Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).
A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.
A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
An orphan nuclear receptor found in the THYMUS where it plays a role in regulating the development and maturation of thymocytes. An isoform of this protein, referred to as RORgammaT, is produced by an alternatively transcribed mRNA.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.
A cytokine that promotes differentiation and activation of EOSINOPHILS. It also triggers activated B-LYMPHOCYTES to differentiate into IMMUNOGLOBULIN-secreting cells.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-23 is comprised of a unique 19 kDa subunit and 40 kDa subunit that is shared with INTERLEUKIN-12. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-4. Stat6 has been shown to partner with NF-KAPPA B and CCAAT-ENHANCER-BINDING PROTEINS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of interleukin-4 responsive GENES.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-12 in T-LYMPHOCYTES. Stat4 is an important signaling molecule for differentiation in TH1 CELLS.
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
Th1) to T-helper 2 (Th2). During vascular infection, Th1 is the predominant T cells population and expresses interferon IFN-γ, ... Gallagher G (October 2010). "Interleukin-19: multiple roles in immune regulation and disease". Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews ... IL-19 interacts with both immune cells (macrophages, T cells, B cells) and non-immune cells (endothelial cells and brain ... Romagnani S (November 1999). "Th1/Th2 cells". Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 5 (4): 285-94. doi:10.1097/00054725-199911000-00009 ...
She found that TH2 cells express the NKG2A and CD56 upon activation while TH1 cells do not. Following her time as a researcher ... In probing the roles of microglia in the basal ganglia, De Biase called this hypothesis into question. She found that the ... Microglia then undergo cell death to reach adult brain levels of microglia expression. Lastly, De Biase and her group observed ... When she knocked out NMDARs in OPCs, De Biase did not observe effects on differentiation or cell survival, but she did find ...
PGE2 also has roles in inhibition of cytotoxic T-cell function, cell division of T-lymphocytes, and the development of TH1 ... "A live imaging cell motility screen identifies prostaglandin E2 as a T cell stop signal antagonist". Journal of Immunology. 187 ... Torres R, Picado C, de Mora F (January 2015). "The PGE2-EP2-mast cell axis: an antiasthma mechanism". Molecular Immunology. 63 ... PGE2 also suppresses T cell receptor signaling and proliferation, and may play a role in resolution of inflammation. In ...
It is the main component of the radulas of mollusks, the beaks of cephalopods, and a major component of the cell walls of most ... Grigorian A, Araujo L, Naidu NN, Place DJ, Choudhury B, Demetriou M (2011). "N-Acetylglucosamine Inhibits T-helper 1 (Th1)/T- ... Hart GW, Slawson C, Ramirez-Correa G, Lagerlof O (2011). "Cross talk between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation: roles in ... It is part of a biopolymer in the bacterial cell wall, which is built from alternating units of GlcNAc and N-acetylmuramic acid ...
IL-22 is produced by several populations of immune cells at a site of inflammation. Producers are αβ T cells classes Th1, Th22 ... Sanjabi S, Zenewicz LA, Kamanaka M, Flavell RA (August 2009). "Anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory roles of TGF-beta, IL-10 ... IL-22 takes effect on non-hematopoietic cells - mainly stromal and epithelial cells. Effects involve stimulation of cell ... Kagami S, Rizzo HL, Lee JJ, Koguchi Y, Blauvelt A (May 2010). "Circulating Th17, Th22, and Th1 cells are increased in psoriasis ...
IL-4 decreases the production of Th1 cells, macrophages, IFN-gamma, and dendritic cell IL-12. Overproduction of IL-4 is ... Interleukin 4 has many biological roles, including the stimulation of activated B-cell and T-cell proliferation, and the ... The interleukin 4 (IL4, IL-4) is a cytokine that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells (Th0 cells) to Th2 cells. Upon ... Renal cells and glioblastoma modify 10,000-13,000 receptors per cell depending on tumor type. IL-4 can primitively motivate ...
TH1, TH2, or TH17 phenotypes. Both CD4+ and CD8 IL-17 producing T cells have been shown to cause aTH1, causing tissue ... Some inflammatory cytokines have additional roles such as acting as growth factors. Pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, ... that is secreted from immune cells like helper T cells (Th) and macrophages, and certain other cell types that promote ... An inflammatory cytokine is a type of cytokine (a signaling molecule) that is secreted from immune cells and certain other cell ...
"CD4+ T-cell memory: generation and multi-faceted roles for CD4+ T cells in protective immunity to influenza". Immunological ... His work has assisted in widening the understanding of Th1 and Th2 cells and their bi-directional regulation. His current ... research has been focusing on the host-pathogen interactions and the complex roles played by macrophages and T cells in defense ... S. L. Swain; J. N. Agrewala; D. M. Brown; E. Roman (6 December 2012). "Regulation of Memory CD4 T Cells: Generation, ...
... a cytoprotective role has been suggested in mature CD4+ T cells following exposure to IFNy in a TH1 response. Irgm1 null mice ... but that they have context specific auxiliary roles outside of the traditional phagolysosome development and maturation. There ... cPLA2 null mouse cells, when challenged with C. trachomatis, were less capable of clearing the pathogen compared to cells with ... As a consequence of IRGM induced cell death, dying and necrotic cells release nuclear HMGB1, a pro-inflammatory alarmin, ...
These cells can differentiate into one of several subtypes, which have different roles. Cytokines direct T cells into ... Th1. IFNγ. Tbet. Produce an inflammatory response, key for defense against intracellular bacteria, viruses and cancer.. MS, ... Cytotoxic T cells (TC cells, CTLs, T-killer cells, killer T cells) destroy virus-infected cells and tumor cells, and are also ... Helper CD4+ T cellsEdit. T helper cells (TH cells) assist other lymphocytes, including maturation of B cells into plasma cells ...
The main effector cells of Th1 immunity are macrophages as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IFN-γ CD4 T cells. The key Th1 ... Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... IFN-γ drives Th1 cell production while IL-10 and IL-4 inhibit Th1 cell production. Conversely, IL-4 drives Th2 cell production ... Their main effector cells are NK cells as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IL-10 CD4 T cells. The key THαβ transcription ...
Yoshimoto T, Nakanishi K (June 2006). "Roles of IL-18 in basophils and mast cells". Allergology International. 55 (2): 105-13. ... Nakanishi K (February 2002). "[Regulation of Th1 and Th2 immune responses by IL-18]". Kekkaku. 77 (2): 87-93. PMID 11905033. ... Many cell types, both hematopoietic cells and non-hematopoietic cells, have the potential to produce IL-18. It was first ... but plays an important role in the differentiation of naive T cells into Th2 cells and stimulates mast cells and basophils to ...
Qu Q, Xuan W, Fan GH (2015). "Roles of resolvins in the resolution of acute inflammation". Cell Biology International. 39 (1): ... "5-Lipoxygenase negatively regulates Th1 response during Brucella abortus infection in mice". Infection and Immunity. 83 (3): ... In skin, Langerhans cells strongly express ALOX5. Fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express low levels of ... mast cells, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes express ALOX5. Platelets, T cells, and erythrocytes are ALOX5-negative. ...
IFNγ signaling can initially originate from Natural Killer (NK) cells, but adaptive immune cells are required to sustain a ... The specific roles macrophages play in the Th2 response are still under investigation. Glucocorticoids can contribute to the ... Mills CD, Kincaid K, Alt JM, Heilman MJ, Hill AM (2000). "M-1/M-2 macrophages and the Th1/Th2 paradigm". J Immunol. 164 (12): ... Macrophages have been classified as M1 or M2 depending on the adaptive immune response that elicited the phenotype: Th1 or Th2 ...
... supporting the theory that TFH are a subset of CD4+ T cells distinct from Th-1, Th-2, Th-17 or Tregs. The inducible T-cell co- ... Also Bcl-6 is a transcription factor identified in TFH cells, but it may have roles that extend beyond this subset, because it ... Pre-TFH cells are functionally very similar to other TFH cells in facilitating germinal center B cell reactions however, in ... This may be in part due to lower CD40L levels on the cell surface of TFH cells in the aged. Unchecked or overactive TFH cell ...
In particular it is secreted in abundance by Th1 cells. In its normal function, galectin-1 binds to glycans on the CD4 co- ... Intracellularly, they can directly regulate proteins that control cell fate. Many galectins have roles in apoptosis: One ... Both galectin-1 and galectin-9 are secreted by epithelial cells in the thymus and mediate T cell apoptosis. T cell death is ... Thus, they have a broad variety of functions including mediation of cell-cell interactions, cell-matrix adhesion and ...
Cytokines play key roles in controlling cell growth and the immune response. Many cytokines function by binding to and ... which in turn blocks IFN-γ and IL-6 signalling and consequently Th1 cell differentiation. One mechanism (relevant to psoriasis ... Hence Th2 cell differentiation is blocked and therefore tofacitinib is effective in treating allergic diseases. Tofacitinib to ... Cancer Cell. 28 (1): 15-28. doi:10.1016/j.ccell.2015.06.006. PMC 4503933. PMID 26175413. Stallard, J (23 July 2015). "Discovery ...
Once they have been presented with antigens, T-cells go on to fulfill a variety of roles including pro-inflammatory recruitment ... and other prostanoids prevent chronic inflammation by inhibiting microglial pro-inflammatory response and downregulating Th1 (T ... While moving through its set region, if the microglial cell finds any foreign material, damaged cells, apoptotic cells, ... T-cells, and myeloid progenitor cells. As mentioned above the cytokine IFN-γ can be used to activate microglial cells. In ...
Together with other polarizing cytokines, IL-2 stimulates naive CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes while ... new insights into the complex roles of IL-2 as a broad regulator of T helper cell differentiation". Current Opinion in ... IL-2 also promotes the differentiation of T cells into effector T cells and into memory T cells when the initial T cell is also ... Dimeric IL-2R is expressed by memory CD8+ T cells and NK cells, whereas regulatory T cells and activated T cells express high ...
... monocytes-expressed PD-1 by its ligand PD-L1 induces IL-10 production which activates CD4 Th2 cells and inhibits CD4 Th1 cell ... Monocytes compose 2% to 10% of all leukocytes in the human body and serve multiple roles in immune function. Such roles include ... Vacuolization may be present in a cell that has recently phagocytized foreign matter. Many factors produced by other cells can ... Monocytes are also capable of killing infected host cells via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. ...
They divide into memory cells, TH1, TH17, and TH2 cells, to name a few. Memory cells are made solely for the purpose of having ... ISBN 0073402400.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Ikeda, H., Old, L., & Schreiber, R. (2002). "The roles of IFN in ... TH2 cells produce cytokines that will trigger certain B cells. B cells can differentiate into memory cells or plasma cells. The ... This stem cell can produce red blood cells, platelets, mast cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, ...
TIM-3 is preferentially expressed on Th1 and Tc1 cells and function as an inhibitory molecule, which mediated apoptosis of Th1 ... which plays critical roles in regulating immune cell activity especially regarding the host response to viral infection. TIM-1 ... "Hepatitis A virus receptor blocks cell differentiation and is overexpressed in clear cell renal cell carcinoma". Kidney ... TIM-1 is preferentially expressed on Th2 cells and has been identified as a stimulatory molecule for T-cell activation. ...
TIM-3: short for T-cell Immunoglobulin domain and Mucin domain 3, expresses on activated human CD4+ T cells and regulates Th1 ... Varki, Ajit; Paulson, James C.; Crocker, Paul R. (2007). "Siglecs and their roles in the immune system". Nature Reviews ... Its ligand is ICOSL, expressed mainly on B cells and dendritic cells. The molecule seems to be important in T cell effector ... CD137-mediated signaling is also known to protect T cells, and in particular, CD8+ T cells from activation-induced cell death. ...
... s are versatile cells that play many roles. As scavengers, they rid the body of worn-out cells and other debris. ... in a lymph node stimulates TH1 (type 1 helper T cells) to proliferate (mainly due to IL-12 secretion from the macrophage). When ... Once a T cell has recognized its particular antigen on the surface of an aberrant cell, the T cell becomes an activated ... The processed antigen is then presented in MHCII on the surface of the B-cell. T cells that express the T cell receptor which ...
C3aR has been shown to be necessary for TH1 cell generation and regulates TH1 IL-10 expression, while an absence of active C3aR ... The roles of C3a in innate immunity, upon binding C3aR, include increased vasodilation via endothelial cell contraction, ... C3aR signaling along antigen-presenting cells' CD28 and CD40L pathways also plays a role in T cell proliferation and ... C3a is able to regulate B cell and monocyte production of IL-6 and TNF-α, and human C3a has been shown to dampen the polyclonal ...
... but can also be found in Th1 and Th2 cells and airway epithelial cells. Thus CCR3 plays a role in allergic reactions. CCR3 is ... "The C10/CCL6 chemokine and CCR1 play critical roles in the pathogenesis of IL-13-induced inflammation and remodeling". Journal ... is expressed on unactivated memory T-cells and some dendritic cells. CCR6 is also expressed on Th17 cells. CCR6 is down- ... CCR5 is expressed on several cell types including peripheral blood-derived dendritic cells, CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor ...
TH1 responses tend to release cytokines that direct an immediate removal of the pathogen.) The cell activation results in an ... Also, non-inflammasome-forming PRRs such as TLRs, NOD1 and NOD2 also play important roles in pyroptosis. These receptors ... In gastric cancer cells, presence of GSDMD can inhibit cyclin A2/CDK2 complexes, leading to cell cycle arrest and thus inhibit ... In a cell that undergoes pyroptosis, gasdermin pores are formed on the plasma membrane, resulting in water influx and cell ...
... the naive helper T cell (Th0) polarizes into either a memory Th cell or an effector Th cell of phenotype either type 1 (Th1), ... Class III molecules have physiologic roles unlike classes I and II, but are encoded between them in the short arm of human ... MHC class I molecules are expressed in all nucleated cells and also in platelets-in essence all cells but red blood cells. It ... antigen-presenting cells (APCs): macrophages, B cells, and especially dendritic cells (DCs). An APC takes up an antigenic ...
... cell signaling, oxidative metabolism, and cellular transport". Experimental Cell Research. 289 (2): 211-21. doi:10.1016/s0014- ... Liao J, Fu Y, Shuai K (May 2000). "Distinct roles of the NH2- and COOH-terminal domains of the protein inhibitor of activated ... role of IL-27/WSX-1 signaling for induction of T-bet through activation of STAT1 during initial Th1 commitment". Journal of ... When T-cell deficient, these autoimmune díseases are very common. CMC was also reported as a common symptom in patients with ...
This ability is connected to their multiple roles in the organism: they are powerful effector cells of the innate immune system ... classically activated macrophages arise in response to IFN-γ produced by Th1 lymphocytes or by natural killer cells (NK), and ... for example apoptotic cells, symbiont cells, gametes and cells of the embryo in the uterus). M2 macrophages hence govern ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.11.018. PMC 4437213. PMID 25480296. Ginhoux F, Schultze JL, Murray PJ, Ochando J, Biswas SK (January ...
Grimbaldeston MA, Metz M, Yu M, Tsai M, Galli SJ (December 2006). "Effector and potential immunoregulatory roles of mast cells ... Շատ մանրէներ վնասազերծվում են Th1-միջնորդված իմունային պատասխաններով, որոնք ճնշվում են Th2-միջնորդված պատասխաններով։ Հիգիենայի ... Mast Cell Activation Syndrome»։ Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology 54 (3): 353-365։ June 2018։ PMID 25944644։ doi:10.1007 ... Szebeni Janos (2007-05-08)։ The Complement System: Novel Roles in Health and Disease (անգլերեն)։ Springer Science & Business ...
Qu Q, Xuan W, Fan GH (2015). "Roles of resolvins in the resolution of acute inflammation". Cell Biology International. 39 (1): ... "5-Lipoxygenase negatively regulates Th1 response during Brucella abortus infection in mice". Infection and Immunity. 83 (3): ... In skin, Langerhans cells strongly express ALOX5. Fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express low levels of ... mast cells, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes express ALOX5. Platelets, T cells, and erythrocytes are ALOX5-negative. ...
Grimbaldeston MA, Metz M, Yu M, Tsai M, Galli SJ (2006). "Effector and potential immunoregulatory roles of mast cells in IgE- ... ಹಲವಾರು ಬ್ಯಾಕ್ಟೀರಿಯಾ ಮತ್ತು ವೈರಸ್ ಗಳು ಉನ್ನತ ಮಟ್ಟದ TH1ರೋಗ ನಿರೋಧಕ ಜೊತೆಗೂಡಿ TH೨ ಔಷಧಿಯುಕ್ತ ನಿರೋಧಕದ ಪ್ರಮಾಣವನ್ನು ಬದಲಾಯಿಸಿಕೊಂಡು ದೇಹದ ... mast cell; 7 - newly formed mediators (prostaglandins, leukotrienes, thromboxanes, PAF) ...
Mi-Yeon Kim, Roles of Embryonic and Adult Lymphoid Tissue Inducer Cells in Primary and Secondary Lymphoid Tissues, Yonsei Med J ... as an immunomodulatory protein inducing Th1-type immune response in vitro., Int Immunopharmacol. 2015 juuni ;26(2):304-13. doi ... Autoreactive thymic B cells are efficient antigen-presenting cells of cognate self-antigens for T cell negative selection., 110 ... Cell-Autonomous Defects in Thymic Epithelial Cells Disrupt Endothelial-Perivascular Cell Interactions in the Mouse Thymus, 4. ...
Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... "Differential glycosylation of TH1, TH2 and TH-17 effector cells selectively regulates susceptibility to cell death". Nat ... Their main effector cells are NK cells as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IL-10 CD4 T cells. The key THαβ transcription ... The T helper cells (Th cells), also known as CD4 cells, are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, ...
2005) observed a suppression of antibody-specific T cell responses mediated by mosquito saliva and dependent on mast cells and ... Much more serious though, are the roles of many species of mosquitoes as vectors of diseases. In passing from host to host, ... "Aedes aegypti salivary gland extracts modulate anti-viral and TH1/TH2 cytokine responses to sindbis virus infection"។ Viral ... "Mast cell-dependent down-regulation of antigen-specific immune responses by mosquito bites"។ Journal of Immunology 176 (7): ...
"Leishmania donovani-reactive TH1-like T Cell Clones from Individuals Who Have Recovered from Visceral Leishmaniasis". Infect. ... Other cytokines also appear to be important in immunity to Leishmania but their roles are not as well characterized. ... The highest levels of IL-10 mRNA in spleen cells is in CD8+ and other non-FoxP3+ T cells.[22] White blood cell CD8+ T cells ... Regulatory B cells are known to favor development of regulatory T cells and suppress development of Type 1 T helper cells by ...
DP2 was found to stimulate the directed movement or chemotaxis of human T-helper type 2 cells (see T helper cell#Th1/Th2 Model ... Matsuoka T, Narumiya S (2008). "The roles of prostanoids in infection and sickness behaviors". Journal of Infection and ... an increase in the expression of DP2 by these cells, an enhanced rate of differentiation of precursor cells to Th2 cells in ... a subpopulation of cytotoxic T cells (i.e. CD8+ T cells), thalamus, ovary, and spleen, and, in the central nervous system, by ...
Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... the primary signal for activation is IFN-γ from Th1 type CD4 T cells. The secondary signal is CD40L on the T cell, which binds ... B cells[edit]. T cell-dependent B cell activation, showing a TH2-cell (left), B cell (right), and several interaction molecules ... NK cells, B lymphocytes, as well as non-haematopoietic cells (smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, and epithelial cells).[13 ...
IFN-γ je obeležavajući citokin Th1 ćelija (dok Th2 ćelije proizvode IL-4 i Th17 ćelije proizvode IL-17). NK ćelije i CD8+ ... Ikeda H, Old LJ, Schreiber RD (2002). "The roles of IFN gamma in protection against tumor development and cancer immunoediting ... Cell 108 (2): 221-232. PMID 11832212. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(02)00616-5. Cite uses deprecated parameter ,coauthors=. (help) ... U kontrastu sa interferonom α i interferonom β, koje izražavaju sve ćelije, IFN-γ izlučuju Th1 ćelije, Tc ćelije, dendritske ...
A virus-infected cell releases viral particles that can infect nearby cells. However, the infected cell can prepare neighboring ... Kidd, P. "Th1/Th2 Balance: the hypothesis, its limitations, and implications for health and disease". Alternative Medicine ... that have roles in combating viruses and other actions produced by interferon.[11][12] They also limit viral spread by ... and also tumor cells. In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten ...
... and by CD4 Th1 and CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effector T cells once antigen-specific immunity develops.[11][12] IFNγ is ... Ikeda H, Old LJ, Schreiber RD (2002). "The roles of IFN gamma in protection against tumor development and cancer immunoediting ... Th1 cells), cytotoxic T cells (TC cells), macrophages, mucosal epithelial cells and NK cells. IFNγ is the only Type II ... Th1 cells secrete IFNγ, which in turn causes more undifferentiated CD4+ cells (Th0 cells) to differentiate into Th1 cells[ ...
They can promote Th17, Th1, Th2 or Treg responses depending on antigen-presenting cells.[25] ... Hsp90, hsp84, hsp70, hsp27, hsp20, and alpha B crystallin all have been reported as having roles in the cardiovasculature.[19] ... "Cell. 130 (6): 1005-18. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2007.07.020. PMC 2586609 . PMID 17889646.. ... Tumor cells usually express only a few neo-antigens, which can be targeted by immune system and also not all tumor cells ...
"N-acetylglucosamine inhibits T-helper 1 (Th1)/T-helper 17 (Th17) cell responses and treats experimental autoimmune ... the roles of proteins showing loss of nerve tissue such as neurofilaments, tau, and N-acetylaspartate are under investigation.[ ... "Identification of Vulnerable Cell Types in Major Brain Disorders Using Single Cell Transcriptomes and Expression Weighted Cell ... The T cells recognize myelin as foreign and attack it, explaining why these cells are also called "autoreactive lymphocytes".[5 ...
... s are versatile cells that play many roles.[17][18][19][20][21] As scavengers, they rid the body of worn-out cells ... The antigen presentation on the surface of infected macrophages (in the context of MHC class II) in a lymph node stimulates TH1 ... Once a T cell has recognized its particular antigen on the surface of an aberrant cell, the T cell becomes an activated ... The processed antigen is then presented in MHCII on the surface of the B-cell. T cells that express the T cell receptor which ...
2005) observed a suppression of antibody-specific T cell responses mediated by mosquito saliva and dependent on mast cells and ... Zeidner NS, Higgs S, Happ CM, Beaty BJ, Miller BR (January 1999). "Mosquito feeding modulates Th1 and Th2 cytokines in ... and used in many roles.[123] ... T cell populations are decidedly susceptible to the suppressive ... 2004) demonstrated that T and B cell proliferation was inhibited in a dose dependent manner with concentrations as low as 1/7 ...
Roles of T cell-B-cell-activating molecule (5c8 antigen) and CD40 in contact-dependent help". Journal of Immunology. 149 (12): ... "Differential glycosylation of TH1, TH2 and TH-17 effector cells selectively regulates susceptibility to cell death". Nat ... Their main effector cells are NK cells as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IL-10 CD4 T cells. The key THαβ transcription ... The main effector cells are eosinophils, basophils, and mast cells as well as B cells, and IL-4/IL-5 CD4 T cells. The key Th2 ...
Evidence is the expression of IL-17RB on Th2 cells, not on Th1 and Th17. In addition, IL-25 is responsible for the decrease in ... Yao X, Sun Y, Wang W, Sun Y (May 2016). "Interleukin (IL)-25: Pleiotropic roles in asthma". Respirology. 21 (4): 638-47. doi: ... These cells include T cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, mast cells, basophils, eosinophils, epithelial cells and Paneth ... Th9 cells can arise not only from naive T cells but also from differentiated Th2 cells. Another function of IL-25 is the ...
1993). "Leishmania donovani-reactive TH1-like T Cell Clones from Individuals Who Have Recovered from Visceral Leishmaniasis". ... Other cytokines also appear to be important in immunity to Leishmania but their roles are not as well characterized. Leishmania ... Co-culture of T cells with B cells decreased the percentage of CD4+ T cell proliferation and IFN-γ secretion four-fold.[ ... Blocking IL-10 or programmed cell death receptors on B cells increased Leishmania antigen specific T cell proliferation and IFN ...
Grimbaldeston MA, Metz M, Yu M, Tsai M, Galli SJ (December 2006). "Effector and potential immunoregulatory roles of mast cells ... It is thought that reduced bacterial and viral infections early in life direct the maturing immune system away from TH1 type ... The immune system does not recognize the affected cells as normal parts of the body, causing a T-cell-mediated immune response ... In type IV hypersensitivity, there is activation of certain types of T cells (CD8+) that destroy target cells on contact, as ...
B cell development), and Gfi1 (promotes Th2 development and inhibits Th1) or IRF8 (basophils and mast cells). Significantly, ... and are involved in such diverse roles as innate immunity and blood clotting. This is myelopoiesis. Granulopoiesis (or ... The lymphoid lineage is composed of T-cells, B-cells and natural killer cells. This is lymphopoiesis. Cells of the myeloid ... All blood cells are divided into three lineages. Red blood cells, also called erythrocytes, are the oxygen-carrying cells. ...
IL-13 is a cytokine secreted by T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, CD4 cells, natural killer T cell, mast cells, basophils, ... Izuhara K, Arima K, Yasunaga S (2003). "IL-4 and IL-13: their pathological roles in allergic diseases and their potential in ... An emerging concept is that IL-13 may antagonize Th1 responses that are required to resolve intracellular infections. In this ... Most normal cells, such as immune cells or endothelial cells, express very low or undetectable levels of IL-13 receptors. ...
... see T helper cell#Th1/Th2 Model for helper T cells and T helper cell#Limitations to the Th1/Th2 model. DH1 activation also ... Huang ZL, Zhang Z, Qu WM (2014). "Roles of adenosine and its receptors in sleep-wake regulation". International Review of ... Th2 cells, and dendritic cells, and by cells contributing to these reactions, i.e. human and/or rodent airway epithelial cells ... this biases the development of naïve T lymphocytes to Th-2 rather than Th-1 helper cells and thereby promotes allergic rather ...
Th1 differentiation is IL-12 dependent, and IFN-γ is the signature cytokine of cells of a Th1 lineage. Th1 cell anti-tumor ... Further knock out experiments showed important roles of αβ T cells, γδ T cells and NK cells in tumour immunity (Girardi et al. ... and since IL-12 promotes Th1 cell differentiation, this forms a tumor-suppressing feedback loop. Th1 and NK cells both ... Th1 cells are indirectly responsible for activating tumor-suppressing CTLs by activating the antigen-presenting cells which ...
... see T helper cell#Th1/Th2 Model for helper T cells) by binding to a receptor initially termed GPR44 and thereafter CRTH2 (for ... Rossitto M, Ujjan S, Poulat F, Boizet-Bonhoure B (2015). "Multiple roles of the prostaglandin D2 signaling pathway in ... an increase in the expression of DP2 by these cells, an enhanced rate of differentiation of precursor cells to Th2 cells in ... a subpopulation of cytotoxic T cells (i.e. CD8+ T cells), thalamus, ovary, and spleen, and, in the central nervous system, by ...
CCR6 is expressed on B-cells, immature dendritic cells (DC), T-cells (Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg), natural killer T cells (NKT cells ... Ai LS, Liao F (2002). "Mutating the four extracellular cysteines in the chemokine receptor CCR6 reveals their differing roles ... 1997). "A somatic cell hybrid panel for distal 17q: GDIA1 maps to 17q25.3". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 76 (3-4): 172-5. doi:10.1159 ... Colorectal carcinoma cells express CCR6 and CCL20. High level of CCL20 in liver chemoattract colorectal carcinoma cells and ...
Relative roles of Th1 and Th17 effector cells in allograft rejection.. Atalar K1, Afzali B, Lord G, Lombardi G. ... Th1 cells are characterized by production of the cytokine interferon-gamma, which has recently been described as having both ... T helper (Th) type 17 cells are a recently described CD4 T-cell subset, and have been implicated in a range of autoimmune and ... An improved understanding of the factors that influence the differentiation and function of these cell types will assist in the ...
Fingerprints reveal gender roles in ancient society. A method to determine gender from fingerprints suggests pottery making was ... Helminth infection results in decreased virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell and Th1 cytokine responses as well as delayed ... Helminth infection results in decreased virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell and Th1 cytokine responses as well as delayed ... Helminth infection results in decreased virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell and Th1 cytokine responses as well as delayed ...
However, when Th2 cells were re-stimulated under Th1 conditions, substantial expression of Th1-associated molecules, IFN-γ and ... Conversely, Bmi1−/− CD4+ T cells were deficient in Th2 cytokine production with a concomitant increase in Th1 cells. Given a ... Roles of repressive epigenetic machinery in lineage decision of T cells. Authors. *. Taku Naito,. Corresponding authorCurrent ... Hence, there is no question that the epigenetic machinery plays crucial roles in determining the cell fate in multi-cellular ...
Differential roles of microglia and monocytes in the inflammed central nervous system. J Exp Med. 2014;211:1533-49.CrossRef ... Cathepsin H Cathepsin S Dendritic cell Microglia Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis Th1 cell ... Cathepsin H deficiency in mice induces excess Th1 cell activation and early-onset of EAE though impairment of toll-like ... CatH−/− showed a significantly earlier disease onset of EAE and increased Th1 cell differentiation in splenocytes. Splenocytes ...
As we know, the activities of inflammatory cells and related cytokines play important roles in the whole periods of arthritis, ... Tfh cells help B cells generate antibody-producing plasma cells and long-lived memory B cells. B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) is a ... We also calculate the absolute number of Th1 and Th17 cells in DLN. The numbers of Th1 and Th17 cells in TCV-treated group are ... Results showed the percentage of Th1/Th17 cells in DLN CD4+ cells (a)-(b). (c) Results showed the absolute number of Th1/Th17 ...
I. The roles of minor H antigens and endotoxin. Blood 88: 3230-3239. ... with more Th1/Tc1-polarized T cells, fewer IL-10+ T cells, and more mCMV-M45 epitope peptide MHC class I tetramer+ CD8+ T cells ... and by B cells, T cells, accessory cells, and other nonlymphoid cells (3-6). VIP and the closely related neuropeptide pituitary ... with coordinated activities of innate and adaptive immune cells, including DC, macrophages, NK cells, T cells, and B cells (27- ...
We found that elevated expression of IL-27 was associated with increased proportion of Th1 cells and Th17 cells in patients ... We found that elevated expression of IL-27 was associated with increased proportion of Th1 cells and Th17 cells in patients ... the expression of Th1 cells but inhibiting the expression of Th17 cells in vitro and IL-27 neutralization attenuated Th1- ... we aimed to evaluate the expression of IL-27 in patients with COPD and explore the role of IL-27/WSX-1 on Th1 and Th17 cells ...
Contrasting Roles of Th1 and Th17 Cells in Aplastic Anaemia (AA) and Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS). Shahram Y Kordasti, MD ... The percentage and absolute number of different CD4+ T cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17, TNF-αa producing CD4+ T cells and Foxp3+ ... The absolute number of Th1 cells and TNF-αa producing CD4+ T cells were significantly higher in AA patients compared to healthy ... Contrasting Roles of Th1 and Th17 Cells in Aplastic Anaemia (AA) and Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS).. Blood 2009; 114 (22): ...
Two-sided roles of IL-27: induction of Th1 differentiation on naive CD4+ T cells versus suppression of proinflammatory cytokine ... Animals, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, immunology, Cell Differentiation, Cell Line, Cytokines, biosynthesis, Humans, Interleukin- ... production including IL-23-induced IL-17 on activated CD4+ T cells partially through STAT3-dependent mechanism.. Author. Takeru ...
distasonis had no effect on Th1 cells, and A. muciniphila had no effect on CD25+FoxP3+ Tregs (SI Appendix, Fig. S3 C-E). ... We hypothesized that bacterial taxa altered in MS patients play functional roles in regulating immune responses. To test this ... 5 A and B). Furthermore, we observed an enrichment of CD25+IL-10+ cells (Fig. 5 C and D), including CD25+IL-10+FoxP3− Tr1 cells ... calcoaceticus increased the proportion of effector CD4+ lymphocytes that differentiated into IFNγ-producing Th1 cells (Fig. 3 C ...
Combined analysis with the systemic anti-telomerase hTERT Th1 CD4 response revealed that patients with low anti-TERT Th1 CD4 ... Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analyzed by flow cytometry at metastatic diagnosis and after 3-months of treatment. The ... We also establish for the first time a link between frequency of ILCs and anti-tumor CD4 T cell responses in cancer patients. ... CD56+ ILC1-like cells were expanded, whereas ILC2, NCR- ILC3 and NCR+ ILC3 subsets were decreased. ...
Depending on the cytokines present during the initial T cell activation, T cells become effector cells that produce different ... Studies thus far have primarily focused on defining how these factors control T cell differentiation by targeting T cells ... However, other non-T cells, particularly APCs, also express receptors for the factors and are capable of responding to them. In ... The fate of adaptive T cell immunity is determined by multiple cellular and molecular factors, among which the cytokine milieu ...
Th1) to T-helper 2 (Th2). During vascular infection, Th1 is the predominant T cells population and expresses interferon IFN-γ, ... Gallagher G (October 2010). "Interleukin-19: multiple roles in immune regulation and disease". Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews ... IL-19 interacts with both immune cells (macrophages, T cells, B cells) and non-immune cells (endothelial cells and brain ... Romagnani S (November 1999). "Th1/Th2 cells". Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 5 (4): 285-94. doi:10.1097/00054725-199911000-00009 ...
The interrelated roles of TGF-β and IL-10 in the regulation of experimental colitis. J. Immunol. 168:900. ... Colitogenic Th1 Cells Are Present in the Antigen-Experienced T Cell Pool in Normal Mice: Control by CD4+ Regulatory T Cells and ... Colitogenic Th1 Cells Are Present in the Antigen-Experienced T Cell Pool in Normal Mice: Control by CD4+ Regulatory T Cells and ... Colitogenic Th1 Cells Are Present in the Antigen-Experienced T Cell Pool in Normal Mice: Control by CD4+ Regulatory T Cells and ...
It has a growing spectrum of acknowledged roles in immunity, aging, development, neurodegeneration, and cancer biology. An ... Autophagy is a fundamental biological process that enables cells to autodigest their own cytosol during starvation and other ... Autophagy is an effector of Th1/Th2 polarization; it fuels MHC II presentation of cytosolic (self and microbial) antigens; it ... Autophagy is a fundamental biological process that enables cells to autodigest their own cytosol during starvation and other ...
They secrete cytokines to stimulate various effector cells, such as cytotoxic T cells, B cells and macrophages. These cytokines ... cells play important roles in regulating immune responses. ... T helper (Th) cells play important roles in regulating immune ... Multiplex assay, flow cytometry, inflammation, T helper cell, CBA, cytokines, Th1, Th2, Th1/Th2 Ave. Rating Submit a Review ... They secrete cytokines to stimulate various effector cells, such as cytotoxic T cells, B cells and macrophages. These cytokines ...
... cells play important roles in regulating immune responses. They secrete cytokines to stimulate various effector cells, such as ... cytotoxic T cells, B cells and macrophages. These cytokines are also involved in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Accurate ... Multiplex assay, flow cytometry, inflammation, T helper cell, CBA, cytokines, Th1, Th2, Th1/Th2 Ave. Rating Submit a Review ... They secrete cytokines to stimulate various effector cells, such as cytotoxic T cells, B cells and macrophages. These cytokines ...
... cells play important roles in regulating immune responses. They secrete cytokines to stimulate various effector cells, such as ... cytotoxic T cells, B cells and macrophages. These cytokines are also involved in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Accurate ... They secrete cytokines to stimulate various effector cells, such as cytotoxic T cells, B cells and macrophages. These cytokines ... Multiplex assay, Flow cytometry, Inflammation, T helper cells, cytokines, LEGENDplex, Th1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α Ave ...
Targeting these pathways in DC influences CD4+ T-cells, selectively promoting Th1 and Th17 responses. ... Identified immunoregulatory roles for signalling pathways including ATM-kinase, MEK-ERK and p38-MK2 MAPK in DC. ... We aim to understand the role played by intracellular signalling pathways on the relationship between Dendritic Cells (DC) and ... Th1 and Th17 in a cross-sectional study of healthy individuals. A collaboration with the Intelligent Modelling & Analysis Group ...
... inhibit naive T-cell activation, Th1 proliferation, and cytokine production (TNF-α and IFN-γ); inhibit B-cell proliferation and ... Emerging roles for multipotent, bone marrow-derived stromal cells in host defense.. Auletta JJ1, Deans RJ, Bartholomew AM. ... Emerging roles for multipotent, bone marrow-derived stromal cells in host defense ... Emerging roles for multipotent, bone marrow-derived stromal cells in host defense ...
Hundreds of miRs are expressed in keratinocytes and immune cells and play essential roles in regulating their development and ... Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines multi-analyte flow assay. Human psoriatic CD4+ T cells and normal human CD4+ T cells were transfected ... E) Representative flow cytometric analysis of Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells in splenic CD4+ T cells from WT (n = 5) or KO (n ... miR-210 skews the CD4+ Th cell-mediated immune balance in psoriasis. The imbalance of Th cells, such as Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg, ...
GFI-1 has been shown to play pivotal roles in both Th2 cell expansion and negative regulation of Th17 differentiation (59, 60). ... Th1 versus Th2 T cell polarization by whole-cell and acellular childhood pertussis vaccines persists upon re-immunization in ... Cellular proliferation. PBMCs were thawed and cells (1 × 107 cells/ml) were labeled with the CFSE Cell Proliferation Kit ( ... Animal studies indicate that memory Th1 and Th17 CD4+ T cell responses to B. pertussis are required for long-lasting immunity, ...
... immune cells known as CD4 helper T cells seem to carry some blame. These immune system workhorses come in two forms dubbed Th1 ... Each makes proteins that play specific roles in guiding an immune response. In arthritic joints, synovial fluid shows signs of ... As a persons arthritis worsens, the importance of T cells seems to diminish, while macrophages and certain synovial cells ... too much Th1 activity and too little Th2 activity. Meanwhile, other immune cells called macrophages contribute their own ...
CD40 and CD154 play roles in cutaneous inflammation through antigen-presenting cell/cognate CD4+ T cell antigen presentation ... Accumulation of Th1 effectors, namely, CD4+ T cells (1.6 ± 0.2 cells/glomerular cross-section) and macrophages (2.0 ± 0.2 cells ... CD154 expressed by Th1 cells may direct CD40-expressing intrinsic renal cells to facilitate glomerular DTH responses through ... In conclusion, the expression of CD40 by nonimmune renal cells plays a major role in Th1 effector responses by inducing Th1 ...
Roles of substrate availability and infection of resting and activated CD4+ T cells in transmission and acute simian ... T cells, antibody-producing B cells, and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells.6,7 In particular, it is believed that effective CD8+ T-cell ... T cells contributes to an increase in target cells in lymphoid tissue. However, cell-cell transmission of SIV to adjacent Ki-67 ... T cells which retain expression of the IL-7R are precursors of memory cells.81 In our earlier study,35 IL-7R- CD38++ T cells ...
Further results showed that miR-21a of LLC-Exo induced MDSC expansion via downregulation of the programmed cell death protein 4 ... In addition, our data showed that exosomes derived from human lung cancer cell lines expressing miR-21a, also induced expansion ... However, studies on the molecular mechanism underlying MDSC expansion induced by exosomes from lung cancer cells are still ... Overall, our results demonstrated that miR-21a enriched in lung carcinoma cell-derived exosomes could promote functional ...
In conclusion, the results of this study show that TNFα plays at least two distinct and opposing roles in CIA. First, it ... A, CD4+IL-17+ cells in LN; B, CD4+IL-17+ cells in joints; C, CD4+INFγ+ cells in LN; D, CD4+INFγ+ cells in joints. **, P , 0.01 ... expanded populations of Th1 and Th17 cells, which were shown by adoptive transfer to be pathogenic. Th1 and Th17 cell ... Amplification of Th17 and Th1 cell activity in p55 TNFR−/− mice. LN cells from WT, p55 TNFR−/−, and p75 TNFR−/− mice were taken ...
c-Rel delivers a one-two punch in Th1 cell differentiation. J Clin Invest. 2002 Sep; 110(6):741-2. View abstract ... GATA-3 has multiple roles in thymocyte development. Keystone Symposia: T Cell Development for Oral Presentation. 2004. View ... B-cell differentiation and IL-21 response in IL2RG/JAK3 SCID patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood. ... GATA3 and the T-cell lineage: essential functions before and after T-helper-2-cell differentiation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2009 Feb; ...
It has a growing spectrum of acknowledged roles in immunit ... is a fundamental biological process that enables cells to ... Antigen apoptosis cell death innate recognition systems intracellular bacteria lymphocyte homeostasis lysosome macroautophagy ... Autophagy is an effector of Th1/Th2 polarization; it fuels MHC II presentation of cytosolic (self and microbial) antigens; it ... Since then, the repertoire of autophagys roles in immunity has been vastly expanded to include a diverse but interconnected ...
Th1 cells still play important roles," he says.. Two recent studies support the hypothesis that Th17 cells are not the only ... Researchers had long classified these cells into two groups, Th1 and Th2. But in late 2005 in the journal Nature Immunology, ... He says that after years of blaming Th1 cells for autoimmunity, scientists abruptly targeted their wrath on Th17 without ... Their cells swoop in like clockwork to eliminate invading pathogens, but the cells never seem to get the message to stop-even ...
  • TCV decreased the frequencies of Th1/Th17/Tfh cells and related cytokines. (
  • Recently, a body of evidence suggested that uncontrolled and persistent Th1, Th17 cells responses and their derived cytokines can contribute to autoimmune diseases, including RA [ 10 ]. (
  • Tfh can also express other membrane molecules and secrete many cytokines, such as ICOS and IL-21, to participate in the development of B cells and thus regulate the secondary immune response to maintain immune balance [ 12 , 13 ]. (
  • The induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-4) and downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ) pushes a T helper cell away from T-helper 1 (Th1) to T-helper 2 (Th2). (
  • During vascular infection, Th1 is the predominant T cells population and expresses interferon IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and other pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to vessel tissue damage In contrast, Th2 cells secrete IL-4 and IL-10 and downregulate IFN-γ. (
  • Glial cells such as microglia and astrocytes produce inflammatory cytokines in response to foreign antigens and then produce immunosuppressive cytokines to resolve inflammation. (
  • Astrocytes produce IL-19 to interact with cells expressing IL-20 receptors (microglia etc.), in order to regulate cytokine secretion, which includes reducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 TNF-α. (
  • Depending on the cytokines present during the initial T cell activation, T cells become effector cells that produce different effector molecules and execute adaptive immune functions. (
  • In this review, we will discuss how APCs, by responding to those cytokines, influence T cell differentiation and adaptive immunity. (
  • Administration of anti-TGF-β ( 28 ) or anti-IL-10R mAb ( 29 ) abrogates the ability of CD4 + CD45RB low cells to inhibit colitis, suggesting these cytokines are involved in the mechanism of immune suppression. (
  • They secrete cytokines to stimulate various effector cells, such as cytotoxic T cells, B cells and macrophages. (
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease in which proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1, play dominant pathological roles. (
  • Significantly increased IL-17 and IFNγ production was observed after stimulation of LN cells from TNFR-Fc-treated mice with collagen or anti-CD3 mAb in vitro, and a trend toward enhanced production of these cytokines was observed even in unstimulated LN cells ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • We show that OX40 engagement, in the context of chemotherapy-induced lymphopenia, induces a novel CD4 + T cell population characterized by the expression of the master regulator eomesodermin that leads to both terminal differentiation and central memory phenotype, with concomitant secretion of Th1 and Th2 cytokines. (
  • Current advances in T cell biology have challenged the notion that differentiated CD4 + T cells are irreversibly hardwired to a particular lineage as defined by the expression of specific transcription factors and cytokines. (
  • Antioxidant vitamins and trace elements (vitamins C, E, selenium, copper, and zinc) counteract potential damage caused by reactive oxygen species to cellular tissues and modulate immune cell function through regulation of redox-sensitive transcription factors and affect production of cytokines and prostaglandins. (
  • Adequate intake of vitamins B(6), folate, B(12), C, E, and of selenium, zinc, copper, and iron supports a Th1 cytokine-mediated immune response with sufficient production of proinflammatory cytokines, which maintains an effective immune response and avoids a shift to an anti-inflammatory Th2 cell-mediated immune response and an increased risk of extracellular infections. (
  • The main sources of these cytokines are TCD4 cells but both cytokines can also be produced or regulated by B cells [1]. (
  • We further treated astrocytes with supernatants from highly pure Th1 and Th17 cultures and assessed the messenger RNA expression of neurotrophic factors, cytokines and chemokines, using real-time PCR. (
  • In vitro, in response to supernatants from Th1 and Th17 cultures, astrocytes showed altered expression of neurotrophic factors, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. (
  • After DCs were incubated with supernatants from H. pylori -infected epithelial cells, the conditioned cells expressed high levels of costimulatory molecules, such as CD80, and triggered naïve CD4 + T cells to produce high levels of the Th2 cytokines interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 and of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and gamma interferon. (
  • In contrast, after incubation of the supernatants with the neutralizing antibodies to TSLP, the conditioned DCs did not prime T cells to produce high levels of Th2 cytokines. (
  • In addition, DCs activated with TSLP and CD40 ligand induce the differentiation of naïve CD4 + T cells into effectors producing both Th1 and Th2 cytokines. (
  • Th1 responses are associated with cell-mediated immunity by Th1 cytokines, which tend to produce the proinflammatory responses responsible for killing pathogens and for perpetuating autoimmune responses, whereas Th2 responses are associated with humoral immunity mediated by Th2 cytokines. (
  • NKT cells are implicated in the control of autoimmunity, resistance to tumors, and protection against infectious agents through prompt secretion of large amounts of both T helper 1 (Th1) cytokines (IFN-γ) and T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines [interleukin (IL) 4, IL-5 and IL-13] after activation via TCR engagement ( 5 ). (
  • However, the Th1 and Th2 cytokines that can both be produced by NKT cells after α-GalCer treatment antagonize each other's biological actions. (
  • M1 macrophages (also termed classically activated macrophages) respond to IFN-γ, lipopolysaccharide and/or TNFα, produce proinflammatory cytokines, direct destruction of intracellular pathogens and promote a local Th1 environment. (
  • In addition, B cells also secrete an array of cytokines that mediate Th1- and Th2-like immune responses. (
  • The two cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ play major roles in the generation and regulation of immune responses. (
  • In this study, the levels of Tim3, Gal-9, and cytokines of Th1 (TNF-α and IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-4), and Th17 (IL-17) cells were analyzed in the blood samples of TAO patients and healthy controls as well as in orbital fibroblasts. (
  • Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines were all increased in TAO patients. (
  • Th1 and Th17 cytokines were higher in active TAO patients than in inactive TAO patients, while Th2 cytokines were enhanced in inactive TAO. (
  • Tim3 overexpression decreased the levels of Th1 and Th17 cytokines, but not Th2 cytokine in TAO or LPS-stimulated control orbital fibroblasts. (
  • 2 A mechanism has been proposed by which early infection by viruses and bacteria, through the preferential induction of Th1-type cytokines, could prevent atopic sensitisation, 3 although these effects may depend more on infective dose 4 than on age at infection. (
  • Critical to proper development and orchestration of the cells that comprise the immune system are many intercellular signaling molecules, collectively known as cytokines, which act through multimeric receptors. (
  • In addition, mice show elevated lung expression of TH2 and TH1 cytokines. (
  • Therefore, it is likely that pro-inflammatory cytokines are early mediators of disease and may be involved in the initial recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lung during the effector phase of the disease. (
  • In summary, these studies demonstrate distinct and overlapping roles for TH1, TH2 and antibody responses and pro-inflammatory cytokines in TDI asthma. (
  • CD4+ helper T (Th) cells are important mediators of the immune response through their regulated production of cytokines. (
  • Naive CD4+ Th cells differentiate during the course of an immune response to secrete cytokines tailored to promote eradication of the specific pathogenic assault. (
  • Two well-studied CD4+ T cell effector subsets, Th1 and Th2 cells, are defined by their ability to secrete the cytokines IFNγ and IL-4, respectively. (
  • In addition to the many roles of T cell-derived cytokines in differentially modulating these diverse macrophage activities, research over the last few years has demonstrated that contact-dependent signaling which occurs during T cell-macrophage adhesion is a critical triggering event in the activation of macrophage function. (
  • In fact, NDV had been found to stimulate the production of cytokines, such as interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1, which in turn leads to the activation of natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages, and sensitized T cells [ 6 , 7 ]. (
  • In addition, cytokines secretion by activated immune cells, especially T-helper (TH) 1, is another measurement of immunostimulatory effect. (
  • TH1 cytokines include IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12. (
  • Hence, quantification of extracellular cytokines which were secreted into the cell culture supernatant suggested the activation state of the cytolytic effector cells including NK cell and cytolytic T cell. (
  • Mature DCs stimulate naïve T cells through their increased surface expression of peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, costimulatory (or coinhibitory) receptors and ligands, for example, CD80 and CD86, and the release of cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12p70 or interferons (IFNs). (
  • Responding T cells may reciprocally regulate DCs, for example, through CD40-CD40L interactions or by T-cell-derived cytokines such as IL-4 or IFN-γ. (
  • 1,4,10,11 DCs accomplish this by their differential expression of cell surface ligands and receptors as well as by secreting distinct profiles of cytokines, chemokines and inflammatory mediators. (
  • While much remains to be learned about differentiation Th17 cells and the effects of Th17-derived cytokines, the IL-17 family is emerging as a key player in shaping immune responses. (
  • Furthermore, SR1001 reduced proinflammatory cytokine expression, particularly TH17-mediated cytokines, reduced autoantibody production, and increased the frequency of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells. (
  • An imbalance in helper T-cell type-1 (Th1) and type-2 (Th2) cytokines has been suggested as playing an important role in the cause of chronic viral infections, but this issue is not resolved in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (
  • Conclusions- Our findings demonstrate that IL-17 is produced concomitantly with IFN-γ by coronary artery-infiltrating T cells and that these cytokines act synergistically to induce proinflammatory responses in vascular smooth muscle cells. (
  • Atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, is recognized as an inflammatory disease exacerbated by dysregulation of T cell-derived cytokines within the vessel wall. (
  • 1 CD4 + effector T cells may differentiate into different lineages characterized by the polarization of secreted cytokines. (
  • An improved understanding of the factors that influence the differentiation and function of these cell types will assist in the development of future immunomodulatory therapies. (
  • CatH −/− showed a significantly earlier disease onset of EAE and increased Th1 cell differentiation in splenocytes. (
  • Therefore, CatH deficiency impaired TLR3-mediated activation of IRF3 and consequent secretion of IFN-β from dendritic cells, leading to the enhancement of Th1 cell differentiation and consequent early disease onset of EAE. (
  • Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is a multifunctional endogenous polypeptide that modulates both innate and adaptive immunity at multiple levels of immune cell differentiation and activation ( 1 ). (
  • T cell activation and differentiation induce VPAC2 expression, whereas VPAC1 is downregulated following stimulation of human blood T cells with anti-CD3 mAb plus PMA ( 10 ). (
  • Two-sided roles of IL-27: induction of Th1 differentiation on naive CD4+ T cells versus suppression of proinflammatory cytokine production including IL-23-induced IL-17 on activated CD4+ T cells partially through STAT3-dependent mechanism. (
  • Considering IL-27 is an important regulator in T lymphocytes immune responses and was found markedly increased in patients with COPD, we hypothesized that IL-27/WSX-1 may exert immuno-regulatory effects on the differentiation of Th1 and Th17 cells in smoking-related COPD. (
  • In this study, we aimed to evaluate the expression of IL-27 in patients with COPD and explore the role of IL-27/WSX-1 on Th1 and Th17 cells differentiation in a smoking mouse model of emphysema. (
  • Studies thus far have primarily focused on defining how these factors control T cell differentiation by targeting T cells themselves. (
  • Extensive efforts have been made to define cellular and molecular mechanisms that initiate the differentiation processes and to identify the features of each T cell subset. (
  • Although a great number of cellular and molecular pathways to initiate the differentiation programs have already been uncovered, most of studies have heavily focused on those factors that directly target T cells. (
  • In this review, we will focus on the roles of factors that control T cell differentiation processes by acting on non-T-cell targets, especially APCs. (
  • T-bet-deficient DCs are unable to produce IFN after stimulation and to induce Th1 differentiation [ 11 ]. (
  • 2 Shanghai Institute of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Cell Differentiation and Apoptosis of Chinese Ministry of Education, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine (SJTU-SM), Shanghai, China. (
  • Her previous work include cellular studies of the mechanism of action of immunosuppressive agents such as cyclosporine, tacrolimus and rapamycin, and key contributions on the role of GATA-3 in transcriptional regulation of CD4 T cell development and T helper cell differentiation. (
  • These studies include in vitro differentiation of T progenitors from hematopoietic stem cells and in vivo development in humanized mouse models. (
  • IL-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine produced predominantly by T helper cells (Th17 cells) and, although there is controversy over the signals required for the differentiation of murine and human Th17 cells, both murine and human CD4 + Th17 T cells require IL-23 for their proliferation and maintenance ( 7 ). (
  • IL-23 is a heterodimeric protein composed of a p19 subunit and a p40 subunit, whereas IL-12, an important cytokine for Th1 cell differentiation, is formed when the p40 subunit dimerizes with p35 ( 8 ). (
  • We report here that mTOR in CD4 T cells is essential for Tfh differentiation. (
  • In Mtor f/f -Cd4Cre mice, both constitutive and inducible Tfh differentiation is severely impaired, leading to defective germinal center B cell formation and antibody production. (
  • mTORC1 mainly promotes CD4 T cell proliferation to reach the cell divisions necessary for Tfh differentiation, while Rictor/mTORC2 regulates Tfh differentiation by promoting Akt activation and TCF1 expression without grossly influencing T cell proliferation. (
  • Together, our results reveal crucial but distinct roles for mTORC1 and mTORC2 in CD4 T cells during Tfh differentiation and germinal center responses. (
  • Recent studies have identified multiple signaling mechanisms that control Tfh cell differentiation. (
  • The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that can integrate multiple signals to control cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, metabolism, and survival ( Laplante and Sabatini, 2012 ). (
  • In this study, we show that Id2 and RORγt are sequentially up-regulated during LTi cell development, matching two waves of differentiation with opposite requirements for Notch signaling. (
  • Using Rorc(γt)-Gfp TG reporter mice, we have determined the progression of fetal CLPs to Id2 + cells, RORγt + cells, and mature LTi cells, as well as the role of Notch in this differentiation pathway. (
  • In addition, p110delta regulates the differentiation of peripheral Th (helper T-cells) towards the Th1 and Th2 lineages. (
  • Excessive or inappropriate recruitment of peripheral blood NK cells to the uterus may lead to cytotoxic environment in utero , in which proliferation and differentiation of trophoblast is hampered. (
  • Similarly to cell division, differentiation, and death, autophagy is perturbed in multiple diseases, in that excessive or deficient autophagy may contribute to pathogenesis. (
  • Here, we show that mice with a T cell-specific deletion of the Tgfb1 gene developed lethal immunopathology in multiple organs, and this development was associated with enhanced T cell proliferation, activation, and CD4+ T cell differentiation into T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells. (
  • TGF-beta1 produced by Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells was required to inhibit Th1-cell differentiation and inflammatory-bowel disease in a transfer model. (
  • In addition, T cell-produced TGF-beta1 promoted Th17-cell differentiation and was indispensable for the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (
  • These findings reveal essential roles for T cell-produced TGF-beta1 in controlling differentiation of T helper cells and controlling inflammatory diseases. (
  • When she knocked out NMDARs in OPCs, De Biase did not observe effects on differentiation or cell survival, but she did find significant changes in AMPAR expression, suggesting that NMDARs help to regulate AMPAR signalling with neighbouring axons in development. (
  • Thus, it is not surprising if a substantial number of them modulates immune processes such as the establishment of the immunological synapse, differentiation to effector and helper cells, clonal expansion, migration and phagocytosis. (
  • First, IL-4 promotes T helper cell type 2 (Th2) differentiation and stability and inhibits Th1-cell differentiation. (
  • A direct role of IFN-γ in Th1-cell differentiation is debatable, whereas inhibition of Th2-cell differentiation and roles in Th1-cell stabilization are well established functions of IFN-γ. (
  • IFN-g also influences cell differentiation of the progenitor Th0. (
  • By increasing Th1 differentiation from Th0 progenitor cells, IFN-g in turn inhibits differentiation into Th2 cells 9 . (
  • The development of a cell-mediated response is currently hypothesized to depend on the differentiation of interferon (IFN)-gamma producing Th1 cells from activated Th0 precursors (10,11). (
  • Janus kinase 2 ( JAK2 ) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 ( STAT3 ) axis have been reported to be critical for Th1 and Th17 cell differentiation, 12 suggesting an important role for these proteins in the immune response. (
  • To define endothelial-regenerating cells and their role in differentiation into the mature endothelium, ECs have to be characterized first. (
  • Th2 cells inhibit the formation and differentiation of Th1 cells and vice versa. (
  • 8,9 In addition, IL-1β may combine with IL-6 to promote Th17 differentiation, and IL-23 is required for maintaining Th17 cells. (
  • 7-10 On the other hand, the Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and the Th1-inducing factor IL-12 suppress the differentiation of Th17 cells. (
  • 7-10 Evidence that the transcription factor ROR-γt specifically controls Th17 cell differentiation supports the concept of a distinct T-cell lineage. (
  • 11 From studies in mice, the differentiation of Th17 and Th1 cells is generally thought to be mutually exclusive. (
  • Signaling through IL-2/IL-15Rβ (CD122) is essential for the differentiation and function of T cells and NK cells. (
  • Adaptive antiviral cellular immunity was increased in mCMV-infected VIP-KO mice compared with WT mice, with more Th1/Tc1-polarized T cells, fewer IL-10 + T cells, and more mCMV-M45 epitope peptide MHC class I tetramer + CD8 + T cells (tetramer + CD8 T cells). (
  • Enhanced antiviral immunity was also seen in WT transplant recipients engrafted with VIP-KO hematopoietic cells, indicating that VIP synthesized by neuronal cells did not suppress immune responses. (
  • Because the absence of VIP in immune cells increased innate and adaptive antiviral immunity by altering costimulatory and coinhibitory pathways, selective targeting of VIP signaling represents an attractive therapeutic target to enhance antiviral immunity. (
  • The fate of adaptive T cell immunity is determined by multiple cellular and molecular factors, among which the cytokine milieu plays the most important role in this process. (
  • Indeed, it was reported that T-bet expression in DCs is essential for optimal induction of Th1 immunity in vivo [ 11 ]. (
  • Regulatory T (T R ) cell function is enriched within the 30% of CD4 + CD45RB low cells that express CD25 ( 18 ), the same population that has been found to suppress a number of T cell-mediated responses, including autoimmune disease ( 19 , 20 ), allograft rejection ( 21 ), antitumor immunity ( 22 ), and T cell activation in vitro ( 23 , 24 ). (
  • Since then, the repertoire of autophagy's roles in immunity has been vastly expanded to include a diverse but interconnected portfolio of regulatory and effector functions. (
  • Evidence suggests that human and experimental crescentic GN results from Th1-predominant immunity to glomerular antigens. (
  • Observations in human crescentic GN also demonstrate the prominent participation of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) effectors ( 10 ), suggesting that injury in this setting results from Th1-predominant nephritogenic immunity. (
  • T follicular helper (Tfh) cells play critical roles for germinal center responses and effective humoral immunity. (
  • Therefore, targeting epigenetic programs may have significant implications for improving the efficacy of current cancer immunotherapies relying on effective T-cell-mediated immunity at the tumor site. (
  • Effector T cells are indispensible for protective tumor immunity and therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatment ( 1-3 ). (
  • Enhancement of Th1 and antitumor immunity by Ag85B and Peptide-25. (
  • 2) Coimmunization of mice with P25 and OVA resulted in the enhancement of CD8^+ cytotoxic T cells specific for OVA and growth inhibition of EL-4 thymoma expressing OVA peptide leading to the tumour rejection, indicating that P25 exerts a potent adjuvant activity for antitumour immunity. (
  • CD4 + T cells are important and potent mediators of anti-tumor immunity and adoptive transfer of specific CD4 + T cells can promote tumor regression in mice and patients. (
  • OX40, a costimulatory molecule expressed primarily on activated CD4 + T cells, promotes and enhances anti-tumor immunity with limited success on large tumors in mice. (
  • The p110delta isoform of PI3K is mainly expressed in cells of the immune system and contributes to cellular and humoral immunity. (
  • T-cell abnormalities with increased Th1 and Th17 immunity, and decreased Th2 and T regulatory immune responses may play important roles in RPL and MIF. (
  • However, the interaction between CD4+T-cell immunity and HTNV infection in humans is not known. (
  • These results suggest that naïve mononuclear cells differentiated in vitro from HSCs could provide a valid model for the assessment of immunity. (
  • To date, research on adaptive immunity has been restricted to the use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as an in vitro model. (
  • Depending on whether the vaccine contains live or inactivated microbes, the vaccine will promote either cell-mediated (Th1) or antibody-mediated (Th2) immunity respectively. (
  • In normal immunity, both arms of immunity are important but they communicate with each other and probably have more subtle roles in immunity than modern immunology has yet defined. (
  • Supplementation with these micronutrients reverses the Th2 cell-mediated immune response to a proinflammatory Th1 cytokine-regulated response with enhanced innate immunity. (
  • Th17 cells confer significantly stronger protection against T. cruzi-related mortality than even Th1 cells, traditionally thought to be the CD4+ T cell subset most important for immunity to T. cruzi and other intracellular microorganisms. (
  • The discovery of these novel Th17 cell-mediated direct protective and indirect helper effects important for intracellular immunity highlights the diversity of Th17 cell roles, and increases understanding of protective T. cruzi immunity, aiding the development of therapeutics and vaccines for Chagas disease. (
  • In the present study, we were aimed to investigate the changes of DC subsets after IR and its relationship with Th1/Th2 immunity. (
  • As CD8 + DC mainly induce Th1 immunity, we tested the changes of Th1/Th2 response and found that IR caused a repression of Th1 immunity, indicating a possible role of CD8 + DC in radiation-induced Th1/Th2 imbalance. (
  • Although a functional deficiency of regulatory T cells had no effect, impaired Th1 immunity reduced infarction and impaired Th2 immunity aggravated brain injury, which may be due to an inhibited and enhanced inflammatory response in mice deficient in Th1 and Th2 immunity, respectively. (
  • Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomach and induces strong, specific local and systemic humoral and cell-mediated immunity, resulting in the development of chronic gastritis in humans. (
  • The nature of vaccines (either humoral antibody immunity inducing or cell-mediated immunity inducing) depends on the location (extracellular or intracellular) and the expression of the antigens selected for incorporation. (
  • They function in the humoral immunity component of the adaptive immune system by secreting antibodies, and are also classified as professional antigen presenting cells (APCs). (
  • However, measles may be special in that it can cause severe damage to the thymus 6 and has been associated with reductions in cell mediated immunity three years after infection. (
  • Recent work from Dr. Kemper's lab, has highlighted an equally profound impact of complement on adaptive immunity through intracellularly and/or autocrine active complement that mediates direct regulation of CD4+ T cells: signals mediated by T cell-expressed anaphylatoxin receptor C3aR and the complement regulator CD46 (which binds the complement activation fragment C3b) are critical checkpoints in human T cell lineage commitment and control initiation and resolution of inflammatory Th1 responses. (
  • Humoral immunity can neutralize and eradicate outside microbes and toxins via antibodies produced by B cells [ 24 - 26 ], whereas cellular immunity responds more quickly to eradicate intracellular microbes through recognition of antigens, activation of antigen presenting cells (APCs), activation and proliferation of T cells. (
  • Cell-mediated immunity is most important for the elimination of intracellular microorganisms. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute a diverse set of hematopoietic cell types that play important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. (
  • In this way, T cells may additionally instruct the professional APCs, which can promote different types of T-cell-dependent immunity or tolerance. (
  • Adrian Wildfire will discuss whether this, and other similar findings, could lead to the use of human challenge models to evidence the roles of T and B cells in immunity to upper-respiratory pathogens. (
  • Helminth infection results in decreased virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-cell and Th1 cytokine responses as well as delayed virus clearance. (
  • In contrast to control vaccinia-infected animals, S. mansoni plus vaccinia-infected mice did not produce significant Th1 cytokine responses upon in vitro stimulation with recombinant gp120, consistent with previous results for nonparasite antigens. (
  • Reduction of IL-21 may be associated with both Tfh and Th17, which further influence B cell and T cell responses. (
  • TCV appears to induce regulatory immune responses through interactions of the host immune system with vaccine T cells, in both experimental animal models and humans [ 5 ]. (
  • It activates anti-idiotypic T cells by cytotoxic activity and antibody responses that react specifically with the T cell receptor (TCR) of vaccine T cells. (
  • Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) induces regulatory dendritic cells (DC) in vitro that inhibit cellular immune responses. (
  • We tested the role of physiological levels of VIP on immune responses to murine CMV (mCMV) using VIP-knockout (VIP-KO) mice and radiation chimeras engrafted with syngenic VIP-KO hematopoietic cells. (
  • In adaptive immune responses, VIP polarizes CD4 + T cells to an immunosuppressive Th2 response while suppressing the Th1 responses ( 9 ). (
  • Combined analysis with the systemic anti-telomerase hTERT Th1 CD4 response revealed that patients with low anti-TERT Th1 CD4 responses had the highest frequencies of total ILCs at diagnosis. (
  • In these patients, ILC1 and ILC2 were significantly decreased, whereas CD56 + ILC1-like cells were significantly increased compared to patients with low frequency of total ILCs and high anti-TERT responses. (
  • We also establish for the first time a link between frequency of ILCs and anti-tumor CD4 T cell responses in cancer patients. (
  • Naïve CD4 T cells stimulated by cognate antigens presented by professional APCs within the lymphoid tissues undergo clonal expansion and differentiate into distinct lineages of effector/regulatory subsets, orchestrate various adaptive immune responses, and then ultimately mature into memory phenotype cells that either continue to circulate the periphery or migrate into nonlymphoid tissues where they play a role in immune surveillance [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Mice deficient in IL-12 display impaired delayed type hypersensitivity responses and succumb to microbial infections such as Toxoplasma gondii or Cryptococcus neoformans due to the inability to mount Th1 responses [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • This is relevant to IBD in humans, as Th1 responses are elevated in the intestine of patients with Crohn's disease ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • The mechanisms by which T R cells regulate immune responses remain controversial ( 26 , 27 ). (
  • T helper (Th) cells play important roles in regulating immune responses. (
  • Targeting these pathways in DC influences CD4+ T-cells, selectively promoting Th1 and Th17 responses. (
  • CD40/CD154 signaling plays a key role in initiating Th1 responses and may direct Th1 effector responses. (
  • In this model, C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice sensitized to sheep globulin develop crescentic GN resulting from Th1 effector responses when challenged with sheep globulin planted in glomeruli. (
  • In conclusion, the expression of CD40 by nonimmune renal cells plays a major role in Th1 effector responses by inducing Th1 chemokine production. (
  • Cell-cell interactions play a vital role in mediating adaptive immune responses. (
  • Two types of signals have been defined as being required for the initiation of T cell-dependent immune responses ( 1 ). (
  • Evidence from studies of experimental crescentic GN suggest that glomerular injury results from Th1-predominant nephritogenic immune responses to antigens deposited or endogenously expressed in glomeruli ( 9 ). (
  • Renal injury in crescentic GN results from DTH-like responses that lead to the accumulation of CD4 + T cells ( 11 ) and macrophages ( 12 ) in glomeruli. (
  • In most, but not all, animal models of adaptive immune responses to viral infection, optimal clearance of virus depends on synergistic interactions between antigen-specific populations of helper CD4 + T cells, antibody-producing B cells, and cytotoxic CD8 + T cells. (
  • Previous studies of primary immune responses to viral infection in mice have shown that antigen-specific T-helper 1 (Th1) CD4 responses can be readily detected in the early stages of the infection, but rapidly decline as antigen is cleared. (
  • 9 , 10 Similarly, human CD4 + T-cell immune responses to primary herpesvirus infections exhibit a peak response in the first few weeks, 11 , 12 with markedly reduced responses at follow-up. (
  • 13 , 14 , 18 Further evidence for the presence of antigen-specific CD4 T cells is the production of high-affinity, isotype-switched antibodies to HIV-1, which presumably requires the provision of help for B-cell responses by CXCR5 + CD4 + follicular helper T cells. (
  • These findings indicate that at least one of the ways in which TNF regulates Th1/Th17 responses in arthritis is by down-regulating the expression of p40. (
  • We propose that this forms a part of a negative feedback loop that attempts to limit the intensity and/or duration of Th17 and Th1 responses. (
  • Forkhead transcription factors play key roles in the regulation of immune responses. (
  • Taken together, our data emphasize the essential role of IL-12 for protective Th1 responses against C. neoformans . (
  • Dysregulation of interactions between the gut microbiota and the mucosal immune system causes development of chronic intestinal inflammation, which is mediated by DCs through their unique role in priming T-cell responses 31 . (
  • In this study, we used umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived dendritic cells (DCs) infected with a recombinant adenovirus encoding the livin gene as a vaccine to activate effector cells such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to recognize and kill livin-expressing cancer cells in vitro as an improved strategy for overcoming the ability of these cancer cells to escape apoptosis and antitumor immune responses. (
  • Evidence suggests that interfering with either the expression of the livin gene or the function of the livin protein could provide a potential therapeutic avenue to induce apoptosis in tumor cells and to significantly improve antitumor responses ( 13 - 15 ). (
  • Cellular immune responses particularly mediated by natural killer (NK), and T cells are often dysregulated in these conditions. (
  • For the first time, we showed that both Th1 and ThGranzyme B+ cell responses involved in defense against HTNV infection and inversely correlated with plasma viral load and disease outcome. (
  • ICOS and its ligand (ICOSL) have been shown to play diverse roles in T-cell responses such as mediating autoimmunity as well as enhancing the development/activity of regulatory T cells. (
  • These seemingly opposing roles have made it difficult to determine whether the ICOS/ICOSL pathway is necessary for antitumor responses. (
  • Furthermore, in the absence of ICOS, antitumor T-cell responses elicited by anti-CTLA-4 are significantly diminished, thereby impairing tumor rejection. (
  • Although T-cell responses are initiated by T-cell receptor signaling, additional costimulatory and coinhibitory signals regulate the outcome of T-cell activation. (
  • Blockade of CTLA-4 with a monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been shown to enhance effector T cell (T eff ) activity with subsequent antitumor responses in a variety of murine models ( 6-9 ). (
  • These data suggested that ICOS + T cells might play an important role in antitumor immune responses. (
  • ICOS has been implicated in diverse aspects of T-cell responses. (
  • It has also been shown that ICOS + T cells are involved in transplant rejection ( 22 ) as well as autoimmune responses ( 23-25 ). (
  • On the contrary, our finding that CTLA-4 blockade in cancer patients results in an increase in the frequency of ICOS + T cells that seem to correlate with clinical benefit is more consistent with a role for the ICOS/ICOSL pathway in enhancing antitumor responses. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) that play key roles in the regulation of immune responses to a variety of antigens ( 26 , 34 ). (
  • Therefore, the progression and severity of the disease are strongly modulated by the host immune response, particularly, T cell responses. (
  • The aim of this study was to examine whether thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial-cell-derived cytokine inducing a dendritic cell (DC)-mediated inflammatory Th2 response, is involved in Th2 responses triggering B-cell activation in H. pylori -induced gastritis. (
  • It also suggests that TSLP-mediated DC activation may be involved in Th2 responses triggering B-cell activation in H. pylori -induced gastritis. (
  • Th2 responses triggering B-cell activation appear to be involved in the development of lymphoid aggregates with germinal centers. (
  • However, molecular mechanisms to induce Th2 responses triggering B-cell activation are not clear. (
  • Both modified iGb3, especially 4‴-dh-iGb3, stimulated more IFN-γ production by hepatic NKT cells, and thus elicited preferential Th1 responses. (
  • Furthermore, chemical modification of iGb3 can elicit Th1-biased responses by NKT cells, and 4‴-dh-iGb3 combined with a DC vaccine may serve as a potent new NKT-based therapy against tumors and infectious diseases. (
  • Furthermore, promotion of IFN-γ-producing NK cells also occurs after NKT cell activation, accompanied with bystander activation of dendritic cells (DC), conventional T cells and B cells to strengthen Th1 responses. (
  • Pulmonary macrophages form a heterogeneous population of immune cells that fulfil a variety of specialised functions, including maintenance of pulmonary homoeostasis, removal of cellular debris, immune surveillance, microbial clearance, responses to infection and the resolution of inflammation. (
  • Human B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are white blood cells that play key roles in adaptive immune responses. (
  • The programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway serves as a checkpoint to limit T-cell mediated immune responses. (
  • As a cytokine, interferon-gamma is a highly versatile homodimeric protein that plays an essential role in cell mediated immune responses to viral and mycobacterial infections. (
  • One of IFN-g's main roles in cell mediated immune responses is its antiviral activity. (
  • This is characterised by exaggerated Th2 cell responses to common allergens with production of raised concentrations of allergen specific IgE. (
  • Whether toluene diisocyanate (TDI) asthma is driven by TH2 responses, if TH1 responses are important, and the role of specific antibodies in disease pathogenesis are a few of the unanswered questions. (
  • Genetically modified mouse models and antibody neutralization approaches have suggested important roles for TH2 and TH1 responses as well as antibody production. (
  • These findings show that both TH2 and TH1 responses are important. (
  • Th1 responses are most effective against intracellular pathogens such as viruses whereas Th2 cells protect against extracellular pathogens including bacteria and fungi. (
  • A third subset of CD4+ T cells, called regulatory T cells, are critical for controlling both normal and abnormal (autoimmune) T cell responses. (
  • Together with the lack of inflammatory cytokine responses, these events might play an important role in the low level of T-cell activation which is associated with protection against AIDS in nonpathogenic SIVagm infection. (
  • Innate immune responses acting at the early time points are crucial for T-cell activation profiles. (
  • Th2 lymphocytes produce antibodies to block dangerous microbes from invading your body's cells in the first place, while using other white blood cells to drive allergic responses to foreign organisms. (
  • The innate immune cells can release signals which are essential to stimulate responses from both T cells and B cells [ 31 ]. (
  • T-cell responses were directed toward putative driver mutations in CREBBP and MEF2B. (
  • Tissue-resident memory T (T RM ) cells have been implicated in protective immune responses against viral infections, but the role of T RM cells following mycobacterial infection is unknown. (
  • Modelling transmigration through hepatocytes revealed intrinsic, disease-specific cytokine responses in blood-derived CD4+ T cells, not discernible through static co-culture. (
  • By contrast, CD69HI TRM displayed a resting phenotype, marked for more restricted movement, and produced the best multifunctional TH1 responses following stimulation. (
  • 1-3 They are potent antigen sensing and antigen presenting cells (professional APCs) that are uniquely capable of initiating primary immune responses to foreign antigens while safeguarding tolerance to self antigens. (
  • This leads to either initiation of primary immune responses against foreign antigens or downregulation of potential T-cell reactivity directed against self antigens. (
  • Not only are DCs potent initiators of immune responses, they also play important regulatory roles in determining the type, magnitude and duration of immune responses that ensue. (
  • Other DC types may promote T-cell-dependent humoral or cell-mediated immune responses characteristic of Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, T follicular helper (Tfh) or regulatory T (Treg) cells. (
  • The issue of exactly which DCs orchestrate these types of T-cell-dependent immune responses, and how they do it, remains open and intensively investigated. (
  • This is not surprising because CD40:CD40L interactions are known to play many roles in cell-mediated inflammatory responses, including stimulation of expression of adhesion and homing molecules on vascular endothelium, stimulation of chemokine and inflammatory cytokine production, stimulation of the production of IL-12, which is critical for maturation of the inflammatory Th1 subset, and stimulation of fibroblasts (105) ( Table 1 ). (
  • Disease-protective IFN-γ could be derived from any lymphocyte source and suppressed diabetogenic CD8 + T-cell responses both directly and through an intermediary nonlymphoid cell population. (
  • Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is a crucial cytokine in various immune responses produced by multiple cell types ( 1 , 2 ) and has long been considered a contributor to autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D). (
  • Immunological tolerance-induction mechanisms, such as indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) production by DCs as well as eliciting activation-induced cell death (AICD) responses by autoreactive T cells, also require IFN-γ ( 14 - 16 ). (
  • Indeed, our current work indicates diabetic interventions focused on suppressing IFN-γ production could, in some circumstances, actually promote pathogenic CD8 + T-cell responses. (
  • Recent experimental results support that active TB infection may be induced by the dysfunction of Treg cell regulation that provides a balance between anti-TB T cell responses and pathology. (
  • Animal studies into routes of inoculation for influenza appear to suggest profound changes in Th1 and Th2 responses dependent on the site of challenge and also the role of specific T-cell populations in the control of airways disease. (
  • 5 Th2 cells, in contrast, produce mostly interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and are associated with eosinophilic inflammatory responses to helminths, ticks, and allergens. (
  • Developmental AHR activation impacts CD4 + T-cell responses in lymphoid tissues, but whether skewed responses are also present in the infected lung is unknown. (
  • To determine whether pulmonary CD4 + T-cell responses are modified by developmental AHR activation, mice were exposed to the prototypical AHR ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p- dioxin during development and infected with influenza virus as adults. (
  • This is in direct contrast to prior reports of suppressed conventional CD4 + T-cell responses in the lymph node. (
  • Thus developmental exposures lead to context-dependent changes in pulmonary CD4 + T-cell subsets, which may contribute to differential responses to respiratory infection. (
  • SCV-07 has been shown to shift the Th1 to Th2 ratio back to favor the Th1 state and to inhibit STAT3-dependant responses. (
  • In light of these developments, this review examines the relative roles of these subsets in allograft rejection. (
  • However, unexpected observation of a developmental plasticity retained in mature T lymphocytes, in particular in CD4 + T-cell subsets, by recent studies is accelerating studies that focus on roles of each epigenetic pathway in cell fate decisions of T lymphocytes. (
  • The percentage and absolute number of different CD4 + T cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17, TNF-αa producing CD4 + T cells and Foxp3 + Tregs) in peripheral blood, were investigated by flow cytometry. (
  • CD3 + CD4 + T-cell subsets were defined as CD45RO - CD27 + naïve, CD45RO + CD27 + CD62L + central memory,CD45RO + CD27 + CD62L - effector memory, CD45RO + CD27 - effectors and CD45RO - CD27 - terminal effectors. (
  • The number of T cell subsets, NK and B cells were not significantly different from healthy controls in our cohort of AA patients. (
  • CD56 + ILC1-like cells were expanded, whereas ILC2, NCR − ILCP and NCR + ILCP subsets were decreased. (
  • Other effector/regulatory T cell subsets include Th9 and Tr1 type cells, which produce IL-9 and IL-10, respectively. (
  • It is now appreciated that disruption of immune regulatory networks, including deletion of cytokine genes, cell signaling molecules, and alterations in T cell subsets, can lead to an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD 3 )-like syndrome in mice ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • However, control of immune pathology is not restricted to CD4 + CD25 + cells, and there is evidence that CD4 + CD25 − T cells also possess some regulatory activity ( 18 , 20 , 25 ), although the relationship between these phenotypically distinct subsets of T R cells is not known. (
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological tumor in which progress T helper (Th) subsets including Th22, Th17, and Th1 cells play a pivotal role. (
  • By a genetic strategy, we report here that selective deletion of gp96 from CD11c + cells in mice results in alteration of dendritic cell and T cell subsets in the gut as well as loss of antigen-specific regulatory T cell induction in the mesenteric lymph nodes. (
  • Because it is well known that T cells are a heterogeneous population, and a balance between functionally different T cell subsets is crucial in immune regulation, a series of studies have attempted to associate an impaired balance between each T cell subset and periodontal disease progression. (
  • In this review, we will discuss the presence and the role of various T cell subsets, including CD8 + cytotoxic T cells, CD4 + T helper cells (Th1, Th2, and Th17), regulatory T cells, and natural killer T (NKT) cells in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. (
  • As the most potent antigen presenting cells, dendritic cells (DC) can be divided into several subsets with specialized function. (
  • However, there is no literature covering the changes of DC subsets and their roles in immune regulation in response to IR. (
  • Our results demonstrate the delicate interaction between T cell subsets and glial cells and how they communicate to mediate their effects. (
  • T cells and their subsets modulate ischemic brain injury. (
  • We studied the effects of the absence of T cell subsets on brain infarction after in vivo stroke and then used an in vitro coculture system of splenocytes and neurons to further identify the roles of T cell subsets in neuronal death.Stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery suture occlusion in mice and infarct sizes were measured 2 days poststroke. (
  • The neurotoxicity of splenocytes from these immunodeficient mice was consistent with their effects on stroke in vivo, except for the mice with the paucity of CD4 or CD8 T cells, which did not alter the ratio of neuronal death.T cell subsets play critical roles in brain injury induced by stroke. (
  • During primary and chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, both subsets of dendritic cells (DC), i.e., myeloid dendritic cells (MDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), are decreased in the blood ( 20 , 36 , 46 ). (
  • A change in the ratio of autoreactive T cell subsets between Th17 and Th1 appears to correlate with disease recovery m-EAU. (
  • Adoptive transfer and gene expression analyses of lung airway cells were performed to determine the protective capacities and phenotypes of different memory T cell subsets. (
  • T-cells have 2 subsets of helper cells: T-helper type 1 (Th1) and type 2 (Th2). (
  • Explore different dendritic cell lineages and subsets in humans and mice. (
  • To this day, various subsets of these endothelial-regenerating cells have been identified according to cellular origin, phenotype, and properties in vivo and in vitro. (
  • Spleen cells from vaccinia-infected control mice displayed strong CD8+ cytolytic activity against gp160-transfected fibroblasts and fibroblasts pulsed with a peptide (P18) representing a CTL epitope of gp160. (
  • Mice in the TCV-treated group showed less disease severity and less infiltration of inflammatory cells in the joint sections. (
  • mCMV-infected VIP-KO mice had lower viral loads, faster clearance of virus, with increased numbers of IFN-γ + NK and NKT cells, and enhanced cytolytic activity of NK cells. (
  • mCMV-immune VIP-KO mice had enhanced ability to clear mCMV peptide-pulsed target cells in vivo. (
  • Following mCMV infection there was a marked upregulation of MHC-II and CD80 costimulatory molecule expression on DC from VIP-KO mice compared with DC from WT mice, whereas programmed death-1 and programmed death ligand-1 expression were upregulated in activated CD8 + T cells and DC, respectively, in WT mice, but not in VIP-KO mice. (
  • In a mouse model of allogeneic BM transplantation, DC that were differentiated in the presence of VIP, and then transplanted along with BM cells and splenic T cells, induced the generation of regulatory T cells and protected mice from acute graft versus host disease ( 12 ). (
  • We found that elevated expression of IL-27 was associated with increased proportion of Th1 cells and Th17 cells in patients with COPD and demonstrated parallel findings in cigarette smoke-exposed mice. (
  • In addition, cigarette smoke exposure upregulated the expression of IL-27R (WSX-1) by naive CD4 + T cells in mice. (
  • Furthermore, anti-IL27 treatment dramatically decreased the expression of IFN-γ-producing CD4 + T cells in cigarette smoke-exposed mice. (
  • Likewise, T cells deficient in T-bet are unable to differentiate into Th1 cells and T-bet-deficient mice succumb to pathogen infections that are controlled by Th1 cells [ 7 ]. (
  • CD4 + CD45RB low cells from germfree mice were significantly reduced in their ability to transfer colitis to immune deficient recipients, suggesting the presence of commensal bacteria in the donor mice drives colitogenic T cells into the Ag-experienced/memory T cell pool. (
  • Taken together, these data indicate that colitogenic Th1 cells enter into the Ag-experienced pool in normal mice, but that their function is controlled by regulatory T cells and IL-10. (
  • Previous studies from this laboratory and others have shown that transfer of CD4 + CD45RB high T cells, a predominantly naive population, from the periphery of normal mice to SCID recipients leads to the development of a Th1-mediated colitis with similarities to IBD in humans ( 3 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 ). (
  • T cells capable of responding to enteric bacteria are present in T cell-restored immune deficient mice with colitis, and are most likely involved in the pathogenesis of the disease ( 7 ). (
  • In mice, it seems to alter the activities of some immune cells and the amounts of some proteins released into synovial fluid, the viscous liquid that lubricates joints. (
  • Gary S. Firestein, a rheumatologist at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine in La Jolla, says that although the new study shows that VIP suppresses Th1 activity in these mice, much more research, including toxicity tests, will have to be done before the compound is tried in people. (
  • The role of CD40 expression by renal cells was assessed by comparing GN in WT→CD40−/− chimeras (absent renal but intact bone marrow CD40) and sham chimeric mice (WT→WT). (
  • Sham chimeric mice developed reduced GFR, with prominent renal expression of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and IFN-inducible protein 10 mRNA and effector cell accumulation. (
  • Th1 and Th17 cell populations were also expanded in collagen-immunized TNFR p55 −/− but not p75 −/− mice. (
  • The expression of IL-12/IL-23 p40 was up-regulated in lymph nodes (LN) from p55 −/− mice, and the expansion of Th1/Th17 cells was abrogated by blockade of p40. (
  • After onset of arthritis, mice were treated with soluble TNFR-Fc for 10 d and the production of IL-17 and IFNγ by LN cells was determined by ELISA. (
  • The pair of journal studies spawned a slew of new research that rapidly progressed beyond studying cells in test tubes and mice. (
  • The mice in the first group had normal immune systems, but the second group consisted of genetically-modified mice that lacked Th17 cells. (
  • Susceptibility of both IL-12p35 −/− and IL-12p40 −/− mice was associated with marginal production of gamma interferon and elevated levels of IL-4 from CD4 + T cells, which indicates Th2 polarization in the absence of IL-12, whereas wild-type mice developed a Th1 response. (
  • 1) Using P25 TCR-Tg mice, we demonstrated that direct interaction between TCR and peptide-loaded antigen-presenting cells primarily determines the fate of naive CD4^+ T cells, even in the absence of T-bet expression and costimulatory signals. (
  • This subpopulation of CD4 + T cells eradicates very advanced melanomas in mice, and an analogous population of human tumor-specific CD4 + T cells can kill melanoma in an in vitro system. (
  • It is the first study for allograft survival in Blimp-1 T-cell transgenic mice. (
  • Amu and co-workers noted that B10 cells could prevent and reverse allergic airway inflammation in a similar murine model of immunization with OVA in BALB/c mice [16]. (
  • And then we found that bone marrow cells from irradiated mice differentiated into less CD8 + DC, which was also protected by FLT3 ligand. (
  • To understand the effects driven by Th17 cells in the CNS, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in wild-type mice and CD4 + T cell-specific integrin α4-deficient mice where trafficking of Th1 cells into the CNS was affected. (
  • We observed in α4-deficient mice weak microglial activation but comparable astrogliosis to that of wild-type mice in the regions of the brain populated with Th17 infiltrates, suggesting that Th17 cells target astrocytes and not microglia. (
  • Nonredundant roles of Sema4A in the immune system: Defective T cell priming and Th1/Th2 regulation in Sema4A-deficient mice. (
  • Here, we found that 4‴-dh-iGb3-loaded bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) could significantly inhibit growth of subcutaneous melanoma and suppress lung metastasis in C57BL/6 mice compared with unmodified iGb3-loaded DCs. (
  • In mice, the TCR of most NKT cells consists of an invariant Vα chain encoded by the Vα14 and Jα18 gene segments paired with TCRβ chains that belong to a restricted set of Vβ families ( 2,3 ). (
  • Because Ikaros is highly conserved (95% identity at the amino acid level in mice and humans), studies performed to understand Ikaros functions in mice will almost certainly translate to understanding its role in human cells. (
  • 100% of mice with a genetically engineered mutation in the Ikaros gene (Ikaros null mice) develop T cell leukemia. (
  • We are characterizing the importance of this interaction to the leukemogenic process in Ikaros null mice and are interested in understanding how RBP-Jκ and Ikaros coordinate Notch target gene repression vs. activation during normal T cell development. (
  • However, the observation that T cells from CD40L-deficient mice are capable of contact-dependent signaling of macrophages (31) establishes that membrane-anchored receptor:ligand pairs other than CD40:CD40L can be involved in T cell signaling of macrophages. (
  • Adoptive mucosal transfer of these airway-resident memory T cells into naive mice mediated protection against TB. (
  • The role of contact-dependent signaling in the development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis has been shown dramatically using transgenic B10.PL mice expressing the T cell receptor reactive with the encephalitogenic peptide (Ac1-11) of myelin basic protein. (
  • The adoptive transfer of CD80-positive accessory cells into CD40L-deficient mice restored their ability to respond to antigen and to develop experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. (
  • To investigate the roles and therapeutic potential for targeting the RORs in type 1 diabetes, we administered SR1001, a selective RORα/γ inverse agonist, to nonobese diabetic mice. (
  • Numerous immunomodulatory protocols also reportedly inhibit diabetes development in NOD mice by skewing cytokine production by pathogenic T cells from a Th1 (including IFN-γ) to Th2 profile (reviewed in Ref. 8 ). (
  • Treatment of NOD mice with syngeneic antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) matured ex vivo with IFN-γ also reportedly inhibits diabetes development ( 10 ). (
  • AIRE expression has been detected in tissues and cells from different locations in humans and mice. (
  • performed immunohistochemistry in inbred C57BL/6J and inbred CD1 mice and found strong protein staining in the spleen, lymph node, intestinal, gonad, and brain tissues and in epithelial cells in the lung, kidney, and oviduct, which was consistent with the RNA results [3]. (
  • Studies in mice have identified the combination of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and IL-6 as essential for the development of naïve T cells into Th17 cells, 7 although it has been recently described that TGF-β1 may suppress Th17 polarization in humans under certain conditions. (
  • In the host, BMSCs may attenuate pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine induction, reduce pro-inflammatory cell migration into sites of injury and infection, and induce immunoregulatory soluble and cellular factors to preserve organ function. (
  • In contrast, BMSCs induce Treg cells. (
  • Scientists say Th17 cells likely play a central role in such disorders because they can induce sustained, excessive inflammation. (
  • Our findings for the first time demonstrate that gp96 is essential for CD11c + cells to induce regulatory T cells and maintain gut homeostasis, illustrating the importance of protein immune chaperone in safeguarding against immune pathology. (
  • Lymphoid tissue development is initiated during embryogenesis by the migration of lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells from the fetal liver to the periphery, where they induce the formation of lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. (
  • Livin expression levels correlate to some degree with the stage and pathological type of the cancer, and livin expression can induce tumor cells to become resistant to antineoplastic drugs and are characteristic of a cancer with a poor prognosis ( 9 - 12 ). (
  • In the present study, we showed that DCs that have been modified to express the livin α gene could provide stable presentation of livin epitopes and could induce T-cell activation. (
  • Based on the novel T-cell epitopes we defined on HTNV glycoprotein in Chinese Han population, we confirmed that HTNV glycoprotein could induce vigorous and extensive CD4+T-cell response in humans. (
  • Furthermore, B10 cells can participate in the regulation of IgE production, as shown in an atopic dermatitis-like mouse model [17] and induce regulatory cells, such as Tr1 and nTreg [18]. (
  • Recently our group has demonstrated, in the same experimental model used in the present work, that maternal preconception immunization with OVA can induce B10 cells in offspring [19], but the effect of maternal immunization upon B and T cells cytokine secretion pattern was not evaluated at the time. (
  • Blocking the PD-1 receptor on T cells with monoclonal antibodies results in T-cell activation and proliferation and can induce a potent immunotherapeutic antitumour effect. (
  • However, short-term co-culture did induce activation-independent CD69 upregulation, reliant upon cell-cell contact. (
  • This nonresponsiveness was ascribed to the inability of CD40L-deficient T cells to induce CD80 expression on dendritic cells. (
  • IL-19 interacts with both immune cells (macrophages, T cells, B cells) and non-immune cells (endothelial cells and brain resident glial cells, etc. (
  • Meanwhile, other immune cells called macrophages contribute their own destructive proteins to the mix. (
  • The researchers don't know precisely how VIP facilitates these changes, but they've identified a receptor on T cells and macrophages to which it binds. (
  • As a person's arthritis worsens, the importance of T cells seems to diminish, while macrophages and certain synovial cells continue to produce harmful chemicals, says Robert P. Kimberly, an immunologist at the University of Alabama, Birmingham School of Medicine. (
  • While correcting the Th1-Th2 imbalance may initially be crucial to VIP's effectiveness, keeping macrophages in check could later be more valuable, he says. (
  • The p40 subunit (IL-12p40) is expressed in a highly regulated manner in cells of the immune system, especially macrophages and dendritic cells ( 5 , 36 ). (
  • In the intestine, pAPCs including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages are strategically positioned to protect the gut while maintaining mucosal tolerance to food, self-antigens and microbiota. (
  • CD40 belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) family, and is constitutively expressed on B lymphocytes, dendritic cells and monocytes/macrophages. (
  • Macrophages are the most numerous immune-cells present in the lung environment under homoeostatic conditions and are ideally positioned to dictate the innate defence of the airways. (
  • Classification of macrophages, according to their activation status has broadly been defined as M1 and M2, analogous to the T helper cells Th1/Th2 paradigm. (
  • IFN-g receptors are found in high amounts on the cellular surface of many different cell types such as T cells, B cells, macrophages, NK cells and fibroblasts 1 . (
  • Macrophages play diverse roles in episodic T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, function as accessory cells for T cell activation, as pro-inflammatory cells, as effector cells which mediate tissue damage, and as anti-inflammatory cells which promote wound healing. (
  • Research over the past decade has only begun to unravel the complex interactions between T cells and macrophages that are involved in the pathogenesis of cell-mediated inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis. (
  • The cellular infiltrates of active sclerotic lesions include CD4+ T cells (Th1 with some Th0 and Th2), CD8+ T cells, and macrophages (microglia and monocytes) (1-8). (
  • Macrophages play critical accessory, inflammatory, and effector roles in this non-septic T cell-mediated inflammatory disease (5-9) and tend to be present throughout the inflammatory process. (
  • The production of interleukin (IL)-12 by macrophages clearly plays an important role in the maturation of Th1 cells (10). (
  • In the following sections, we try to provide a succinct account of T cell signaling of macrophages which, although brief and simplified for the sake of clarity, emphasizes the complexity of the cascading cell-cell interactions involved in a relapsing inflammatory autoimmune disease. (
  • The cellular infiltrates of active sclerotic lesions are dominated by cells of the monocytic lineage (macrophages and microglial cells) (6-8). (
  • How do T cells monitor antigens presented by the macrophages and dendritic cells? (
  • The interaction of macrophages and T cells plays an important role in the immune response during TB infection. (
  • To better understand the dynamics of TB infection and Treg cell regulation, we build a mathematical model using a system of differential equations that qualitatively and quantitatively characterizes the dynamics of macrophages, Th1 and Treg cells during TB infection. (
  • Stromal cells in the peripheral spleen and lymph node tissues, the embryonic liver, testis, and ovarian tissues, and haematogenic monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells have all been shown to express AIRE [3]. (
  • These findings proposed that IL-27 has functions for promoting the expression of Th1 cells but inhibiting the expression of Th17 cells in vitro and IL-27 neutralization-attenuated Th1-mediated inflammation in vivo , suggesting targeting IL-27/WSX-1 may provide a new therapeutic approach for smoking-related COPD. (
  • IL-19 is an immunosuppressive cytokine that is responsible for both cell type-specific and system-specific down-regulation of inflammation. (
  • After receiving damage, IL-19 is secreted by vascular cells to recover from inflammation and protect tissue against further damage. (
  • In many of the IBD models, intestinal inflammation is the consequence of the development of a dysregulated Th1 response driven by resident bacteria ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (
  • Intestinal inflammation is driven by resident bacteria, as colitis does not develop after T cell transfer to immune deficient recipients raised under germfree (GF) or restricted flora conditions ( 16 , 17 ). (
  • Test the hypothesis that the balance of regulation and inflammation alters with healthy aging by measuring the abundance and function of nTreg, iTreg, Th1 and Th17 in a cross-sectional study of healthy individuals. (
  • Ostrand-Rosenberg S, Sinha P. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells: linking inflammation and cancer. (
  • Foxj1 deficiency resulted in multiorgan systemic inflammation, exaggerated Th1 cytokine production, and T cell proliferation in autologous mixed lymphocyte reactions. (
  • and shifting from Th2 to Th1 might benefit for clearance of infections and prevention of cancer but also might lead to inflammation and tissue damage ( 4 ). (
  • The Laboratory for Complement and Inflammation Research, led by Dr. Claudia Kemper, aims to understand the unexpected roles of complement proteins in the regulation of key basic processes of the cell in health and disease. (
  • the number of Th1 cells was lower than Th17 cells in the early stages of disease but gradually increased during the peak and remission of eye inflammation. (
  • The appearance of IFN-γIL-17 double positive autoreactive T cells may correlate with the acute attack of eye inflammation in r-EAU. (
  • IL-17 is the defining cytokine of a newly-described "Th17" population that plays critical roles in mediating inflammation and autoimmunity. (
  • Inflammation of the portal and portal areas is a common feature of chronic hepatitis C. Antigen presenting dendritic, or "tree-like," cells are located in the portal area, and infiltrating T-cells are initially exposed to infected hepatocytes in the peripheral area. (
  • Lungs of exposed offspring had greater bronchopulmonary inflammation compared with controls, and activated, virus-specific CD4 + T cells contributed to the infiltrating leukocytes. (
  • ImmunoChip study implicates antigen presentation to T cells in narcolepsy. (
  • Upon exposure to a foreign antigen, Tfh cells help B cells generate antibody-producing plasma cells and long-lived memory B cells. (
  • IL-12 is a heterodimeric protein consisting of the IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 subunits [ 3 ], mainly produced by antigen presenting cells (APCs), and its production is greatly enhanced by microbial stimuli such as LPS. (
  • The first type is the T cell receptor/MHC-mediated signal and the second type results from the binding of costimulatory/accessory receptor ligand pairs, which bidirectionally deliver signals to the T cells and antigen-presenting cells to confer functional activity ( 2 ). (
  • We investigated whether HIV-1 antigen-specific CD4 + T cells expressed the viral coreceptor CCR5 during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). (
  • However, in PHI subjects with later presentation, antigen-specific CD4 + T cells could not be readily detected (median, 0.08%), coinciding with a 5-fold lower level of the CCR5 + CD38 +++ CD4 + T cells. (
  • Antigen-specific memory CD4 + T cells are not often found in untreated chronic HIV-1 infection, using the standard in vitro proliferation assay. (
  • 5 This deficit of antigen-specific CD4 + T cells may represent a major impediment to immune control of HIV-1 infection. (
  • These results suggest that antigen-specific CD4 + T cells should be generated at a relatively high level during primary HIV-1 infection. (
  • Interferon (IFN)-γ producing antigen-specific CD4 + T cells have been demonstrated in primary HIV-1 infection, despite high levels of viremia. (
  • Intestinal professional antigen presenting cells (pAPCs) recognize and respond to the gut microbiota through multiple pattern-recognition receptors, including TLRs and NLRs. (
  • In addition, a recent study showed that CD103 + CD11b − DCs are required for peripheral Treg cell induction during dietary antigen exposure 2 . (
  • 3) P25-stimulated P25 CD4^+ T cells augment antigen cross-presentation by APC. (
  • We employed interferon-γ (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot assays to confirm that our immunization strategy induced an antigen-specific reaction to livin and flow cytometric analysis of staining with Annexin V and PI to measure the cytotoxic activity of the effector cells against the livin-expressing lung cancer cell lines A549 and H460. (
  • This DC vaccine could activate antigen-specific T cells to produce IFN-γ upon recognition of livin peptide in the context of the appropriate HLA molecule. (
  • The antigen-specific T cells mediate significant cytotoxicity against the cancer cells, but are unlikely to cause an autoimmune reaction against the human bronchial epithelia cells (HBE), which do not express livin. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) are classic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and can efficiently take up and present tumor antigens as well as provide the co-stimulatory molecules required to activate naive T lymphocytes ( 18 , 19 ). (
  • In addition to antigen modulation and immune evasion ( 20 ), cancer cells may cause DCs to downregulate their expression of MHC class I molecules when the two cell types are co-cultured ( 21 ). (
  • We show that ICOS + T cells comprised a population of Th1 cytokine producing and tumor antigen-specific effector cells. (
  • In addition, antigen presenting monocytes and dendritic cells derived from haematopoietic stem cells showed impaired HLA-DR expression as a consequence of exposure to different species of malaria parasites. (
  • Kikutani H, Kumanogoh A. Semaphorins in interactions between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. (
  • Requirement for CD100-CD72 interactions in fine-tuning of B-cell antigen receptor signaling and homeostatic maintenance of the B-cell compartment. (
  • Although the size and diversity of the lymphocyte repertoire make it likely that there is an antigen, a specific lymphocyte for any given pathogen, the frequency of these cells can be extremely low and normally will not be sufficient to protect the host against a primary infection. (
  • After antigenic stimulation, there is activation and expansion of these antigen-specific cells. (
  • It is this process of clonal selection and the ultimate perpetuation of these antigen-specific memory cells that protects against a secondary infection. (
  • Hence, the goal of vaccination is to enhance the number of antigen-specific B and T cells against a given pathogen. (
  • Natural killer T (NKT) cells are specialized immune cells that express NK markers along with a semiinvariant T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) and display unique characteristics of innate rather than adaptive lymphocytes ( 1 ). (
  • The CD45 isoforms play complex roles in T-cell and B-cell antigen receptor signal transduction. (
  • Most recently, cancer immunotherapy field is growing tremendously, such as utilization of cancer vaccinations, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy and immune checkpoint blockade therapy [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • however, T-cell-based therapies may provide a valuable alternative owing to the exquisite sensitivity and specificity of antigen recognition. (
  • What does a naive T-cell turn into after encountering an antigen? (
  • They crawl over the antigen presenting cells to check for the antigen they are specific to. (
  • What happens if a T cell does not encounter their specific antigen in the lymph node? (
  • After multiple bee stings, venom antigen-specific Th1 and Th2 cells show a switch toward interleukin (IL) 10-secreting type 1 T regulatory (Tr1) cells. (
  • T cell regulation continues as long as antigen exposure persists and returns to initial levels within 2 to 3 mo after bee stings. (
  • In addition, cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 and programmed death 1 play roles in allergen-specific T cell suppression. (
  • S. Marino , S. Pawar , C. L. Fuller , T. A. Reinhart , J. L. Flynn and D. E. Kirschner , Dendritic cell trafficking and antigen presentation in the human immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Journal of Immunology , 173 (2004), 494-506. (
  • T helper (Th) type 17 cells are a recently described CD4 T-cell subset, and have been implicated in a range of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions that were previously thought to be Th1 mediated. (
  • Follicular helper T (Tfh) cells, a recently found subset of CD4+ T cells located in germinal centers (GCs), are characterized by persistently high expression of CXCR5 [ 11 ]. (
  • These pathogenic cells enrich within the CD25 − subset and are not recent thymic emigrants. (
  • 26 , 28 However, IL-2-producing CD4 + memory cells typically belong to the CCR7 + , CCR5 - central memory subset, 29 and therefore are not directly susceptible to infection by CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains in early infection. (
  • In the fetal liver, a subset of common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs) that expresses the integrin α4β7 gives rise to LTi cells, a process strictly dependent on the expression of the transcriptional repressor Id2 and the nuclear hormone receptor retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γ t (RORγt). (
  • Because T cells consist of a variety of subpopulations, numerous studies have attempted to associate an impaired balance between each T cell subset and periodontal tissue destruction in periodontitis patients. (
  • Th17 cells are a subset of CD4+ T cells known to play a central role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, as well as in the defense against some extracellular bacteria and fungi. (
  • The OX-22 antibody reacts with CD45RC on pre-B lymphocytes, B cells, CD8+ T suppressor/cytotoxic cells, and a subset of CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes. (
  • Chemokines are a group of small (approximately 8 to 14 kD), mostly basic, structurally related molecules that regulate cell trafficking of various types of leukocytes through interactions with a subset of 7-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptors. (
  • These effects were CD4 + T cell subset specific, with increases in T helper type 1 and regulatory T cells, but no change in the frequency of T helper type 17 cells in the infected lung. (
  • Additionally, we found that CD4+T cells characterized by broader antigenic repertoire, polyfunctional cytokine secretion, stronger expansion and highly differentiated effector memory phenotype always lead to much milder outcome of the disease, maybe through inducing antiviral condition of host cells and cytotoxic effect of ThGranzyme B+ cells. (
  • However, the molecular mechanism of Th1- or Th2-biased cytokine secretion by NKT cells is still unknown. (
  • Tim-3 and its only known ligand Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is related to the suppression of Th1 and Th17 cytokine secretion. (
  • We evaluated cytokine secretion and PBMC activation by cell proliferation assay, immunophenotyping and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. (
  • Continuous exposure of nonallergic beekeepers to high doses of bee venom antigens induces diminished T cell-related cutaneous late-phase swelling to bee stings in parallel with suppressed allergen-specific T cell proliferation and T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokine secretion. (
  • It induces upregulation of Foxp3 expression and the inhibitory function of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs, which plays an important role in the regulation of autoreactive T cells and autoimmune diseases [ 6 - 9 ]. (
  • It is possible that the expression of RORγt induces a proinflammatory program in lymphoid cells that might, inevitably, include IL-17 and IL-22. (
  • Plexin C1 engagement on mouse dendritic cells by viral semaphorin A39R induces actin cytoskeleton rearrangement and inhibits integrin-mediated adhesion and chemokine-induced migration. (
  • Semaphorin CD100 from activated T lymphocytes induces process extension collapse in oligodendrocytes and death of immature neural cells. (
  • ligation of CD40 on endothelial cells induces VCAM-1 expression (107). (
  • AIRE can maintain central immune tolerance, since AIRE clears auto-reactive T cells and induces Treg production by regulating the expression of peripheral tissue-specific antigens (TSAs) in mTECs [1]. (
  • In vitro , IL-27 significantly augmented the secretion of IFN-γ by naive CD4 + T cells via a T-bet, p-STAT1, and p-STAT3-dependent manner, but inhibited the production of IL-17 by a ROR-γt and p-STAT1-dependent way. (
  • Although IL-17 did not modulate the growth or survival of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, IL-17 interacted cooperatively with IFN-γ to enhance IL-6, CXCL8, and CXCL10 secretion. (
  • Th1 cells are characterized by production of the cytokine interferon-gamma, which has recently been described as having both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects, including a role in regulatory T-cell function. (
  • The aim of this study is to determine whether the regulatory role of T cell vaccination (TCV) is through inhibition of Th1/Th17/Tfh and production of autoantibodies on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). (
  • Increased level of both CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells and CD14+HLA-DR(-)/low myeloid-derived suppressor cells and decreased level of dendritic cells in patients with multiple myeloma. (
  • Moreover, p110delta is critical for Treg (regulatory T-cell) function. (
  • The implication of autophagy in human diseases and the need to understand its regulatory mechanisms in mammalian cells have stimulated research efforts that led to the development of high-throughput screening protocols and small-molecule modulators that can activate or inhibit autophagy. (
  • ICOS has also been linked to the function of regulatory T (T reg ) cells. (
  • The B cells that produce IL-10 (B10) have their regulatory function dependent on IL-4 production [15], an important Th2 pattern cytokine. (
  • We are also interested in determining if Ikaros regulates regulatory T cell development and function. (
  • Whereas airway-resident memory CD4 + T cells displayed a mixture of effector and regulatory phenotype, airway-resident memory CD8 + T cells displayed prototypical T RM features. (
  • One of the major factors complicating the selection of immune function parameters is the complexity of the immune system and the existence of regulatory networks, which tend to involve most defined cell populations and effector molecules in a complex set of interactions ( Figure 21-1 ) and are difficult to dissect into separate measurable units with well-defined rationales. (
  • In vivo switch to IL-10-secreting T regulatory cells in high dose allergen exposure. (
  • Suppression was not dependent on regulatory T cells, but was associated with increased inhibitory STAT1 to STAT4 expression levels in pathogenic AI4 T cells. (
  • A. M. Green , J. T. Mattila , C. L. Bigbee , K. S. Bongers , P. L. Lin and J. L. Flynn , CD4(+) regulatory T cells in a cynomolgus macaque model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, The Journal of Infectious Diseases , 202 (2010), 533-541. (
  • M. Kursar , M. Koch , H.-W. Mittrücker , G. Nouailles , K. Bonhagen , T. Kamradt and S. H. E. Kaufmann , Cutting Edge: Regulatory T cells prevent efficient clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Journal of Immunology , 178 (2007), 2661-2665. (
  • Here, we investigated frequencies of Th22, Th17, pure Th17, and Th1 cells in the peripheral blood (PB) of AML patients. (
  • IFN-g is produced by NK cells, dendritic cells, cytotoxic T cells, Progenitor Th0 cells and Th1 cells 1 . (
  • Adaptive immune system is mainly consists of B cells, CD8 + cytotoxic T cells as well as CD4 + helper T cells [ 32 ]. (
  • and inhibit NK cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, and IFN-γ production. (
  • Proteins from the TNF-R/TNF superfamily assemble in a C3 symmetry, forming hexavalent complexes that are important for transduction of intracellular cell signaling.Many groups have used antibodies directed against CD40 and CD40L as therapeutics, to either inhibit or activate the immune system. (
  • They believe that by giving patients drugs that inhibit TGF alongside conventional immunotherapy, they might remove the Treg cell blockade that halts the immune response to the growing tumor. (
  • Using in vitro assays, BMSCs have been shown to interact with immune effector cells either through direct contact or through the induction of paracrine immunomodulatory soluble factors, such as galectin-1, HO-1, HLA-G5, hepatocyte growth factor, IL-10, IDO, PGE 2 , and TGF-β1. (
  • Although CD4 + T cells that proliferate in vitro in response to HIV-1 antigens are mostly absent in untreated chronically infected subjects, an average of approximately 0.1% of peripheral blood CD4 + T cells capable of producing IFN-γ can be detected in most HIV-infected individuals by enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay or by intracellular cytokine assay. (
  • In addition, our data showed that exosomes derived from human lung cancer cell lines expressing miR-21a, also induced expansion of MDSCs in human CD14 + monocytes in vitro. (
  • For example, TNFα has been shown in vitro to drive the production of IL-17 by equipping DC with the ability to differentiate T cells toward a Th17 phenotype ( 11 ). (
  • Foxj1 suppressed NF-κB transcription activity in vitro, and Foxj1-deficient T cells possessed increased NF-κB activity in vivo, correlating with the ability of Foxj1 to regulate IκB proteins, particularly IκBβ. (
  • We developed a cell-transfer therapy based on these observations in which pre-sensitized tumor-specific effector cells were expanded in vitro and transplanted into autologous hosts ( 22 , 23 ). (
  • A novel in vitro model of mononuclear cells (MNCs) generated from haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) was developed and these cells were then co-cultured with various antigens from Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax to investigate the response of naïve immune cells to malaria antigens by flow cytometry. (
  • Resolving these limitations requires an alternative in vitro model such as newly produced immune cells to uncover primary response profiles. (
  • However, there is little information on the in vitro application of mononuclear cells (MNCs) derived from haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for research in this area. (
  • Furthermore, increased expression of chemokines in Th1- and Th17-treated astrocytes enhanced recruitment of microglia and transendothelial migration of Th17 cells in vitro. (
  • The detrimental versus beneficial effects of Th1 cells and Th2 cells both in vivo and in vitro reveal differential therapeutic target strategies for stroke treatment. (
  • Furthermore, IRBP specific Th1 cells polarized by in vitro IL-12 induced r-EAU. (
  • For 13 patients, predicted mutant peptides and proteins were evaluated for recognition by autologous peripheral blood T cells after in vitro priming. (
  • Environment and local intercellular influences are important not only in vivo but also fundamentally affect EC phenotype in vitro depending on sparse or confluent cell growth or the matrix on which the ECs are grown. (
  • Blimp-1 creates a favorable condition via Th1 suppression and Treg amplification. (
  • However, earlier research has shown that Treg cells reduce the anti-tumor response in lung cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. (
  • they modulate the response by producing TGF-beta, a protein with a range of roles that includes the promotion of Treg cells. (
  • Treg cell regulation reduces the immune response to stabilize the dynamics of the system. (
  • Both the expression of Id2 and Notch are required for the generation of α4β7 + RORγt − fetal progenitors, but Notch subsequently blocks progression to the RORγt + stage and final maturation of LTi cells. (
  • Maturation of T lymphocytes was affected differently, showing elevated CD3 + CD4 + CD8 + and CD3 + CD4 − CD8 − T lymphocytes after stimulation with cell lysates of P. falciparum and P. vivax , respectively. (
  • paratuberculosis by inducing maturation and activation of dendritic cells, which drives Th1 polarization. (
  • Of increasing interest is the potential roles that patterns of childhood infection and fetal growth and maturation might have in the inception of atopy. (
  • Upon maturation, these Th1 cells, as well as inflammatory CD8+ cells, both of which produce IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha/beta, play a dominant role in macrophage activation and pathogenesis of the inflammatory lesion (1,3,12-15). (
  • Levels of expression of CD45RC have also been reported to distinguish resting from activated T cells at various stages of maturation. (
  • The CD45 isoforms detected in the rat are cell type-, maturation-, and activation state-specific. (
  • But in late 2005 in the journal Nature Immunology , two research teams described cells that don't fit either of those categories and named them Th17. (
  • Indeed, crucial roles of the epigenetic machinery in establishment and maintenance of particular lineages during early development have been well documented. (
  • Cell fate determination, or lineage commitment, which is often initiated by exposure to developmental cues, accompanies both up-regulation of genes specific for one lineage and down-regulation of genes associated with other lineages. (
  • It is now clear that cellular microenvironments can phenotypically and functionally redirect a T cell population to different lineages ( O'Shea and Paul, 2010 ). (
  • Blimp-1 is expressed in multiple cell lineages and in particular, T cells. (
  • However, the functions of TGF-beta1 expressed by specific lineages of cells remain unknown in vivo. (
  • It is expressed almost exclusively in cells of the hematopoietic lineage and is required for normal development of all blood cell lineages. (
  • Lastly, the proliferation of type-II-collagen-(CII-) specific T cells and the production of anti-CII antibodies were inhibited in the TCV-treated group. (
  • mTOR regulates cell growth and proliferation in response to a wide range of cues, and its signaling pathway is deregulated in many human diseases. (
  • AI4 T cells only underwent vigorous intrasplenic proliferation in NOD. (
  • In addition, inhibition of Th1/Th17/Tfh frequencies led to the reduced expression of T-bet, ROR α , ROR γ t, and Bcl6. (
  • The results provide novel evidence that the therapeutic effects of TCV on CIA are associated with the inhibition of Th1/Th17/Tfh frequencies and autoantibodies production. (
  • Interestingly, IL-10 was not absolutely required for CD4 + CD25 + T cell-mediated inhibition of colitis induced by transfer of naive CD4 + CD45RB high cells, suggesting a differential requirement for IL-10 in the regulation of naive and Ag-experienced T cells. (
  • The results of gain-and loss-of-function experiments validated that PDCD4 function as a critical inhibitor to negatively regulate expansion of MDSCs via inhibition Il-6 production in bone marrow cells. (
  • Importantly, inhibition of IL-1 prevented TDIinduced increases in adhesion molecules required for recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lung. (
  • SciClone's proprietary drug candidate SCV-07 (gamma-D-glutamyl-L-tryptophan) is a synthetic peptide with proven immune stimulating effects, including stimulation of T-helper 1 cells (Th1) and inhibition of IL-6-dependent STAT3 signaling. (
  • Following STAT protein entering the nucleus of a T-helper cell, the cell differentiates into a less inflammatory T-helper 2 cells through downregulation of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and upregulation of interleukin 4(IL-4) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). (
  • The balance between Th1 and Th2 cytokine profiles is regulated mainly by interferon (IFN)-(Th1-related) and interleukin (IL)-4 (Th2-related) production. (
  • FAP also increased the production of gamma interferon by T cells in mixed-lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to the Th1 polarization of the immune response. (
  • TSLP-activated DCs promote CD4 + T cells to differentiate into inflammatory Th2 cells that produce interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) while downregulating IL-10 and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) ( 23 , 44 ). (
  • Type 1 diabetes development in the NOD mouse model is widely reported to be dependent on high-level production by autoreactive CD4 + and CD8 + T cells of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), generally considered a proinflammatory cytokine. (
  • Background- Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which interferon (IFN)-γ, the signature cytokine of Th1 cells, plays a central role. (
  • Interferon (IFN)-γ, the signature cytokine of Th1 cells, is present in coronary arteries of patients with atherosclerosis 2-4 and plays a nonredundant role in T cell-mediated injury and remodeling of human coronary arteries in vivo. (
  • However, the immune regulation between Th1 and Th17 cells remains unclear. (
  • The resident glial cells of the central nervous system participate in neuroinflammation initiation and regulation. (
  • This potentially pathogenic population of Ag-experienced T cells is subject to T cell-mediated regulation in vivo by both CD4 + CD25 + and CD4 + CD25 − cells in an IL-10-dependent manner. (
  • Here, we identify a role for one member of this family, Foxj1, in the regulation of T cell activation and autoreactivity. (
  • It plays a critical role in the function of follicular T helper cells, formation of germinal centers, regulation of Th2 cytokine production, T/B cell collaboration, and immunoglobulin class switching ( 19, 20 ). (
  • Center investigators explore research areas, including the normal function, signaling processes, gene regulation, and epigenetics related to the activation and function of immune cells. (
  • In contrast, IL4/IL10-producing T cells are hypothesized to play a role in down-regulation of the inflammatory response (1,3,16). (
  • It signals through the same cell surface receptor (IL-20R) that is used by IL-20 and IL-24. (
  • As each B and T lymphocyte contains a unique antigenic receptor, it allows for a large and diverse population of cells capable of recognizing a wide spectrum of pathogens. (
  • The Notch receptor is a transmembrane protein that, like Ikaros, plays an important role in T cell development in the thymus. (
  • Histamine receptor 2 up-regulated on specific Th2 cells displays a dual effect by directly suppressing allergen-stimulated T cells and increasing IL-10 production. (
  • CCR4 is a chemokine receptor and is preferentially expressed on type 2 helper T (Th2-type) cells. (
  • This indicates that, unless an undiscovered second ligand for CD40 exists, T cells are capable of driving the inflammatory process by CD40-independent receptor:ligand and/or cytokine signaling. (
  • The nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors-α and γt (RORα and RORγt) play critical roles in the development of TH17 cells and ROR-specific synthetic ligands have proven efficacy in several mouse models of autoimmunity. (
  • CD8 + T cells transgenically expressing the diabetogenic AI4 T-cell receptor adoptively transferred disease to otherwise unmanipulated NOD. (
  • Many of these exposures include ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a transcription factor expressed by immune and nonimmune cells. (
  • Oliveira M, Lira A, Sgnotto F, Inoue A, Duarte A, Victor J. Preconception immunization can modulate intracellular Th2 cytokine profile in offspring: in vivo influence of interleukin 10 and B/T cell collaboration. (
  • Several distinct innate lymphoid cell (ILC) populations have been recently identified and shown to play a critical role in the immediate immune defense. (
  • Micronutrient deficiency suppresses immune functions by affecting the innate T-cell-mediated immune response and adaptive antibody response, and leads to dysregulation of the balanced host response. (
  • The innate response relies on immediate recognition of antigenic structures common to many microbes by a selected set of immune cells with rapid effector function [Hoffman et al. (
  • On the other hand, the innate immune response, which includes phagocytic cells, antimicrobial peptides, and the complement system, has been viewed to be primarily involved in the initial defense against infection. (
  • Both innate and adaptive immune systems play important roles in anticancer immune response (Figure 2 ) [ 29 , 30 ]. (
  • 8 ] described that virus-induced IFN-α and IFN-β are potent inducers of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and that NK cells are important contributors to innate defense against viral infections. (
  • These factors are crucial for the recruitment to the developing lymphoid tissue of CCR7 + and CXCR5 + LTi cells, and later, of lymphocytes and DCs. (
  • A study in 2004 by Bisset and colleagues [ 3 ] supported this theory, and showed that less than half CD4 + cells, and less than a quarter CD8 + T lymphocytes in the peripheral blood remained naïve. (
  • Interestingly, many members are expressed throughout lymphoid tissues and by different immune cells like lymphocytes, NK, monocytes and dendritic cells. (
  • Specialized white blood cells called Th1 lymphocytes assault infected cells throughout your body. (
  • Activated lymphocytes and NK cells are designed to protect the host from invasion of pathogens and tumor cells. (
  • Antibody synthesis is a property of plasma cells that emerges after the antigenic stimulation of B-lymphocytes. (
  • This can be achieved by (1) activating the intrinsic antimicrobial mechanisms of the infected cells and (2) causing the death of the infected cells (cytotoxicity, mediated primarily by CD8+ lymphocytes and natural killer [NK] cells) (Virella, 1993b). (
  • harbouring vast numbers of lymphocytes, able to instigate secondary lymphoid organ-independent naive T cell activation, and promoting potent immune tolerance. (
  • Collectively, these results indicate that rather than marking the most proinflammatory lymphocytes in diabetes development, IFN-γ production could represent an attempted limitation of pathogenic CD8 + T-cell activation. (
  • More recently, a new lineage of IL-17-producing effector CD4 + T lymphocytes, called Th17 cells, has been described. (
  • Mechanistically, Th17 cells can directly protect infected cells through the IL-17A-dependent induction of NADPH oxidase, involved in the phagocyte respiratory burst response, and provide indirect help through IL-21-dependent activation of CD8+ T cells. (
  • Induction of memory T cells has been shown to be essential for protective TB vaccines. (
  • antibody blockade of CD40:CD40L interactions completely blocks T cell contact-induction of CD80 expression (25). (
  • TNF blockade using TNFR-Fc fusion protein or anti-TNF monoclonal antibody reduced arthritis severity but, unexpectedly, expanded populations of Th1 and Th17 cells, which were shown by adoptive transfer to be pathogenic. (
  • Vitamins A and D play important roles in both cell-mediated and humoral antibody response and support a Th2-mediated anti-inflammatory cytokine profile. (
  • For example, classically, the effector mechanisms of the immune system are subdivided into two arms, antibody mediated and cell mediated. (
  • Studies showed that T helper 1 (Th1), Th2, and Th17 cells play important roles in the pathology of TAO. (
  • In this study immunophenotyping of the activated immune cells were performed to determine the activation of subpopulations in human PBMC, especially CD56 and CD16 immune cells, such as NK cells which play important roles in cell-killing mechanisms. (
  • Kamran N, Chandran M, Lowenstein PR, Castro MG. Immature myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment: implications for immunotherapy. (
  • Increased circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells correlate with clinical cancer stage, metastatic tumor burden, and doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy. (
  • However, the mechanisms underlying effector T-cell trafficking to the tumor microenvironment remain poorly understood in patients with colon cancer. (
  • Recent studies have shown that leukemic cells suppress the host immune system with tumor progression connected to immune cells dysfunction [ 4 , 5 ]. (
  • Livin is specifically expressed by the majority of tumor cells, but it is not expressed in normal adult tissues. (
  • The acquisition of resistance to apoptosis and the ability to escape from immunological surveillance are the hallmarks of tumor cells ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • In contrast to other members of the IAP family, such as cIAP-1, cIAP-2, XIAP and NAIP, which are expressed at low levels in normal adult tissues, livin is not expressed in normal adult tissues but is overexpressed in primary lung cancer and other malignant tumor cells ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • A new study investigates how the immune response to tumor cells may be tweaked to improve survival rates. (
  • Precisely those Th1 cells with Tbet that are responsible for anti-tumor immune defense are the ones that are switched off," as Dr. Finotto explains. (
  • They demonstrated that TALENs applied directly to the cervix reduce viral DNA load, trigger reexpression of tumor suppressor genes, and reverse the malignant phenotype of infected cells. (
  • We observed a marked increase in the frequency of T cells expressing inducible costimulator (ICOS) in both tumor tissues and blood of treated patients ( 15, 16 ). (
  • We have focused our studies on defining the role of Ikaros in T cell development and function as well as on how Ikaros acts as a tumor suppressor. (
  • We have shown that Ikaros is required for transcriptional repression of Notch target genes in developing thymocytes and leukemia cells, and hypothesized that this may contribute to Ikaros' mechanistic role as a tumor suppressor. (
  • While many of these therapies have offered substantial benefit for eradication of primary tumors, the incidence of disease relapse is still a commonly encountered problem that results from residual malignant cells and/or tumor metastases [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • Therefore, alternative treatment approaches to eliminate the resistant tumor cells are warranted [ 5 ]. (
  • Based on the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay, activated human PBMC showed high cytolytic efficiency towards human breast tumor cells. (
  • In addition to its adverse effects on avian species, NDV has been discovered to have oncolytic effects on human tumor cells [ 4 ]. (
  • Recruitment of effector cells is directed by cell-cell interactions that result in the production of chemokines and adhesion molecules ( 13 ). (
  • We found that PRC2 components and demethylase JMJD3-mediated histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) repress the expression and subsequent production of Th1-type chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10, mediators of effector T-cell trafficking. (
  • Moreover, the expression levels of PRC2 components, including EZH2, SUZ12, and EED, were inversely associated with those of CD4, CD8, and Th1-type chemokines in human colon cancer tissue, and this expression pattern was significantly associated with patient survival. (
  • As a consequence, activated stromal cells up-regulate the expression of the adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and the structural chemokines CCL21, CCL19, and CXCL13. (
  • Chemokines also play fundamental roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of the immune system, and they have effects on cells of the central nervous system as well as on endothelial cells involved in angiogenesis or angiostasis. (
  • In addition to IL-17, Th17 cells produce IL-17F, IL-22, IL-26, TNFα and various chemokines [ 25 - 27 ], which act in concert to mediate the pro-inflammatory effects of this population. (
  • Our results show that these uniquely programmed effector CD4 + T cells have a distinctive phenotype with increased tumoricidal capability and support the use of immune modulation in reprogramming the phenotype of CD4 + T cells. (
  • In comparison to subcutaneous vaccination, intratracheal and intranasal BCG vaccination generated T effector memory and T RM cells in the lung, as defined by surface marker phenotype. (
  • This phenotype mimicked the similar hepatic CD4+ CD69INT cells that we discovered in liver tissue. (
  • It was long known that IL-17 is produced almost exclusively by T cells, especially the CD4+ effector memory phenotype [ 4 ]. (
  • First, CD122 blockade selectively ablates pathogenic NK cells and memory phenotype CD8 + T cells from pancreatic islets. (
  • To date, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been used mainly in immune stimulation assays and the interpretation of data can be influenced by the previous immunological history of donors and cross reactivity with other infectious agents. (
  • In investigating the mechanisms of this improved activity, we found that 4‴-dh-iGb3 stimulation increased STAT1 signaling by NKT cells, whereas the phosphorylation of Th2 type cytokine-associated transcription factor STAT6 signaling was not affected. (
  • These results suggest that the antiviral response to HIV-1 infection includes highly activated CCR5 + CD4 + cytotoxic effector cells, which are susceptible to both apoptosis and cytopathic infection with HIV-1, and rapidly decline. (
  • 1 It remains unknown whether the scarcity of proliferative HIV-specific CD4 + T cells is due to dysfunction, 2 , 3 inappropriate apoptosis, 4 or is a result of cytopathic infection of these cells. (
  • 6 , 7 In particular, it is believed that effective CD8 + T-cell function in HIV-1 infection is reliant on CD4 + T-cell function. (
  • Their cells swoop in like clockwork to eliminate invading pathogens, but the cells never seem to get the message to stop-even when the infection is gone. (
  • Human CD4+ T cells are heterogeneous in terms of permissiveness to infection by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). (
  • Our results add weight to the contribution of CD4+T cells in disease control after HTNV infection in humans, which may greatly advance the understanding about how HTNV interact with their host organisms. (
  • When the former, Th1 predominates, your body is in better condition to fight infection whereas when Th2 predominates, you are less prepared to fight infection and more apt to allergies. (
  • We addressed the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) in protection against AIDS in nonpathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVagm) infection in African green monkeys (AGMs). (
  • An immunologic activation set point is established early after HIV-1 infection, and this set point is predictive of the rate at which CD4 + T cells are lost over time ( 11 , 49 ). (
  • But the hygiene hypothesis suggests that the Th1 system grows stronger only through fighting infection or encounters with harmless microbes. (
  • 5 ] showed that activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exerted a cytotoxic effect on melanoma, colon cancer and breast carcinoma, upon influenza A virus infection. (
  • These preliminary findings with CD4 indicate a correlation between dominant Th1 response and disease activity and progression suggesting a possible role of intrahepatic CD4 T cells in hepatic injury of HCV infection. (
  • In addition the findings of CCR5, IL1B and its significant correlation with RANTES suggests their possible roles in the immune response to HCV infection in and around the portal area by attracting naïve and active T-cells. (
  • Naïve CD4 T cells activated in the presence of IL-12 become Th1 type effector CD4 T cells and play a key role in eliminating intracellular pathogens and viruses. (
  • We aim to understand the role played by intracellular signalling pathways on the relationship between Dendritic Cells (DC) and T-cells. (
  • Th17 Cells Are More Protective Than Th1 Cells Against the Intracellular Parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. (
  • However, Th17 cells are not believed to have a significant function against intracellular infections. (
  • In contrast to this paradigm, we have discovered that Th17 cells provide robust protection against Trypanosoma cruzi, the intracellular protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. (
  • The central goal of Dr. Kemper's research is to define the functional roles and regulative mechanisms of intracellular/autocrine complement and assess their biological relevance with an eye on identifying new therapeutic targets for autoimmune diseases. (
  • Isotype switching in B cells to IgG is also enhanced by IFN-g, presumably because IgG activates the compliment system and apsonizes extracellular pathogens resulting in their uptake by phagocytic cells 8,10 . (
  • 1,5,7,12 This sensing of damaged cells or pathogens allows DCs to carry out their sentinel-like functions to maintain the body's integrity. (
  • Immune neutralization of the CD40 ligand (CD154) at the time of challenge significantly reduced accumulation of Th1 effectors and injury. (
  • Previously, we have shown that only Th1 but not Th17 effectors activate microglia. (
  • However, it is not clear which cells are targets of Th17 effectors in the CNS. (
  • Effectors of Th1 act on both microglia and astrocytes whereas Th17 effectors preferentially target astrocytes to promote neuroinflammation. (
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that interleukin-27 (IL-27)/WSX-1 exerted pro- or anti-inflammatory effects in many acute inflammatory diseases by modulating T cell-mediated immune response, but little was known about its role in chronic inflammatory disease, especially in smoking-related lung diseases. (
  • Su Z, Ni P, Zhou C, Wang J. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in cancers and inflammatory diseases: angel or demon? (
  • B cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) is a transcription factor selectively expressed by Tfh cells and is regulated by IL-21 and IL-6. (
  • The AHR is an environment-sensing transcription factor in the Per-Arnt-Sim protein superfamily that is broadly expressed in immune and nonimmune cells, including cells of the lung ( 16 ). (
  • Moreover, FAP induced the allogeneic immunostimulatory capacity of dendritic cells by stimulating dendritic cell production of Th1-promoting interleukin-12. (
  • In addition, typical H. pylori -induced chronic gastritis in children, called follicular gastritis, is characterized by B-cell follicle formation in the gastric mucosa. (
  • These results, together with the finding that TSLP was expressed by the epithelial cells of human follicular gastritis, suggest that H. pylori can directly trigger epithelial cells to produce TSLP. (
  • Patients with follicular lymphoma harbor rare yet functionally competent CD8 + T cells specific for recurrent mutations. (
  • In the last decade, it has become clearer that epigenetic mechanisms play major roles in both activation and repression processes. (
  • IFN-γ-producing CD4 + T (Th1) cells and IL-17-producing CD4 + T (Th17) cells play a critical role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (
  • Each makes proteins that play specific roles in guiding an immune response. (
  • IFN-γ and IFN-γ-inducible genes play indispensable roles the Th1-mediated cross-presentation. (
  • In the thymus, p110delta and p110gamma play complementary roles in regulating the transition through key developmental checkpoints. (
  • Although bacteria play indispensable roles in the initiation of the disease, the subsequent progression and severity of the disease are strongly influenced by the host immune response. (
  • Emerging evidence supports the notion that the IL-17 producing T cells (Th17 cells) play an important role in the inflammatory response of autoimmune diseases. (
  • We wished to determine whether eye-infiltrating autoreactive T cells differ between monophasic and relapsing uveitis, and whether Th1 and Th17 autoreactive T cells play distinctive roles in monophasic versus recurrent uveitis. (
  • The present review discusses the main biological properties of WJ-MSCs pertinent to their potential application for the treatment of COPD in the context of COPD pathomechanisms with emphasis on chronic immune inflammatory processes that play key roles in the development and progression of COPD. (
  • Additionally, STAT transcription factors play significant roles in a series of biological processes that are particularly relevant to oral mucositis. (
  • T-cells and STAT transcription factors play significant functional roles in a range of biological processes that are particularly relevant to oral mucositis as a clinical indication for SCV-07. (
  • Subsequently, the differentiating Tfh cells migrate into B cell follicles and further differentiate into GC-Tfh cells to direct generation of GC B cells. (
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analyzed by flow cytometry at metastatic diagnosis and after 3-months of treatment. (
  • In this study, the immunomodulatory effects of low titers of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) AF2240 on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were analyzed. (
  • The systemic cytokine profiles of 36 CDI patients (20 with severe disease) and 8 healthy donors and the toxin-induced cytokine profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were determined. (
  • Our study on the tissue and cellular distributions of peripheral AIRE showed that AIRE was expressed in peripheral immune organs (spleen and lymph nodes), reproductive organs (testis and ovary), bone marrow-induced DCs, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and spleen DCs [8]. (
  • it was also detected in the bone marrow, peripheral blood cells, and ovaries [9]. (
  • Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been used as a model to demonstrate the role of the immune system in cancer, notably to establish the prognostic role of memory T cell infiltration and Th17 predominance ( 1 ). (
  • These immune system workhorses come in two forms dubbed Th1 and Th2. (
  • Gabrilovich DI, Nagaraj S. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as regulators of the immune system. (
  • Now, scientists believe controlling a newly discovered cell in the immune system called T helper cell 17 (Th17) may be the missing piece needed to solve the complex autoimmunity puzzle. (
  • T helper cells are the military generals of the immune system: They don't actually kill the enemy, but they coordinate the attack. (
  • Your immune system plays two main protective roles. (
  • At birth, an infant's immune system appears to rely primarily on the Th2 system while the Th1 system grows stronger. (
  • Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is an important transcriptional regulator that is mainly expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) in the central immune system. (
  • T cell vaccination (TCV) has been reported to be effective in many autoimmune diseases, including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and experimental arthritis [ 2 - 4 ]. (
  • The battle against autoimmune disorders may come down to a newly discovered cell. (
  • She analyzed blood samples of etanercept users to find out, expecting a reduction in the amount of Th1, which had previously been linked to autoimmune disease. (
  • IL-17, the main effector cytokine of Th17 cells, is responsible for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • It has been reported that α-GalCer exhibits multiple immunotherapy roles in autoimmune diseases, cancer, atherosclerosis, and infectious diseases ( 6-8 ). (
  • The autoimmune nature of diabetes and the major contribution of lymphocyte T-cells are well established. (
  • It is now clear that Th17 cells are essential mediators of pathology in numerous autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), Crohn's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), among others. (
  • The pathogenic and immunoregulatory function of single positive and double positive autoreactive T cells remain to be further investigated. (
  • Thus, it is possible that Notch plays a role in the early steps of specification of the LTi cell lineage. (
  • In the absence of Ikaros, T cells are unable to develop into the Th2 lineage, but rather default to the Th1 lineage. (
  • The Pai laboratory focuses on the study of disorders of human T and B cell development and function, and treatment of these disorders by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation and gene therapy. (
  • She evaluates patients with primary immunodeficiency for curative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation as Treatment for Patients with DOCK8 Deficiency. (
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease with malignant clone of hematopoietic stem cells, characterized by the accumulation of considerable immature myeloblasts in bone marrow. (
  • The fetal development of secondary lymphoid tissue is reminiscent of the inflammatory process and is initiated by the interaction of hematopoietic lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells with stromal lymphoid tissue organizers ( Mebius, 2003 ). (
  • Certain glycolipid antigens for natural killer T (NKT) cells can direct the overall cytokine balance of the immune response. (
  • Mature DCs have advanced capabilities to process and present antigens in the context of self-MHC antigens to naïve CD4 + or CD8 + T cells. (
  • Through downregulation of this factor, fewer adhesion molecules are translated and expressed in the endothelial cell lined up in blood vessels. (
  • A successful immune response to a cancer cell depends on a huge number of signaling molecules working in synchrony. (
  • Maturing DCs then migrate into the lymphoid organs, where they activate naïve T cells by stimulating antigenic peptide-presenting major histocompatibility complex (MHC) type I and II receptors and their costimulatory molecules ( 27 ). (
  • In humans, an epithelial-cell-derived cytokine, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), activates CD11c + myeloid dendritic cells (DCs), and activated DCs strongly upregulate the expression of costimulatory molecules, such as CD80 and CD86 ( 23 , 38 , 43 , 44 ). (
  • Identified immunoregulatory roles for signalling pathways including ATM-kinase, MEK-ERK and p38-MK2 MAPK in DC. (
  • However, other evidence indicates IFN-γ can exert nonredundant immunoregulatory roles suppressing at least some components of diabetes development. (
  • Differential roles of microglia and monocytes in the inflammed central nervous system. (
  • Soluble CD100 functions on human monocytes and immature dendritic cells require plexin C1 and plexin B1, respectively. (
  • However, other non-T cells, particularly APCs, also express receptors for the factors and are capable of responding to them. (
  • She found that these NG2+ cells, which go on to form oligodendrocytes later in development, have a unique early expression of voltage gated sodium channels, ionotropic glutamate receptors, and they form synapses with glutamatergic neurons. (
  • She further found that these cells exhibited low amplitude spikes, but not action potentials and that later in their development, this spiking ability was lost as well as their synaptic input and glutamate receptors. (
  • For this purpose, immune semaphorins can signal via their canonical plexin receptors but also possibly by unique discrete cell surface proteins or associations thereof expressed by, and critical to, leukocytes. (
  • In contrast to other chemokine receptors, the expression of CCR4 and CCR8 on Th2 cells is transiently increased following TCR and CD28 engagement. (
  • Six IL-17-family ligands in mammalian cells and one virally-encoded ligand have been described, and five related receptors have been identified ( Table 1 ). (
  • Although H. pylori -induced chronic atrophic gastritis is characterized by marked infiltration of T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokine-producing CD4 + T cells, almost all of the inflamed gastric mucosae also contain focal lymphoid aggregates with germinal centers. (
  • Disease severity was evaluated by microscopy and histology and eye infiltrated cells analyzed by flow cytometry. (
  • Immature DCs arise from progenitor cells in the bone marrow and migrate to practically all lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues throughout the body, including the skin, lungs and intestines. (
  • A growing body of evidence suggests the contribution of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells, monocytic cells, and mature endothelial cells to vessel formation and endothelial rejuvenation. (
  • However, the definition and biology, especially of endothelial progenitor cells, is complex and under heavy debate. (
  • In this review, we focus on current definitions of endothelial progenitor cells, highlight the clinical relevance of endothelial-regenerating cells, and provide new insights into cell-cell interactions involved in endothelial cell rejuvenation. (
  • 2-6 The depiction of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in adults has substantially extended hypotheses about postnatal endothelial biology. (