Root Canal Filling Materials: Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)Zinc Oxide-Eugenol Cement: Used as a dental cement this is mainly zinc oxide (with strengtheners and accelerators) and eugenol. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)Gutta-Percha: Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.Root Canal Obturation: Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.Hydrocarbons, IodinatedRoot Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Calcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Zinc Oxide: A mild astringent and topical protectant with some antiseptic action. It is also used in bandages, pastes, ointments, dental cements, and as a sunblock.Epoxy Resins: Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Dental Leakage: The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Tooth Apex: The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)Retreatment: The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Periapical Tissue: Tissue surrounding the apex of a tooth, including the apical portion of the periodontal membrane and alveolar bone.Root Canal Irrigants: Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Retrograde Obturation: Procedure that involves the removal of infectious products from a root canal space through use of special instruments and fillings. This procedure is performed when root canal treatment fails.Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Radiography, Bitewing: Technique involving the passage of X-rays through oral structures to create a film record while a central tab or wing of dental X-ray film is being held between upper and lower teeth.Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Calcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Thymol: A phenol obtained from thyme oil or other volatile oils used as a stabilizer in pharmaceutical preparations, and as an antiseptic (antibacterial or antifungal) agent. It was formerly used as a vermifuge.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Endodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the maintenance of the dental pulp in a state of health and the treatment of the pulp cavity (pulp chamber and pulp canal).Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Aluminum Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain aluminum as an integral part of the molecule.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Periapical Diseases: Diseases of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE surrounding the root of the tooth, which is distinguished from DENTAL PULP DISEASES inside the TOOTH ROOT.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Salicylates: The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.Dental Pulp Necrosis: Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.Bismuth: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.Root Resorption: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Dental Debonding: Techniques used for removal of bonded orthodontic appliances, restorations, or fixed dentures from teeth.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Oxides: Binary compounds of oxygen containing the anion O(2-). The anion combines with metals to form alkaline oxides and non-metals to form acidic oxides.Apicoectomy: Excision of the apical portion of a tooth through an opening made in the overlying labial, buccal, or palatal alveolar bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.Dental Soldering: The joining of pieces of metal through the use of an alloy which has a lower melting point, usually at least 100 degrees Celsius below the fusion temperature of the parts being soldered. In dentistry, soldering is used for joining components of a dental appliance, as in assembling a bridge, joining metals to orthodontic bands, or adding to the bulk of certain structures, such as the establishment of proper contact areas on inlays and crowns with adjacent teeth. (Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Ear Canal: The narrow passage way that conducts the sound collected by the EAR AURICLE to the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.Apexification: Endodontic procedure performed to induce TOOTH APEX barrier development. ROOT CANAL FILLING MATERIALS are used to repair open apex or DENTAL PULP NECROSIS in an immature tooth. CALCIUM HYDROXIDE and mineral trioxide aggregate are commonly used as the filling materials.Dental Clinics: Facilities where dental care is provided to patients.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Smear Layer: Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.Bleaching Agents: Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments and thus effect whitening.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Lasers, Solid-State: Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.Odontometry: Measurement of tooth characteristics.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Castor Oil: Oil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.Dental Amalgam: An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Pulpectomy: Dental procedure in which the entire pulp chamber is removed from the crown and roots of a tooth.Dental Pulp Diseases: Endodontic diseases of the DENTAL PULP inside the tooth, which is distinguished from PERIAPICAL DISEASES of the tissue surrounding the root.

Dental workplace exposure and effect on fertility. (1/312)

OBJECTIVES: This study assessed occupational exposure in dental surgeries on the basis of the reported use of dental materials and techniques and applied waiting-time-to-pregnancy methodology to study fertility in relation to the occupational exposure. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively using a self-administered postal questionnaire addressing the occupational and reproductive history of the participants. The study groups consisted of 558 female dental surgeons and 450 high school teachers that had given birth in Norway to at least 1 living child. The present study comprised data from a total of 1408 pregnancies. The effects of practicing dentistry and of the given workplace exposure on fertility were analyzed with the discrete proportional hazard regression method. RESULTS: Most of the female dental surgeons were using amalgam for fillings during the period they tried to conceive, and 1/3 placed more than 50 fillings a week. Tooth-colored fillings were in limited use. Prior to 75% of the pregnancies, the dental surgeons reported handling chloroform-based root canal sealers. Forty percent of the dental surgeons were daily exposed to disinfectants containing ethanol and benzene. No difference was found in fertility between the dental surgeons and the high school teachers. Exposure to mercury, chloroform, and benzene was not associated with decreased fertility, except for a possible effect of mercury in the last pregnancy of multiparous dental surgeons. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposures had no clear adverse effects on fertility among the female dental surgeons studied.  (+info)

21st-century endodontics. (2/312)

BACKGROUND: Endodontics as a discipline has offered patients the opportunity to maintain their natural teeth. As the population expands and ages, the demand for endodontic therapy can be expected to increase as patients seek dental options to keep their teeth for a lifetime. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: New materials, techniques and instruments are entering the market-place to assist dentists in providing patients with more predictable and reliable endodontic treatment. In addition, these new systems make the delivery of endodontic services more efficient. This article describes these advances in endodontic treatment for dentists interested in incorporating these advances into their clinical practice.  (+info)

The outcome of root canal treatment. A retrospective study within the armed forces (Royal Air Force). (3/312)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the outcome of conventional root canal treatment in a general practice setting within the Royal Air Force dental service. Design Retrospective review. METHODS: Teeth that had been root-filled for 12 months or more by Royal Air Force dental practitioners in patients attending a large Royal Air Force dental centre were included in the study. Following clinical and radiographic review the root fillings were classified as 'definitely successful', 'probably successful' or 'failed' The effect on success of several variables on the outcome was investigated. RESULTS: Out of a total of 406 teeth, 59% were maxillary teeth and 41% were mandibular teeth. Sixty-nine per cent of the total sample had pre-existing periapical radiolucencies. Cold lateral condensation of gutta-percha was the most widely used filling technique (64% of all cases). Fifty per cent of the teeth had root fillings within 2 mm of the radiographic apex, 32% were greater than 2 mm from the radiographic apex and 18% were overfilled. Cold lateral condensation was the most successful (92% overall) filling technique. Maxillary anterior teeth had a better success rate (96%) than other tooth types. Teeth with pre-existing periapical radiolucencies had a higher success rate (87%) than those cases where there was no pre-existing periapical radiolucency (80%). Root fillings that were less than 2 mm from the radiographic apex of the tooth had a higher success rate (88% overall) than those that were greater than 2 mm from the radiographic apex (77% overall). Of the 406 cases, 57% (n=231) were classified as definitely successful, 28% (n=114) were classified as probably successful and 15% (n=62) were classified as failures. Thus, the overall success rate combining definitely successful and probably successful root fillings was 85% (n=344). CONCLUSIONS: Root fillings placed using cold lateral condensation of gutta-percha to within 2 mm of the radiographic apex of the tooth were associated with the best outcome.  (+info)

Influence of the spatulation of two zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealers on the obturation of lateral canals. (4/312)

The objective of this research was to evaluate, in vitro, the importance of the correct manipulation of endodontic sealers, correlating it with flow rate and with the consequent obturation of root canals. Twenty-four human canines were prepared, 1 mm from the apex, with K-files up to size 50, by means of the step-back technique. Six lateral canals were then drilled in each tooth, with size 10 file fixed to a low-speed handpiece. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups, and root canals were obturated either with the Endomethasoneregister mark or target sealer or Grossman sealer, prepared at ideal or incorrect clinical consistency. After obturation by means of the lateral condensation technique, the teeth were radiographed and evaluated as to the number of sealed lateral canals. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences (p < 0.001) between the tested sealers, and indicated the higher capacity of the well-manipulated Grossman sealer to fill lateral canals. It can be concluded that the flow rate of a sealer and its correct manipulation are very important for the satisfactory obturation of lateral canals.  (+info)

Adverse reactions associated with the use of eugenol in dentistry. (5/312)

Eugenol is a material commonly used in dentistry with few reported side effects. It is not however, a bio-friendly material when in contact with oral soft tissues. It can produce both local irritative and cytotoxic effects, as well as hypersensitivity reactions. Here we report on two cases of adverse local reaction to eugenol, contained within a temporary restorative material and a temporary cementation material respectively, which illustrate these problems.  (+info)

Tissue reactions after intraosseous implantation of three retrofilling materials. (6/312)

Bone tissue reactions to EBA, IRM, and cyanoacrylate cement (Base Liner) were studied in the rat mandible using an intraosseous implant method. Osseous cavities (1.4 mm in diameter) were surgically created in the mandibles, and materials were implanted in 60 male Wistar rats. Each specimen was evaluated histologically after 4 and 8 weeks. The development of fibrous connective tissue in direct apposition to the material was observed in the EBA and IRM groups at 4 weeks. A slight degree of macrophage infiltration was seen in the EBA group. After the 8-week observation period, IRM and EBA were frequently separated from the bone cavity by a fibrous connective tissue layer (p < 0.01). The Base Liner appeared to be in direct apposition to the osseous tissue in several areas (p < 0.01). These findings indicate that Base Liner reacts favorably with osseous tissue, compared with the EBA and IRM materials tested and seems to be a biocompatible material.  (+info)

Apical and periapical repair of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions after endodontic treatment with different root canal sealers. (7/312)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical repair after root canal treatment of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion using different root canal sealers. After periapical lesion induction, forty-four root canals of 3 dogs were submitted to biomechanical preparation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution. A calcium hydroxide dressing (Calen PMCC) was applied for 15 days and the root canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and Sealapex, AH Plus or Sealer Plus for sealing. After 180 days, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the obtained histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for optical microscopic analysis of the apical and periapical repair. The groups filled with Sealapex and AH Plus had better histological repair (p < 0.05) than the group filled with Sealer Plus, that had unsatisfactory results.  (+info)

Histopathological reactions of calcium phosphate cement. (8/312)

Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) consisting of Ca4 (PO4)2O and CaHPO4 (2H2O) was recently developed. This study evaluated in vivo aspects of CPC and CPC mixtures compared to those of commercial hydroxyapatite (HP) and several endodontic materials: Grossman's cement (GC), calcium hydroxide-iodine paste (CHP) and gutta-percha plate (GP). Biocompatibility of subcutaneous implants in Donryu rats was evaluated after one month. Results showed very slight inflammatory reactions from CPC, CPC mixtures and HP. The materials were surrounded by thin fibrous connective tissues with a small number of lymphocytes and plasma cells. Severe inflammatory reactions were provoked by GC. Granulation tissues induced by CHP resembled those of pseudoxanthomatous granuloma. The GP material was encapsulated by relatively thick fibrous connective tissues with little inflammatory reactions.  (+info)

  • Metapex comes in a prefilled 2.2g syringe for easy delivery directly into the canal with the flexible plastic, ultra-fine Luer-lock needle tips included. (practicon.com)
  • The other pain (other than the root area) seems to be located in my jaw joint and radiates to my head, ear, and neck on the left side. (medhelp.org)
  • Oral biomaterials research today is an exciting and intensive multidisciplinary area that encompasses contributions from a wide range of fields from professional dentistry to biology, chemistry, physics, material science, and engineering. (coursera.org)
  • You will realize how contemporary dentistry is about unifying synthetic materials to living tooth and bone tissues. (coursera.org)
  • Great to have sessions on recent material advancements in Dentistry! (coursera.org)
  • The objective of the study was to evaluate the radiographic technical quality of root canal fillings performed by under graduate dental students at College of dentistry, Aljouf University, Saudi Arabia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In dentistry (as composite named Resilon), it is used as a component of "night guards" (dental splints) and in root canal filling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Smart Materials in Dentistry. (pulpdent.com)
  • Despite advantages of increased contrast and the absence of artifacts from radiodense materials in MRI, comparable measures of sensitivity and specificity (to limited field-of-view CBCT imaging) suggest MRI quality improvements are needed, specifically in image acquisition and postprocessing parameters," wrote the authors led by Tyler Schuurmans, DDS, from the division of endodontics at the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry in Minneapolis. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Over the next two years, the UCLA Dentistry team plan on carrying out further with their colleagues in other Departments, and hope to optimise this material in order to carry out clinical trials that could well lead to widespread use of this filler materials, resulting in smiles that really will sparkle! (forbes.com)
  • Accuracy of electronic apex locators to detect root canal perforations with inserted metallic posts: an ex vivo study. (nih.gov)
  • Smear layer scores and percentage of open dentinal tubules (%ODT) were evaluated by 2 examiners before and after irrigation procedures, from the middle and apical thirds of the root canal, on scanning electron microscopic images. (springer.com)
  • Conclusions Irrigation by agitation with the Sonicare CanalBrush improved root canal debridement in the coronal, middle and particularly the apical thirds of the root canal. (edu.sa)
  • Endodontically treated periapices seemed to be prone to the occurrence of anachoresis and there was no relationship between the phenomenon and the level of root canal filling. (scielo.cl)
  • Secure and prepare the access for CMA into the coronal 2/3 of the canal. (edu.sa)
  • flares out the coronal part of the canal. (edu.sa)
  • The clinician should be able to mentally visualize the pulp spaces from the coronal aspect to the apical foramen and should always be aware of the common internal root morphology and the possible variations which might be encountered. (hindawi.com)
  • A conductive coating composition comprises conductive filler powder dispersed in a solution of a thermoplastic resin or thermosetting resin, and it is useful for many purposes, for instance, as a paste for electric circuits, a conductive ink, a conductive adhesive or an electromagnetic wave shielding material. (google.co.uk)
  • The method of treating a root canal in need of endodontic filling which comprises the steps of forming a mixture by thoroughly mixing, with each 1.5 grams a paste component, 5 to 6 drops of the liquid component. (google.com)
  • also which material paste or foam hydroxyapetite works best), but they are so expensive. (rutgers.edu)
  • The unique properties of biomaterials such as titanium (Ti), zirconia (ZrO2) and various polymeric materials have made them materials of choice in oral health: dental implants, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and even regenerative medicine. (coursera.org)
  • As duas técnicas avaliadas apresentaram desempenho similar na remoção do material obturador do canal radicular , considerando o dente como um todo ou os terços radiculares separadamente. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sabe-se que, muitos pacientes realizam esse tratamento, mas não têm condições de restaurar o dente imediatamente, aumentando o risco de falhas nesse período intermediário, pela penetração de bactérias ou fluídos bucais até o canal radicular. (usp.br)
  • This macrostructure, first mentioned by Carabelli, was called radix entomolaris, which in general is smaller than mesial and distobuccal roots and can be separate from or partially fused with these other roots [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A critical summary of: Yengopal V, Michenautsch S. Resin-modified glass-ionomer cements versus resin-based materials as fissure sealants: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. (uiowa.edu)