Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dentin Permeability: The property of dentin that permits passage of light, heat, cold, and chemical substances. It does not include penetration by microorganisms.Dentin Desensitizing Agents: Substances which reduce or eliminate dentinal sensitivity or the pain associated with a source of stimulus (such as touch, heat, or cold) at the orifice of exposed dentinal tubules causing the movement of tubular fluid that in turn stimulates tooth nerve receptors.Dentin SensitivityDentin-Bonding Agents: Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.Dentin, Secondary: Dentin formed by normal pulp after completion of root end formation.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Dentin Dysplasia: An apparently hereditary disorder of dentin formation, marked by a normal appearance of coronal dentin associated with pulpal obliteration, faulty root formation, and a tendency for peripheral lesions without obvious cause. (From Dorland, 27th ed)OdontoblastsResin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Acid Etching, Dental: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Smear Layer: Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Dentinogenesis: The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dentin Solubility: The susceptibility of the DENTIN to dissolution.Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Phosphoric Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Molar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Dental Cavity Lining: An inner coating, as of varnish or other protective substance, to cover the dental cavity wall. It is usually a resinous film-forming agent dissolved in a volatile solvent, or a suspension of calcium hydroxide in a solution of a synthetic resin. The lining seals the dentinal tubules and protects the pulp before a restoration is inserted. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Dental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Dentinal Fluid: The lymph or fluid of dentin. It is a transudate of extracellular fluid, mainly cytoplasm of odontoblastic processes, from the dental pulp via the dentinal tubules. It is also called dental lymph. (From Stedman, 26th ed, p665)Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Root Resorption: Resorption in which cementum or dentin is lost from the root of a tooth owing to cementoclastic or osteoclastic activity in conditions such as trauma of occlusion or neoplasms. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dental Leakage: The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.Root Caries: Dental caries involving the tooth root, cementum, or cervical area of the tooth.Root Canal Irrigants: Chemicals used mainly to disinfect root canals after pulpectomy and before obturation. The major ones are camphorated monochlorophenol, EDTA, formocresol, hydrogen peroxide, metacresylacetate, and sodium hypochlorite. Root canal irrigants include also rinsing solutions of distilled water, sodium chloride, etc.Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Decalcification Technique: Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.Plant Root Cap: A cone-shaped structure in plants made up of a mass of meristematic cells that covers and protects the tip of a growing root. It is the putative site of gravity sensing in plant roots.Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Adhesives: Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.Tooth Attrition: The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).Tooth Cervix: The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)Root Canal Filling Materials: Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Dental Pulp Exposure: The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Wettability: The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.Dentinogenesis Imperfecta: An autosomal dominant disorder of tooth development characterized by opalescent dentin resulting in discoloration of the teeth. The dentin develops poorly with low mineral content while the pulp canal is obliterated.Dental Cementum: The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Root Planing: A procedure for smoothing of the roughened root surface or cementum of a tooth after subgingival curettage or scaling, as part of periodontal therapy.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tooth Apex: The tip or terminal end of the root of a tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p62)Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Root Canal Obturation: Phase of endodontic treatment in which a root canal system that has been cleaned is filled through use of special materials and techniques in order to prevent reinfection.Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Tooth Fractures: Break or rupture of a tooth or tooth root.Epoxy Resins: Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.Dental Pulp Capping: Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Tooth Abrasion: The pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes. It is differentiated from TOOTH ATTRITION in that this type of wearing away is the result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It differs also from TOOTH EROSION, the progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes not involving bacterial action. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p2)Dental Etching: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.Odontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Saliva, Artificial: A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.Post and Core Technique: Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.Erbium: Erbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Er, atomic number 68, and atomic weight 167.26.Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Hardness Tests: A test to determine the relative hardness of a metal, mineral, or other material according to one of several scales, such as Brinell, Mohs, Rockwell, Vickers, or Shore. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acrylic ResinsStress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.Tooth Preparation: Procedures carried out with regard to the teeth or tooth structures preparatory to specified dental therapeutic and surgical measures.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Light-Curing of Dental Adhesives: The hardening or polymerization of bonding agents (DENTAL CEMENTS) via exposure to light.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Ameloblasts: Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Gutta-Percha: Coagulated exudate isolated from several species of the tropical tree Palaquium (Sapotaceae). It is the trans-isomer of natural rubber and is used as a filling and impression material in dentistry and orthopedics and as an insulator in electronics. It has also been used as a rubber substitute.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.PhosphoproteinsCalcium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Silicates: The generic term for salts derived from silica or the silicic acids. They contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals, and may contain hydrogen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th Ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Toothbrushing: The act of cleaning teeth with a brush to remove plaque and prevent tooth decay. (From Webster, 3d ed)Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dental Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements especially used by dental professionals for the performance of clinical tasks.Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesCalcium Hydroxide: A white powder prepared from lime that has many medical and industrial uses. It is in many dental formulations, especially for root canal filling.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Integrin-Binding Sialoprotein: A highly glycosylated and sulfated phosphoprotein that is found almost exclusively in mineralized connective tissues. It is an extracellular matrix protein that binds to hydroxyapatite through polyglutamic acid sequences and mediates cell attachment through an RGD sequence.Grape Seed Extract: Exudate from seeds of the grape plant Vitis vinifera, composed of oils and secondary plant metabolites (BIOFLAVONOIDS and polyphenols) credited with important medicinal properties.Dental Restoration, Temporary: A prosthesis or restoration placed for a limited period, from several days to several months, which is designed to seal the tooth and maintain its position until a permanent restoration (DENTAL RESTORATION, PERMANENT) will replace it. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Cementogenesis: The formation of DENTAL CEMENTUM, a bone-like material that covers the root of the tooth.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Gravitropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Lasers, Solid-State: Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Carbon Compounds, Inorganic: Inorganic compounds that contain carbon as an integral part of the molecule but are not derived from hydrocarbons.X-Ray Microtomography: X-RAY COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY with resolution in the micrometer range.Dentifrices: Any preparations used for cleansing teeth; they usually contain an abrasive, detergent, binder and flavoring agent and may exist in the form of liquid, paste or powder; may also contain medicaments and caries preventives.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Cracked Tooth Syndrome: Incomplete fracture of any part of a tooth, characterized by pain during mastication and sensitivity to heat, cold, sweet or sour tastes, and alcohol; it is often undiagnosed because the tooth is usually X-ray negative and normal to pulp vitality tests.Dental Caries Activity Tests: Diagnostic tests conducted in order to measure the increment of active DENTAL CARIES over a period of time.Boron Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.Plant Root Nodulation: The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.
The cementoblasts then disperse to cover the root dentin area and undergo cementogenesis, laying down cementoid. During the ... Once the root sheath disintegrates, the newly formed surface of root dentin comes into contact with the undifferentiated cells ... The external shape of each root is fully determined by the position of the surrounding Hertwig epithelial root sheath. It is ... Cementum covers the roots of teeth and serves to anchor gingival and periodontal fibers of the periodontal ligament by way of ...
The inner portions of the tooth consist of the dentin, a bonelike tissue, and the pulp. The pulp is a soft tissue area ... The motor branches of spinal nerves include: ansa cervicalis, dividing into a superior root, C-1, and an inferior root, C-2 and ... The formation of a developing tooth includes the process of dentin formation, (see: Dentinogenesis) and enamel formation, (see ... Below the neck, holding the tooth into the bone, is the root of the tooth. ...
Human teeth are made of dentin and are covered by enamel in the areas that are exposed. Enamel, itself, is composed of ... In modern day humans, incisors are generally spatulate with a single root while canines are also single rooted but are single ... The upper molars have three roots while the lower molars have two roots. General patterns of dental morphological evolution ... Humans also have small crowns in relation to body mass and tend to show a reduction in cusp and root number. The reduction in ...
... root structures and cells of the pulp-dentin complete. Regenerative endodontics is the extension of root canal therapy. ... Apexification, stimulates cells in the periapical area of the tooth to form a dentin-like substance over the apex. Both improve ... Attempting to complete root canal on a tooth with an open apex is technically difficult and the long-term prognosis for the ... Conventional root canal therapy cleans and fills the pulp chamber with biologically inert material after destruction of the ...
... dentin composes most of the root, which normally has pulp canals. A tooth may have multiple roots or just one root (single- ... An area of bone receiving tension from periodontal ligaments attached to a tooth moving away from it has a high number of ... Maxillary molars usually have three roots. Additional roots are referred to as supernumerary roots. Humans usually have 20 ... Dentin dysplasia is a disorder in which the roots and pulp of teeth may be affected. Regional odontodysplasia is a disorder ...
Which, if in close proximity to the root surface will resorb the root surface cementum and underlying root dentin. This can ... The first evidence of the lesion may be the appearance of a pink-hued area on the crown of the tooth; the hyperplastic, ... Internal resorption is an unusual condition where the dentin and pulpal walls begin to resorb centrally within the root canal. ... Root resorption of secondary teeth can occur as a result of pressure on the root surface. This can be from trauma, ectopic ...
The area around the enamel rod is known as interrod enamel. Interrod enamel has the same composition as the enamel rods. ... In permanent teeth, the enamel rods near the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) tilt slightly more toward the root of the tooth than ... Knowing the orientation of enamel is very important in restorative dentistry because enamel unsupported by underlying dentin is ... oriented toward the root of the tooth. They range from 5 million to 12 million in number. (5 million in mandibular lateral ...
Dentin composes most of the root, which normally has pulp canals. The roots of teeth may be single in number (single-rooted ... The term "anatomic crown" of a tooth refers to the area above the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) or "neck" of the tooth.[9] It is ... The anatomic root is found below the cementoenamel junction and is covered with cementum, whereas the clinical root is any part ... Surfaces nearest the junction of the crown and root are referred to as cervical, and those closest to the apex of the root are ...
Areas of uncalcified matrix are seen. Sometimes odontoblasts are seen in dentin. Type I and II have similar radiographic ... Challenges are associated with root canal treatment of teeth affected by DI due to pulp chamber and root canal obliteration, or ... If root canal treatment is indicated, it should be done in a similar way like with any other tooth. Further consideration is ... This condition is a type of dentin dysplasia that causes teeth to be discolored (most often a blue-gray or yellow-brown color) ...
After the initiation of the formation of dentin in the root area of the tooth, the root sheath disintegrates and moves away ... such as on a root surface. They are usually found in the area between roots, which is called a furcation, of molars. Enamel ... The most common location of enamel pearls is the furcation areas of the maxillary and mandibular third molar roots. Enamel ... However, if the cells of epithelial root sheath remain adherent to predentin, they may differentiate into fully functional ...
7 (5). Petersson, LG (Mar 2013). "The role of fluoride in the preventive management of dentin hypersensitivity and root caries ... cavities Patients that are at low-risk or are decay-free and live in an area where the water is fluoridated Treatment of areas ... use of other fluoride delivery methods Caries prevention on exposed root surfaces Remineralization of lesions in root dentin ... "The role of fluoride in the preventive management of dentin hypersensitivity and root caries". Clinical Oral Investigations. 17 ...
... repairing root perforations during root canal therapy, and treating internal root tooth resorption. This can be used for root- ... Treated area needs to be infection free when applying MTA, because an acidic environment will prevent MTA from setting. ... MTA provides a higher incidence and faster rate of reparative dentin formation without the pulpal inflammation. MTA Plus ... artificial bioceramic CPC is developed for Root-end filling or pilot material in root-end filling and root repair material. 3. ...
... in the root area, to the outer wall of the pulp. From the outer surface of the dentine to the area nearest the pulp, these ... Secondary dentin is a layer of dentin produced after the root of the tooth is completely formed. Tertiary dentin is created in ... In contrast, the darker arclike areas in a stained section of dentin are considered interglobular dentin. In these areas, only ... Circumpulpal dentin is formed before the root formation is completed. Newly secreted dentin is unmineralised and is called ...
Hess made clear as early as 1917 that the internal space of dental roots is often a complex system composed of a central area ( ... The dental pulp is the tissue of which the dentin portion of the tooth is composed. The dental pulp helps complete formation of ... and multiple root canals are considered as the main causes of root canal treatment failures. (e.g. If a secondary root canal ... A root canal is the anatomic space within the root of a tooth. Part of a naturally occurring space within a tooth, it consists ...
However, these therapies are not recommended for teeth with roots that are too short. Teeth with short thin roots and marked ... atubular areas with normal enamel appearance. Globular or small mass of rounded or irregular shape of atypical dentine is often ... teeth show normal roots containing enlarged pulp with abnormal extensions towards the roots, which is often described as " ... The roots may appear to be darker or radiolucent/ pointy and short with apical constriction. Dentine is laid down abnormally ...
... extending laterally through the dentin to the periodontal tissue seen especially in the apical third of the root. Accessory ... This area is lined peripherally by a specialized odontogenic area which has four layers (from innermost to outermost): Pulpal ... Slight decay in tooth structure not extending to the dentin may not alarm the pulp but as the dentin gets exposed, either due ... The dental pulp is a part of the dentin-pulp complex (endodontium). The vitality of the dentin-pulp complex, both during health ...
1. Tooth 2. Enamel 3. Dentin 4. Dental pulp ::5. cameral pulp ::6. root pulp :7. Cementum :8. Crown ::9. Cusp ::10. Sulcus :11 ... A tooth may have multiple small accessory canals in the root apex area forming an apical delta which can complicate the ... Root ::13. Furcation ::14. Root apex :::15. Apical foramen 16. Gingival sulcus 17. Periodontium :18. Gingiva: ::19. free or ... In anatomy the apical foramen is the opening at the apex of the root of a tooth, through which the nerve and blood vessels that ...
Dentin composes most of the root, which normally has pulp canals. The roots of teeth may be single in number (single-rooted ... Instead, the surface area of the tooth used in eating is called the incisal ridge or incisal edge. Though similar, there are ... The anatomic root is found below the cementoenamel junction and is covered with cementum, whereas the clinical root is any part ... Surfaces nearest the junction of the crown and root are referred to as cervical, and those closest to the apex of the root are ...
The crown of the tooth is covered by enamel (A). Dentin (B). The root of the tooth is covered by cementum. C, alveolar bone. D ... Interdental Areas. It is the part of gum which extends in between two teeth up to the contact point. There is a facial side ... The gums are divided anatomically into marginal, attached and interdental areas. Marginal gumsEdit. The marginal gum is the ... The width of the attached gum on the facial aspect differs in different areas of the mouth. It is generally greatest in the ...
... in the root area, to the outer wall of the pulp.[5] From the outer surface of the dentine to the area nearest the pulp, these ... Tertiary dentin (including reparative dentin or sclerotic dentin) - pathologicEdit. Tertiary dentin is dentin formed as a ... Secondary dentinEdit. Secondary dentin(adventitious dentin) is formed after root formation is complete, normally after the ... This appearance, specific to root dentin, is possibly due to differences in the rates of formation of coronal and root dentin. ...
It is a chronic condition that forms a large, shallow lesion and slowly invades first the root's cementum and then dentin to ... The dentinocemental junction (DCJ) is a relatively smooth area in the permanent tooth, and attachment of cementum to the dentin ... Some root resorption of the apical portion of the root may occur, however, if orthodontic pressures are excessive and movement ... Cementum is secreted by cells called cementoblasts within the root of the tooth and is thickest at the root apex. These ...
But after root canal therapy is performed, a tooth becomes extremely brittle and is significantly weaker than its vital ... If the effective posterior contact area on a restoration is 0.1 mm2, over 1 million pounds per square inch (6.9 GPa) of stress ... exist primarily in dentin. As elaborated on below, the amount of tooth structure required to be removed will depend on the ... In such a circumstance, the dentist would like to place the margin as far apical (towards the root tip of the tooth) as ...
The air spray from a three-in-one syringe may also be used to demonstrate areas of dentin hypersensitivity. Heat tests can also ... and the central soft tissue nutrient canals within each root are root canals, exiting through one or more holes at the root end ... On an X-ray, bone resporption appears as a radiolucent area around the end of the root, although this does not manifest ... Petersson LG (Mar 2013). "The role of fluoride in the preventive management of dentin hypersensitivity and root caries". ...
In dentin from the deepest layer to the enamel, the distinct areas affected by caries are the advancing front, the zone of ... Roots have a very thin layer of cementum over a large layer of dentin, and thus most caries affecting cementum also affects ... dentin. If the odontoblasts are killed, the dentin produced is called "reparative" dentin. In the case of reparative dentin, ... This new dentin is referred to as tertiary dentin. Tertiary dentin is produced to protect the pulp for as long as possible from ...
... used for disinfecting areas contaminated with body fluids, including large blood spills (the area is first cleaned with ... One study has shown that Enterococcus faecalis was still present in the dentin after 40 minutes of exposure of 1.3% and 2.5% ... Root Canal Irrigants and Disinfectants. Endodontics. Colleagues for Excellence Published for the Dental Professional Community ... 50% sodium hypochlorite is also used to neutralize any accidental releases of nerve agent in the toxic areas. Lesser ...
... irregular areas of redness, ulcerations and erosions covered with a yellow slough. This can occur in one or more areas of the ... Although lichen planus can present with a variety of lesions, the most common presentation is as a well defined area of purple- ... Intertriginous areas of the skin. This is also known as "Inverse lichen planus."[16] ... This morphology is characterized by hyperpigmented, dark-brown macules in sun-exposed areas and flexural folds. This is a rare ...
Effects of Gates-Glidden, LA Axxess and orifice shaper burs on the cervical dentin thickness and root canal area of mandibular ... The increase of the instrumented area in terms of percentages and the remaining dentin thickness, in mm, at the mesial and ... This study evaluated the increase of the instrumented area and dentin thickness in the mesial and distal aspects of mesial ... All instruments promoted cervical flaring with different amounts of dentin removal at the mesial and distal aspects of the root ...
Comparative analysis of three rotary instruments used for coronal pre-enlargement in radicular dentin thickness and root canal ... area of mandibular molars ...
Just beneath the enamel is dentin, a substance harder than bone. The gum surrounds the base (root) ... The root contains blood vessels and nerves, which supply blood and feeling to the whole tooth. This area is known as the "pulp ... Just beneath the enamel is dentin, a substance harder than bone. The gum surrounds the base (root) of the tooth. ... The root of the tooth extends down into the jawbone. ...
An inner layer of dentin in both the crown and the root ... The core area, known as the pulp, which contains nerves, ... The dentin of the tooth is very porous and is an ineffective seal over the pulp. In Ellis II and III fractures in which the ... Dentin is less radiopaque than enamel and has a radiopacity similar to that of bone. The pulp tissue is not mineralized and ... These teeth are tender (similar to those in the Ellis II category) and have a visible area of pink, red, or even blood at the ...
A: adhered area (mm²).. To determine the adhered area, the formula to calculate the lateral area of a circular straight cone ... cycling on the bond strength of zirconia posts to root dentin. Thirty single-rooted human teeth were transversally sectioned to ... b. Root canal dentin treatment: a multiple-bottle, total-etch adhesive system (All Bond 2® system, Bisco, Schaumburg, IL, USA) ... Ari H, Yasar E, Belli S. Effects of NaOCl on bond strengths of resin cements to root canal dentin. J Endod. 2003;29(4):248-51 ...
Root-the area of the tooth anchoring it in the bone. Tooth Decay. ... When decay reaches the dentin, the dentist will treat it by:. *Numbing the tooth and surrounding tissue area ... Root Canal. Tooth decay that reaches the pulp and/or root of the tooth is treated with a root canal : ... Root Canal. Tooth decay that reaches the pulp and/or root of the tooth is treated with a root canal : ...
Root-the area of the tooth anchoring it in the bone. Tooth Decay. Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc. ... When decay reaches the dentin, the dentist will treat it by:. *Numbing the tooth and surrounding tissue area ... Root Canal. Tooth decay that reaches the pulp and/or root of the tooth is treated with a root canal: *The tooth is numbed and a ... Click grey area to select URL). Accessed August 22, 2017.. Twetman S. Consistent evidence to support the use of xylitol- and ...
... the common name for dentin hypersensitivity. Sensitive teeth can mean that hot, cold or even sweet foods and drinks, or even ... Why does Tooth Sensitivity (Dentin Hypersensitivity) Happen? Tooth sensitivity is usually caused by dentin on root areas ... Instead the roots have a very soft covering called cementum, which once lost leaves the dentin of the root exposed. Overzealous ... It is also important to tell your dentist or hygienist in case the cause is not dentin (root) hypersensitivity and the tooth is ...
The teeth of Homo sapiens are composed of dentin, which is covered by enamel in the exposed areas. Enamel is a protective layer ... The tooth has three main regions, which are the crown, root, and neck. The crown is the visible upper layer of the tooth; the ... First, analyses of the different areas of the brain show that H. erectus was incapable of speech. Examinations of Brocas area ... The lack of tool remains could be explained if H. erectus in these areas used materials for tools that could not be preserved ...
The pulp-capping areas usually coincide with the distopalatal (DP) root, which can be used as a landmark. Determine the precise ... Both reactionary dentin and reparative dentin are classified as tertiary dentin, which forms following external stimulation to ... Compared to the dentin-forming cells, we found no dentin-resorbing cells within the pulp, as determined by tartrate-resistant ... However, unlike reactionary dentin, which is formed by existing odontoblasts, reparative dentin is formed by odontoblast-like ...
... area of apex rarefaction without root resorption.. Internal resorption: tooth decay that initiates in the internal dentin walls ... Crown-root fracture: fracture involves enamel, dentin and root structure; the pulp may or may not be exposed. ... External resorption: progressive root structure loss; the tooth root is dissolved away from the root surface inward, toward the ... Root fracture: the coronal fragment is mobile and may be displaced.. Alveolar fracture: the fracture involves the alveolar bone ...
The cementoblasts then disperse to cover the root dentin area and undergo cementogenesis, laying down cementoid. During the ... Once the root sheath disintegrates, the newly formed surface of root dentin comes into contact with the undifferentiated cells ... The external shape of each root is fully determined by the position of the surrounding Hertwig epithelial root sheath. It is ... Cementum covers the roots of teeth and serves to anchor gingival and periodontal fibers of the periodontal ligament by way of ...
The inner portions of the tooth consist of the dentin, a bonelike tissue, and the pulp. The pulp is a soft tissue area ... The motor branches of spinal nerves include: ansa cervicalis, dividing into a superior root, C-1, and an inferior root, C-2 and ... The formation of a developing tooth includes the process of dentin formation, (see: Dentinogenesis) and enamel formation, (see ... Below the neck, holding the tooth into the bone, is the root of the tooth. ...
Aids in identifying root canal orifices. Seek and Sable Seek caries indicators stain demineralized dentin and can be very ... useful for difficult to see areas, for example; undercuts of preparations, dark dentin, areas along the DE junction, etc. Both ... Root canal treatment in a mandibular second premolar with three root canals. JOE. 2005;31(4):310-313. ... Seek and Sable Seek caries indicators can provide a fast, effective way to locate calcified root canal orifices.1-3 Green Sable ...
The broken red line indicates the border between the crown and root. (C) Higher magnification of the boxed area during root ... the periodontal tissues appeared to form around the root dentin. This situation is similar to the root formation of mouse ... A broken red line indicates the border between the crown analog and the root analog at the labial side. d, dentin; e, enamel; ... The cross-sections clearly showed the root formation of the mutant incisors. The dentin was visible as a squared circle, and ...
The dental cavity narrows to the root tip of the so-called root canal. This is the area where you will find all the nerves and ... It forms the main mass of the tooth and encloses the dental pulp, the medullary cavity, and the root canal. The dentin is not ... The canine tooth has the longest root.. Today, it is assumed that the canines in the crown area have shortened considerably. ... The tooth bed, also called the periodontium, provides the flexible but relatively high strength in this area. The tooth root is ...
DF cells come in contact with root dentin through perforated Hertwigs epithelial root sheath (HERS) and then differentiate ... The lateral coronal corner of DF (boxed region) was the area of differentiation from DF to periodontium. Periodontal ligament ( ... Keywords: tooth root, root apex, dental sac, regeneration, mammals, Sus scrofa Introduction. The dental follicle (DF) ... We scraped the dental follicle tissue from the surface of root sheath and collected it. Then, we opened the root sheath ...
The root contains blood vessels and nerves, which supply blood and feeling to the whole tooth. This area is known as the "pulp ... Just beneath the enamel is dentin, a substance harder than bone. The gum surrounds the base (root) of the tooth. ... The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above ... The structure of the tooth includes dentin, pulp and other tissues, blood vessels and nerves imbedded in the bony jaw. Above ...
The area of the tooth above the gumline is called the crown, and the area below the gumline is called the root (see the image ... A tooth is made up of enamel, dentin, and pulp. The enamel forms the outer layer of the tooth, the dentin constitutes the layer ... Root fractures - Extraction of the coronal segment is required; if no more than one third of the root is involved, a dentist ... If the fracture involves no more than one third of the root, a dentist may be able to perform a root canal and salvage the ...
n the area between the roots of a multirooted tooth; it is normally occupied by bony septum and the periodontal membrane. ... interglobular spaces small irregular spaces on the outer surface of the dentin in the tooth root. ... 1. An area or a cavity within the body. 2. A limited area, usually three dimensional.. Bergers postlenticular space A space ... 1. Any demarcated portion of the body, either an area of the surface, a segment of the tissues, or a cavity. See also: area, ...
... tests in the ability to accurately measure the bond strength of fiber posts luted inside root canals, at different root dentin ... The MI showed concentration of tensions in the edges of the trimming area. One concluded that the type of test influences ... Bond strength between post and dentin was measured in the root slice and the force applied on the center of the specimen. For ... PL provided higher values of bond strength for root dentin and fiber post, followed by PSM. Both of them had also FP with ...
and dentin are worn down and look hook-like. The normally white enamel at these worn areas becomes discolored to yellow or ... Often by doing deep root therapy and splinting teeth, the dentist can encourage new supporting bone to form. ... you will see that the gums in the affected area seem to be growing up and into the teeth. Often if you touch this area, the ... A Veterinary Dentist can strengthen the tooth with a ¾ crown, which covers the sides and back area of the tooth with metal and ...
Exposure of root dentin is also multifactorial. Periodontal disease with gingival recession, some forms of periodontal surgery ... In addition, in some individuals the cementum and enamel do not meet, exposing an area of dentin. The management of this ... Dentin hypersensitivity is a painful response to a non-noxious stimulus applied to exposed dentin. Two processes may expose ... Keywords: dentin hypersensitivity, laser treatment, low-output lasers, middle-output lasers, pulpal damage, treatment ...
Have gum recession to the point the tooth roots are exposed *Are not physically or mentally able to care for their teeth ... Have malformed tooth enamel or dentin. *Make less saliva due to medicine, radiation treatment or illness ... Flossing cleans the areas between your teeth and the sides of your teeth where a toothbrush cant reach. The spaces between ... To learn how much fluoride is in your tap water, talk with the water supplier, public health office or a dentist in your area. ...
The rectangular area of inset shows an area similar to that shown in Fig. 1. A = ameloblasts; AB = alveolar bone; D = dentin; E ... Root development was well advanced. The collagenous fibers of the periodontal ligament were arranged obliquely from the root ... x 350.D = dentin. b Papillary cells (P)of an experimental animal are, however, heavily labeled, whereas only a small number of ... residing on different areas of body connective tissue Bergeron, J.J.M., B.I. Posner, Z. Josefsberg, and R. Sikstrom 1978 Inmay ...
  • We found that the DF was shaped like a crescent and was located between the root apical and the alveolar bone. (medsci.org)
  • The apical papilla may sustain the undifferentiated status of DFSCs before root development finishes. (medsci.org)
  • It is known that the interaction between HERS and the apical papilla provides the driving force for root elongation. (medsci.org)
  • However, whether differentiation of DF cells could be regulated by the signals from the apical papilla during root elongation has been seldom investigated. (medsci.org)
  • apical space the region between the wall of the alveolus and the apex of the root of a tooth. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The recent observation of the binding of EGF in the apical tissues of a developing human premolar root (Thesleff, et al. (docme.ru)
  • To determine what would be the minimal apical diameter for optimal chemomechanical preparation in the root canal system in terms of debridement and/or irrigation delivery، in patients undergoing nonsurgical root canal treatment. (magiran.com)
  • Randomized controlled clinical trials، cohorts، cross-over studies from peer-reviewed journals published in English from January 1950 to June 2018 which reported outcome in terms of healing، microbial reduction and/or effectiveness of irrigation delivery to the apical third of the root canal system. (magiran.com)
  • The newly formed dentin in this RAP group was mainly tubular dentin and was functionally attached to the bone by periodontal ligament, while the CH group showed dentin-associated mineralized tissue (DAMT) associated with the newly formed apical barrier. (springer.com)
  • All of cases have shown good clinical outcomes good radiographic evidences of absence of apical radiolucency and no root resorption. (omicsonline.org)
  • The correct placement of the apical plug will be assessed radiographically, and the moist cotton pellet was left in the root canal. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In apical areas, bond power of dual-cure adhesives was considerably greater than light-cure adhesives ( (cylch.org)
  • A tooth requiring a post needs, in addition, enough root length to allow a 4 mm apical seal and a post length apical to the crown margin, equal to the length of the crown. (cda-adc.ca)
  • Both Seek and Sable Seek caries indicators can provide a fast, effective way to locate calcified root canal orifices. (ultradent.com)
  • July 11, 2011 -- When faced with interproximal root caries, what is the best way to fill them? (drbicuspid.com)
  • We did the switch from amalgam to glass ionomers specifically for the root caries that are interproximally placed," Dr. Teich explained. (drbicuspid.com)
  • In addition to longer survival rates in low-stress areas such as a class V restoration, better aesthetics, fluoride release, and anticariogenic properties of the glass ionomer, Dr. Teich and Dr. Gilboa noted another benefit during their follow-up effort: no secondary caries. (drbicuspid.com)
  • When they detached, we didn't find secondary caries beneath them -- that's a significant advantage, especially in a location that's so prone to them like the root. (drbicuspid.com)
  • Root caries occur in 23.7% of those 65 and older, a demographic prone to gingival recession and exposed root surfaces, the study authors noted. (drbicuspid.com)
  • As baby boomers get older, the number of patients needing treatment for interproximal root caries lesions could increase for many dentists. (drbicuspid.com)
  • It can occur as a result of injury to dentin by caries or abrasion, or as part of the normal aging process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caries that invades the dentin causes pain, first when hot, cold, or sweet foods or beverages contact the involved tooth, and later with chewing or percussion. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The primary treatment of caries that has entered dentin is removal by drilling, followed by filling of the resultant defect. (merckmanuals.com)
  • Also referred to as dental caries, a cavity is a destruction (lesion or hole) causing discoloration, softening or pores on the outer layer of the tooth (the enamel or dentin). (supersmile.com)
  • Prevention of root surface caries using a dentin adhesive. (umn.edu)
  • Coronal parts of root canal systems will be sealed using glass-ionomer cement (Fuji IX, GC Int., Tokyo, Japan) with a minimum thickness of 1.5-2 mm. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Sorensen and Engelman 11 define the ferrule effect as a 360 degree metal collar of the crown surrounding the parallel walls of the dentin extending coronal to the shoulder of the preparation. (cda-adc.ca)
  • X-ray examination of the nasal cavity demonstrated a radiopaque structure that resembled a tooth and a radiopaque mass similar to an odontoma that was adherent to the root of the suspected tooth. (entjournal.com)
  • Once the bacteria have reached the dentin, or inner layer, the cavity usually continues to grow. (healthy.net)
  • п‚Ё Attached Important Oral Cavity Structures пЃ® Labia вЂ" lips oris вЂ" upper lip п‚Ё Inferior oris вЂ" lower lip п‚Ё Commissure вЂ" area at the corners of the mouth where the lips meet. (docme.ru)
  • п‚Ё Buccal frenum вЂ" attaches the side of the cheeck to the oral cavity in the maxillary first molar area. (docme.ru)
  • 5′-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling and cytokeratin (CK) 14 and Notch2 immunostaining suggested that the inhibition of inner enamel epithelium growth and the more-active proliferation of the outer enamel epithelium and/or stellate reticulum result in Hertwig's epithelial root sheath formation. (biologists.org)
  • Previous studies have shown that Hertwig's epithelial root sheath (HERS) plays an important role in root development, but the fate of HERS has remained unknown. (nih.gov)
  • In both cases, the palatal and cervical margins seemed to be the most stressed areas. (quintpub.com)
  • In a condition known as a tooth resorption -formerly referred to as feline odontoclastic resorptive lesion (FORL) or cervical line lesion-the dentin in a single tooth (or several simultaneously) erodes and eventually becomes irreparably destroyed. (cornell.edu)
  • Before removal of the maxillary right incisor, a groove was made in the labial surface of the maxillary left incisor close to the cervical area using a carborundum disc mounted at slow speed with constant cooling. (usp.br)
  • And the problem is that the infection occurs in what is known as the dentin of the tooth. (tldp.com)
  • Mouse, rat and human molars begin to form root after the completion of crown formation. (biologists.org)
  • Forty children of both genders aged 6-8 years old were randomly selected from sixty children with non vital deciduous lower molars without any roots resorption (one tooth from each child) were involved in this study. (omicsonline.org)
  • Vertical root fractures in maxillary first molars affect the mesiobuccal root in most cases. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In a cross-sectional in vitro study, the mesiobuccal roots of fifty extracted human maxillary first molars were sectioned horizontally at 1, 3 and 5 mm from the apex. (alliedacademies.org)
  • First maxillary molars, particularly their Mesiobuccal (MB) roots, are usually treated endodontically with a low success rate [ 2 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Long term retention of a permanent tooth requires a root with a favorable crown/root ratio and dentinal walls that are thick enough to withstand normal function. (aapd.org)
  • Among intrinsic factors directly related to increasing susceptibility to vertical root fractures, the thickness of the cement/dentin walls is a factor over which the clinician has a direct influence during the chemomechanical preparation. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The great variability of the buccal wall and the thinness of the proximal walls may explain the frequent buccolingual direction of vertical mesiobuccal root fractures. (alliedacademies.org)
  • The latter, especially since the thickness of the cement/dentin walls is a clinician-dependent factor directly determined by appropriate Chemomechanical Preparation (CMP) [ 5 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • One of these problems is the residue of medicaments on root canal walls. (blogspot.com)
  • However, root fractures observed when using these posts can occur as a result of the difference in stiffness between post and the remaining root structure, resulting in stress concentration on the tooth during masticatory function. (scielo.br)
  • These fractures are not usually related to an impact, but result from long periods of mechanical fatigue, 11,12 most likely explained by the development of little cracks on tension concentration areas. (scielo.br)
  • Ellis II: Injuries in this category are fractures that involve the enamel as well as the dentin layer. (medscape.com)
  • In spite of these modifications, there is concern about the incidence of Ni-Ti instrument fractures during root canal preparation. (ijdr.in)
  • Peritubular dentine wraps around the dentinal tubule and interglobular dentine (hypomineralized areas) fills the space between the peritubular dentine. (doccheck.com)
  • The tubule filling material in the transparent zone, however, exhibited values between peritubular and intertubular dentin. (elsevier.com)
  • The material filling the tubule lumen in transparent dentin showed an increase in frequency of the band near 1070 cm -1 as well. (elsevier.com)
  • The advantages and disadvantages of maintaining the periodontal ligament (PDL) in immediate replantation as well as chemical treatment of the root surface have been a matter of discussion because the vitality of such tissue in surgery is always questioned. (usp.br)
  • Background: Several studies possess investigated the result from the activation mode of adhesive systems on bond strength of dietary fiber posts to root canal dentin. (cylch.org)
  • Summary: Push-out relationship strength of dietary fiber post to different parts of main canal dentin was suffering from both adhesive systems and their polymerization settings. (cylch.org)
  • One coating of Excite (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) was put on the main canal dentin by microbrush (Microbrush X, Grafton, USA). (cylch.org)
  • The other coating of Excite Dual get rid of Solitary Component (DCS) (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) was put on the main canal dentin based on the manufacturer's instructions with an endo Microbrush. (cylch.org)
  • Two layers from the self-etch adhesive (AdheSE) primer (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) had been applied to the main canal dentin and after eliminating the surplus by strong atmosphere 742112-33-0 supplier blow and paper stage, AdheSE bonding (container 2) was put on dentin with a microbrush and it had been slightly air dried out. (cylch.org)
  • For bonding stage, one drop of dual-cure activator was put into one drop of AdheSE bonding and it was put on the main canal dentin with a microbrush, after that it was somewhat air dried out and the surplus adhesive was eliminated from the paper stage and healed for 20 mere seconds. (cylch.org)
  • This tissue, which communicates with the rest of the animal's body, is surrounded by a bony substance called dentin, which accounts for the bulk of the tooth's structure. (cornell.edu)
  • The portion of the gum surrounding the root, known as the periodontal membrane, cushions the tooth in its bony socket. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For an endodontically treated tooth not requiring a post, the requirements are for biologic width + ferrule length, (i.e. 4.5 mm of supra-bony solid tooth dentin a minimum of 1 mm thick after preparation). (cda-adc.ca)
  • A cat may lose just one tooth in its lifetime because of this problem," she points out, "although it can have a little bit of resorption on other roots that may not require treatment. (cornell.edu)
  • According to Andreasen (1981b), small areas without the PDL show resorption and/or ankylosis. (usp.br)
  • On the other hand, several chemical treatments, varying from minor to major aggressiveness, have been utilized in immediate replants to avoid root resorption with varying degrees of clinical and experimental success. (usp.br)
  • This would be due to the fact that fluoride acts upon the dentin creating fluorapatite that is more resistant to resorption. (usp.br)
  • Quantitative analysis of continuity between cement/dentin interface of different activation mode resin cements, when luted to fiber posts. (usp.br)
  • Thus, it was the aim of the present investigation to perform a quantitative analysis of the continuity between resin cements and dentin interfaces, by means of scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis, in the following situations: after cementation, after MEK immersion, and after a 3-month water storage period. (usp.br)
  • The ratio between the total available bonding interface and the dentin interfaces that presented continuity with resin cement was then calculated. (usp.br)