgam of studies in 14 countries looking at the incidence of rotavirus disease and looking at prevention with vaccine. (medscape.com)
  • If your child has rotavirus, they may not be able to attend daycare or school while ill. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Any child who is around a child sick with rotavirus is at risk. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Only 100 samples tested positive for rotavirus via an immunochromatography test. (tropmedres.ac)
  • Dr. Esona is the lead author of an article that looks at the detection of rotaviruses in fruit bats and the discovery of a unique rotavirus strain. (cdc.gov)
  • As such, this study assessed the prevalence of rotaviruses and performed the molecular characterization of rotaviruses circulating in Thai adults experiencing acute gastroenteritis between January 2018 and December 2018. (tropmedres.ac)
  • On Friday, July 16, 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) released its first updated rotavirus vaccine position paper since 2013. (defeatdd.org)
  • Rotavirus surveillance--worldwide, 2001-2008. (medscape.com)
  • Eastern Mediterranean Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Surveillance Network (EMRSN): Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), 2011. (who.int)
  • The importance of surveillance data for future rotavirus vaccine development is discussed. (alcohol.gov.au)
  • The Luminex xTAG assay proved a sensitive and highly specific tool to detect rotavirus and may aid clinicians and public health authorities in the diagnosis and surveillance of rotavirus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The global prevalence of avian rotavirus ranges from 19%-70% in turkeys and 10%-47% of chicken flocks. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Prevalence and diversity of human rotavirus among Thai adults. (tropmedres.ac)
  • Reassortment of human rotavirus genes onto animal rotavirus strain backbone has been done experimentally, but this bat rotavirus represents the first finding of natural reassortment. (cdc.gov)
  • Group A human rotaviruses were detected in 100 feces samples by rapid immunochromatography. (tropmedres.ac)
  • However, if you child does get rotavirus again, the symptoms may not be as severe. (childrens.com)
  • What are the signs and symptoms of Pediatric Rotavirus? (childrens.com)
  • What are the symptoms of rotavirus in a child? (ahealthyme.com)
  • The symptoms of rotavirus can be like other health conditions. (ahealthyme.com)
  • Healthy adults infected with rotavirus may experience more mild versions of these symptoms, or none at all. (onemedical.com)
  • Rotavirus is found worldwide but most of these deaths occur in non-industrialized countries, like Kenya, which is where we did our study. (cdc.gov)
  • Efficacy of a monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine in Indian infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (sciendo.com)
  • There is a need for further detailed studies on the molecular characterization of rotavirus which would have important implications in vaccine evaluation programs. (scialert.net)
  • Although vaccines are available that reduce the severity and incidence of the illness, the the virus continues to circulate in human and animal reservoirs, and scientists continue investigations into how rotavirus molecular structures relate to function. (lbl.gov)