Rosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Potentilla: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. Members contain procyanidins and TANNINS.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Sorbus: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE.Spiraea: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. Members contain prunioside, spiramine and other diterpene alkaloids.Geum: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE. Members contain TRITERPENES.Self-Incompatibility in Flowering Plants: One of many different processes which occur in ANGIOSPERMS by which genetic diversity is maintained while INBREEDING is prevented.Pyrus: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Erwinia amylovora: A species of gram-negative bacteria, in the genus ERWINIA, causing a necrotic disease of plants.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Rosa: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).TriterpenesRosacea: A cutaneous disorder primarily of convexities of the central part of the FACE, such as FOREHEAD; CHEEK; NOSE; and CHIN. It is characterized by FLUSHING; ERYTHEMA; EDEMA; RHINOPHYMA; papules; and ocular symptoms. It may occur at any age but typically after age 30. There are various subtypes of rosacea: erythematotelangiectatic, papulopustular, phymatous, and ocular (National Rosacea Society's Expert Committee on the Classification and Staging of Rosacea, J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 46:584-7).Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Wind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Facial DermatosesHeat Stress Disorders: A group of conditions that develop due to overexposure or overexertion in excessive environmental heat.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Xenarthra: An order of New World mammals characterized by the absence of incisors and canines from among their teeth, and comprising the ARMADILLOS, the SLOTHS, and the anteaters. The order is distinguished from all others by what are known as xenarthrous vertebrae (xenos, strange; arthron, joint): there are secondary, and sometimes even more, articulations between the vertebrae of the lumbar series. The order was formerly called Edentata. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, vol. I, p515)Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Cyanophora: A genus of primitive plants in the family Cyanophoraceae, class GLAUCOPHYTA. They contain pigmented ORGANELLES (or PLASTIDS) called cyanelles, which have characteristics of both CYANOBACTERIA and CHLOROPLASTS.Dermatologic Agents: Drugs used to treat or prevent skin disorders or for the routine care of skin.Mite Infestations: Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.Dermatitis, Perioral: A papular eruption of unknown etiology that progresses to residual papular erythema and scaling usually confined to the area of the mouth, and almost exclusively occurring in young women. It may also be localized or extend to involve the eyelids and adjacent glabella area of the forehead (periocular dermatitis). (Dorland, 28th ed)Rhinophyma: A manifestation of severe ROSACEA resulting in significant enlargement of the NOSE and occurring primarily in men. It is caused by hypertrophy of the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and surrounding CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The nose is reddened and marked with TELANGIECTASIS.Emollients: Oleagenous substances used topically to soothe, soften or protect skin or mucous membranes. They are used also as vehicles for other dermatologic agents.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Skin Care: Maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In various disease states, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are useful. The care of the skin is particularly important in various occupations, in exposure to sunlight, in neonates, and in PRESSURE ULCER.Wetting Agents: A surfactant that renders a surface wettable by water or enhances the spreading of water over the surface.Deductibles and Coinsurance: Cost-sharing mechanisms that provide for payment by the insured of some portion of covered expenses. Deductibles are the amounts paid by the insured under a health insurance contract before benefits become payable; coinsurance is the provision under which the insured pays part of the medical bill, usually according to a fixed percentage, when benefits become payable.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Skin DiseasesSunburn: An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.Beauty: Characteristics or attributes of persons or things which elicit pleasurable feelings.

Capability of wild Rosa rugosa and its varieties and hybrids to produce sesquiterpene components in leaf glandular trichomes. (1/194)

The sesquiterpene contents in leaves of wild Rosa rugosa and of sixty-one hybrid rugosas were quantitatively measured by a GC analysis. In this group of samples, the greater the number of glandular trichomes the hybrid rugosas possessed on their leaves, the larger the amount of sesquiterpenes they accumulated. In contrast, those having no leaf glandular hairs contained only a trace amount of sesquiterpene components. The concentrations of bisaborosaol A (1) and carota-1,4-dienaldehyde (2) as representative sesquiterpenes of R. rugosa were positively correlated with the density of the glandular trichomes. Furthermore, an approximately regular correlation was observed between the concentrations of 1 and 2 in most of the sesquiterpene-producing hybrid rugosas, regardless of their productivity. This suggests that a major part of these hybrid rugosas have inherited from R. rugosa the ability to produce two skeletally different sesquiterpenes in parallel with a phenotype to develop leaf glandular trichomes. This investigation also led to discovering 1-dominant (e.g., Amelie Gravereaux and Purple Pavement), 2-dominant (e.g., David Thompson), and other-dominant (e.g., Martin Frobisher) types of sesquiterpene-producing hybrid rugosas.  (+info)

Molecular comparison of pathogenic bacteria from pear trees in Japan and the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. (2/194)

Several strains of the genus Erwinia, which were isolated in Japan from pear trees with necrotic symptoms that resembled fire blight, and tentatively identified as Erwinia amylovora, were reinvestigated for their relationship to the fire blight pathogen. These isolates produced ooze on slices of immature pears and were mucoid on MM2Cu agar plates, but did not synthesize levan and did not give the expected PCR signals with several primer pairs specific for Erwinia amylovora. The isolates tested positive with PCR primers designed to detect the novel pear pathogen Erwinia pyrifoliae, which was isolated from Nashi pear trees in South Korea. The nucleotide sequence analysis of a DNA fragment preceding the gene cluster for exopolysaccharide synthesis revealed a closer relationship to Erwinia pyrifoliae than to Erwinia amylovora. Plasmid profiles, protein patterns and genomic DNA analysed by PFGE after XbaI and SpeI digestion were different than Erwinia amylovora. Experiments with strains of Erwinia amylovora isolated from raspberry (Rubus sp.), Erwinia mallotivora and Enterobacter pyrinus also did not reveal a relationship between these bacteria and the Japanese Erwinia strains. The latter are not identical to Erwinia pyrifoliae, but possess many similar features to this pathogen that causes Asian pear blight. It is concluded that pathogenic bacteria isolated in Japan from pear trees with symptoms resembling fire blight are possibly different from Erwinia amylovora.  (+info)

Quantitative determination of flavonoids in the flowers and leaves of Prunus spinosa L. (3/194)

The content of flavonoids in the flowers and leaves of Prunus spinosa L. was determined by spectrophotometric and RP-HPLC method. Determinations included hydrolysis of flavonoid glycosides in extracts from raw materials and then quantitative analysis of the obtained aglycones. Results were calculated for the content of glycosides and statistical analysis of the obtained data was performed.  (+info)

Characterization and complete nucleotide sequence of Strawberry mottle virus: a tentative member of a new family of bipartite plant picorna-like viruses. (4/194)

An isolate of Strawberry mottle virus (SMoV) was transferred from Fragaria vesca to Nicotiana occidentalis and Chenopodium quinoa by mechanical inoculation. Electron micrographs of infected tissues showed the presence of isometric particles of approximately 28 nm in diameter. SMoV-associated tubular structures were also conspicuous, particularly in the plasmodesmata of C. quinoa. DsRNA extraction of SMoV-infected N. occidentalis yielded two bands of 6.3 and 7.8 kbp which were cloned and sequenced. Gaps in the sequence, including the 5' and 3' ends, were filled using RT-PCR and RACE. The genome of SMoV was found to consist of RNA1 and RNA2 of 7036 and 5619 nt, respectively, excluding a poly(A) tail. Each RNA encodes one polyprotein and has a 3' non-coding region of approximately 1150 nt. The polyprotein of RNA1 contains regions with identities to helicase, viral genome-linked protein, protease and polymerase (RdRp), and shares its closest similarity with RNA1 of the tentative nepovirus Satsuma dwarf virus (SDV). The polyprotein of RNA2 displayed some similarity to the large coat protein domain of SDV and related viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp region showed that SMoV falls into a separate group containing SDV, Apple latent spherical virus, Naval orange infectious mottling virus and Rice tungro spherical virus. Given the size of RNA2 and the presence of a long 3' non-coding region, SMoV is more typical of a nepovirus, although atypically for a nepovirus it is aphid transmissible. We propose that SMoV is a tentative member of an SDV-like lineage of picorna-like viruses.  (+info)

Hawthorn fruit is hypolipidemic in rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet. (5/194)

The present study examined the hypolipidemic activity of hawthorn fruit. New Zealand white rabbits were fed one of three diets, a reference diet with no cholesterol added (NC), a high cholesterol diet (1 g/100 g, HC) and a HC diet supplemented with 2 g/100 g hawthorn fruit powder (HC-H). After 12 wk, serum total cholesterol (TC) and triacylglycerols (TG) were 23.4 and 22.2% lower, respectively, in the hawthorn fruit group compared with the HC rabbits (P < 0.05). Hawthorn supplementation led to 50.6% less cholesterol accumulation in aorta (P < 0.05) and 23-95% greater excretion of neutral and acidic sterols (P < 0.05). Supplementation of hawthorn fruit did not affect the activities of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA-R) or cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CH) but it suppressed the activity of intestinal acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT, P < 0.05). The results suggest that the mechanism by which hawthorn fruit decreases serum cholesterol involves, at least in part, the inhibition of cholesterol absorption mediated by down-regulation of intestinal ACAT activity.  (+info)

Manipulation of strawberry fruit softening by antisense expression of a pectate lyase gene. (6/194)

Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, Duch., cv Chandler) is a soft fruit with a short postharvest life, mainly due to a rapid lost of firm texture. To control the strawberry fruit softening, we obtained transgenic plants that incorporate an antisense sequence of a strawberry pectate lyase gene under the control of the 35S promoter. Forty-one independent transgenic lines (Apel lines) were obtained, propagated in the greenhouse for agronomical analysis, and compared with control plants, non-transformed plants, and transgenic lines transformed with the pGUSINT plasmid. Total yield was significantly reduced in 33 of the 41 Apel lines. At the stage of full ripen, no differences in color, size, shape, and weight were observed between Apel and control fruit. However, in most of the Apel lines, ripened fruits were significantly firmer than controls. Six Apel lines were selected for further analysis. In all these lines, the pectate lyase gene expression in ripened fruit was 30% lower than in control, being totally suppressed in three of them. Cell wall material isolated from ripened Apel fruit showed a lower degree of in vitro swelling and a lower amount of ionically bound pectins than control fruit. An analysis of firmness at three different stages of fruit development (green, white, and red) showed that the highest reduction of softening in Apel fruit occurred during the transition from the white to the red stage. The postharvest softening of Apel fruit was also diminished. Our results indicate that pectate lyase gene is an excellent candidate for biotechnological improvement of fruit softening in strawberry.  (+info)

A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants. (7/194)

A predominantly plant-based diet reduces the risk for development of several chronic diseases. It is often assumed that antioxidants contribute to this protection, but results from intervention trials with single antioxidants administered as supplements quite consistently do not support any benefit. Because dietary plants contain several hundred different antioxidants, it would be useful to know the total concentration of electron-donating antioxidants (i.e., reductants) in individual items. Such data might be useful in the identification of the most beneficial dietary plants. We have assessed systematically total antioxidants in a variety of dietary plants used worldwide, including various fruits, berries, vegetables, cereals, nuts and pulses. When possible, we analyzed three or more samples of dietary plants from three different geographic regions in the world. Total antioxidants was assessed by the reduction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) (i.e., the FRAP assay), which occurred rapidly with all reductants with half-reaction reduction potentials above that of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+). The values, therefore, expressed the corresponding concentration of electron-donating antioxidants. Our results demonstrated that there is more than a 1000-fold difference among total antioxidants in various dietary plants. Plants that contain most antioxidants included members of several families, such as Rosaceae (dog rose, sour cherry, blackberry, strawberry, raspberry), Empetraceae (crowberry), Ericaceae (blueberry), Grossulariaceae (black currant), Juglandaceae (walnut), Asteraceae (sunflower seed), Punicaceae (pomegranate) and Zingiberaceae (ginger). In a Norwegian diet, fruits, berries and cereals contributed 43.6%, 27.1% and 11.7%, respectively, of the total intake of plant antioxidants. Vegetables contributed only 8.9%. The systematic analysis presented here will facilitate research into the nutritional role of the combined effect of antioxidants in dietary plants.  (+info)

Inheritance of the chloroplast genome in Sorbus aucuparia L. (Rosaceae). (8/194)

Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) inheritance was investigated in Sorbus aucuparia using progenies obtained from six controlled crosses between individuals of known haplotype. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, followed by restriction analysis, was used to characterize 248 offspring for either of two polymorphic cpDNA fragments. All offspring exhibited the maternal haplotype, which indicates maternal inheritance of chloroplasts in S. aucuparia. Power analysis of the test showed that the frequency of paternal transmission of chloroplasts, if any, should not exceed 1.84% (with 99% confidence).  (+info)

  • Report Highlights Global Markets Direct's Pharmaceutical and Healthcare latest pipeline guide Rosacea - Pipeline Review, H2 2017, provides comprehensive information on the therapeutics under development for Rosacea (Dermatology), complete with analysis by stage of development, drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (medindia.net)
  • The causes of rosacea are complex and not well understood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This article has covered different aspects of the causes of rosacea. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Many doctors suspect that the proliferation of H. pylori bacteria in our gastrointestinal tract and the related infection of the gastric mucosa could be one of the causes of rosacea. (streetdirectory.com)
  • Many doctors strongly believe that genetic predisposition could be one of the prime causes of rosacea. (streetdirectory.com)
  • The science isn't conclusive on this, as even the underlying causes of rosacea remain murky. (healthcentral.com)
  • The underlying causes of rosacea are assumed to be genetic, or a combination of genetic and environmental factors. (wholehealthmd.com)
  • Dr. Kumika Toma of the College of Health Professions has made significant contributions in determining the causes of rosacea, according to a research study published in the Journal of Neurophysiology . (marshall.edu)
  • Experts are not sure about specific causes of rosacea but they believe it is due to both genetic and environmental factors. (dermatology.ca)
  • The guide covers the descriptive pharmacological action of the therapeutics, its complete research and development history and latest news and press releases.The Rosacea (Dermatology) pipeline guide also reviews of key players involved in therapeutic development for Rosacea and features dormant and discontinued projects. (medindia.net)
  • The guide covers therapeutics under Development by Companies /Universities /Institutes, the molecules developed by Companies in Phase III, Phase II, Phase I and Preclinical stages are 2, 7, 7 and 1 respectively.Rosacea (Dermatology) pipeline guide helps in identifying and tracking emerging players in the market and their portfolios, enhances decision making capabilities and helps to create effective counter strategies to gain competitive advantage. (medindia.net)
  • Scope - The pipeline guide provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Rosacea (Dermatology). (medindia.net)
  • The pipeline guide reviews pipeline therapeutics for Rosacea (Dermatology) by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources. (medindia.net)
  • The pipeline guide reviews key companies involved in Rosacea (Dermatology) therapeutics and enlists all their major and minor projects. (medindia.net)
  • The pipeline guide evaluates Rosacea (Dermatology) therapeutics based on mechanism of action (MoA), drug target, route of administration (RoA) and molecule type. (medindia.net)
  • The pipeline guide reviews latest news related to pipeline therapeutics for Rosacea (Dermatology) Reasons to buy - Procure strategically important competitor information, analysis, and insights to formulate effective R&D strategies. (medindia.net)
  • Find and recognize significant and varied types of therapeutics under development for Rosacea (Dermatology). (medindia.net)
  • Formulate corrective measures for pipeline projects by understanding Rosacea (Dermatology) pipeline depth and focus of Indication therapeutics. (medindia.net)
  • Obesity may be associated with a higher risk of rosacea in women, according to a new study published in the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology . (rosacea.org)
  • The American Academy of Dermatology states that over 14 million people are currently living with rosacea in the U.S. alone. (openpr.com)
  • Especially as rosacea becomes more widely known, it is increasingly evident that heredity may be a significant factor,' said Boni Elewski, MD, vice chairman of dermatology at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. (skininc.com)
  • Phymatous rosacea is treated primarily with laser or light-based therapies. (aafp.org)
  • Isotretinoin is highly effective in this type of rosacea, especially given that low-dose, long-term therapy is an option particularly in men and women of nonchildbearing potential. (medscape.com)
  • Dapsone may be necessary in refractory rosacea or in a patient for whom isotretinoin is contraindicated. (medscape.com)
  • Isotretinoin may be considered as a treatment option for all forms of severe or therapy-resistant rosacea. (medhelp.org)
  • If you have rosacea, stick to gentle, fragrance-free moisturizers sans any irritating anti-aging ingredients, Dr. Zeichner says. (rd.com)
  • In rosacea there is a high density and therefore a large number of bacteria are released. (nbcnews.com)
  • Looking at all the findings together, the researchers realized that the most likely culprit in the rosacea scenario was the bacteria in the gut of a certain type of mite, Demodex folliculorum. (nbcnews.com)