ZymosanOpsonin Proteins: Proteins that bind to particles and cells to increase susceptibility to PHAGOCYTOSIS, especially ANTIBODIES bound to EPITOPES that attach to FC RECEPTORS. COMPLEMENT C3B may also participate.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Leukotriene B4: The major metabolite in neutrophil polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It stimulates polymorphonuclear cell function (degranulation, formation of oxygen-centered free radicals, arachidonic acid release, and metabolism). (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)N-Formylmethionine Leucyl-Phenylalanine: A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.Luminol: 5-Amino-2,3-dihydro-1,4-phthalazinedione. Substance that emits light on oxidation. It is used in chemical determinations.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Respiratory Burst: A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Macrophages, Peritoneal: Mononuclear phagocytes derived from bone marrow precursors but resident in the peritoneum.Platelet Activating Factor: A phospholipid derivative formed by PLATELETS; BASOPHILS; NEUTROPHILS; MONOCYTES; and MACROPHAGES. It is a potent platelet aggregating agent and inducer of systemic anaphylactic symptoms, including HYPOTENSION; THROMBOCYTOPENIA; NEUTROPENIA; and BRONCHOCONSTRICTION.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Mannose-Binding Lectins: A subclass of lectins that are specific for CARBOHYDRATES that contain MANNOSE.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Nitroblue Tetrazolium: Colorless to yellow dye that is reducible to blue or black formazan crystals by certain cells; formerly used to distinguish between nonbacterial and bacterial diseases, the latter causing neutrophils to reduce the dye; used to confirm diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.Properdin: A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Temporomandibular Joint: An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.Temporomandibular Joint Disc: A plate of fibrous tissue that divides the temporomandibular joint into an upper and lower cavity. The disc is attached to the articular capsule and moves forward with the condyle in free opening and protrusion. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p92)Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A variety of conditions affecting the anatomic and functional characteristics of the temporomandibular joint. Factors contributing to the complexity of temporomandibular diseases are its relation to dentition and mastication and the symptomatic effects in other areas which account for referred pain to the joint and the difficulties in applying traditional diagnostic procedures to temporomandibular joint pathology where tissue is rarely obtained and x-rays are often inadequate or nonspecific. Common diseases are developmental abnormalities, trauma, subluxation, luxation, arthritis, and neoplasia. (From Thoma's Oral Pathology, 6th ed, pp577-600)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.ArthritisComplement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Agammaglobulinemia: An immunologic deficiency state characterized by an extremely low level of generally all classes of gamma-globulin in the blood.Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Pharmacology, Clinical: The branch of pharmacology that deals directly with the effectiveness and safety of drugs in humans.Pharmacology: The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Meningococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.Polyanetholesulfonate: A compound originally developed as an anticoagulant, but possessing anticomplement action and lowering the bactericidal action of blood. It is used in vitro to inhibit blood coagulation and as a diagnostic reagent to encourage the growth of pathogens in the blood. It is also used to stabilize colloidal solutions such as milk and gelatin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
Injections with zymosan can promote macrophages to enter the eye and secrete oncomodulin. This is an effective method of ... Oncomodulin plays a key role in patients with eye injuries. It is thought that it can reverse eye damage caused from glaucoma. ...
Takeshita K, Bacon KB, Gantner F (2004). "Critical role of L-selectin and histamine H4 receptor in zymosan-induced neutrophil ... bone marrow and white blood cells and regulates neutrophil release from bone marrow and subsequent infiltration in the zymosan- ...
Takeshita K, Bacon KB, Gantner F (2004). «Critical role of L-selectin and histamine H4 receptor in zymosan-induced neutrophil ...
It seems also to have a role in peripheral insulin resistance. Also studies using the mouse zymosan model and chemerin peptides ... Initial studies of CMKLR1 suggested that it might have a role in the inflammatory pathways. Its cognate ligand, chemerin was ... Hillman RT, Green RE, Brenner SE (2005). "An unappreciated role for RNA surveillance". Genome Biology. 5 (2): R8. doi:10.1186/ ... As an adipokine receptor it has a role in adipogenesis and adipocyte maturation. ...
In addition, a role for paracaspase has been shown in the innate immune response mediated by the zymosan receptor Dectin-1 in ... It has an important role in the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, in the production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and in ... one of which plays a key role in MALT lymphoma". Mol. Cell. 6 (4): 961-7. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(05)00086-9. PMID 11090634.. ...
... A also raises cyclin D2 levels suggesting a role for the latter in macrophage activation besides proliferation. It ... Zymosan is a glucan with repeating glucose units connected by β-1,3-glycosidic linkages. It binds to TLR 2. Zymosan is a ligand ... 2003). "Direct binding of Toll-like receptor 2 to zymosan, and zymosan-induced NF-kappa B activation and TNF-alpha secretion ... Zymosan is prepared from yeast cell wall and consists of protein-carbohydrate complexes. It is used to induce experimental ...
Kornerup KN, Page CP (August 2007). "The role of platelets in the pathophysiology of asthma". Platelets. 18 (5): 319-28. doi: ... "Mitochondria regulate platelet metamorphosis induced by opsonized zymosan A--activation and long-term commitment to cell death ... Hampton T (April 2018). "Platelets' Role in Adaptive Immunity May Contribute to Sepsis and Shock". JAMA. 319 (13): 1311-1312. ... Marcus AJ, Broekman MJ, Drosopoulos JH, Olson KE, Islam N, Pinsky DJ, Levi R (April 2005). "Role of CD39 (NTPDase-1) in ...
These results suggest that PTX3 has a dual role: protection against pathogens and control of autoimmunity. GRCh38: Ensembl ... "PTX3 function as an opsonin for the dectin-1-dependent internalization of zymosan by macrophages". J. Leukoc. Biol. 75 (4): 649 ... suggesting a role for PTX3 in the complement-mediated clearance of apoptotic cells. Moreover, in the presence of dying cells, ... "Non-redundant role of the long pentraxin PTX3 in anti-fungal innate immune response". Nature. 420 (6912): 182-6. doi:10.1038/ ...
Taylor PR, Brown GD, Herre J, Williams DL, Willment JA, Gordon S (2004). "The role of SIGNR1 and the beta-glucan receptor ( ... "Regulated recruitment of DC-SIGN to cell-cell contact regions during zymosan-induced human dendritic cell aggregation". J. ... "The role of Dectin-1 in the host defence against fungal infections". Curr Opin Microbiol. 14 (4): 392-9. doi:10.1016/j.mib. ... but also play important roles in immune responses to other pathogens such as bacteria, viruses and nematodes. As a member of ...
2005). "Role of CD39 (NTPDase-1) in thromboregulation, cerebroprotection, and cardioprotection". Seminars in Thrombosis and ... 2009). "Mitochondria regulate platelet metamorphosis induced by opsonized zymosan A-activation and long-term commitment to cell ... Kornerup KN; Page CP (2007). "The role of platelets in the pathophysiology of asthma". Platelets. 18 (5): 319-28. doi:10.1080/ ...
Role in non-hematologic diseasesEdit. InflammationEdit. In addition to being the cellular effector of hemostasis, platelets are ... 2009). "Mitochondria regulate platelet metamorphosis induced by opsonized zymosan A-activation and long-term commitment to cell ... 2005). "Role of CD39 (NTPDase-1) in thromboregulation, cerebroprotection, and cardioprotection". Seminars in Thrombosis and ... Kornerup KN; Page CP (2007). "The role of platelets in the pathophysiology of asthma". Platelets. 18 (5): 319-28. doi:10.1080/ ...
In addition, PD1 has an important role in regulating the expression of the Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bax and Bad) ... only a small amount in human PMN extracts but was more potent than PD1 or PDX in blocking the inflammatory response to zymosan ... Stein K, Stoffels M, Lysson M, Schneiker B, Dewald O, Krönke G, Kalff JC, Wehner S (2016). "A role for 12/15-lipoxygenase- ... PD1 has a significant role as an anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective molecule. Studies in Alzheimer's disease ...
... large scale studies are needed to establish the role of lentinan as a useful adjunct to cancer treatment". According to Cancer ... Marmite Cenovis Promite Guinness Yeast Extract PGG-glucan MOS Nutritional yeast Yeast extract Nicotinamide riboside Zymosan ...
Elbein AD (October 1991). "The role of N-linked oligosaccharides in glycoprotein function". Trends in Biotechnology. 9 (10): ... An important example of oligosaccharide cell recognition is the role of glycolipids in determining blood types. The various ... glycolipids have an important role in the immune response. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, which plays a fundamental role in pathogen ... Zymosan (a beta-glucan). Saccharomyces cerevisiae -. Malassezia (commensal yeast) Antigen mixtures. Aspergillus fumigatus, ... Takeuchi O, Sato S, Horiuchi T, Hoshino K, Takeda K, Dong Z, Modlin RL, Akira S (July 2002). "Cutting edge: role of Toll-like ... Because this phase would always start too late to play an essential role in the defense process, a faster-acting principle is ...
Glycogen is found in the form of granules in the cytosol/cytoplasm in many cell types, and plays an important role in the ... Cell-surface polysaccharides play diverse roles in bacterial ecology and physiology. They serve as a barrier between the cell ... Rhamnolipid is a biosurfactant whose production is tightly regulated at the transcriptional level, but the precise role that it ... Lipopolysaccharide is one of the most important cell-surface polysaccharides, as it plays a key structural role in outer ...
Mozaffarian, Dariush (2017-05-02). "Conflict of Interest and the Role of the Food Industry in Nutrition Research". JAMA. 317 ( ... "unhealthy commodity industries should have no role in the formation of national or international NCD [non-communicable disease ... "The emerging role of dietary fructose in obesity and cognitive decline". Nutrition Journal. 12 (1): 114. doi:10.1186/1475-2891 ...
Such a special role of sucrose in the formation of tooth decay is much more significant in light of the almost universal use of ... Fukuchi, Satoshi; Hamaguchi, Kazuyuki; Seike, Masataka; Himeno, Katsuro; Sakata, Toshiie; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu (2004). "Role of ...
KS plays an anti-adhesive role, which suggests very important functions of KS in cell motility and attachment as well as other ... roles in brain development, neuritogenic activity, and pathogen infection.[16] ...
The role of dietary fiber in energy intake regulation and obesity development is related to its unique physical and chemical ... stimulate production of T helper cells, antibodies, leukocytes, cytokines, and lymph mechanisms having crucial roles in immune ... "Role of resistant starch in improving gut health, adiposity, and insulin resistance". Advances in Nutrition. 6 (2): 198-205. ... "Nondigestible oligo- and polysaccharides (dietary fiber): their physiology and role in human health and food". Comp Rev Food ...
The present study used zymosan A-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production as a model to explore the signal ... Zymosan A increased TNF-alpha production in RAW264.7 cells in a time and co ... The role of NFkB in (13)-B-glucan (Zymosan A) induced TNF-alpha production.. ... Zymosan A increased TNF-alpha production in RAW264.7 cells in a time and concentration dependent pattern with the optimal time ...
... ... "Experimental Model of Zymosan-Induced Arthritis in the Rat Temporomandibular Joint: Role of Nitric Oxide and Neutrophils," ...
Zymosan was injected i.art. and the NO release in exudates (as /. ) was measured 6 h after zymosan. Sham animals received only ... Experimental Model of Zymosan-Induced Arthritis in the Rat Temporomandibular Joint: Role of Nitric Oxide and Neutrophils. ... To establish a new model of zymosan-induced temporomandibular joint (TMJ) arthritis in the rat and to investigate the role of ... Figure 4: Effect of L-NAME and 1400 W on the inflammatory and hypernociceptive effects of zymosan in TMJ. Zymosan (2 mg; 40 μL ...
The role of immunoglobulins in alternative complement pathway activation by zymosan. I. Human IgG with specificity for Zymosan ... The role of immunoglobulins in alternative complement pathway activation by zymosan. I. Human IgG with specificity for Zymosan ... The role of immunoglobulins in alternative complement pathway activation by zymosan. I. Human IgG with specificity for Zymosan ... The role of immunoglobulins in alternative complement pathway activation by zymosan. I. Human IgG with specificity for Zymosan ...
Critical role of histamine H4 receptor in LTB4 production and mast cell-dependent neutrophil recruitment induced by zymosan in ... Critical role of histamine H4 receptor in LTB4 production and mast cell-dependent neutrophil recruitment induced by zymosan in ... Critical role of histamine H4 receptor in LTB4 production and mast cell-dependent neutrophil recruitment induced by zymosan in ... Critical role of histamine H4 receptor in LTB4 production and mast cell-dependent neutrophil recruitment induced by zymosan in ...
Bacteria or zymosan were washed once with HBSS++ and 5 × 107 bacteria or zymosan particles were incubated for 30 min at 37°C ... The role of properdin in the assembly of the alternative pathway C3 convertases of complement. J. Biol. Chem. 281: 2128-2132. ... Zymosan has been shown previously to bind to purified properdin directly by flow cytometry (6) and was used as a positive ... We examined the role of properdin in AP activation on diverse strains of Neisseria meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae specifically ...
Zymosan A also raises cyclin D2 levels suggesting a role for the latter in macrophage activation besides proliferation. It ... Zymosan is a glucan with repeating glucose units connected by β-1,3-glycosidic linkages. It binds to TLR 2. Zymosan is a ligand ... 2003). "Direct binding of Toll-like receptor 2 to zymosan, and zymosan-induced NF-kappa B activation and TNF-alpha secretion ... Zymosan is prepared from yeast cell wall and consists of protein-carbohydrate complexes. It is used to induce experimental ...
... or zymosan for 24 hours prior to TaqMan analysis of Clec7a expression. PAM2Cys, PAM3Cys, and zymosan all significantly induced ... Dual Role of IL-22 in allergic airway inflammation and its cross-talk with IL-17A. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011;183(9):1153- ... The protective role of TLR6 in a mouse model of asthma is mediated by IL-23 and IL-17A. Ana Paula Moreira,1 Karen A. Cavassani, ... Zymosan- or LPS-activated Tlr6-/- DCs generated substantially less IL-23 compared with similarly activated WT DCs and failed to ...
Zymosan A from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for inducing inflamatory response; CAS Number: 58856-93-2; find Sigma-Z4250 MSDS, ... Zymosan A also raises cyclin D2 levels suggesting a role for the latter in macrophage activation besides proliferation. It ... Can Product Z4250, Zymosan suspension be autoclaved? We have no information as to whether zymosan suspensions can be autoclaved ... What is the particle size of Product Z4250, Zymosan? Sigma-Aldrich does not measure the particle size of zymosan. The average ...
Thermal Response to Zymosan: The Differential Role of Complement. Neuroimmunomodulation. 10:122-128, 2003. ...
Schenkein HA, Ruddy S (1981) The role of immunoglobulins in alternative pathway activation by zymosan. II. The effect of IgG on ... Wallis C, Melnick JL (1971) Herpes virus neutralization: The role of complement. J Immunol 107: 1235PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Oldstone MBA, Cooper NR, Larson DL (1974) Formation and biologic role of polyoma virus-antibody complexes. J Exp Med 140: 549 ... Hirsch RL, Winkelstein JA, Griffin DE (1980) The role of complement in viral infections. III. Activation of the classical and ...
zymosan synonyms, zymosan pronunciation, zymosan translation, English dictionary definition of zymosan. n. An insoluble ... the role of NADPH oxidases," Journal of Neurochemistry, vol.. NADPH Oxidase: A Potential Target for Treatment of Stroke ... Zymosan - definition of zymosan by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/zymosan ... zymosan. Also found in: Medical, Wikipedia. zy·mo·san. (zī′mə-săn′). n.. An insoluble substance containing various ...
Injections with zymosan can promote macrophages to enter the eye and secrete oncomodulin. This is an effective method of ... Oncomodulin plays a key role in patients with eye injuries. It is thought that it can reverse eye damage caused from glaucoma. ...
B-D Confocal images of ATG16L1 and GFP‐LC3 on (B) zymosan‐containing phagosomes in J774A.1 cells (arrows indicate phagosomes), ... It verifies a role for non‐canonical autophagy in antigen presentation and provides a clean system with which to study this ... The WD40 domain of ATG16L1 is required for its non‐canonical role in lipidation of LC3 at single membranes. Katherine Fletcher ... The role of ATG16L1 in canonical autophagy is to target the E3‐like ATG12‐5 16 complex to forming autophagosome membranes. ...
In contrast, roles of autophagy and autophagy-related proteins in fungal infections are still elusive relative to those in ... In contrast, roles of autophagy and autophagy-related proteins in fungal infections are still elusive relative to those in ... However, later studies showed that autophagy plays an important role to protect hosts from microbial infections. Accumulating ... However, later studies showed that autophagy plays an important role to protect hosts from microbial infections. Accumulating ...
Arachidonic acid, zymosan, and bacteria also give rise to increased H2O2 production. Type II cells might thus play an active ... there is increasing evidence that type II cells may also play an active role in host defence. A study was undertaken to ... In type II cells exposure to arachidonic acid led to a significant 5.3-fold increase in H2O2 generation, exposure to zymosan ... zymosan and Staphylococcus aureus on H2O2 production were determined. Cell membrane fractions from type II cells and ...
The emerging role for rat models in gene discovery. Mamm. Genome 2011;22(7-8):466-475.. Moreno C, Hoffman M, Stodola TJ, et al ... Neutrophils-derived peroxynitrite contributes to acute hyperalgesia and cell influx in zymosan arthritis. Naunyn Schmiedebergs ... Role of Drp1, a key mitochondrial fission protein, in neuropathic pain. J. Neurosci. 2011;31(31):11404-11410.. Green PG, Chen X ... A role for metalloendopeptidases in the breakdown of the gut hormone, PYY3-36. Endocrinology 2011.. Amin A, Dhillo WS, Murphy ...
Bgn deficiency improved survival (A) and lowered plasma levels of TNF-α (B) in mice with zymosan-induced sepsis but did not ... Baldassare, J, Bi, Y, Bellone, C. The role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in IL-1 transcription. J. Immunol. 1999. 162 ... Since in TLR2-/-/TLR4-M macrophages an inflammatory response to BGN was completely abolished, the role of alternative receptors ... Toll-like receptor signal transduction and the tailoring of innate immunity: a role for Mal [review]? Trends Immunol. 2002. 23: ...
5). As expected ((18), (40)), monocytes cultured for 1 d secreted substantial H2O2 in response to zymosan or phorbol esters ( ... 1994) Role of the GRO family of chemokines in monocyte adhesion to MM-LDL-stimulated endothelium. J Clin Invest 94:1968-1973, ... 1997) A role for macrophage scavenger receptors in atherosclerosis and susceptibility to infection. Nature 368:292-296, pmid: ... 1991) Role of oxidized LDL in atherogenesis. J Clin Invest 88:1785-1792, pmid:1752940.. ...
Kingsley Okai, Zymosan-induced LPLA2 secretion in macrophages. Nishita Parmar, Role of vasculature in intestinal villus ... Grace Kim, Role of mitochondrial ROS in axonal degeneration. Victoria Prince, The Effect of UM-A9 on Head and Neck Cancer Cell ... Diane Yuan Wang, The isolation of novel Lachnospiraceaestrains and the evaluation of their potential roles in colonization ... Katherine Thor Lind, The role of protein kinases in autophagy regulation: a screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae ...
Role of receptors for complement in uptake of zymosan. J. Exp. Med. 159:244-260. ... 1995) Role of the Leishmania surface protease gp63 in complement fixation, cell adhesion, and resistance to complement-mediated ... Kinetic studies of infection in vitro indicate that gp63 plays a role not only in the binding of this parasite to these ... The results obtained provide further evidence for a role for gp63 in both the binding of the parasites to macrophages and their ...
Takeshita K, Bacon KB, Gantner F (2004). «Critical role of L-selectin and histamine H4 receptor in zymosan-induced neutrophil ...
The CL magnitude was about four times greater with zymosan than with polystyrene-butadiene. The CL reached a peak at 15 minutes ... after introduction of the zymosan particles and was maintained for about 10 minutes. Light emi ... response induced by zymosan and polystyrene-butadiene particles in alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained from male New-Zealand- ... To test the role of cellular metabolism in the CL of alveolar macrophages, 0.5 millimolar 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) was added to ...
Role and regulation of adipokines during zymosan-induced peritoneal inflammation in mice.. Authors: Pini M, Gove ME, Sennello ... Physiological roles of group X-secreted phospholipase A2 in reproduction, gastrointestinal phospholipid digestion, and neuronal ...
The role of immunoglobulins in alternative complement pathway activation by zymosan. I. Human IgG with specificity for zymosan ... 1981) The role of immunoglobulins in alternative pathway activation by zymosan. II. The effect of IgG on the kinetics of the ... and zymosan have shown that antibodies can facilitate activation of the alternative pathway by some particles. The role of ... 1979) Enhancing role of IgG in lysis of rabbit erythrocytes by the alternative pathway of human complement. J. Immunol. 122: ...
  • The present study used zymosan A-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha production as a model to explore the signal transduction pathway for B-glucan stimulation in RAW264.7 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • PS-F2 stimulation triggered the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases JNK, p38, and ERK, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which all played essential roles in activating TNF-α expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In kidney transplant recipients following factors were measured: glutathione level, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and superoxide anion production by granulocytes in whole blood without and after the stimulation with zymosan. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The LmCL response of neutrophils was reduced by laser irradiation at 60 minutes prior to the stimulation with opsonized zymosan and calcium ionophore. (practicalpainmanagement.com)
  • Role of cytokines in oxygen radical generation during phagocytosis. (cdc.gov)
  • The results suggest that these cytokines play a role in the pathogenesis of synovitis in osteoarthritic knees in different ways: TNFα is correlated with pain, whereas IL-6 is correlated with joint function. (springer.com)
  • Joint swelling, articular cell infiltration, and synovial cytokines were evaluated 25 hours and 4 hours following zymosan or MSU challenge, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is an increasing body of evidence that synovitis plays a role in the progression of osteoarthritis and that overproduction of cytokines and growth factors from the inflamed synovium can influence the production of degradative enzymes and the destruction of cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The overproduction of cytokines and growth factors from the inflamed synovium may play a role in the pathophysiology of OA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ATRA Nanostructured Lipid Carriers (NLC) in the zymosan induced cytokines (IL-17, ICAM-1, MIP-2, MCP-1 and Ip-10) by Corneal Fibroblasts (CFs) and to investigate the characters of ATRA-NCL. (alliedacademies.org)
  • ATRA-NLC can inhibit the releasing of cytokines (IL-17, ICAM-1, MIP-2, MCP-1, Ip-10) induced by zymosan in CFs. (alliedacademies.org)
  • We examined the role of properdin in AP activation on diverse strains of Neisseria meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae specifically using native versus unfractionated properdin. (jimmunol.org)
  • In conclusion, the physiological forms of properdin do not bind directly to either N. meningitidis or N. gonorrhoeae but play a crucial role in augmenting AP-dependent C3 deposition on the bacteria through the "conventional" mechanism of stabilizing AP C3 convertases. (jimmunol.org)
  • This original theory was later changed in favor of the more widely accepted role of properdin, that of stabilizing the AP C3 convertase. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that properdin can bind directly to AP activator surfaces, such as zymosan and rabbit erythrocytes ( 6 ), and serve to initiate the AP by forming a platform for assembly of AP C3 convertases ( 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Information on preparation of zymosan for use in a properdin assay, which includes boiling zymosan suspensions, is described on theproduct information sheet (under Documents, above). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The average diameter of zymosan particles has been reported to be about 3 μm, as described on the product information sheet (under Documents, above), with the cited reference. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The CL reached a peak at 15 minutes after introduction of the zymosan particles and was maintained for about 10 minutes. (cdc.gov)
  • To determine if CL resulted from ATP production, various concentrations of ATP were added to the medium prior to the addition of zymosan particles. (cdc.gov)
  • Results showed that the active-site residues contribute significantly to the selectivity by directly interacting with inhibitor ligands, while those protein portions far away from the kinase active sites may also play an important role in determining the selectivity through long-range non-bonded forces and indirect allosteric effect. (jove.com)
  • Other TLR ligands, such as zymosan A and poly(I:C), also displayed reduced NHE1 level. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Inflammatory chemokine ligands (CCLs) play an important role in cardiovascular disease and allograft injury. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • SR-A function in innate immunity has not been fully analyzed in vivo, but in vitro model systems have contributed to our understanding of its role in uptake of bacteria. (asmscience.org)
  • Peripheral blood was collected 15 min before and 15 min after treatment (sham manipulation, thoracic spine manipulation, or soft tissue manipulation), the cells were isolated, challenged with a standardized, opsonized luminol-containing suspension of zymosan, and monitored for CL. (nih.gov)
  • Activity of compounds was investigated by looking their influence on oxidative burst activity of zymosan stimulated whole blood phagocytes by using a luminol enhanced chemiluminescence technique. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) and its reactive intermediates play an important role in host defence responses against pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 19-kDa or zymosan, but not the TLR4 ligand LPS, inhibits IFN-γ-induced killing of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). (ovid.com)
  • Prior absorption of normal human serum (NHS) or C2-deficient human serum (C2D) with zymosan at 0 degrees C results in diminished consumption of C3 and factor B during subsequent incubation of the sera in Mg-EGTA buffer with zymosan at 37 degrees C for 30 min. (jimmunol.org)
  • An acid eluate from the zymosan restores the defect of absorbed NHS and C2D, and also enhances C3 and factor B utilization in hypogammaglobulinemic serum (H gamma S) in a dose-dependent fashion. (jimmunol.org)
  • Zymosan (10 mg/mL, Sigma) was mixed with the serum of adult rockfish, which were not used in this feeding experiment, and incubated at 25[degrees]C for 30 min. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The various "decomplementing" methods (heat inactivation, zymosan adsorption, C4-inactivator treatment) prevented both the endotoxicity-enhancing and the detoxifying effect of rat serum. (springer.com)
  • The vitronectin production was further enhanced with the combination of zymosan and naïve human serum. (arvojournals.org)
  • By contrast, roles of autophagy and ATGs in fungal infections are still elusive relative to those in bacterial and viral infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • The role of the IL-17 pathway in fungal sepsis remains controversial. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protective effects of poly (ADP-ribose) synthase inhibitors in zymosan-activated plasma induced paw edema. (nih.gov)
  • This study investigated the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in isoflurane-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction in aged rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This model has been largely used in the study of knee arthritis, but to our knowledge, no study has used zymosan to induce TMJ arthritis. (hindawi.com)
  • H4 is highly expressed in bone marrow and white blood cells and regulates neutrophil release from bone marrow and subsequent infiltration in the zymosan-induced pleurisy mouse model. (wikipedia.org)
  • We undertook this study to investigate the role of these receptors in mediating neutrophil adhesion, subsequent migration, and neutrophildependent hypernociception in a murine model of monarticular antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). (docme.ru)
  • Previous work in our department showed a role for COX-2 derived PGD2 and its cyclopentenone metabolite 15d-PGJ2 during resolution in a pleurisy model. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Effects of hyperbaric oxygen exposure on a zymosan-induced shock model. (jamanetwork.com)
  • The objective of this study was to examine the role of fiber length on the cytotoxicity of Manville code 100 (JM-100) fibers. (cdc.gov)
  • A gel shift assay was used to examine the DNA-binding activity of NFkB in the zymosan A- treated cells. (cdc.gov)
  • However, when cell migration was elicited using zymosan, Ang-2 significantly inhibited leukocyte migration. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Role of GSK-3β in isoflurane-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive dysfunction in aged rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Enhanced phagocytic cell respiratory burst induced by spinal manipulation potential role of substance P (and) enhanced neutrophil respiratory burst as a biological marker for manipulation forces duration of the effect and association with substance P and tumor necrosis factor. (nih.gov)
  • Studies have showed that Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) plays an important role in the development of shock caused by many factors, such as zymosan-induced shock [ 2 ] and endotoxic shock [ 3 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Role of chemokines in tumor growth - Raman, Baugher, et al. (psu.edu)
  • Despite this experimental evidence showing an involvement of NO in TMJ arthritis, the role of the L-arginine : NO system remains controversial. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast, the role of Ang-2 remains less clear because it has been shown to behave as a Tie-2 agonist or antagonist under different experimental conditions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The phenomenon did not result from particle uptake itself, but the amount of light produced by the cells did depend on the zymosan concentration until a certain saturation point was achieved. (cdc.gov)
  • This maximum CL in the case of zymosan seemed to occur when there was one particle present in the medium for each cell. (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, LPS and zymosan produced a 4-fold to 6-fold increase in conjugated diene and lipid hydroperoxide levels in LDL fraction. (ahajournals.org)
  • Role of hyperbaric oxygen exposure in reduction of lipid peroxidation and in multiple organ failure induced by zymosan administration in the rat. (jamanetwork.com)
  • This zymosan is prepared from single cell yeast. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Enhanced phagocytic cell respiratory burst induced by spinal manipulation: potential role of substance P. (nih.gov)
  • 1999. Differential roles of TLR2 and TLR4 in recognition of gram- negative and gram-positive bacterial cell wall components. (invivogen.com)
  • We have found that Ang-2 administered alone promotes vascular leakage that is characterized by restricted migration of leukocytes, whereas it acts as an inhibitor of zymosan-induced cell migration. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The signal transduction events triggered by IgG-FcγR interaction and their role in the phagocytic process have been extensively studied (reviewed in Greenberg and Grinstein 1 and Daeron 7 ). (bloodjournal.org)