Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Actin Depolymerizing Factors: A family of low MOLECULAR WEIGHT actin-binding proteins found throughout eukaryotes. They remodel the actin CYTOSKELETON by severing ACTIN FILAMENTS and increasing the rate of monomer dissociation.Actin Capping Proteins: Actin capping proteins are cytoskeletal proteins that bind to the ends of ACTIN FILAMENTS to regulate actin polymerization.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Cytochalasin D: A fungal metabolite that blocks cytoplasmic cleavage by blocking formation of contractile microfilament structures resulting in multinucleated cell formation, reversible inhibition of cell movement, and the induction of cellular extrusion. Additional reported effects include the inhibition of actin polymerization, DNA synthesis, sperm motility, glucose transport, thyroid secretion, and growth hormone release.Myosins: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic: A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex: A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.Contractile Proteins: Proteins which participate in contractile processes. They include MUSCLE PROTEINS as well as those found in other cells and tissues. In the latter, these proteins participate in localized contractile events in the cytoplasm, in motile activity, and in cell aggregation phenomena.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Actin-Related Protein 2: A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.Actin-Related Protein 3: A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Actomyosin: A protein complex of actin and MYOSINS occurring in muscle. It is the essential contractile substance of muscle.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Actinin: A protein factor that regulates the length of R-actin. It is chemically similar, but immunochemically distinguishable from actin.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein, Neuronal: A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein: WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.rho GTP-Binding Proteins: A large family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are involved in regulation of actin organization, gene expression and cell cycle progression. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cytochalasins: 11- to 14-membered macrocyclic lactones with a fused isoindolone. Members with INDOLES attached at the C10 position are called chaetoglobosins. They are produced by various fungi. Some members interact with ACTIN and inhibit CYTOKINESIS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein: A member of the Rho family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. It is associated with a diverse array of cellular functions including cytoskeletal changes, filopodia formation and transport through the GOLGI APPARATUS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Myosin Type II: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Filamins: A family of crosslinking filament proteins encoded by distinct FLN genes. Filamins are involved in cell adhesion, spreading, and migration, acting as scaffolds for over 90 binding partners including channels, receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and transcription factors. Due to the range of molecular interactions, mutations in FLN genes result in anomalies with moderate to lethal consequences.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein Family: A family of microfilament proteins whose name derives from the fact that mutations in members of this protein family have been associated with WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME. They are involved in ACTIN polymerization and contain a polyproline-rich region that binds to PROFILIN, and a verprolin homology domain that binds G-ACTIN.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.rhoA GTP-Binding Protein: A RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating signal transduction pathways that control assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Calmodulin-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind calmodulin. They are found in many tissues and have a variety of functions including F-actin cross-linking properties, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and calcium and magnesium ATPases.rac1 GTP-Binding Protein: A rac GTP-binding protein involved in regulating actin filaments at the plasma membrane. It controls the development of filopodia and lamellipodia in cells and thereby influences cellular motility and adhesion. It is also involved in activation of NADPH OXIDASE. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.rac GTP-Binding Proteins: A sub-family of RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that is involved in regulating the organization of cytoskeletal filaments. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cytochalasin B: A cytotoxic member of the CYTOCHALASINS.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Myosin Type I: A subclass of myosins found generally associated with actin-rich membrane structures such as filopodia. Members of the myosin type I family are ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes. The heavy chains of myosin type I lack coiled-coil forming sequences in their tails and therefore do not dimerize.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Myosin Type V: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Tropomodulin: An actin capping protein that binds to the pointed-end of ACTIN. It functions in the presence of TROPOMYOSIN to inhibit microfilament elongation.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Thiazolesrho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Amoeba: A genus of ameboid protozoa. Characteristics include a vesicular nucleus and the formation of several lodopodia, one of which is dominant at a given time. Reproduction occurs asexually by binary fission.Ca(2+) Mg(2+)-ATPaseModels, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).PhosphoproteinsElectrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.GizzardRhodamines: A family of 3,6-di(substituted-amino)-9-benzoate derivatives of xanthene that are used as dyes and as indicators for various metals; also used as fluorescent tracers in histochemistry.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Zyxin: A zinc-binding phosphoprotein that concentrates at focal adhesions and along the actin cytoskeleton. Zyxin has an N-terminal proline-rich domain and three LIM domains in its C-terminal half.Cytoplasmic Streaming: The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Myosin Light Chains: The smaller subunits of MYOSINS that bind near the head groups of MYOSIN HEAVY CHAINS. The myosin light chains have a molecular weight of about 20 KDa and there are usually one essential and one regulatory pair of light chains associated with each heavy chain. Many myosin light chains that bind calcium are considered "calmodulin-like" proteins.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Spectrin: A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Intercellular Junctions: Direct contact of a cell with a neighboring cell. Most such junctions are too small to be resolved by light microscopy, but they can be visualized by conventional or freeze-fracture electron microscopy, both of which show that the interacting CELL MEMBRANE and often the underlying CYTOPLASM and the intervening EXTRACELLULAR SPACE are highly specialized in these regions. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p792)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesFluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Time-Lapse Imaging: Recording serial images of a process at regular intervals spaced out over a longer period of time than the time in which the recordings will be played back.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Acanthamoeba: A genus of free-living soil amoebae that produces no flagellate stage. Its organisms are pathogens for several infections in humans and have been found in the eye, bone, brain, and respiratory tract.Nerve Tissue ProteinsADP Ribose Transferases: Enzymes that transfer the ADP-RIBOSE group of NAD or NADP to proteins or other small molecules. Transfer of ADP-ribose to water (i.e., hydrolysis) is catalyzed by the NADASES. The mono(ADP-ribose)transferases transfer a single ADP-ribose. POLY(ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASES transfer multiple units of ADP-ribose to protein targets, building POLY ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE RIBOSE in linear or branched chains.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Adherens Junctions: Anchoring points where the CYTOSKELETON of neighboring cells are connected to each other. They are composed of specialized areas of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON attach to the membrane through the transmembrane linkers, CADHERINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to cadherins in the neighboring cell membranes. In sheets of cells, they form into adhesion belts (zonula adherens) that go all the way around a cell.Marine Toxins: Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Heterocyclic Compounds with 4 or More Rings: A class of organic compounds containing four or more ring structures, one of which is made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The heterocycle may be either aromatic or nonaromatic.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome: A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by ECZEMA; LYMPHOPENIA; and, recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.Vimentin: An intermediate filament protein found in most differentiating cells, in cells grown in tissue culture, and in certain fully differentiated cells. Its insolubility suggests that it serves a structural function in the cytoplasm. MW 52,000.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Pyrenes: A group of condensed ring hydrocarbons.Growth Cones: Bulbous enlargement of the growing tip of nerve axons and dendrites. They are crucial to neuronal development because of their pathfinding ability and their role in synaptogenesis.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Nonmuscle Myosin Type IIA: A nonmuscle isoform of myosin type II found predominantly in platelets, lymphocytes, neutrophils and brush border enterocytes.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Membrane Structures: Structures which are part of the CELL MEMBRANE or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.GTP Phosphohydrolases: Enzymes that hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Fetal Proteins: Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)rhoB GTP-Binding Protein: A GTP-BINDING PROTEIN involved in regulating a signal transduction pathway that controls assembly of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.GTPase-Activating Proteins: Proteins that activate the GTPase of specific GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Phosphatidylinositol Phosphates: Phosphatidylinositols in which one or more alcohol group of the inositol has been substituted with a phosphate group.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Ethyldimethylaminopropyl Carbodiimide: Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.alpha Catenin: A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Myofibroblasts: Spindle-shaped cells with characteristic CONTRACTILE PROTEINS and structures that contribute to the WOUND HEALING process. They occur in GRANULATION TISSUE and also in pathological processes such as FIBROSIS.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Lilium: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE generally growing in temperate areas. The word lily is also used in the common names of many plants of other genera that resemble true lilies. True lilies are erect perennial plants with leafy stems, scaly bulbs, usually narrow leaves, and solitary or clustered flowers.
Actins have a variety of roles in synaptic functioning. In pre-synaptic neurons, actins are involved in synaptic vesicle ... Fatemi, S. Hossein (2008). Reelin Glycoprotein: Structure, Biology and Roles in Health and Disease. Molecular Psychiatry. 10. ... PSD-95 localizes the actin-remodeling GTPases, Rac and Rho, to synapses through the binding of its PDZ domain to kalirin, ... increasing the number and size of spines.[61] Thus, BDNF-induced trafficking of PSD-95 to dendrites stimulates actin remodeling ...
Actins have a variety of roles in synaptic functioning. In pre-synaptic neurons, actins are involved in synaptic vesicle ... PSD-95 localizes the actin-remodeling GTPases, Rac and Rho, to synapses through the binding of its PDZ domain to kalirin, ... Thus, BDNF-induced trafficking of PSD-95 to dendrites stimulates actin remodeling and causes dendritic growth in response to ... Adducins are membrane-skeletal proteins that cap the growing ends of actin filaments and promote their association with ...
May 1979). "Roles of actin during sporocarp culmination in the simple mycetozoan Planoprotostelium aurantium". Proceedings of ...
Anillin specifically binds F-actin, rather than G-actin. Binding of F-actin by anillin only occurs during cell division. ... doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2007.11.068 Piekny, A. J., & Maddox, A. S. (2010). The myriad roles of Anillin during cytokinesis. Semin ... Anillin is also bundles actin filaments together. Amino acids 258-340 are sufficient and necessary for F-actin binding in ... At the N-terminus, there is an actin- and myosin-binding domain. At the C-terminus, there is a PH domain. The PH domain is ...
ASD1 is required for targeting actin, while ASD2 is capable of eliciting an actomyosin based constriction event. ASD2 is the ... Despite their diverse biological roles, Shroom family proteins share a common activity. Since the locus encoding human SHROOM2 ... Hildebrand JD, Soriano P (November 1999). "Shroom, a PDZ domain-containing actin-binding protein, is required for neural tube ... Dietz ML, Bernaciak TM, Vendetti F, Kielec JM, Hildebrand JD (July 2006). "Differential actin-dependent localization modulates ...
"Dual roles of myocardin-related transcription factors in epithelial mesenchymal transition via slug induction and actin ... "Emerging roles of the myocardin family of proteins in lipid and glucose metabolism". J Physiol. 594 (17): 4741-4752. doi: ...
... actin binding LIM protein family, member 3". Krupp M, Weinmann A, Galle PR, Teufel A (Jan 2006). "Actin binding LIM ... LIM domain proteins, such as ABLIM3, play roles in embryonic development, cell lineage determination, and cancer. An important ... Actin-binding LIM protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABLIM3 gene. The LIM domain is a double zinc finger ... Krupp M, Weinmann A, Galle PR, Teufel A (Jan 2006). "Actin binding LIM protein 3 (abLIM3)". International Journal of Molecular ...
Alpha-actinin is an actin-binding protein with multiple roles in different cell types. This gene expression is limited to ... Actin filaments are stabilized by actin binding proteins known as actinins of which there are two main types, type 2 and type 3 ... Alpha-actinin-3, also known as alpha-actinin skeletal muscle isoform 3 or F-actin cross-linking protein, is a protein that in ... It is localized to the Z-disc and analogous dense bodies, where it helps to anchor the myofibrillar actin filaments. Skeletal ...
Alpha actinin is an actin-binding protein with multiple roles in different cell types. In nonmuscle cells, the cytoskeletal ... Hazan RB, Norton L (1998). "The epidermal growth factor receptor modulates the interaction of E-cadherin with the actin ... reorganization during adhesion and relation to the actin network". J. Cell Sci. 101 (2): 403-14. PMID 1629252. Tokuue Y, Goto S ... binds to alpha-actinin-1 and associates with actin filaments and stress fibers in activated platelets and endothelial cells". ...
Alpha actinin is an actin-binding protein with multiple roles in different cell types. In nonmuscle cells, the cytoskeletal ... 2002). "Binding of gelsolin domain 2 to actin. An actin interface distinct from that of gelsolin domain 1 and from ADF/cofilin ... 2002). "Each actin subunit has three nebulin binding sites: implications for steric blocking". Curr. Biol. 12 (5): 383-8. doi: ... 2000). "The amino-terminal domain of the B subunit of vacuolar H+-ATPase contains a filamentous actin binding site". J. Biol. ...
Proteins can have structural and/or functional roles. For instance, movements of the proteins actin and myosin ultimately are ... This picture, however, is undergoing revision in light of emerging novel roles for RNA. Chemical biology seeks to develop new ... Rayner-Canham, Marelene F.; Rayner-Canham, Marelene; Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey (2005). Women in Chemistry: Their Changing Roles ... as well as play important roles in cell to cell interactions and communications. The simplest type of carbohydrate is a ...
It seems to be a paradox that FAK is not absolutely required for cell migration, and may play other roles in the cell, ... Sada K, Minami Y, Yamamura H (September 1997). "Relocation of Syk protein-tyrosine kinase to the actin filament network and ... This 4.1 band domain binds to the cytoplasmic region of transmembrane proteins including glycophorin C, actin and spectrin. ... This cytosolic kinase has been implicated in diverse cellular roles including cell locomotion, mitogen response and cell ...
Coronin, actin binding protein, 2A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CORO2A gene. This gene encodes a member of the ... the roles of HDAC3, TBL1 and TBLR1". The EMBO Journal. 22 (6): 1336-46. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdg120. PMC 151047 . PMID 12628926. ... This protein contains 5 WD repeats, and has a structural similarity with actin-binding proteins: the D. discoideum coronin and ... actin binding protein, 2A". Retrieved 2012-01-03. Human CORO2A genome location and CORO2A gene details page in the UCSC Genome ...
Through the interaction of β-catenin and α-catenin, actin and E-cadherin are linked, providing the cell with a means of stable ... Catenins play roles in cellular organization and polarity long before the development and incorporation of Wnt signaling ... A-catenin can bind to β-catenin and can also bind actin. B-catenin binds the cytoplasmic domain of some cadherins. Additional ... Fukunaga Y, Liu H, Shimizu M, Komiya S, Kawasuji M, Nagafuchi A (2005). "Defining the roles of β-catenin and plakoglobin in ...
Kinetoplastids are capable of forming actin microfilaments but their role in the cytoskeleton is not clear. Other cytoskeletal ... Other microtubules with more specialised roles, such as the rootlet microtubules, are also present. ...
Actin binding LIM protein 1, also known as ABLIM1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ABLIM1 gene. This gene ... LIM domains, found in over 60 proteins, play key roles in the regulation of developmental pathways. LIM domains also function ... Roof DJ, Hayes A, Adamian M, Chishti AH, Li T (August 1997). "Molecular characterization of abLIM, a novel actin-binding and ... Kim AC, Peters LL, Knoll JH, Van Huffel C, Ciciotte SL, Kleyn PW, Chishti AH (December 1997). "Limatin (LIMAB1), an actin- ...
As such, the actin-based membrane skeleton might work as a base scaffold for enhancing the interactions between the receptor ... Several reports have indicated the active roles played by the cytoskeleton in inhibiting or enabling the redistribution/ ... The actin-based membrane skeleton (MSK) meshwork is directly situated on the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane. ... The movement of phospholipids, even those located in the outer leaflet of the membrane, is regulated by the actin-based ...
In homodimeric form, α-catenins do not bind β- catenins, but preferentially bind F-actin and other proteins promoting F-actin ... Arikkath, Jyothi; Louis F. Reichardt (2008). "Cadherins and catenins at synapses: roles in synaptogenesis and synaptic ... Using an in vivo dentate gyrus LTP model, it was shown that LTP induction is associated with an increase in F-actin in the ... Furthermore, the use of latrunculin A was able to impair late phase LTP in this model, again suggesting that actin remodelling ...
G-actin) or filamentous (F-actin) forms. The role of Rho family of GTPases and its effects in the stability of actin and spine ... Each Rho protein affects numerous proteins downstream, all of which having roles in various cell processes. Over 60 targets of ... Cofilin's function is to reorganize the actin cytoskeleton of a cell; namely, it depolymerizes actin segments and thus inhibits ... Cdc42 was assumed to encourage filopodia elongation and block actin depolymerization. RhoA was considered to encourage actin ...
... binds to actin filaments and contains a phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain at the C-terminus, which interacts with the ... Analysis of knockout mice has demonstrated critical roles of tensin in renal function, muscle regeneration, and cell migration ... Evidence is now[when?] emerging to suggest tensin is an important component linking the ECM, the actin cytoskeleton, and signal ... Le Clainche, C; Carlier, MF (2008). "Regulation of actin assembly associated with protrusion and adhesion in cell migration". ...
2003). "The two ADF-H domains of twinfilin play functionally distinct roles in interactions with actin monomers". Mol. Biol. ... 2003). "Structural conservation between the actin monomer-binding sites of twinfilin and actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF)/ ... Studies of the mouse counterpart suggest that this protein may be an actin monomer-binding protein, and its localization to ... Palmgren S, Vartiainen M, Lappalainen P (2002). "Twinfilin, a molecular mailman for actin monomers". J. Cell Sci. 115 (Pt 5): ...
In addition to its well-known roles in T cells and NK cells, JAK3 has been found to mediate IL-8 stimulation in human ... Jak3 interacts with actin-binding protein villin, thereby facilitating cytoskeletal remodeling and mucosal wound repair. ... and the receptors for IL-4 and IL-9 play roles in the development of allergic responses. A selective JAK3 inhibitor, designated ... "IL-9-deficient mice establish fundamental roles for IL-9 in pulmonary mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia but not T cell ...
Ammer AG, Weed SA (September 2008). "Cortactin branches out: roles in regulating protrusive actin dynamics". Cell Motil. ... Once activated in this way, it can bind to filamentous actin (F-actin) with the fourth of its cortactin repeats. As the ... Activated like this, it still associates with Arp2/3 and F-actin, but will also allow other actin NPFs, most importantly N-WASp ... Cortactin-assisted Arp2/3-nucleated actin branches are most prominent in the actin cortex, around the periphery of the cell. A ...
F-actin, while processive runlengths are shorter on older (ADP-rich) F-actin. Myosin VI is an unconventional myosin motor, ... Myosins (/ˈmaɪəsɪn, -oʊ-/) comprise a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a ... It walks along actin filaments, travelling towards the pointed end (- end) of the filaments. Myosin VI is thought to transport ... "Actin Age Orchestrates Myosin-5 and Myosin-6 Run Lengths". Current Biology. 25: 2057-2062. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.06.033. PMC ...
actin binding. • motor activity. • ATP binding. • RNA binding. • cadherin binding. • actin filament binding. • microtubule ... but all three play distinct roles during vertebrate development and adulthood (for general reviews on NM IIs, see [11][13][14] ... actin cytoskeleton reorganization. • regulation of cell shape. • actin filament-based movement. • platelet aggregation. • ... Other proteins that are known to interact with NM IIA include the actin binding protein tropomyosin 4.2 [26] and a novel actin ...
Chan YM, Jan YN (August 1998). "Roles for proteolysis and trafficking in notch maturation and signal transduction". Cell. 94 (4 ... "Interaction of presenilins with the filamin family of actin-binding proteins". J. Neurosci. 18 (3): 914-22. PMC 2042137. PMID ...
... most of which are involved in regulation of the actin cytoskeleton of lymphocytes14,15. The actin cytoskeleton. is responsible ... syndrome protein (WASP): roles in signaling. May-August, 2011/Vol 31/Issue 2 -150- J. Nepal Paediatr. Soc.. and cytoskeletal ... involved in actin cytoskeleton regulation. Eur J Cell. Biol 2006;85(3-4):295-304.. 17. Lum LG, Tubergen DG, Corash L, Blease. ... key regulator of actin polymerization in hematopoietic cells. As a cytoskeletal regulator, it is necessary for induction of ...
Kenya Morita, Fumihide Bunai, and Osamu Numata "Roles of Three Domains of Tetrahymena eEF1A in Bundling F-actin," Zoological ... Kenya Morita, Fumihide Bunai, Osamu Numata "Roles of Three Domains of Tetrahymena eEF1A in Bundling F-actin," Zoological ... Localization by Indirect Immunofluorescence of Tetrin, Actin, and Centrin to... Induction of Anti-Actin Drug Resistance in ... but the individual roles of the Tetrahymena eEF1A domains in bundling F-actin are unknown. In this study, we investigated the ...
... Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2008 Sep;65(9):687-707. doi: ... Recently, several advances have been made in our understanding of the interaction between actin and cortactin, providing ... the ability of cortactin to interact with and alter the cortical actin network is central to its role in regulating these ... impacting the regulation and formation of actin-rich motility structures. ...
It is hoped that, with the snapshot of evidence regarding changes in actin dynamics with advanced age, insights on anti-aging ... The objective of this article is to revisit the current understanding of the roles played by the actin cytoskeleton in aging, ... The objective of this article is to revisit the current understanding of the roles played by the actin cytoskeleton in aging, ... It is hoped that, with the snapshot of evidence regarding changes in actin dynamics with advanced age, insights on anti-aging ...
Roles of the fission yeast formin for3p in cell polarity, actin cable formation and symmetric cell division.. Feierbach B1, ... Formins are proteins with conserved roles in cell polarity, cytokinesis, and the regulation of actin and microtubule ... for3 Delta mutants lack interphase actin cables and have delocalized actin patch and myo52p (type V myosin) distributions. for3 ... for3p and possibly actin cables are part of a regulatory network that ensures that cell divisions are symmetric. ...
... Adam G. ... "A nonapeptide to the putative F-actin binding site of annexin-II tetramer inhibits its calcium-dependent activation of actin ... P. G. Allen, "Actin filament uncapping localizes to ruffling lamellae and rocketing vesicles," Nature Cell Biology, vol. 5, no ... M. J. Hayes, D. Shao, M. Bailly, and S. E. Moss, "Regulation of actin dynamics by annexin 2," EMBO Journal, vol. 25, no. 9, pp ...
... but distinct roles in the morphogenesis of epidermal hairs during Drosophila wing development. The function of both the actin ... We have found that the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons have overlapping, ... Distinct roles for the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons in the morphogenesis of epidermal hairs during wing development in ... We have found that the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons have overlapping, but distinct roles in the morphogenesis of ...
... consists of actin and actin-related proteins Arp4, Arp5, and Arp8. We generated Arp5 knockout (KO) and Arp8 KO cells from the ... consists of actin and actin-related proteins Arp4, Arp5, and Arp8. We generated Arp5 knockout (KO) and Arp8 KO cells from the ... comprising of actin and actin-related proteins (Arps), are essential functional components of the multiple chromatin remodeling ... comprising of actin and actin-related proteins (Arps), are essential functional components of the multiple chromatin remodeling ...
Dual roles of myocardin-related transcription factors in epithelial-mesenchymal transition via slug induction and actin ... Dual roles of myocardin-related transcription factors in epithelial-mesenchymal transition via slug induction and actin ... Mutant actins that stabilize F-actin use distinct mechanisms to activate the SRF coactivator MAL. EMBO J. 23:3973-3983. ... Additionally, MRTFs also regulate reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton mediated through transcriptional activation of actin ...
From actin monomers to bundles: The roles of twinfilin and α-actinin in Drosophila melanogaster development. Gudrun Wahlstr m. ... The actin cytoskeleton is essential for a large variety of cell biological processes. Actin exists in either a monomeric or a ... Twinfilin is an actin monomer binding protein that is structurally related to cofilin. In vitro, twinfilin reduces actin ... The Twinfilin protein was localised at sites of actin filament assembly, where it was required to limit actin polymerisation. A ...
Actin filaments and microtubules play different roles during bristle elongation in Drosophila ... Actin filaments and microtubules play different roles during bristle elongation in Drosophila ... Actin filaments and microtubules play different roles during bristle elongation in Drosophila ... Actin filaments and microtubules play different roles during bristle elongation in Drosophila ...
... as well as additional regulation through control of the actin nucleation factors formin and Arp2/3 and their mediation of actin ... enhancement by catalyzing the exchange of ADP for ATP to produce ATP-actin that can then be added to the barbed end of an ... Profilin is an actin binding protein that can both inhibit and enhance actin polymerization through a variety of molecular ... mechanisms, including inhibition by sequestering monomeric G-actin, ...
Hypothetical model for the roles of actin-capping protein in the cytoplasmic actin mesh. The formation of the cytoplasmic actin ... ends of actin filaments and plays essential roles in various actin-mediated cellular processes. However, the roles of capping ... Capping protein plays crucial roles in dynamic actin polymerization, especially Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization. Therefore ... In addition to actin nucleators, other actin-binding proteins cap, depolymerize, elongate and bundle actin filaments, and are ...
Structure of the N-terminal half of gelsolin bound to actin: roles in severing, apoptosis and FAF. ... Structure of the N-terminal half of gelsolin bound to actin: roles in severing, apoptosis and FAF. ... Structure of the N-terminal half of gelsolin bound to actin: roles in severing, apoptosis and FAF ... 5-BISPHOSPHATE, actin, AMYLOIDOSIS-FINNISH TYPE, apoptosis, BINDING-SITE, CA2+ REGULATION, calcium, CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE, ...
The Dictyostelium discoideum Pod-1 homolog Crn7 a coronin-like protein with roles in actin-driven processes and infection with ... The Dictyostelium discoideum Pod-1 homolog Crn7 a coronin-like protein with roles in actin-driven processes and infection with ... Coronin, Crn7, WD-repeat, ß-propeller, actin, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, infection, Dictyostelium discoideum, Legionella ...
Espins versus other actin-bundling proteins. Parallel actin bundles in cells typically contain multiple classes of actin- ... The parallel actin bundle, which consists of hexagonally packed unidirectional actin filaments cross-linked by actin-bundling ... activity as actin-bundling proteins that can efficiently cross-link actin filaments into parallel actin bundles in vitro [28]-[ ... To investigate the roles of the espin class of actin-bundling protein, we used a genetic approach that benefited from a ...
... and the breakdown of actin that both play significant roles in cellular mechanisms like migration and adhesion. ... Actin polymerisation research explores the dynamic processes during the growth of actin, via polymerization, ... Alpha actin. Anti-alpha smooth muscle Actin. Conjugated versions. Beta actin. Anti-beta Actin antibody [AC-15]. Conjugated ... Jasplakinolide induces the polymerization of actin and stabilizes actins monomeric form.. Chaetoglobosin A is an actin ...
The Relative Roles of Rac and Cdc42.. Activated Cdc42 strongly induces nucleation activity in permeabilized neutrophils, and a ... and 0.3 μM actin (1 rhodamine actin to 45 unlabeled actins; Cytoskeleton) for 30 s. We fixed the cells in 3.7% formaldehyde for ... Actin Nucleation in Neutrophils. Neutrophils, like other nonmuscle cells, have a large pool of unpolymerized actin that falls ... To analyze actin nucleation activity, we determined the ability of permeabilized neutrophils to accelerate spontaneous actin ...
To further understand the complex roles of actin in early embryogenesis we use RNAi and in vivo imaging of filamentous actin (F ... During early C. elegans embryogenesis actin plays more roles and its organization is more dynamic than previously described. ... Results from this study indicate new insights into the cellular and developmental roles of the actin cytoskeleton. ... Using RNAi, we found processes that are differentially sensitive to levels of actin during early embryogenesis. Mild actin ...
Fingerprints reveal gender roles in ancient society. A method to determine gender from fingerprints suggests pottery making was ... Integrin-driven actin polymerization consolidates long-term potentiation. Enikö A. Kramár, Bin Lin, Christopher S. Rex, ... Integrin-driven actin polymerization consolidates long-term potentiation. Enikö A. Kramár, Bin Lin, Christopher S. Rex, ... as do agents that interfere with actin polymerization (32, 33). Moreover, intense afferent activity modifies the actin network ...
However, recent work has begun to provide evidence for important roles for actin in nuclear processes ranging from chromatin ... This review discusses the evidence for actin in the nucleus and summarizes recent work suggesting that actin or actin-related ... The abundant cytoskeletal protein actin has numerous cytoplasmic roles. Although there are many reports of the presence of ... In addition, several regulators of actin polymerization are localized to the nucleus or translocate to the nucleus in a ...
2017) The opposing roles of laminin-binding integrins in cancer. Matrix Biol 57-58:213-243. ... S4E). SiR-655-actin, a far-red F-actin binding probe that has its dipole oriented differently with respect to the actin ... For actin polymerization, the G-actin was mixed with G buffer and 10% vol of 10× ME buffer (100 mM MgCl2, 20 mM EGTA, pH 7.2) ... local F-actin flow orientation showed that F-actin flows along the FA long axis (Fig. 3G). Together with results above, this ...
The dynamic actin cytoskeleton spatially and temporally regulates protrusion, adhesions, contraction, and retraction from the ... c-Abl tyrosine kinase plays a critical role in regulating actin dynamics and migration of airway smooth muscle cells and ... There are three cytoskeletal systems in mammalian cells: the actin cytoskeleton, the intermediate filament network, and ... From: The roles and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton, intermediate filaments and microtubules in smooth muscle cell ...
Actin itself is integral to too many cellular processes to make a good target, but the molecules that regulate actin dynamics ... Actin, among a variety of other molecules, is involved in all of these steps, but especially the shape change, when it gathers ... This heart-shaped image shows two mouse skin cancer cells connected to each other with actin, a protein that is part of the ... It turns out that actin plays an essential role.. Cells can move as a collective, or independently. Movement of an individual ...
DRR1 enhances actin bundling, the cellular F-actin content, and serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription, while it ... Conclusions: DRR1 impacts actin dynamics in several ways with implications for cytoskeletal dynamics in stress physiology and ... To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, we undertook a domain analysis of DRR1 and probed the effects on actin ... Methods: DRR1 domains were cloned and expressed as recombinant proteins to perform in vitro analysis of actin dynamics (binding ...
  • During asymmetric polarization to the anterior, or the establishment phase (Phase I), actin forms a meshwork of microfilaments and focal accumulations throughout the cortex, while during the anterior maintenance phase (Phase II) it undergoes a morphological transition to asymmetrically localized puncta. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutations in the different genes that regulate actin production in humans can cause muscular diseases , variations in the size and function of the heart as well as deafness . (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal Article] Signaling mechanisms and functional roles of cofilin phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • When cofilin is phosphorylated on the regulatory serine 3 site, it can no longer bind to actin filaments and is inactive. (scripps.edu)
  • Kusano K, Abe H, Obinata T (1999) Detection of a sequence involved in actin-binding and phosphoinositide-binding in the N-terminal side of cofilin. (springer.com)
  • Ono S, Abe H, Nagaoka R, Obinata T (1993) Colocalization of ADF and cofilin in intranuclear actin rods of cultured muscle cells. (springer.com)
  • Kardos R, Pozsonyi K, Nevalainen E, Lappalainen P, Nyitrai M, Hild G (2009) The effects of ADF/cofilin and profilin on the conformation of the ATP-binding cleft of monomeric actin. (springer.com)
  • Kudryashov DS, Galkin VE, Orlova A, Phan M, Egelman EH, Reisler E (2006) Cofilin cross-bridges adjacent actin protomers and replaces part of the longitudinal F-actin interface. (springer.com)
  • It can be present as either a free monomer called G-actin (globular) or as part of a linear polymer microfilament called F-actin (filamentous), both of which are essential for such important cellular functions as the mobility and contraction of cells during cell division . (wikipedia.org)
  • Actin, including both globular (G) and filamentous (F), regulates various cellular functions that are necessary for plants to grow and respond to environmental changes. (springer.com)
  • NAA80-knockout cells display severely altered cytoskeletal organization, including an increase in the ratio of filamentous to globular actin, increased filopodia and lamellipodia formation, and accelerated cell motility. (uniprot.org)
  • Small interfering RNA-dependent Rac1 knockdown prevented actin remodeling and GLUT4 translocation but spared Akt phosphorylation, suggesting that Rac and actin remodeling do not contribute to overall Akt activation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Roles of the fission yeast formin for3p in cell polarity, actin cable formation and symmetric cell division. (nih.gov)
  • for3p-GFP is localized at both cell tips in an actin-dependent manner and at the cell division site. (nih.gov)
  • for3p is a cell polarity factor required for interphase actin cable formation and microtubule organization. (nih.gov)
  • for3p and possibly actin cables are part of a regulatory network that ensures that cell divisions are symmetric. (nih.gov)
  • We generated Arp5 knockout (KO) and Arp8 KO cells from the human Nalm-6 pre-B cell line and used these KO cells to examine the roles of Arp5 and Arp8 in the transcriptional regulation mediated by the INO80 complex. (frontiersin.org)
  • Notably, the intracellular concentration of Pfns has been estimated to be 10-80 µM, which is not sufficient to maintain the high concentrations of G-actin found in the cell. (cytoskeleton.com)
  • Hearing and vestibular function depend on mechanosensory staircase collections of hair cell stereocilia, which are produced from microvillus-like precursors as their parallel actin bundle scaffolds increase in diameter and elongate or shorten. (prolekare.cz)
  • F-actin was stained with CytoPainter blue in mouse embryonic stem cell-differentiated embryoid bodies using ICC/IF. (news-medical.net)
  • Actin, among a variety of other molecules, is involved in all of these steps, but especially the shape change, when it gathers inside the cell membrane to help form the protrusions. (nih.gov)
  • The time course of growth of the F-actin belts nearly perfectly correlates with a decline in supporting cell spreading and proliferation, and the belts approach their maximal thickness as the total number of hair cells in the utricular epithelium plateaus. (grantome.com)
  • DRR1 enhances actin bundling, the cellular F-actin content, and serum response factor (SRF)-dependent transcription, while it diminishes actin filament elongation, cell spreading, and actin treadmilling. (mdpi.com)
  • Chen D-H, Acharya BR, Liu W, Zhang W. Interaction between Calcium and Actin in Guard Cell and Pollen Signaling Networks. (mdpi.com)
  • Further live-cell imaging and genetic analyses revealed that KCBP acts as a hub integrating MTs and actin filaments to assemble the required cytoskeletal configuration for the unique, polarized diffuse growth pattern during trichome cell morphogenesis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Inside the cell body, actin cables are composed of short parallel actin filaments, mostly of identical orientations . (psu.edu)
  • At the division site, a cytokinetic ring is composed of short parallel actin filaments, with identical orientations or mixed polarities depending on the stage of cell division . (psu.edu)
  • Finkelstein, L.D. & Schwartzberg, P.L. Tec kinases: shaping T-cell activation through actin. (nature.com)
  • Perturbations that inhibit or promote PIP 3 -dependent F-actin remodeling dramatically affect T cell cytotoxicity, demonstrating the functional importance of this pathway. (rupress.org)
  • Cell cortex remodeling during cell division is a result of myofilament-driven contractility of the cortical membrane-bound actin meshwork. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, the details of the interactions between the myofilament motor domains and the actin filaments in the cell cortex, which are bound to the plasma membrane, are not fully understood. (elifesciences.org)
  • have built an in vitro model of the cell cortex, and then used single-molecule imaging to watch the interactions between the myofilaments and the actin filaments in this model. (elifesciences.org)
  • In conclusion, our results suggest that actin network interacts with mitochondria to regulate both antiviral and cell death signals during influenza A virus infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • EGF induces EMT in the breast cancer cell line PMC42-LA and the kinase inhibitor staurosporine (ST) induces EMT in embryonic neural epithelial cells, with F-actin de-bundling and disruption of cell-cell adhesion, via inhibition of aPKC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ST in combination with EGF directed a greater EMT via actin depolymerisation and focal contact size reduction, resulting in a loosening of cell-ECM attachment along with Snail1-Zeb1/δEF1 induction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a result, actin is organized in patches that are randomly distributed throughout the cell ( 46 ). (asm.org)
  • Palladin plays important roles in the regulation of diverse actin-related signaling in a number of cell types. (osti.gov)
  • Rho GTPases regulate many aspects of cellular functions, including actin cytoskeletal organization, cell cycle progression, gene transcription, and cell migration ( 2 , 3 ). (asm.org)
  • However, unexpected observation of a developmental plasticity retained in mature T lymphocytes, in particular in CD4 + T-cell subsets, by recent studies is accelerating studies that focus on roles of each epigenetic pathway in cell fate decisions of T lymphocytes. (wiley.com)
  • In this work, we found that the actin inhibitor jasplakinolide blocks the cell egress of rotavirus from nonpolarized MA104 cells at early times of infection, when there is still no evidence of cell lysis. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, the intracellular localization of VP4, its interaction with lipid rafts, and its targeting to the cell surface were shown to be prevented by jasplakinolide, implying a role for actin in these processes. (asm.org)
  • Cell movement is a sequential series of steps initiated by establishing actin-rich protrusions and stabilizing the leading edge by nascent focal adhesions, followed by F-actin contraction, disassembling focal adhesion at the cell rear, and detaching the tail of the cell, all of which cause forward movement of the cell ( 7, 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Together, these results provide genetic evidence that AtSAC1, a SAC domain phosphoinositide phosphatase, is required for normal cell morphogenesis, cell wall synthesis, and actin organization. (plantcell.org)
  • Kanellos G, Zhou J, Patel H et al (2015) ADF and cofilin1 control actin stress fibers, nuclear integrity, and cell survival. (springer.com)
  • Actin filaments are crucial for cell migration and the maintenance of cellular morphology. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Actin filament bundles are abundant in the stroma, presumably in the keratocytes of the developing chick cornea, and are arranged in an orthogonal manner suggesting a possible role in cell and matrix organization in this tissue. (arvojournals.org)
  • This ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex plays important roles in cell proliferation and differentiation, in cellular antiviral activities and inhibition of tumor formation. (uniprot.org)
  • It also has key roles in molecule transport, cell division and cell signaling. (eurekalert.org)
  • Understanding the biochemical mechanisms that control the organization of actin is thus a major goal of contemporary cell biology, with implications for health and disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • Rac, the next member of the Rho family to be analyzed, could be activated by a distinct set of agonists (for example, platelet-derived growth factor or insulin), leading to the assembly of a meshwork of actin filaments at the cell periphery to produce lamellipodia and membrane ruffles (Fig. 1 E) ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In OT neurons, OT initially increased F-actin, particularly at membrane subcortical areas, and then decreased it after 30 min. (jneurosci.org)
  • In intact animals, suckling increased ERK1/2 activation in the cytosol and membrane subcortical area F-actin formation in OT neurons, whereas it increased F-actin concentration in astrocytic somata. (jneurosci.org)
  • Various reports have suggested roles for EHD2 at the plasma membrane, within the endocytic transport system, and even in the nucleus. (elsevier.com)
  • We show that growth and maintenance of this F-actin ring is dictated by the annular accumulation of phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP 3 ) in the synaptic membrane. (rupress.org)
  • Clearance of F-actin from the central synaptic membrane is coupled to the polarization of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC) toward the APC ( Huse, 2012 ). (rupress.org)
  • Little is known about the interaction between individual myofilaments and membrane-bound actin filaments. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here we reconstituted a minimal actin cortex to directly visualize the action of individual myofilaments on membrane-bound actin filaments using TIRF microscopy. (elifesciences.org)
  • We show that synthetic myofilaments fragment and compact membrane-bound actin while processively moving along actin filaments. (elifesciences.org)
  • In all these processes, the microscopic mechanism of the interaction between individual myofilaments and membrane-bound actin filaments is not understood. (elifesciences.org)
  • The H + pump and membrane voltage play crucial roles in Xenopus tail regeneration. (sciencemag.org)
  • Our working hypothesis is that the conserved core mechanism is the rearrangements of the membrane during cleavage-furrow formation and that the actomyosin ring and extracellular matrix play accessory roles. (stanford.edu)
  • Localizes at sites where active actin remodeling takes place, such as lamellipodia and membrane ruffles. (nih.gov)
  • which disables its capacity to bind and depolymerize F-actin. (jneurosci.org)
  • The MyTH4 domain and the FERM domain in the N-terminal tail of KCBP physically bind to MTs and F-actin, respectively. (elifesciences.org)
  • 1993 ). Biochemical characterization of plant ADF was first performed with Zea mays ADF3 (ZmABP3 then renamed as ZmADF3), confirming its conserved activity to bind both F- and G-actin (Rozycka et al. (springer.com)
  • But the research team found that when CTNNA2 is absent due to genetic mutation, excessive amounts of ARP2/3 bind to actin, ultimately disrupting the mechanisms needed for appropriate migrating and branching out of nerve cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The function of both the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons appears to be required for the growth of wing hairs, as treatment of cultured pupal wings with either cytochalasin D or vinblastine was able to slow prehair extension. (nih.gov)
  • Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 promotes osteoblast differentiation by promoting β-catenin/TCF1/Runx2 signaling axis. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Microtubule actin cross-linking factor 1, a novel target in glioblastoma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ca 2 /calmodulin (CaM) causes reversion of the eEF1A dimer to the monomer, which loosens F-actin bundling, and then Ca 2 /CaM/eEF1A monomer complexes dissociate from F-actin. (bioone.org)
  • We have determined the structure of this fragment in complex with an actin monomer. (ubc.ca)
  • Rho family GTPases are presently the most prominent mediators of particular types of actin assembly in tissue culture cells, and of these GTPases the one most implicated in large increases in cellular actin assembly and locomotion is the Rac subfamily ( Hall 1998 ). (rupress.org)
  • Quiescent, serum-starved Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts (-) contain very few organized actin filaments ( A ) or vinculin-containing integrin adhesion complexes ( B ). The effects of Rho, Rac, or Cdc42 activation in these cells can be observed in several different ways such as with the addition of extracellular growth factors, microinjection of activated GTPases, or microinjection of guanosine diphosphate (GDP)-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) exchange factors. (sciencemag.org)
  • eEF1A consists of three domains in all eukaryotic species, but the individual roles of the Tetrahymena eEF1A domains in bundling F-actin are unknown. (bioone.org)
  • Complicating the study of the linkage between signaling steps and actin turnover in neutrophils, however, is the fact that neutrophils are small, protease-rich, fragile end cells, not amenable to transfection or microinjection, techniques that have abetted investigations of this relationship in tissue culture cells. (rupress.org)
  • Despite the abundant data supporting an intermediacy of Rac in intact neutrophil actin assembly, finding a consistent role for Rac in neutrophil actin turnover using biochemical approaches has been elusive. (rupress.org)
  • This mechanism of filament fragmentation and compaction may contribute to actin turnover and cortex reorganization during cytokinesis. (elifesciences.org)
  • In the present study, we investigated whether an increase in instability (i.e., turnover) in the subapical fine F-actin in root hairs can trigger the exocytosis process by which plant cells grow. (plantcell.org)
  • This multifaceted regulatory system allows rapid and quantitative turnover of F-actin in response to cytoskeletal perturbations and probably also maintains F-actin homeostasis under normal growth conditions. (stanford.edu)
  • Furthermore, we propose that association with actin drives the calcium-independent activation of isolated G1 G3 during apoptosis, and that a similar mechanism operates to activate native gelsolin at micromolar levels of calcium. (ubc.ca)
  • We propose a mechanism by which tension builds up between the ends of myofilaments, resulting in compressive stress exerted to single actin filaments, causing their buckling and breakage. (elifesciences.org)
  • Modeling of this mechanism revealed that sufficient force (∼20 pN) can be generated by single myofilaments to buckle and break actin filaments. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, the biological role and mechanism of actin Nt-acetylation are poorly understood, and the identity of actin's N-terminal acetyltransferase (NAT) has remained a mystery. (uniprot.org)
  • Recently, we demonstrated that insulin induces GTP loading of the Rho family GTPase Rac and that dominant-negative Rac1 prevents both actin remodeling and GLUT4 translocation in myoblasts ( 13 , 14 ). (diabetesjournals.org)