Gravitropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Root Cap: A cone-shaped structure in plants made up of a mass of meristematic cells that covers and protects the tip of a growing root. It is the putative site of gravity sensing in plant roots.Gravity Sensing: Process whereby a cell, bodily structure, or organism (animal or plant) receives or detects a gravity stimulus. Gravity sensing plays an important role in the directional growth and development of an organism (GRAVITROPISM).Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Phthalimides: The imide of phthalic acids.Naphthaleneacetic Acids: Naphthalene derivatives containing the -CH2CCO2H radical at the 1-position, the 2-position, or both. Compounds are used as plant growth regulators to delay sprouting, exert weed control, thin fruit, etc.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phototropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Tropism: The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Pulvinus: A group of cells at the base of a leaf in certain plants that, by rapidly losing water, brings about changes in the position of the leaves. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Darkness: The absence of light.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Phycomyces: A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Cantharidin: A toxic compound, isolated from the Spanish fly or blistering beetle (Lytta (Cantharis) vesicatoria) and other insects. It is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A). This compound can produce severe skin inflammation, and is extremely toxic if ingested orally.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Qb-SNARE Proteins: A subfamily of Q-SNARE PROTEINS which occupy the same position in the SNARE complex as the N-terminal SNARE domain of SNAP-25 and which also are most similar to the N-terminal region of SNAP-25 in their AMINO ACID SEQUENCE.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Plant Physiological Phenomena: The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Triiodobenzoic Acids: Triiodo-substituted derivatives of BENZOIC ACID.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Phytochrome B: A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Phytochrome A: The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Root Resorption: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.IsraelProprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Eritrea: A country of eastern Africa, west of the Red Sea, bordered west and northwest by SUDAN, and south by ETHIOPIA. Its capital is Asmara.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
  • Moreover, several transcription factors and candidate cis -regulatory elements involved in root growth and developments, as well as auxin-related processes, were over-represented in both co-up and -down differentially expressed genes, suggesting that melatonin-mediated root growth occurs in an auxin signal pathway-dependent manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • Exogenous applications of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to rice seedlings led to significantly reduced N uptake in roots and reduced translocation of recently‐absorbed 15N from roots to leaves, likely occurring as a result of down‐regulation of glutamine synthetase cytosolic isozyme 1-2 and ferredoxin-nitrite reductase. (scoop.it)
  • vps38 seedlings also have dampened root gravitropism, which is underpinned by aberrant vectoral auxin transport likely caused by defects in plasma membrane/endosome cycling of the PIN-FORMED family of auxin transporters necessary for asymmetric cell elongation. (frontiersin.org)
  • In their experiments, they showed that roots of corn and legume seedlings treated with brassinolide had stronger gravitropism when compared with non-treated seedlings. (noble.org)
  • Roots of corn seedlings respond to gravity more strongly when treated with a substance called brassinolide (top image). (noble.org)
  • To harvest tissue for DNA extraction, the water in the lower plate containing root tissue is rapidly frozen while the seedlings in the upper plate remain at room temperature. (jove.com)
  • The upper plate is then peeled away from the lower plate, yielding one plate with 96 root tissue samples frozen in ice and one plate with 96 viable seedlings. (jove.com)
  • Roots can be perfused with nutrient solutions or inhibitors, and up to eight seedlings can be analyzed in parallel. (jove.com)
  • When seeds are germinated in darkness in the presence of morphactin (an antagonist of the hormonal action of auxin), the resulting seedlings are disoriented-both the root and shoot grow in random directions. (doneganlandscaping.com)
  • Oxygen, NO, and ROS were continuously monitored during normal and hyper- and microgravity conditions in roots of maize seedlings. (hindawi.com)
  • Bisected gn seedlings are unable to form polar root organization but produce disorganized callus growth ( 7 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Bengough AG, Gordon DC, Al-Menaie H, Ellis RP, Allan DL, Keith R, Thomas WTB, Forster BP (2004 ) Gel observation chamber for rapid screening of root traits in cereal seedlings. (publish.csiro.au)
  • Endodermis-specific expression of SGR3 and ZIG by using the SCR promoter could complement the abnormal shoot gravitropism of each mutant. (pnas.org)
  • These results suggest that vesicle transport to the prevacuolar compartment/vacuole in the endodermal cells, mediated by a specific SNARE complex containing AtVAM3 and AtVTI11, plays an important role in shoot gravitropism. (pnas.org)
  • Confirmed functions of SCR include the radial patterning of axial organs, the development of endodermis and normal shoot gravitropism. (auburn.edu)
  • Zone 1 (black bars) contains the apical end of root to 0.4 cm, and zone 2 (hatched bars) contains 0.4 to 0.8 cm from root tip. (plantphysiol.org)
  • At the tip of every growing root is a conical covering of tissue called the root cap , which consists of undifferentiated soft tissue (parenchyma) with unthickened walls covering the apical meristem . (wikidoc.org)
  • In the last years, experimental evidences depicted the structure of the root apex as divided into three different zones: a transition zone (TZ) located between two other regions, the apical division zone (DZ), and the elongation zone (EZ) [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Cell biology studies further demonstrate that polar localization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN3 in root columella cells and asymmetric lateral auxin flow in the root tip in response to gravistimulation is reversed in the atngr1;2;3 triple mutant. (scoop.it)
  • These suppressors show improved gravitropic response and root length respectively over scr1 mutant but below that of the wild type (WT) level. (auburn.edu)
  • Among the few characterized rice mutants affected in root development, crown rootless1 mutant is unable to initiate crown root primordia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kawasaki A, Okada S, Zhang C, Delhaize E, Mathesius U, Richardson AE, Watt M, Gilliham M, Ryan PR (2018) A sterile hydroponic system for characterising root exudates from specific root types and whole-root systems of large crop plants. (edu.au)
  • arg1-1 and arg1-2 were isolated from the DuPont and Feldmann collections of T-DNA insertional mutants, respectively, by using the reorientation and root-waving assays described in refs. (pnas.org)
  • Gravicurvature assays performed on ethylene-insensitive mutants, etr1-1, etr2-1, ers2-1, ein4-1 and ein2-5, have clearly demonstrated the necessary role for ethylene in vigorous gravitropism of light-grown hypocotyls. (deepdyve.com)
  • Pharmacological and genetic studies show that the negative root gravitropic response of the ngr mutants depends on polar auxin transport in the root elongation zone. (scoop.it)
  • Selected for mutants that appear normal even when in presence of phytotropin (ie, roots ELONGATE EVEN IN THE PRESENCE OF NPA). (iastate.edu)
  • In lateral root tips of lzy multiple mutants, asymmetric distribution of PIN3 and auxin response were reversed, suggesting that LZY genes regulate the direction of polar auxin transport in response to gravity through the control of asymmetric PIN3 expression in the root cap columella. (plantcell.org)
  • The scr mutants exhibit abnormal internal shoot and root architecture. (auburn.edu)
  • To date only a few rice mutants with less or no crown root have been identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is likely that the ethylene-dependent gravitropism-deficient phenotype of egy1 hypocotyls may result from the smaller size and less number of endodermal plastids. (deepdyve.com)
  • Specifically, in this protocol we measure the apparent Young's modulus of cell walls at subcellular resolutions across regions of up to 100 µm x 100 µm in floral meristems, hypocotyls, and roots. (jove.com)
  • Eapen D, Martínez-Guadarrama J, Hernández-Bruno O, Flores L, Nieto-Sotelo J, Cassab GI (2017) Synergy between root hydrotropic response and root biomass in maize ( Zea may s L.) enhances drought avoidance. (springer.com)
  • Instrumentaci n y Algoritmos para el An lisis de la Din mica Tridimensional de Evaporaci n de Gotas S siles de Agua en: SOMI XXXII Congreso de Instrumentaci N. Acapulco, Gro, Mexico 25 al 27 de ocubre 2017. (unam.mx)
  • An lisis de M tricas Sobre el Flagelo de Espermatozoides de Humano en 3D para su Clasificaci n entre Activados e Hiperactivados en: Memorias del XL Congreso Nacional de Ingenieria Biomedica CNIB 2017. (unam.mx)
  • The molecular mechanisms of gravity sensing and signal transduction during gravitropism are not well known. (pnas.org)
  • Using a combination of high-powered microscopes and molecular tools to label living plant cells, the researchers found that brassinolide affected a component of the root cell called the cytoskeleton. (noble.org)
  • Gravisensing activates a signal transduction cascade which results in the asymmetric redistribution of auxin and apoplastic Ca2+ across the root tip, with accumulation at the bottom side. (nih.gov)
  • These results suggest that AtPIN2 plays an important role in control of gravitropism regulating the redistribution of auxin from the stele towards the elongation zone of roots. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Demina IV, Maity PJ, Nagchowdhury A, Ng JLP, van der Graaff E, Demchenko KN, Roitsch T, Mathesius U, Pawlowski K (2019) Accumulation of and response to auxins in roots and nodules of the actinorhizal plant Datisca glomerata compared to the model legume Medicago truncatula. (edu.au)
  • We have shown that the AtPIN2 gene was expressed in root tips. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • We have developed image analysis algorithms that allow the spatial integration of soil properties, gene expression, and root system architecture traits. (elifesciences.org)
  • It may involve amyloplast sedimentation in the columella cells of the root cap, or the detection of forces exerted by the mass of the protoplast on opposite sides of its cell wall. (nih.gov)
  • I am currently using the techniques of high pressure freezing, freeze substitution, followed by 3D tomography to characterise the ER and actin networks in root columella cells. (oocities.org)
  • Microscopy of flax roots showed intracellular displacement of amyloplasts in columella cells due to magnetophoresis. (springer.com)
  • This article is missing information about details on function, root-environment/soil interactions . (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, we also describe sampling methods for studying belowground productivity, soil exploration, and root distribution in the first soil layers at the community level (soil coring and ingrowth core method). (bioportfolio.com)
  • Root systems that improve resource uptake and penetrate compacted soil (hardpan) are important for improving soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. (bioportfolio.com)
  • On the other hand, a shortage of water caused the roots to grow more vertically to access water stored deeper in the soil. (elifesciences.org)
  • GLO-Roots can also be used to measure the water content of soil at different depths and how this influences the architecture of the root. (elifesciences.org)
  • The architecture of the root system determines the volume of soil where resources can be accessed by the plant (rhizosphere) and is under both environmental and genetic control. (elifesciences.org)
  • Sometimes though roots will re-direct themselves towards sources of soil iron or sulfur or toward micronutrient soil chemicals such as zinc, magnesium, or selenium. (allergyfree-gardening.com)
  • The hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA) mediates responses to different environmental factors, such as the presence of nitrate in the soil, water stress and salt, shaping the structure of the root system by regulating the production of lateral roots as well as controlling root elongation by modulating cell division and elongation. (mdpi.com)
  • Not that I'd be able to tell, but they just don't look big enough for roots, soil and insulation. (hortmag.com)
  • It helps make sure there's enough soil in the container to hold water, instead of the water just rolling right off… And don't forget, it would stop the roots from busting up those rad, industrial cannisters the trees are planted in. (hortmag.com)
  • The plant cell biology laboratory studies how roots grow down toward the soil by following gravity. (noble.org)
  • Crops with deeper roots will likely improve crop productivity and yield as well as producer profitability by reducing irrigation dependency, soil erosion and fertilizer use. (noble.org)
  • Our main focus is on the role of flavonoids in controlling auxin transport and responses, as well as on other functions of flavonoids in the communication between roots and soil microbes. (edu.au)
  • Forming a conical or pointed root ball is not recommended as it reduces the volume of soil available for maximum root regeneration. (ufl.edu)
  • Plastic wrap helps to retain moisture in the excavated soil, bind the soil to the root ball, stabilize it for root regrowth, and confine the newly grown roots. (ufl.edu)
  • Developments in instruments and software mean that a combination of high-throughput simple screens and more in-depth examination of root-soil interactions is becoming viable. (publish.csiro.au)
  • Perhaps the most striking characteristic of roots that distinguishes them from other plant organs such as stem-branches and leaves is that roots have an endogenous origin, i.e. , they originate and develop from an inner layer of the mother axis, such as pericycle . (wikipedia.org)
  • We showed that LZY1 , LZY2 , and a paralog AtDRO1/AtNGR2/LZY3 are redundantly involved in gravitropism of the inflorescence stem, hypocotyl, and root. (plantcell.org)
  • In rice, the major part of the post-embryonic root system is made of stem-derived roots named crown roots (CR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • if one should plant a bulb upside down - the roots will always grow south or upwards and the stem will always grow north or downwards. (doneganlandscaping.com)
  • The plant root tip comprises a stem cell niche giving rise to all cell types that build up the root. (elifesciences.org)
  • DEGs associated with gravitropism, cell wall biosynthesis, photoperiod, hormone signaling, and carbohydrate metabolism were found to regulate stem-to-rhizome transition. (biomedcentral.com)