A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.
INFLAMMATION of any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM. Causes of gastroenteritis are many including genetic, infection, HYPERSENSITIVITY, drug effects, and CANCER.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A form of intestinal obstruction caused by the PROLAPSE of a part of the intestine into the adjoining intestinal lumen. There are four types: colic, involving segments of the LARGE INTESTINE; enteric, involving only the SMALL INTESTINE; ileocecal, in which the ILEOCECAL VALVE prolapses into the CECUM, drawing the ILEUM along with it; and ileocolic, in which the ileum prolapses through the ileocecal valve into the COLON.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Animals not contaminated by or associated with any foreign organisms.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Infections with ASTROVIRUS, causing gastroenteritis in human infants, calves, lambs, and piglets.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of small, circular RNA viruses in the family ASTROVIRIDAE. They cause GASTROENTERITIS and are found in the stools of several vertebrates including humans. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route and there are at least eight human serotypes. The type species is Human astrovirus.
A genus in the family CALICIVIRIDAE, associated with epidemic GASTROENTERITIS in humans. The type species, NORWALK VIRUS, contains multiple strains.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nicaragua" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American isthmus, bordering Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. It has both Atlantic and Pacific coasts. The term you might be looking for is "Nicotine," which is a highly addictive stimulant found in tobacco leaves and is used as an ingredient in various products, including cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, and some medications.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.

A high-Mr glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk potent in inhibiting replication of human rotavirus in vitro. (1/2332)

Rotavirus is the major cause of infectious diarrhea in infants and young children all over the world. We have found that a high-M(r) glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk is potent in inhibiting replication of human rotaviruses in vitro. Since the activity seems to be unique and specific, this fraction may be useful as a novel agent for treatment or prevention of rotavirus diarrhea.  (+info)

Rotavirus G-type restriction, persistence, and herd type specificity in Swedish cattle herds. (2/2332)

G-typing of rotavirus strains enables the study of molecular epidemiology and gathering of information to promote disease prevention and control. Rotavirus strains in fecal specimens from neonatal calves in Swedish cattle herds were therefore characterized by using G1 to -4-, G6-, G8-, and G10-specific primers in reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Fecal samples were collected from one dairy herd (herd A) for 4 consecutive years and from 41 beef and dairy herds (herd B) experiencing calf diarrhea outbreaks. Altogether, 1, 700 samples were analyzed by group A rotavirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and 98 rotavirus-positive specimens were selected for G-typing by RT-PCR. The effect of herd type, time, geographic region, and clinical symptoms on the G-type distribution was evaluated. Altogether (herds A and B), G10 was found in 59 (60. 2%) fecal specimens, G6 was found in 30 (30.6%) specimens, G3 was found in 1 (1.0%) specimen, and G8 was found in 1 (1.0%) specimen. Seven (7.1%) fecal specimens were not typeable. Herd type specificity in the G-type distribution was demonstrated in the herds in herd B. In the 6 beef suckler herds, only G6 was detected, while rotavirus strains from the 35 dairy herds were predominantly (54%) G10. The G-type distribution was restricted in herds A and B. Twenty-nine of 30 strains from herd A were characterized as G10. In the vast majority of herds in herd B, a single G-type was identified. The serotype G10 and the electropherotype persisted over time in herd A. No characteristic G-type variation in the geographic distribution of cattle herds in herd B was obvious. There was no difference in the G-type distributions between the strains from clinically and subclinically rotavirus-infected calves in dairy herd A. The results from this study strongly indicate a pronounced stability in the rotavirus G-type distribution in Swedish cattle herds, which emphasizes the importance of continuous preventive measures for control of neonatal calf diarrhea. A future bovine rotavirus vaccine in Sweden should contain G10 and G6 strains.  (+info)

Two non-structural rotavirus proteins, NSP2 and NSP5, form viroplasm-like structures in vivo. (3/2332)

In rotavirus-infected cells, the non-structural proteins NSP5 and NSP2 localize in complexes called viroplasms, where replication and assembly occur. Recently, we have demonstrated direct interaction of NSP5 with NSP2, and as a consequence of that, up-regulation of NSP5 hyperphosphorylation. To investigate a possible structural role for the NSP2-NSP5 interaction, we analysed the cytoplasmic distribution of the two proteins in transfected cells by immunofluorescence using specific antibodies. Here we report that NSP2 and NSP5 can drive the formation of viroplasm-like structures (VLS) in the absence of other rotaviral proteins and rotavirus replication. Several NSP5 deletion mutants were constructed and expressed in combination with NSP2. Both the N- and C-terminal domains of NSP5 were found to be essential for VLS formation. Only one mutant, with an internal deletion of residues 81-130, was able to interact with NSP2 to form VLS. Analysis of the phosphorylation capacity of the different mutants in vivo indicated that hyperphosphorylation of NSP5 is necessary, but not sufficient, for VLS formation. Our results suggest a role for the non-structural protein NSP5 in the structure of viroplasms mediated by its interaction with NSP2.  (+info)

Genetic and antigenic variation of capsid protein VP7 of serotype G1 human rotavirus isolates. (4/2332)

The deduced amino acid sequences of the outer capsid protein, VP7, of serotype G1 rotavirus clinical isolates collected over a 6 year period (1990-1995) in Melbourne, Australia, were examined. Phylogenetic analysis characterized the sequences into two discrete clusters representing two of the four global lineages of human G1 VP7 proteins. Antigenic characterization using a panel of serotype G1-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies classified lineage II isolates (1990-1993) as monotype G1a while lineage I isolates were classified as monotype G1b (1993-1995). Examination of the sequences of the neutralization epitope regions of VP7 revealed a particular amino acid substitution at residue 94 in region A (Asp --> Ser/Thr) that correlated with lineage and monotype designation. Our results indicated that temporal genetic variation of the VP7 of serotype G1 rotaviruses was associated with changes in the antigenicity of these isolates.  (+info)

Rotavirus capsid protein VP5* permeabilizes membranes. (5/2332)

Proteolytic cleavage of the VP4 outer capsid spike protein into VP8* and VP5* proteins is required for rotavirus infectivity and for rotavirus-induced membrane permeability. In this study we addressed the function of the VP5* cleavage fragment in permeabilizing membranes. Expressed VP5* and truncated VP5* proteins were purified by nickel affinity chromatography and assayed for their ability to permeabilize large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) preloaded with carboxyfluorescein (CF). VP5* and VP5* truncations, but not VP4 or VP8*, permeabilized LUVs as measured by fluorescence dequenching of released CF. Similar to virus-induced CF release, VP5*-induced CF release was concentration and temperature dependent, with a pH optimum of 7.35 at 37 degrees C, but independent of the presence of divalent cations or cholesterol. VP5*-induced permeability was completely inhibited by VP5*-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (2G4, M2, or M7) which recognize conformational epitopes on VP5* but was not inhibited by VP8*-specific neutralizing antibodies. In addition, N-terminal and C-terminal VP5* truncations including residues 265 to 474 are capable of permeabilizing LUVs. These findings demonstrate that VP5* permeabilizes membranes in the absence of other rotavirus proteins and that membrane-permeabilizing VP5* truncations contain the putative fusion region within predicted virion surface domains. The ability of recombinant expressed VP5* to permeabilize membranes should permit us to functionally define requirements for VP5*-membrane interactions. These findings indicate that VP5* is a specific membrane-permeabilizing capsid protein which is likely to play a role in the cellular entry of rotaviruses.  (+info)

Isolation of a human rotavirus strain with a super-short RNA pattern and a new P2 subtype. (6/2332)

Super-short rotavirus strains that have a rearranged gene segment 11 are rarely found in humans, and only five isolates, all from Southeast Asia, have been described in the literature. We report the first isolation in Japan from an infant with severe diarrhea of a rotavirus possessing a super-short RNA pattern. This strain, designated AU19, had a G1 VP7 and is also the first isolate in Japan that possesses a P2[6] VP4. Furthermore, the P2[6] VP4 carried by AU19 was divergent in the hypervariable region of the amino acid sequence from the P2A[6] VP4s carried by asymptomatic neonatal strains or from the P2B[6] VP4 carried by porcine rotavirus strain Gottfried. Thus, AU19 is likely to represent a new VP4 subtype, which we propose to call P2C. Given the recent emergence of the P2[6] VP4s in India, Brazil, and the United States and the role of VP4 in protective immunity, further scrutiny is justified to see whether the emergence of the previously underrepresented P2[6] VP4 serotype is related to this new P2 subtype.  (+info)

Genetic and antigenic characterization of a serotype P[6]G9 human rotavirus strain isolated in the United States. (7/2332)

During an epidemiologic survey of rotavirus infections established to monitor the prevalent G serotypes circulating in the United States, human P[6]G9, subgroup I rotavirus strains causing symptomatic infections were identified as the fourth most common serotype. In this report we describe the molecular and antigenic characterization of one of these P[6]G9 isolates (US1205). Neutralization and sequencing studies have demonstrated that both outer capsid proteins, VP7 and VP4, of US1205 are closely related to but genetically and antigenically distinguishable from those of standard G9 strains (e.g., F45, WI61) and standard P2A[6] strains (e. g., ST3, M37). Thus the complete antigenic type of US1205 is P2A[6]G9, subgroup I. Sequence analysis of the VP6 and NSP4 genes of US1205 indicates that strain US1205 possessed VP6 subgroup I and NSP4A genotype specificities. Finally, Northern hybridization studies suggest that the P[6]G9 strains are closely related to members of the DS-1 genogroup except for their P[6] VP4 gene, which has been commonly identified in strains of both major human genogroups, and their G9 VP7 gene, which may have been derived by reassortment with a Wa genogroup strain. Examination of historic collections and prospective surveillance of strains will be needed to determine whether this strain has been present for some time or if it is emerging to compete with the other common serotypes of rotavirus.  (+info)

Enteropathogens and other factors associated with severe disease in children with acute watery diarrhea in Lima, Peru. (8/2332)

To evaluate enteropathogens and other factors associated with severe disease in children with diarrhea, 381 children <5 years of age with diarrhea and moderate to severe dehydration (in-patients) and 381 age-, sex-, and date-of-visit-matched children with mild diarrhea (out-patients) presenting to a hospital in Peru, were studied. Rotavirus was detected in 52% of the in-patients and 35% of the out-patients (odds ratio [OR]=2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]= 1.6-3.2); 95% of the rotaviruses among in-patients were of serotypes G1-G4. The risk of severe diarrhea was particularly great in children who were not exclusively breast-fed in early infancy and who also lacked piped water in their homes (for children with both characteristics OR=6.8, 95% CI=3.6-12.8). The high prevalence of rotavirus and its association with severe diarrhea underscores the need for rotavirus vaccines. Interventions to educate mothers and improve access to safe water should augment the impact of rotavirus vaccines in preventing severe diarrhea.  (+info)

Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the Reoviridae family, which is a leading cause of severe diarrhea and gastroenteritis in young children and infants worldwide. The virus infects and damages the cells lining the small intestine, resulting in symptoms such as vomiting, watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Rotavirus is highly contagious and can be spread through contact with infected individuals or contaminated surfaces, food, or water. The virus is typically transmitted via the fecal-oral route, meaning that it enters the body through the mouth after coming into contact with contaminated hands, objects, or food.

Rotavirus infections are often self-limiting and resolve within a few days to a week, but severe cases can lead to dehydration, hospitalization, and even death, particularly in developing countries where access to medical care and rehydration therapy may be limited. Fortunately, there are effective vaccines available that can prevent rotavirus infection and reduce the severity of symptoms in those who do become infected.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among children under 5 years of age. It is responsible for around 215,000 deaths among children in this age group each year.

Rotavirus infection causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines, resulting in symptoms such as vomiting, watery diarrhea, and fever. The virus is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated hands, food, or water. It can also be spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Rotavirus infections are highly contagious and can spread rapidly in communities, particularly in settings where children are in close contact with each other, such as child care centers and schools. The infection is usually self-limiting and resolves within a few days, but severe cases can lead to dehydration and require hospitalization.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing with soap and water, safe disposal of feces, and rotavirus vaccination. The WHO recommends the inclusion of rotavirus vaccines in national immunization programs to reduce the burden of severe diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection.

Rotavirus vaccines are preventive measures used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration among infants and young children worldwide. These vaccines contain weakened or inactivated forms of the rotavirus, a pathogen that infects and causes symptoms by multiplying inside cells lining the small intestine.

The weakened or inactivated virus in the vaccine stimulates an immune response in the body, enabling it to recognize and fight off future rotavirus infections more effectively. The vaccines are usually administered orally, as a liquid droplet or on a sugar cube, to mimic natural infection through the gastrointestinal tract.

There are currently two licensed rotavirus vaccines available globally:

1. Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline): This vaccine contains an attenuated (weakened) strain of human rotavirus and is given in a two-dose series, typically at 2 and 4 months of age.
2. RotaTeq (Merck): This vaccine contains five reassortant viruses, combining human and animal strains to provide broader protection. It is administered in a three-dose series, usually at 2, 4, and 6 months of age.

Rotavirus vaccines have been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and related hospitalizations among infants and young children. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the inclusion of rotavirus vaccination in national immunization programs, particularly in countries with high child mortality rates due to diarrheal diseases.

Gastroenteritis is not a medical condition itself, but rather a symptom-based description of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, primarily involving the stomach and intestines. It's often referred to as "stomach flu," although it's not caused by influenza virus.

Medically, gastroenteritis is defined as an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines, usually resulting in symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration. This condition can be caused by various factors, including viral (like rotavirus or norovirus), bacterial (such as Salmonella, Shigella, or Escherichia coli), or parasitic infections, food poisoning, allergies, or the use of certain medications.

Gastroenteritis is generally self-limiting and resolves within a few days with proper hydration and rest. However, severe cases may require medical attention to prevent complications like dehydration, which can be particularly dangerous for young children, older adults, and individuals with weakened immune systems.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Capsid proteins are the structural proteins that make up the capsid, which is the protective shell of a virus. The capsid encloses the viral genome and helps to protect it from degradation and detection by the host's immune system. Capsid proteins are typically arranged in a symmetrical pattern and can self-assemble into the capsid structure when exposed to the viral genome.

The specific arrangement and composition of capsid proteins vary between different types of viruses, and they play important roles in the virus's life cycle, including recognition and binding to host cells, entry into the cell, and release of the viral genome into the host cytoplasm. Capsid proteins can also serve as targets for antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Infantile diarrhea is a medical condition characterized by loose, watery stools in infants and young children. It can be caused by various factors such as viral or bacterial infections, food intolerances, allergies, or malabsorption disorders. In some cases, it may also be associated with certain medications or underlying medical conditions.

Infantile diarrhea can lead to dehydration and other complications if not treated promptly and properly. It is important to monitor the infant's hydration status by checking for signs of dehydration such as dry mouth, sunken eyes, and decreased urine output. If diarrhea persists or is accompanied by vomiting, fever, or other concerning symptoms, it is recommended to seek medical attention promptly.

Treatment for infantile diarrhea typically involves rehydration with oral electrolyte solutions, as well as addressing the underlying cause of the diarrhea if possible. In severe cases, hospitalization and intravenous fluids may be necessary.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Biological toxins are poisonous substances that are produced by living organisms such as bacteria, plants, and animals. They can cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment. Biological toxins can be classified into different categories based on their mode of action, such as neurotoxins (affecting the nervous system), cytotoxins (damaging cells), and enterotoxins (causing intestinal damage).

Examples of biological toxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum bacteria, tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani bacteria, ricin toxin from the castor bean plant, and saxitoxin produced by certain types of marine algae.

Biological toxins can cause a range of symptoms depending on the type and amount of toxin ingested or exposed to, as well as the route of exposure (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, skin contact). They can cause illnesses ranging from mild to severe, and some can be fatal if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prevention and control measures for biological toxins include good hygiene practices, vaccination against certain toxin-producing bacteria, avoidance of contaminated food or water sources, and personal protective equipment (PPE) when handling or working with potential sources of toxins.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Intussusception is a medical condition in which a part of the intestine telescopes into an adjacent section, leading to bowel obstruction and reduced blood flow. It often affects children under 3 years old but can also occur in adults. If not treated promptly, it can result in serious complications such as perforation, peritonitis, or even death. The exact cause is usually unknown, but it may be associated with infections, intestinal disorders, or tumors.

Viral nonstructural proteins (NS) are viral proteins that are not part of the virion structure. They play various roles in the viral life cycle, such as replication of the viral genome, transcription, translation regulation, and modulation of the host cell environment to favor virus replication. These proteins are often produced in large quantities during infection and can manipulate or disrupt various cellular pathways to benefit the virus. They may also be involved in evasion of the host's immune response. The specific functions of viral nonstructural proteins vary depending on the type of virus.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

Reoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by the Reoviridae family of viruses, which are non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses. These viruses are widespread and can infect a variety of hosts, including humans, animals, and insects. The infection typically causes mild respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms in humans, such as cough, runny nose, sore throat, and diarrhea. In some cases, Reoviridae infections may also lead to more severe diseases, such as meningitis or encephalitis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. However, it's worth noting that many Reoviridae infections are asymptomatic and do not cause any noticeable illness.

Reoviridae viruses include several genera, such as Orthoreovirus, Rotavirus, Coltivirus, and Orbivirus, among others. Some of the most well-known human pathogens in this family include Rotaviruses, which are a leading cause of severe diarrheal disease in young children worldwide, and Orthoreoviruses, which can cause respiratory illnesses.

Treatment for Reoviridae infections is generally supportive, focusing on managing symptoms such as fever, dehydration, and pain. Antiviral medications are not typically used to treat these infections. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals, as well as vaccination against specific Reoviridae viruses, such as Rotavirus vaccines.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Reoviridae is a family of double-stranded RNA viruses that are non-enveloped and have a segmented genome. The name "Reoviridae" is derived from Respiratory Enteric Orphan virus, as these viruses were initially discovered in respiratory and enteric (gastrointestinal) samples but did not appear to cause any specific diseases.

The family Reoviridae includes several important human pathogens such as rotaviruses, which are a major cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide, and orthoreoviruses, which can cause respiratory and systemic infections in humans. Additionally, many Reoviridae viruses infect animals, including birds, mammals, fish, and insects, and can cause a variety of diseases.

Reoviridae virions are typically composed of multiple protein layers that encase the genomic RNA segments. The family is divided into two subfamilies, Sedoreovirinae and Spinareovirinae, based on structural features and genome organization. Reoviruses have a complex replication cycle that involves multiple steps, including attachment to host cells, uncoating of the viral particle, transcription of the genomic RNA, translation of viral proteins, packaging of new virions, and release from infected cells.

A viral RNA (ribonucleic acid) is the genetic material found in certain types of viruses, as opposed to viruses that contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). These viruses are known as RNA viruses. The RNA can be single-stranded or double-stranded and can exist as several different forms, such as positive-sense, negative-sense, or ambisense RNA. Upon infecting a host cell, the viral RNA uses the host's cellular machinery to translate the genetic information into proteins, leading to the production of new virus particles and the continuation of the viral life cycle. Examples of human diseases caused by RNA viruses include influenza, COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2), hepatitis C, and polio.

Neutralization tests are a type of laboratory assay used in microbiology and immunology to measure the ability of a substance, such as an antibody or antitoxin, to neutralize the activity of a toxin or infectious agent. In these tests, the substance to be tested is mixed with a known quantity of the toxin or infectious agent, and the mixture is then incubated under controlled conditions. After incubation, the mixture is tested for residual toxicity or infectivity using a variety of methods, such as cell culture assays, animal models, or biochemical assays.

The neutralization titer is then calculated based on the highest dilution of the test substance that completely neutralizes the toxin or infectious agent. Neutralization tests are commonly used in the diagnosis and evaluation of immune responses to vaccines, as well as in the detection and quantification of toxins and other harmful substances.

Examples of neutralization tests include the serum neutralization test for measles antibodies, the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for dengue virus antibodies, and the cytotoxicity neutralization assay for botulinum neurotoxins.

Virus shedding refers to the release of virus particles by an infected individual, who can then transmit the virus to others through various means such as respiratory droplets, fecal matter, or bodily fluids. This occurs when the virus replicates inside the host's cells and is released into the surrounding environment, where it can infect other individuals. The duration of virus shedding varies depending on the specific virus and the individual's immune response. It's important to note that some individuals may shed viruses even before they show symptoms, making infection control measures such as hand hygiene, mask-wearing, and social distancing crucial in preventing the spread of infectious diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

A viral vaccine is a biological preparation that introduces your body to a specific virus in a way that helps your immune system build up protection against the virus without causing the illness. Viral vaccines can be made from weakened or inactivated forms of the virus, or parts of the virus such as proteins or sugars. Once introduced to the body, the immune system recognizes the virus as foreign and produces an immune response, including the production of antibodies. These antibodies remain in the body and provide immunity against future infection with that specific virus.

Viral vaccines are important tools for preventing infectious diseases caused by viruses, such as influenza, measles, mumps, rubella, polio, hepatitis A and B, rabies, rotavirus, chickenpox, shingles, and some types of cancer. Vaccination programs have led to the control or elimination of many infectious diseases that were once common.

It's important to note that viral vaccines are not effective against bacterial infections, and separate vaccines must be developed for each type of virus. Additionally, because viruses can mutate over time, it is necessary to update some viral vaccines periodically to ensure continued protection.

A germ-free life refers to an existence in which an individual is not exposed to or colonized by any harmful microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. This condition is also known as "sterile" or "aseptic." In a medical context, achieving a germ-free state is often the goal in certain controlled environments, such as operating rooms, laboratories, and intensive care units, where the risk of infection must be minimized. However, it is not possible to maintain a completely germ-free life outside of these settings, as microorganisms are ubiquitous in the environment and are an essential part of the human microbiome. Instead, maintaining good hygiene practices and a healthy immune system is crucial for preventing illness and promoting overall health.

RNA viruses are a type of virus that contain ribonucleic acid (RNA) as their genetic material, as opposed to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). RNA viruses replicate by using an enzyme called RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe and replicate their RNA genome.

There are several different groups of RNA viruses, including:

1. Negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that is complementary to the mRNA and must undergo transcription to produce mRNA before translation can occur. Examples include influenza virus, measles virus, and rabies virus.
2. Positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome that can serve as mRNA and can be directly translated into protein after entry into the host cell. Examples include poliovirus, rhinoviruses, and coronaviruses.
3. Double-stranded RNA viruses: These viruses have a genome consisting of double-stranded RNA and use a complex replication strategy involving both transcription and reverse transcription. Examples include rotaviruses and reoviruses.

RNA viruses are known to cause a wide range of human diseases, ranging from the common cold to more severe illnesses such as hepatitis C, polio, and COVID-19. Due to their high mutation rates and ability to adapt quickly to new environments, RNA viruses can be difficult to control and treat with antiviral drugs or vaccines.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of the human body. It is primarily found in external secretions, such as saliva, tears, breast milk, and sweat, as well as in mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. IgA exists in two forms: a monomeric form found in serum and a polymeric form found in secretions.

The primary function of IgA is to provide immune protection at mucosal surfaces, which are exposed to various environmental antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and allergens. By doing so, it helps prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens into the body, reducing the risk of infections and inflammation.

IgA functions by binding to antigens present on the surface of pathogens or allergens, forming immune complexes that can neutralize their activity. These complexes are then transported across the epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces and released into the lumen, where they prevent the adherence and invasion of pathogens.

In summary, Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a vital antibody that provides immune defense at mucosal surfaces by neutralizing and preventing the entry of harmful antigens into the body.

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a slight misunderstanding in your question. RNA, or ribonucleic acid, is typically single-stranded. Unlike DNA, which is double-stranded and forms a double helix, RNA usually exists as a single strand of nucleotides.

There are exceptions to this rule, such as certain types of RNA molecules that can form double-stranded structures in specific contexts. For example:

1. Double-Stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses: These viruses have genomes made entirely of RNA, which is double-stranded throughout or partially double-stranded. The dsRNA viruses include important pathogens such as rotaviruses and reoviruses.
2. Hairpin loops in RNA structures: Some single-stranded RNA molecules can fold back on themselves to form short double-stranded regions, called hairpin loops, within their overall structure. These are often found in ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules.

So, while 'double-stranded RNA' is not a standard medical definition for RNA itself, there are specific instances where RNA can form double-stranded structures as described above.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

Haplorhini is a term used in the field of primatology and physical anthropology to refer to a parvorder of simian primates, which includes humans, apes (both great and small), and Old World monkeys. The name "Haplorhini" comes from the Greek words "haploos," meaning single or simple, and "rhinos," meaning nose.

The defining characteristic of Haplorhini is the presence of a simple, dry nose, as opposed to the wet, fleshy noses found in other primates, such as New World monkeys and strepsirrhines (which include lemurs and lorises). The nostrils of haplorhines are located close together at the tip of the snout, and they lack the rhinarium or "wet nose" that is present in other primates.

Haplorhini is further divided into two infraorders: Simiiformes (which includes apes and Old World monkeys) and Tarsioidea (which includes tarsiers). These groups are distinguished by various anatomical and behavioral differences, such as the presence or absence of a tail, the structure of the hand and foot, and the degree of sociality.

Overall, Haplorhini is a group of primates that share a number of distinctive features related to their sensory systems, locomotion, and social behavior. Understanding the evolutionary history and diversity of this group is an important area of research in anthropology, biology, and psychology.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Hospitalization is the process of admitting a patient to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, surgery, or other health care services. It involves staying in the hospital as an inpatient, typically under the care of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The length of stay can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and the type of treatment required. Hospitalization may be necessary for a variety of reasons, such as to receive intensive care, to undergo diagnostic tests or procedures, to recover from surgery, or to manage chronic illnesses or injuries.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Astroviridae is a family of single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that can cause infectious diseases in humans and animals. The most common symptoms of Astroviridae infections in humans include diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. These symptoms are typically mild and last for only a few days.

Astroviruses are transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated food or water. They can also be spread from person to person, particularly in settings where there is close contact between individuals, such as childcare centers and nursing homes.

In addition to humans, Astroviridae infect a wide range of animals, including birds, mammals, and reptiles. Some strains of Astroviruses can cause more severe disease in animals, particularly in young or immunocompromised individuals.

Prevention measures for Astroviridae infections include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing, and avoiding contact with individuals who are sick. There is currently no specific treatment for Astroviridae infections, and management typically involves supportive care to relieve symptoms.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Cattle diseases are a range of health conditions that affect cattle, which include but are not limited to:

1. Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD): Also known as "shipping fever," BRD is a common respiratory illness in feedlot cattle that can be caused by several viruses and bacteria.
2. Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD): A viral disease that can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, fever, and reproductive issues.
3. Johne's Disease: A chronic wasting disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It primarily affects the intestines and can cause severe diarrhea and weight loss.
4. Digital Dermatitis: Also known as "hairy heel warts," this is a highly contagious skin disease that affects the feet of cattle, causing lameness and decreased productivity.
5. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK): Also known as "pinkeye," IBK is a common and contagious eye infection in cattle that can cause blindness if left untreated.
6. Salmonella: A group of bacteria that can cause severe gastrointestinal illness in cattle, including diarrhea, dehydration, and septicemia.
7. Leptospirosis: A bacterial disease that can cause a wide range of symptoms in cattle, including abortion, stillbirths, and kidney damage.
8. Blackleg: A highly fatal bacterial disease that causes rapid death in young cattle. It is caused by Clostridium chauvoei and vaccination is recommended for prevention.
9. Anthrax: A serious infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Cattle can become infected by ingesting spores found in contaminated soil, feed or water.
10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hooved animals, including cattle. It is characterized by fever and blisters on the feet, mouth, and teats. FMD is not a threat to human health but can have serious economic consequences for the livestock industry.

It's important to note that many of these diseases can be prevented or controlled through good management practices, such as vaccination, biosecurity measures, and proper nutrition. Regular veterinary care and monitoring are also crucial for early detection and treatment of any potential health issues in your herd.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Mamastrovirus is a genus of viruses in the family Astroviridae, which infect mammals. These non-enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses are responsible for gastroenteritis in various mammalian species, including humans. The name "mamastrovirus" is derived from "mammal astrovirus."

Human mastastroviruses (HAstV) are further divided into eight major serotypes (HAstV-1 to HAstV-8), with additional genotypes and variants identified. Infection usually occurs through the fecal-oral route, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and fever. While mastastrovirus infections are often self-limiting, they can cause severe dehydration and other complications, particularly in young children, immunocompromised individuals, and the elderly.

Research into mamastroviruses continues to advance our understanding of their epidemiology, pathogenesis, and potential therapeutic targets for treating astrovirus-induced gastroenteritis.

Norovirus is a highly contagious virus that causes gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. It is often referred to as the "stomach flu" or "winter vomiting bug." Symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. It can spread easily through contaminated food or water, contact with an infected person, or touching contaminated surfaces. Norovirus outbreaks are common in closed settings such as hospitals, nursing homes, schools, and cruise ships. The virus is hardy and can survive for weeks on surfaces, making it difficult to eliminate. It is also resistant to many disinfectants. There is no specific treatment for norovirus infection other than managing symptoms and staying hydrated. Vaccines are under development but not yet available.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nicaragua" is not a medical term. It is the largest country in the Central American Isthmus, bordering Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. It has coastlines on both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

... is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae. Rotaviruses are the most common cause of ... Rotavirus serotypes were first described in 1980, and in the following year, rotaviruses from humans were first grown in cell ... Rotaviruses elicit both B and T cell immune responses. Antibodies to the rotavirus VP4 and VP7 proteins neutralise viral ... Rotavirus B, also called adult diarrhoea rotavirus or ADRV, has caused major epidemics of severe diarrhoea affecting thousands ...
The rotavirus vaccine is a vaccine used to protect against rotavirus infections, which are the leading cause of severe diarrhea ... The rotavirus A parent strains of the reassortants were isolated from human and bovine hosts. Four reassortant rotaviruses ... "Rotavirus". Vaccine Resource Library. Archived from the original on 17 February 2018. Rotavirus Vaccines at the U.S. National ... Rotavirus vaccines are licensed in more than 100 countries, and more than 80 countries have introduced routine rotavirus ...
In contrast to the other rotavirus non-structural proteins, NSP6 was found to have a high rate of turnover, being completely ... Rainsford, Edward W.; McCrae, Malcolm A. (2007-12-01). "Characterization of the NSP6 protein product of rotavirus gene 11". ... Protein pages needing a picture, Rotaviruses, Viral nonstructural proteins). ... is one of the two non-structural proteins that gene 11 in rotavirus encodes for alongside NSP5. NSP6 is composed of six ...
v t e v t e v t e (Rotaviruses, Viral nonstructural proteins, All stub articles, Molecular and cellular biology stubs, Cell ... Kattoura MD, Chen X, Patton JT (August 1994). "The rotavirus RNA-binding protein NS35 (NSP2) forms 10S multimers and interacts ... Aponte C, Poncet D, Cohen J (February 1996). "Recovery and characterization of a replicase complex in rotavirus-infected cells ... Fabbretti E, Afrikanova I, Vascotto F, Burrone OR (February 1999). "Two non-structural rotavirus proteins, NSP2 and NSP5, form ...
Rotavirus protein NSP3 (NS34) is bound to the 3' end consensus sequence of viral mRNAs in infected cells. Four nucleotides are ... Rotavirus RNA-binding protein NSP3 interacts with eIF4GI and evicts the poly(A)-binding protein from eIF4F. And NSP3A, by ... Poncet D, Aponte C, Cohen J (June 1993). "Rotavirus protein NSP3 (NS34) is bound to the 3' end consensus sequence of viral ... Piron M, Vende P, Cohen J, Poncet D (October 1998). "Rotavirus RNA-binding protein NSP3 interacts with eIF4GI and evicts the ...
The carboxyl-half of the rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP1 is not required for virus replication. NSP1 could play a role in ... NSP1 (NS53), the product of rotavirus gene 5, is a nonstructural RNA-binding protein that contains a cysteine-rich region and ... Hua J, Patton JT (February 1994). "The carboxyl-half of the rotavirus nonstructural protein NS53 (NSP1) is not required for ... Graff JW, Ewen J, Ettayebi K, Hardy ME (February 2007). "Zinc-binding domain of rotavirus NSP1 is required for proteasome- ...
Rotavirus NSP3 presents several similarities to PABP; in rotavirus-infected cells, NSP3 can be cross-linked to the 3' end of ... Rotavirus translation, the process of translating mRNA into proteins, occurs in a different way in Rotaviruses. Unlike the vast ... The Rotavirus replication cycle occurs entirely in the cytoplasm. Upon virus entry, the viral transcriptase synthesizes capped ... Poncet, Didier; Carlos Aponte; Jean Cohen (June 1993). "Rotavirus protein NSP3 (NS34) is bound to the 3' end consensus sequence ...
v t e v t e v t e (CS1: long volume value, Protein pages needing a picture, Rotaviruses, Viral nonstructural proteins, All stub ... In rotavirus-infected cells, the non-structural proteins NSP5 and NSP2 localize in complexes called viroplasms, where ... NSP5 (nonstructural protein 5) encoded by genome segment 11 of group A rotaviruses. In virus-infected cells NSP5 accumulates in ... Fabbretti E, Afrikanova I, Vascotto F, Burrone OR (February 1999). "Two non-structural rotavirus proteins, NSP2 and NSP5, form ...
The rotavirus nonstructural protein NSP4 was the first viral enterotoxin discovered. It is a viroporin and induces diarrhea and ... Pham T, Perry JL, Dosey TL, Delcour AH, Hyser JM (March 2017). "The Rotavirus NSP4 Viroporin Domain is a Calcium-conducting Ion ... v t e v t e (CS1: long volume value, Protein pages needing a picture, Rotaviruses, Viral nonstructural proteins, All stub ... Dong Y, Zeng CQ, Ball JM, Estes MK, Morris AP (April 1997). "The rotavirus enterotoxin NSP4 mobilizes intracellular calcium in ...
This family represents a rotavirus cis-acting replication element (CRE) found at the 3'-end of rotavirus mRNAs. The family is ... Page for Rotavirus cis-acting replication element (CRE) at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, All stub articles, ... Chen D, Barros M, Spencer E, Patton JT (April 2001). "Features of the 3'-consensus sequence of rotavirus mRNAs critical to ...
The work has included surveillance, epidemiology, and vaccine clinical trials of pneumococcal disease; rotavirus; Haemophilus ... Reassortant Rotavirus Vaccine". New England Journal of Medicine. 354 (1): 23-33. doi:10.1056/NEJMOA052664. PMID 16394299. ...
"Rotavirus , Home , Gastroenteritis , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-11. Lu Z, Liu H, Fu S, et al. (2011). "Liao ning ... Rotavirus A-E cause infantile gastroenteritis in humans and farm animals. Many known Seadornaviruses cause encephalitis in ...
Structural studies of the rotavirus inner capsid. Gene sequence of some rotavirus proteins. Consistent with his advisory role ... Polypeptide composition and topography of bovine rotavirus. Molecular cloning of a human rotavirus genome. Antigenic variation ... Rotavirus. Esparza-Bracho researched on this area extensively, including aspects such as: Electron microscopic studies on ... He also applied such tools to the study of rotaviruses, a leading worldwide cause of infantile diarrhea which severely affects ...
"Rotavirus Symptoms". CDC. CDC. Retrieved 10 April 2014. "Rotavirus Vaccination". CDC. CDC. Retrieved 1 November 2020. " ... Studies show that this vaccine is 85-98% effective against severe rotavirus disease and is 74-87% effective against rotavirus ... The rotavirus is shed in the feces of infected persons and is spread by the fecal oral route, so this virus can be picked up ... The rotavirus is most commonly found in infants and young children, but older children and adults can also become infected. ...
Avian Rotavirus; Avian Tuberculosis M. avium; Chicken Anemia Virus; Endogenous GS Antigen; Fowl Pox; Hemophilus paragallinarum ...
Rotaviruses (of Reoviridae) have been found to contain an enterotoxin which plays a role in viral pathogenesis. NSP4, is a ... Rotavirus (NSP4) Endotoxin Exotoxin "enterotoxin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary Carlton Gyles, Magdalene So, Stanley Falkow, ... However, when NSP4 from group A Rotaviruses was purified (4 alleles tested), concentrated, and injected into a mouse model, ... "Diarrhea Induction by Rotavirus NSP4 in the Homologous Mouse Model System". Virology. 262 (2): 398-407. doi:10.1006/viro. ...
Rotavirus is spread through the mouth and skin, but the virus leaves those cells alone and only infects and reproduces in cells ... López Charretón won the award for Latin America for "identifying how rotaviruses cause the death of 600,000 children each year ... She has additionally studied how the rotavirus spreads in human populations, the immune response to it, and its replication ... Throughout her career, López Charretón has made advancements in our understanding of rotavirus. One of the most important ...
The company has been responsible for developing an eco-friendly recombinant and a naturally attenuated strain derived Rotavirus ... Serum Institute of India Cadila Healthcare Biotechnology in India "WHO prequalifies new rotavirus vaccine". WHO. Archived from ... Kang, G (October 2006). "Rotavirus vaccines". Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology. 24 (4): 252-7. doi:10.1016/S0255-0857(21) ... rotavirus vaccine in Indian infants: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial". The Lancet. 383 (9935): 2136-2143. ...
Rotashield rotavirus vaccine; and, FluMist influenza vaccine. Since retiring from Wyeth Siber has served on the boards of ... the first Rotavirus diarrhea vaccine, and FluMist, the first Live attenuated influenza vaccine. Siber became a diplomate with ...
Madhi led the first study that showed that a rotavirus vaccine could significantly prevent severe diarrhoea due to rotavirus ... "Rotavirus vaccine support". www.gavi.org. GAVI. Retrieved 17 January 2021. Edwards, K. M.; Creech, C. B. (2017). "8. Vaccine ... The paper provided one of the key pieces of evidence for the WHO recommendations of universal rotavirus vaccination. In ... "Rotarix™ significantly reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in African babies during their first year of life , GSK". www. ...
"Homepage , ROTARIX (Rotavirus Vaccine, Live, Oral) for HCPs". www.rotarixhcp.com. Retrieved 2023-03-15. "Rotavirus Vaccine ... Rotarix, an FDA-approved rotavirus vaccine manufactured by GSK, comes in liquid form as a live-attenuated vaccine. This two- ... An equivalent and broader prevention of rotavirus types (including G1, 2, 3, 4, 9) is RotaTeq manufactured by Merck as a live, ... Despite needing a third dose for full effect, both vaccines are effective in preventing rotavirus in infants. Another live ...
The genome of rotavirus consists of eleven segments of dsRNA. Each genome segment codes for one protein with the exception of ... Rotavirus is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. This virus contains a ... 3: Rotavirus Structure". Patton 2008. pp. 45-. ISBN 9781904455219. Roy P (2008). "Structure and Function of Bluetongue Virus ... Double-stranded RNA viruses include the rotaviruses, known globally as a common cause of gastroenteritis in young children, and ...
"Learn more about Rotavirus". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. March 26, 2021. NIH news HAROLD M. SCHMECK Jr. (13 ... was an Armenian-American virologist who developed the first licensed vaccine against rotavirus, the most common cause of severe ...
Rotaviruses). (n.d.). Retrieved December 5, 2014, from "Reoviruses". Archived from the original on 2015-05-21. Retrieved 2014- ... a family of double-stranded RNA viruses that includes familiar genera Rotavirus (the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis ...
Flewett did much collaborative work on rotaviruses with others to establish the varieties of rotavirus which infect the young ... Following the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine, worldwide the incidence of deaths of children caused by rotavirus has ... Clinical efficacy of the RIT 4237 live attenuated bovine rotavirus vaccine in infants vaccinated before a rotavirus epidemic" J ... because of the structural similarity of rotavirus to orbivirus. Ruth Bishop, who was the first to describe rotaviruses as a ...
"Withdrawal of Rotavirus Vaccine Recommendation". www.cdc.gov. DrugBank. "Sertindole". Archived from the original on 27 ...
"Rotavirus claims more in Solomons". Radio New Zealand International. 11 June 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2014. UNICEF Solomon ... Over the following two months, a widespread rotavirus outbreak unfolded in Honiara, Guadalcanal, and Gizo, with more than 1,000 ... but occurred a year before it Total fatalities includes indirect deaths from a rotavirus outbreak related to the cyclone. ...
A rotavirus vaccine is available. This vaccine is highly effective and has been preventing half of the severe rotovirus ... Nearly every child in every country globally experiences at least one rotavirus infection in early childhood. However, in India ... India's implementation of the rotavirus vaccine in its Universal Immunisation Programme has saved many children's lives. ... "Introducing rotavirus vaccine in the Universal Immunization Programme in India: From evidence to policy to implementation". ...
Rotavirus vaccine decreases the rates of diarrhea in a population. New vaccines against rotavirus, Shigella, Enterotoxigenic ... Norovirus is the most common cause of viral diarrhea in adults, but rotavirus is the most common cause in children under five ... In the case of Rotavirus, which was responsible for around 6% of diarrheal episodes and 20% of diarrheal disease deaths in the ... Acute diarrhea is most commonly due to viral gastroenteritis with rotavirus, which accounts for 40% of cases in children under ...
Later, during studies on rotavirus diarrhoea, the wider use of electron microscopy resulted in detecting previously ... the most common being rotavirus. In 2016, the Global Burden of Disease Study estimated that globally, around 75 million ...
The latest safety information from CDC on rotavirus vaccine: safety studies, common side effects, vaccine schedules, vaccine ... Rotavirus Vaccine Side Effects. The rotavirus vaccine is very safe, and it is effective at preventing rotavirus disease. ... Rotavirus and How to Protect Against It. Rotavirus is a contagious virus that can cause gastroenteritis (inflammation of the ... Available Rotavirus Vaccines. There are two rotavirus vaccines approved for use in the United States:. *Rotarix [PDF - 22 pages ...
The rotavirus antigen test detects rotavirus in the feces. This is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in children. ... The rotavirus antigen test detects rotavirus in the feces. This is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in children. ... The rotavirus antigen test detects rotavirus in the feces. This is the most common cause of infectious diarrhea in children. ... Rotavirus is the leading cause of gastroenteritis ("stomach flu") in children. This test is done to diagnose a rotavirus ...
The rotavirus genome consists of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA enclosed in a double-shelled capsid. ... Rotavirus is one of several viruses known to cause gastroenteritis. ... Human Neonatal Rotavirus Vaccine (RV3-BB) to Target Rotavirus from Birth. N Engl J Med. 2018 Feb 22. 378 (8):719-730. [QxMD ... Rotavirus is one of several viruses known to cause gastroenteritis. The rotavirus genome consists of 11 segments of double- ...
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Rotavirus. Immunization coverage estimates by country Also available:. *Immunization coverage estimates by WHO region ...
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Rotavirus gastroenteritis is common in infants and young children. Children under five years of age, especially those between 6 ... Rotavirus gastroenteritis is caused by rotavirus that infects the stomach and bowel. ... Rotavirus gastroenteritis is caused by rotavirus that infects the stomach and bowel. Rotavirus gastroenteritis is common in ... Manual of Rotavirus Detection and Characterization Methods, October 2009. Generic protocols for monitoring impact of rotavirus ...
Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae. Rotaviruses are the most common cause of ... Rotavirus serotypes were first described in 1980, and in the following year, rotaviruses from humans were first grown in cell ... Rotaviruses elicit both B and T cell immune responses. Antibodies to the rotavirus VP4 and VP7 proteins neutralise viral ... Rotavirus B, also called adult diarrhoea rotavirus or ADRV, has caused major epidemics of severe diarrhoea affecting thousands ...
... rotavirus oral vaccine, live), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & ... encoded search term (rotavirus oral vaccine%2C live (Rotarix%2C RotaTeq)) and rotavirus oral vaccine, live (Rotarix, RotaTeq) ... Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Prophylaxis. Live, attenuated oral vaccine indicated for immunization to prevent rotavirus ... elivaldogene autotemcel, rotavirus oral vaccine, live. Either decreases effects of the other by Other (see comment). Avoid or ...
Rotavirus success stories in the CDC technology transfer office (TTO) ... Rotavirus is the most common diarrhea-causing pathogen in children. Prior to rotavirus vaccination availability, rotavirus ... Virtually all children were infected by rotavirus by age 5. Rotavirus continues to cause severe diarrhea in infants and young ... While rotavirus vaccines have proven effective in developed countries, the live attenuated oral approaches have been found to ...
Rotavirus is a contagious virus. Among children, its the leading cause of severe diarrhea. Learn more from Boston Childrens ... Rotavirus Infections , Symptoms & Causes. What are the symptoms of a rotavirus infection?. Symptoms of a rotavirus infection ... Are rotavirus infections common?. Most children have been infected with rotavirus by the time they are 3. In fact, rotavirus ... Rotavirus Infections , Diagnosis & Treatments. How does a doctor diagnose a rotavirus infection?. In addition to a taking a ...
"Rotavirus vaccine is the only Indian vaccine developed here from the scratch," Renu Swarup, incumbent DBT secretary told DH. " ... As a professor at the AIIMS and later as the Department of Biotechnology secretary, Bhan nurtured and guided the rotavirus ... Maharaj Kishan Bhan, the man behind Indias successful rotavirus vaccine passed away on Sunday following his unsuccessful ...
Rotavirus Diarrhea Rotavirus is one type of virus that causes diarrhea, especially in young children. It is a common cause of ... A vaccine for rotavirus is being developed but is not yet available. Although there is no specific therapy for rotavirus ... Rotavirus infection usually occurs during the winter months. Some children have no symptoms of rotavirus infection while others ... Rotavirus Diarrhea. Resources for Child Care Givers. Provided by All Family Resources. ...
Young children who receive the rotavirus vaccine may be less likely to develop type 1 diabetes, reveals a new study. ... Made in India Rotavirus Vaccine Claims to be Cheapest. Indias first indigenously developed and manufactured rotavirus vaccine ... Rotavirus Vaccination Linked to Reduced Infant Diarrhea Deaths. New study advocates incorporation of rotavirus vaccine into the ... Routine rotavirus vaccination may reduce the risk of type 1 diabetes in young children, reveals a new study.. Read More... ...
World Health Organization grants prequalification to Bharat Biotechs rotavirus vaccine, ROTAVAC. ... "The advent of a locally manufactured, WHO Prequalified rotavirus vaccine offers promise to protect children in India, Africa, ... "Indias leadership in developing and introducing its own rotavirus vaccine is commendable and emphasizes a national commitment ... Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children less than five years of age around the world, resulting in ~ ...
How rotavirus is spread. Rotavirus can spread very easily and, once infected, babies can pass it on to others. ... Evidence shows that the most effective way to prevent babies catching rotavirus is to give them the rotavirus vaccination.. ... Rotavirus vaccination summary. Infection with rotavirus causes sickness and diarrhoea in young babies. ... See rotavirus vaccine on NHS.UK.. Public Health Isle of Man has adapted the information supplied by JCVI and PHE for the ...
Effectiveness against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, defined as a Vesikari scale score of 11 or more, was 91%, compared with ... Home News Clinical areas Gastroenterology Rotavirus vaccination prevents hospital admissions in children ... Rotavirus vaccinations are effective in reducing hospital admissions for gastroenteritis in children, according to new research ... The data comes after Pulse revealed ministers were looking at the cost-effectiveness of including routine rotavirus ...
India has an estimated 75,000 to 122,000 rotavirus deaths per year, or about a quarter of the global total, according to the ... Bhandari N, Rongsen-Chandola T, Bavdekar A, et al. Efficacy of a monovalent human-bovine (116E) rotavirus vaccine in Indian ... In a phase 3 trial, a rotavirus vaccine that was developed by an Indian company with help from an international partnership ... The incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis per 100 person-years was 1.5 in the vaccine group versus 3.2 in the placebo ...
Rotavirus Gastroenteritis - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Prevention of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Two live-attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines Rotavirus Vaccine The rotavirus vaccine is ... in the United States since the introduction of routine rotavirus immunization Rotavirus Vaccine The rotavirus vaccine is ... Rotavirus gastroenteritis has significantly decreased in countries where the rotavirus vaccine is widely used, but it remains a ...
New rotavirus vaccine could benefit millions of children. A rotavirus vaccine that can be given days after birth has been ... rotavirus. Case Study: New rotavirus vaccine enters manufacturing. Bio Farma, Indonesias national vaccine company, is ... Rotavirus is the common cause of severe diarrhoea and a killer of approximately 215,000 children under five globally each year. ... Until now, the vaccine against rotavirus was available in Australia and only on the private market in Indonesia, and could only ...
Rotavirus is a highly infectious disease that causes about 600 000 deaths and 138-million infections a year worldwide, the vast ... South African children may soon be vaccinated against rotavirus, a deadly virus that is the main cause of severe diarrhoea and ... h1,Vaccine for vicious rotavirus,/h1, ,p class=byline,by Kerry Cullinan, Health-e News ,br /,July 19, 2006,/p, ,p,South ... p, ,p, These studies have demonstrated that although the vaccine doesn t prevent children from getting rotavirus, it ...
Symptoms are: Severe watery diarrhea Vomiting Fever Abdominal pain Transmission Rotavirus is spread by touching contaminated ... Rotavirus is shed from an infected persons stool (poop). ... Rotavirus is a virus which causes vomiting and watery diarrhea ... Rotavirus is shed from an infected persons stool (poop). People with rotavirus can infect others before they have symptoms and ... Rotavirus Vaccine (Department of Health). Before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2005, almost all U.S. children were ...
... And by the way, American Home Products wont let you see the ... July 99- the company halted shipments of its rotavirus vaccine, used to prevent diarrhea in young children after it was linked ...
Information about rotavirus disease, vaccines and recommendations for vaccination from the Australian Immunisation Handbook. ... rotavirus gastroenteritis of any severity in approximately 70% of recipients. *severe rotavirus gastroenteritis and rotavirus ... Rotavirus vaccines can be co-administered with other vaccines. Co-administration of oral rotavirus vaccines is safe and ... Detecting rotavirus in routine stool tests. If routine stool testing detects rotavirus in a recently vaccinated infant, this ...
Rotavirus vaccines and intussusception in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) Cite CITE. Title : Rotavirus vaccines and ... Rotavirus vaccines : update on intussusception Cite CITE. Title : Rotavirus vaccines : update on intussusception Personal ... Rotavirus vaccines : update on intussusception Cite CITE. Title : Rotavirus vaccines : update on intussusception Personal ... Vázquez, Marietta "Rotavirus vaccines : update on intussusception" 201302, no. 020101 (2013). Vázquez, Marietta "Rotavirus ...
Rotavirus countermeasures against innate responses, and their roles in modulating rotavirus replication in mice, also are ... Following rotavirus infection in the intestine an innate immune response is rapidly triggered. This response leads to the ... Here we review the current literature describing the detection of rotavirus infection by pattern recognition receptors within ... Understanding these processes is expected to be of benefit in improving strategies to combat rotavirus disease. ...
Recombinant Rotavirus A Intermediate capsid protein VP6 from Cusabio. Cat Number: CSB-YP321618RGK. USA, UK & Europe ... Cusabio Rotavirus A Recombinants Recombinant Rotavirus A Intermediate capsid protein VP6 , CSB-YP321618RGK. (No reviews yet) ... Cusabio Rotavirus A Recombinants. Recombinant Rotavirus A Intermediate capsid protein VP6 , CSB-YP321618RGK. ... Recombinant Rotavirus A Intermediate capsid protein VP6 , CSB-YP321618RGK ...
Prevention of Rotavirus Disease: Updated Guidelines for Use of Rotavirus Vaccine Committee on Infectious Diseases Committee on ... rotavirus gastroenteritis of any severity (RV5 and RV1); severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (RV5 and RV1); rotavirus ... Monovalent Human Rotavirus Vaccine. A second rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was licensed on April 3, 2008, for use in the United ... Vaccine strains of rotavirus are shed in stools of immunized infants, so if an infant were to be immunized with a rotavirus ...
Rotavirus is the main etiological factor for infantile diarrhea. It is a double-stranded (ds) RNA virus and forms a genetically ... Assays Specific Growth Rate Cell-binding Ability Rotavirus Strains Phenotype Disinfectant-resistant Strains Plaque Assay Serum ... Journal / Immunology and Infection / Assays for the Specific Growth Rate and Cell-binding Ability of Rotavirus… ... These protocols are available for confirming the differences in phenotypes between rotavirus strains. ...
  • The incidence and severity of rotavirus infections has declined significantly in countries that have added rotavirus vaccine to their routine childhood immunisation policies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , there are two brands of vaccines that can help prevent rotavirus infections, given when your child is 2 months, 4 months, and potentially 6 months. (childrenshospital.org)
  • There are currently 2 FDA-approved rotavirus vaccines to protect against rotavirus gastroenteritis (ie, RotaTeq and Rotarix). (medscape.com)
  • While rotavirus vaccines have proven effective in developed countries, the live attenuated oral approaches have been found to be significantly less effective in many resource-limited, developing countries where a vaccine is needed most. (cdc.gov)
  • This method provides a vaccine alternative to the live oral rotavirus vaccines. (cdc.gov)
  • In a phase 3 trial, a rotavirus vaccine that was developed by an Indian company with help from an international partnership showed about the same efficacy as existing rotavirus vaccines, raising hope that it will offer another affordable option for developing countries, according to reports published yesterday in The Lancet . (umn.edu)
  • In the accompanying commentary, two South African experts, Shabir A. Madhi, MD, PhD, and Umesh D. Parashar, MD, MPH, write that the vaccine's efficacy in the trial was similar to that of the two licensed rotavirus vaccines in developing countries. (umn.edu)
  • The introduction of rotavirus vaccines have reduced the severity of disease in vaccinated individuals, and has reduced the number and spread of rotavirus cases across the United States. (wa.gov)
  • Information about rotavirus disease, vaccines and recommendations for vaccination from the Australian Immunisation Handbook. (health.gov.au)
  • Before rotavirus vaccines were available, rotavirus infection was the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children. (health.gov.au)
  • 6 months of age should not receive rotavirus vaccines. (health.gov.au)
  • 1 Updated recommendations are needed, because a second rotavirus vaccine has been licensed, and the 2 licensed rotavirus vaccines differ in composition and US Food and Drug Administration-licensed schedule of administration (Table 1 ). (aap.org)
  • A meta-analysis in JAMA Pediatrics looks at whether vaccines can prevent rotavirus gastroenteritis. (drugtopics.com)
  • The vaccines also showed high protection against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis. (drugtopics.com)
  • The investigators concluded that the high efficacy and safety profiles of rotavirus vaccines highlighted the importance of providing the vaccine to children everywhere. (drugtopics.com)
  • 2 The significant morbidity and mortality associated with rotavirus infection has led to the development of vaccines. (health.gov.au)
  • 3,4 The successful development has seen both rotavirus vaccines licensed in over 125 countries and included in the national vaccination schedules of 63 predominantly high- and middle-income countries worldwide. (health.gov.au)
  • 5 In Australia, rotavirus vaccines have been included into the National Immunisation Program from 1 July 2007, with excellent uptake in subsequent years. (health.gov.au)
  • The new vaccine was found to be safe and effective in preventing severe rotavirus diarrhea while being transported and stored at ambient temperature, avoiding the challenging cold-chain requirements that apply to most other vaccines. (defeatdd.org)
  • Although two globally available rotavirus vaccines have already been introduced into the national immunization programs of more than 80 countries, they remain out of reach for many children in the world's poorest countries. (defeatdd.org)
  • We need new rotavirus vaccines for two reasons - manufacturing capacity and affordability. (defeatdd.org)
  • Without a significant increase in production capacity, the current manufacturers will not be able to meet the projected global demand for rotavirus vaccines. (defeatdd.org)
  • PATH is at the forefront of global efforts to address this gap, working hard to speed the development of safe, effective, and affordable new rotavirus vaccines. (defeatdd.org)
  • So, what does all of this mean for kids who still don't have access to rotavirus vaccines? (defeatdd.org)
  • It means that, in the next year, we may see two new, more affordable rotavirus vaccines achieve prequalification by WHO, one of which doesn't even need cold chain storage. (defeatdd.org)
  • And, most importantly, it means that we are getting so close to reaching every last infant, no matter where they live, with the protection of lifesaving rotavirus vaccines. (defeatdd.org)
  • You can protect against rotavirus disease with safe, effective vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Some studies suggest that rotavirus vaccination possibly causes a small increase in the risk of intussusception, a type of bowel blockage. (cdc.gov)
  • Studies from the United States and other countries show a small increased risk of intussusception following rotavirus vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Intussusception and rotavirus vaccination: A review of the available evidence. (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States, before initiation of the rotavirus vaccination programme in the 2000s, rotavirus caused about 2.7 million cases of severe gastroenteritis in children, almost 60,000 hospitalisations, and around 37 deaths each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Public health campaigns to combat rotavirus focus on providing oral rehydration therapy for infected children and vaccination to prevent the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prior to rotavirus vaccination availability, rotavirus caused an average of 611,000 deaths per year globally, and millions of hospitalizations. (cdc.gov)
  • A drop in the number of young children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes could be associated with the introduction of routine rotavirus vaccination of Australian infants, according to a new study by Melbourne researchers. (medindia.net)
  • Routine rotavirus vaccination may reduce the risk of type 1 diabetes in young children, reveals a new study. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers investigated the number of Australian children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes from 2000 to 2015 and found that type 1 diabetes diagnoses in children aged 0-4 years declined from 2007 - the year that rotavirus vaccine was introduced as a routine infant vaccination. (medindia.net)
  • While not conclusive, our latest study suggests that preventing rotavirus infection in Australian infants by vaccination may also reduce their risk of type 1 diabetes. (medindia.net)
  • This guidance describes what rotavirus is, which babies are eligible for the vaccination and explains when and how your baby will receive the vaccine. (www.gov.im)
  • Evidence shows that the most effective way to prevent babies catching rotavirus is to give them the rotavirus vaccination. (www.gov.im)
  • And, if younger babies are having the vaccination, the chances of rotavirus spreading will be reduced. (www.gov.im)
  • Rotavirus vaccinations are effective in reducing hospital admissions for gastroenteritis in children, according to new research that supports including the vaccination in the UK infant immunisation schedule. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • In the United States before rotavirus vaccination became available, a wave of rotavirus illness would begin in the Southwest in December and end in the Northeast in April or May. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Rotavirus vaccination is the best way to protect your child from disease. (wa.gov)
  • Rotavirus vaccination significantly reduces rotavirus-specific and all-cause hospital presentations for gastroenteritis. (health.gov.au)
  • 11 Therefore, characterisation of circulating rotavirus genotypes in the vaccine era will provide insight into whether vaccine introduction has impacted on virus epidemiology and altered circulating strains, which could have ongoing consequences for the success of the vaccination programs. (health.gov.au)
  • These data represent administrative and official Rotavirus vaccination coverage reported annually through the WHO/UNICEF Joint Reporting Form on Immunization (JRF). (who.int)
  • Rotavirus vaccination should be considered as an adjunct to other comprehensive enteric disease control measures as recommended by the World Health Organization. (who.int)
  • Intussusception following rotavirus vaccine administration: Post-marketing surveillance in the National Immunization Program in Australia. (cdc.gov)
  • For more information, see Rotavirus Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends routine immunization of infants in the United States with rotavirus vaccine. (aap.org)
  • The rationale to consider rotavirus immunization of HIV-exposed or HIV-infected infants is described. (aap.org)
  • Before initiation of the rotavirus immunization program, it was estimated that nearly every child in the United States was infected with rotavirus by 5 years of age, and most infected children developed gastroenteritis. (aap.org)
  • In April 2008, a live, oral, human attenuated rotavirus vaccine (RV1 [Rotarix]) was licensed as a 2-dose series for use in infants in the United States. (aap.org)
  • Recommendations now include a second rotavirus vaccine, live, oral human attenuated rotavirus vaccine (RV1) (Rotarix [GlaxoSmithKline, Rixensart, Belgium]), administered in a 2-dose series at 2 and 4 months of age. (aap.org)
  • Rotarix® (GlaxoSmithKline) and RotaTeq® (Merck), have been shown to be safe and highly effective in the prevention of severe diarrhoea due to rotavirus infection. (health.gov.au)
  • This test is done to diagnose a rotavirus infection . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Rotavirus in the stool indicates a rotavirus infection is present. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ask your provider about a vaccine to help prevent severe rotavirus infection in children under 8 months old. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The physical examination findings for rotavirus infection are often unremarkable except for signs of dehydration. (medscape.com)
  • In most cases, no medication is required for rotavirus infection. (medscape.com)
  • What are the symptoms of a rotavirus infection? (childrenshospital.org)
  • Symptoms of a rotavirus infection range from mild or severe. (childrenshospital.org)
  • What causes a rotavirus infection? (childrenshospital.org)
  • How does a doctor diagnose a rotavirus infection? (childrenshospital.org)
  • Rotavirus infection usually occurs during the winter months. (familymanagement.com)
  • Some children have no symptoms of rotavirus infection while others may have severe vomiting , watery diarrhea, and fever. (familymanagement.com)
  • A child with rotavirus infection may be contagious before the onset of diarrhea and for a few days after the diarrhea has ended. (familymanagement.com)
  • To prevent the spread of rotavirus infection in your facility: Exclude any child with diarrhea from the child care setting until these symptoms are gone. (familymanagement.com)
  • While not conclusively linking the rotavirus vaccine with protection against type 1 diabetes, the discovery builds on earlier research suggesting natural rotavirus infection may be a risk factor for type 1 diabetes. (medindia.net)
  • Professor Len Harrison from the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, who is the study senior author, said the discovery followed on from earlier research implicating rotavirus infection in the development of type 1 diabetes. (medindia.net)
  • Twenty years ago our team revealed an association between the appearance of immune markers of type 1 diabetes in children and rotavirus infection. (medindia.net)
  • Subsequent studies in laboratory models suggested rotavirus infection of pancreatic cells can trigger an immune attack against the insulin-producing cells - similar to what occurs in type 1 diabetes," he said. (medindia.net)
  • Since 1 July 2013, the routine childhood immunisation schedule has included a vaccine to protect babies against rotavirus infection - a common cause of diarrhoea and sickness that can become very serious. (www.gov.im)
  • Most babies recover at home but, in a small number of cases, rotavirus infection can become serious, with babies getting dehydrated (losing body fluids) and possibly needing hospital treatment. (www.gov.im)
  • Many unvaccinated babies over 24 weeks will already have had rotavirus infection and built up some immunity to it. (www.gov.im)
  • Rotavirus infection can result in dehydration and hospitalisation. (health.gov.au)
  • One rotavirus infection only provides partial immunity. (health.gov.au)
  • Following rotavirus infection in the intestine an innate immune response is rapidly triggered. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Here we review the current literature describing the detection of rotavirus infection by pattern recognition receptors within host cells, the subsequent molecular mechanisms leading to IFN and cytokine production, and the processes leading to reduced rotavirus replication and the development of protective immunity. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • By linking these different aspects of innate immunity, we provide a comprehensive overview of the host's first line of defence against rotavirus infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Lack of a role for type I and type II interferons in the resolution of rotavirus-induced diarrhea and infection in mice. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Rotavirus nonstructural protein 1 suppresses virus-induced cellular apoptosis to facilitate viral growth by activating the cell survival pathways during early stages of infection. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In Australia, rotavirus infection accounted for up to 10,000 childhood hospitalisations for diarrhoea each year in the pre-vaccine era. (health.gov.au)
  • In this work , we have found that the OAS / RNase L pathway is activated during rotavirus infection , but the virus uses two different strategies to prevent the deleterious effects of this innate immune response of the cell . (bvsalud.org)
  • Although rotavirus was discovered in 1973 by Ruth Bishop and her colleagues by electron micrograph images and accounts for approximately one third of hospitalisations for severe diarrhoea in infants and children, its importance has historically been underestimated within the public health community, particularly in developing countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rotaviral enteritis is usually an easily managed disease of childhood, but among children under 5 years of age rotavirus caused an estimated 151,714 deaths from diarrhoea in 2019. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rotavirus is the common cause of severe diarrhoea and a killer of approximately 215,000 children under five globally each year. (scienceinpublic.com.au)
  • South African children may soon be vaccinated against rotavirus, a deadly virus that is the main cause of severe diarrhoea and vomiting in children under the age of six. (health-e.org.za)
  • Although most parents don' t know the name of the virus, almost all children under the age of three who get a high fever, watery diarrhoea and vomiting are infected with rotavirus, according to health experts. (health-e.org.za)
  • A recent study at King Edward V Hospital in Durban found that almost a quarter of babies who had died from diarrhoea were infected by the rotavirus. (health-e.org.za)
  • Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhoea in infants and young children. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Rotaviruses are the most common cause of severe diarrhoea in young children worldwide and is estimated to cause up to 453,000 deaths annually. (health.gov.au)
  • Rotavirus is the most common diarrhea-causing pathogen in children. (cdc.gov)
  • Rotavirus continues to cause severe diarrhea in infants and young children in the U.S. and globally. (cdc.gov)
  • In fact, rotavirus infections are the most common cause of diarrhea in children. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Rotavirus is one type of virus that causes diarrhea, especially in young children. (familymanagement.com)
  • Rotavirus diarrhea usually lasts from 4 to 6 days, but may last longer and cause intermittent diarrhea in children who have compromised immune systems. (familymanagement.com)
  • Although there is no specific therapy for rotavirus diarrhea, the most effective therapy is to encourage ill children to drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration. (familymanagement.com)
  • New study advocates incorporation of rotavirus vaccine into the childhood immunisation programmes of countries with high rates of diarrhea deaths, and support continued use in such countries where a vaccine has been introduced. (medindia.net)
  • The rotavirus vaccine is routinely given to Australian infants aged 2 and 4 months to protect them against a severe, potentially life-threatening form of diarrhea. (medindia.net)
  • Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children less than five years of age around the world, resulting in ~215,000 deaths and 2 million hospitalizations. (businesswire.com)
  • According to him, Rotavirus is responsible for an estimated 36% of hospitalizations for childhood diarrhea around the world and for an estimated 200,000 deaths in low and middle income countries. (businesswire.com)
  • Rotavirus is the most common cause of sporadic, severe, dehydrating diarrhea in young children worldwide (peak incidence, 3 to 15 months). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Rotavirus is a virus which causes vomiting and watery diarrhea. (wa.gov)
  • July 99- the company halted shipments of its rotavirus vaccine, used to prevent diarrhea in young children after it was linked to bowel obstructions in infants. (whale.to)
  • Title : Rotavirus and Severe Childhood Diarrhea Personal Author(s) : Parashar, Umesh D.;Gibson, Christopher J.;Bresee, Joseph S.;Glass, Roger I. (cdc.gov)
  • If an infant inadvertently receives the 1st dose of rotavirus vaccine after this age, they can receive the remaining vaccine doses as per the schedule if they did not have intussusception after the first dose. (health.gov.au)
  • The first dose of rotavirus vaccine should be administered from 6 weeks through 14 weeks, 6 days of age. (aap.org)
  • Maximum age for the last dose of rotavirus vaccine is now 8 months, 0 days of age (previous recommendation: 32 weeks of age). (aap.org)
  • As a professor at the AIIMS and later as the Department of Biotechnology secretary, Bhan nurtured and guided the rotavirus vaccine project, leading to the development of Rotavac, an indigenous vaccine now widely used by the Union Health Ministry in the universal immunisation programme. (deccanherald.com)
  • This statement updates and replaces the 2007 American Academy of Pediatrics statement for prevention of rotavirus gastroenteritis. (aap.org)
  • In February 2006, a live oral human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RV5 [RotaTeq]) was licensed as a 3-dose series for use in infants in the United States. (aap.org)
  • In February 2006, a live, oral human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RV5) (RotaTeq [Merck and Co, Whitehouse Station, NJ]) was licensed for use in the United States. (aap.org)
  • There is no cure for rotavirus, so treatment of the disease is more for making your child feel better and to prevent any complications from dehydration. (childrenshospital.org)
  • The rotavirus genome consists of 11 segments of double-stranded RNA enclosed in a double-shelled capsid. (medscape.com)
  • The genome of rotaviruses consists of 11 unique double helix molecules of RNA (dsRNA) which are 18,555 nucleotides in total. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the species Rotavirus A there are different strains, called serotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A whole genome genotyping system has been established for Rotavirus A, which has been used to determine the origin of atypical strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Investigators found that it generated immune responses that protected infants from pathogenic rotavirus strains. (umn.edu)
  • Diversity of interferon antagonist activities mediated by NSP1 proteins of different rotavirus strains. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These protocols are available for confirming the differences in phenotypes between rotavirus strains. (jove.com)
  • Genotype analysis of the 733 rotavirus samples collected from both children and adults revealed that G12P[8] was the dominant genotype in this reporting period, identified in 29.6% of strains nationally. (health.gov.au)
  • India's first indigenously developed and manufactured rotavirus vaccine 'Rotavac' will be available for sale at the rate of around Rs 60 per dose from next week. (medindia.net)
  • In addition to these exciting developments with the BRV-PV, PATH also worked in partnership with Bharat Biotech and the Government of India's Department for Biotechnology to conduct clinical trials that led to the licensure of ROTAVAC®, a rotavirus vaccine that is currently only available in India. (defeatdd.org)
  • Before the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in 2005, almost all U.S. children were infected with rotavirus before their 5th birthday. (wa.gov)
  • Understanding these processes is expected to be of benefit in improving strategies to combat rotavirus disease. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Real-time surveillance to assess risk of intussusception and other adverse events after pentavalent bovine-derived rotavirus vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • In adults the symptoms of rotavirus gastroenteritis are usually mild. (msdmanuals.com)
  • People with rotavirus can infect others before they have symptoms and remain infectious three days after they recover. (wa.gov)
  • At least six of the twelve proteins encoded by the rotavirus genome bind RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an infected cell this enzyme produces mRNA transcripts for the synthesis of viral proteins and produces copies of the rotavirus genome RNA segments for newly produced virus particles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rotaviruses belong to the Reoviridae family and are triple layered dsRNA viruses that contain a segmented genome. (health.gov.au)
  • The data comes after Pulse revealed ministers were looking at the cost-effectiveness of including routine rotavirus vaccinations in the infant immunisation schedule to reduce the incidence of serious cases of gastroenteritis. (pulsetoday.co.uk)
  • The incidence of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis per 100 person-years was 1.5 in the vaccine group versus 3.2 in the placebo group, the report says. (umn.edu)
  • Rotavirus is a contagious virus that can cause gastroenteritis (inflammation of the stomach and intestines). (cdc.gov)
  • Rotavirus is a contagious virus. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Infants and young children are most likely to get rotavirus disease. (cdc.gov)
  • The rotavirus vaccine is very safe, and it is effective at preventing rotavirus disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Rotaviruses are the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children. (wikipedia.org)
  • The advent of a locally manufactured, WHO Prequalified rotavirus vaccine offers promise to protect children in India, Africa, the Americas and the rest of Asia from this debilitating disease. (businesswire.com)
  • Will your baby get the rotavirus disease from having the vaccine? (www.gov.im)
  • Rotavirus Vaccine The rotavirus vaccine is recommended for infants to protect against gastroenteritis caused by rotavirus disease. (msdmanuals.com)
  • 7 A significant impact on the disease burden has been observed since vaccine introduction, with state-based studies in New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia and Victoria showing a substantial decline in both rotavirus coded and non-rotavirus coded hospitalisations and emergency room visits since vaccine introduction. (health.gov.au)
  • The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program has studied the annual circulation patterns of rotavirus genotypes causing disease in Australian children since 1997. (health.gov.au)
  • Rotavirus countermeasures against innate responses, and their roles in modulating rotavirus replication in mice, also are discussed. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • However, whether this activity of VP3 is relevant during the replication cycle of rotavirus is not known. (bvsalud.org)
  • certolizumab pegol decreases effects of rotavirus oral vaccine, live by pharmacodynamic antagonism. (medscape.com)
  • Rotavirus usually spreads from fecal-oral contact. (childrenshospital.org)
  • We observed the decline in the rate of type 1 diabetes in children born after 2007 coincided with the introduction of the oral rotavirus vaccine onto the Australian National Immunisation Program in 2007. (medindia.net)
  • This follows the Medicines Control Council' s registration of an oral rotavirus vaccine produced by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). (health-e.org.za)
  • 6 months of age are recommended to receive a course of oral rotavirus vaccine. (health.gov.au)
  • Maharaj Kishan Bhan, the man behind India's successful rotavirus vaccine passed away on Sunday following his unsuccessful battle with cancer for the past few months. (deccanherald.com)
  • India's leadership in developing and introducing its own rotavirus vaccine is commendable and emphasizes a national commitment to improving the health of their children," said Duncan Steele, deputy director on the Enteric Diarrheal Diseases team at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. (businesswire.com)
  • In the United States, the number of childhood deaths from rotavirus is between 20 to 40 each year (compared to 600,000 worldwide). (childrenshospital.org)
  • India has an estimated 75,000 to 122,000 rotavirus deaths per year, or about a quarter of the global total, according to the viewpoint article by Maharaj A. Bhan, MD, and others. (umn.edu)
  • Each year, rotavirus causes more than 400 000 physician visits, more than 200 000 emergency department visits, 55 000 to 70 000 hospitalizations, 20 to 70 childhood deaths, and direct and indirect costs in excess of $1 billion. (aap.org)
  • GlaxoSmithKline) led to a significant reduction in rotavirus gastroenteritis and rotavirus gas- troenteritis hospitalization risk in children who were fully vacci- nated. (drugtopics.com)
  • Rotavirus gastroenteritis is caused by rotavirus that infects the stomach and bowel. (who.int)
  • In addition to its impact on human health, rotavirus also infects other animals, and is a pathogen of livestock. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 1 in 20,000 US infants to 1 in 100,000 US infants who get rotavirus vaccine might develop intussusception within a week of getting the vaccine. (cdc.gov)
  • This means that between 40 and 120 U.S. infants might develop intussusception related to rotavirus vaccine each year. (cdc.gov)
  • Transmission electron micrograph shows double-shelled rotavirus particles. (umn.edu)
  • Rotavirus NSP1 inhibits expression of type I interferon by antagonizing the function of interferon regulatory factors IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA viruses in the family Reoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infants and children can be infected with rotavirus several times during their lives. (health.gov.au)
  • Normally, rotavirus is not found in the stool. (medlineplus.gov)
  • when done, it involves tests to identify rotavirus in the stool. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Rotavirus is shed from an infected person's stool (poop). (wa.gov)
  • Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. (aap.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Rotaviruses represent an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in the young of many animal species, including humans . (bvsalud.org)
  • Following rotavirus vaccine introduction in the United States, hospitalisation rates have fallen significantly. (wikipedia.org)
  • This annual report describes the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of Australian children with acute gastroenteritis during 2014. (health.gov.au)
  • The Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program, together with collaborating laboratories Australia-wide, reports the rotavirus genotypes responsible for the hospitalisation of children with acute gastroenteritis. (health.gov.au)
  • The success of the RV3-BB vaccine is the culmination of more than four decades of work, which started with the Murdoch Children's Research Institute's Professor Ruth Bishop and the discovery of rotavirus in 1973. (scienceinpublic.com.au)
  • This survey highlights the yearly fluctuations in rotavirus genotypes observed since vaccine introduction. (health.gov.au)
  • The continuation of G12P[8] as the dominant genotype further illustrates the dynamic and diversity present in the wild-type rotavirus population evident in the Australian population since vaccine introduction. (health.gov.au)
  • Virtually all children were infected by rotavirus by age 5. (cdc.gov)
  • Before the introduction of the vaccine in July 2013, around half of all gastroenteritis in children under 5 years old was caused by rotavirus and in England and Wales, about 1 out of 10 of those children (roughly 13,000 a year) were admitted to hospital. (www.gov.im)