Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Phototropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to light. In plants, aerial shoots usually grow towards light. The phototropic response is thought to be controlled by auxin (= AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Gravitropism: The directional growth of organisms in response to gravity. In plants, the main root is positively gravitropic (growing downwards) and a main stem is negatively gravitropic (growing upwards), irrespective of the positions in which they are placed. Plant gravitropism is thought to be controlled by auxin (AUXINS), a plant growth substance. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Phytochrome: A blue-green biliprotein widely distributed in the plant kingdom.Phytochrome A: The primary plant photoreceptor responsible for perceiving and mediating responses to far-red light. It is a PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASE that is translocated to the CELL NUCLEUS in response to light signals.Phytochrome B: A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Darkness: The absence of light.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Cryptochromes: Flavoproteins that function as circadian rhythm signaling proteins in ANIMALS and as blue-light photoreceptors in PLANTS. They are structurally-related to DNA PHOTOLYASES and it is believed that both classes of proteins may have originated from an earlier protein that played a role in protecting primitive organisms from the cyclical exposure to UV LIGHT.Etiolation: Physical changes in the growth patterns of a plant brought on by sustained absence of light. These changes are characterized by lengthened internodes which produce long weak stems, fewer leaves, and pale yellow color (chlorosis). The physiological basis for etiolation is induction of the phytohormone, AUXIN.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Brassinosteroids: Plant steroids ubiquitously distributed throughout the plant kingdom. They play essential roles in modulating growth and differentiation of cells at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Gravity Sensing: Process whereby a cell, bodily structure, or organism (animal or plant) receives or detects a gravity stimulus. Gravity sensing plays an important role in the directional growth and development of an organism (GRAVITROPISM).Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.FlavoproteinsFabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Anthocyanins: A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Kinetin: A furanyl adenine found in PLANTS and FUNGI. It has plant growth regulation effects.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Pectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Circadian Clocks: Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Lepidium: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Photoreceptors, Plant: Plant proteins that mediate LIGHT SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They are involved in PHOTOTROPISM and other light adaption responses during plant growth and development . They include the phototropins, phytochromes (PHYTOCHROME), and members of the ubiquitous cryptochrome family.Steroids, Heterocyclic: Steroidal compounds in which one or more carbon atoms in the steroid ring system have been substituted with non-carbon atoms.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.
Its role as an ABA mimic may make pyrabactin an important tool for protecting crops against drought and cold weather. The ... Pyrabactin (for pyridyl containing ABA activator) is a naphthalene sulfonamide hypocotyl cell expansion inhibitor. A ...
... mutants often express an elongated hypocotyl phenotype due to excess growth during the night. The EC also plays a role in ... There is evidence for NOX having an important role in the regulation of the plant circadian oscillator; overexpression of NOX ... The EE may be bound by Circadian Clock Associated 1 (CCA1) and Late Elongated Hypocotyl (LHY) proteins to suppress expression ... LUX is also associated with circadian control of hypocotyl growth factor genes PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and ...
"Unexpected Roles for Cryptochrome 2 and Phototropin Revealed by High-resolution Analysis of Blue Light-mediated Hypocotyl ...
"Unexpected roles for cryptochrome 2 and phototropin revealed by high-resolution analysis of blue light-mediated hypocotyl ... He assumed the role of Interim Department Chair in 2012 and became the Chair in 2013. Borlaug CAST Communication Award, 2016 ...
LHY (late elongated hypocotyl) also has a Myb domain and functions early in the morning. Both LHY and CCA1 have similar ... "Critical Role for CCA1 and LHY in Maintaining Circadian Rhythmicity in Arabidopsis" Current Biology Vol. 12(9). (2002): 757-761 ... Light induces its transcription, and mRNA levels peak at dawn along with Late Elongated Hypocotyl (LHY). CCA1 and LHY associate ... "CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL Function Synergistically in the Circadian Clock of Arabidopsis" Plant ...
A second group of genes, PIN genes, have been found to play a major role in phototropism. They are auxin transporters, so it is ... pin3 mutants had shorter hypocotyls and roots than the wild-type, and the same phenotype was seen in plants grown with auxin ... PIN3 is normally localized to the surface of hypocotyl and stem, but is also internalized in the presence of Brefeldin A (BFA ... PIN3 and PIN7 proteins were thought to play a role in pulse-induced phototropism. The curvature responses in the "pin3" mutant ...
It is a growth promoter of cucumber hypocotyl segments. The auxinic action in terms of embryo formation is even better for ... These compounds may play a role in physiological sleep mechanisms. It may be a functional analog of serotonin or melatonin, ... "Induction of embryogenic callus in Cucurbita pepo hypocotyl explants by indole-3-ethanol and its sugar conjugates". Physiologia ... tryptophol arabinoside on Cucurbita pepo hypocotyl fragments. Tryptophol has been used as the starting material in the ...
However, the hypocotyls readily orient towards blue light. This process is may be caused by phytochrome disrupting the ... Meškauskas, A., Novak Frazer, L. N., & Moore, D. (1999). "Mathematical modelling of morphogenesis in fungi: a key role for ... Statoliths are also found in the endodermic layer of the hypocotyl, stem, and inflorescence stock. The redistribution of auxin ... In seedlings, red and far-red light both inhibit negative gravitropism in seedling hypocotyls (the shoot area below the ...
With Kay's group, Millar identified roles for the ELF3 and ELF4 genes in the plant circadian system. Plants with loss-of- ... and Late Elongated Hypocotyl (LHY). These early efforts greatly contributed to efforts to understand the mechanisms underlying ...
The role of auxin[edit]. Auxin is a hormone related to the elongation and regulation of plants.[13] It also plays an important ... It gives rise to the hypocotyl, shoot apical meristem, and cotyledons.[6]. basal cell. The large basal cell is on the bottom ... Cooke, T. J.; Racusen, R. H.; Cohen, J. D. (November 1993). "The role of auxin in plant embryogenesis". Plant Cell. 11: 1494- ... The second domain, the central embryo domain , gives rise to the hypocotyl, root apical meristem, and parts of the cotyledons. ...
Ethylene's role in this developmental scenario is to move the plant away from a state of attracting pollinators, so it also ... Stimulation of Arabidopsis hypocotyl elongation [40]. *In pollination, when the pollen reaches the stigma, the precursor of the ... While the mechanism of ethylene-mediated senescence are unclear, its role as a senescence-directing hormone can be confirmed by ... Seedling triple response, thickening and shortening of hypocotyl with pronounced apical hook. ...
The DNA damage checkpoint kinase ATM has a major role in integrating progression through germination with repair responses to ... This shoot comprises three main parts: the cotyledons (seed leaves), the section of shoot below the cotyledons (hypocotyl), and ... In epigeal germination (or epigeous germination), the hypocotyl elongates and forms a hook, pulling rather than pushing the ...
The plant growth hormone auxin has also been observed to be involved in thigmotropic behavior in plants, but its role is not ... were applied on the same side of a cucumber hypocotyl, the stem will curve towards the touch. Like phototropism, a thigmotropic ... "Thigmotropism and the modulation of tropistic curvature by mechanical perturbation in cucumber hypocotyls". Physiologia ...
... used x-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis to ascertain the role of three critical residues within RGS2 that ... in increasing cell elongation in hypocotyls in darkness and increasing cell production in roots grown in light. The discovery ... an activity previously thought to be the exclusive role of the Gβγ subunit. Siderovski's 2002 Nature paper established the ... have more recently revealed important insights into the role of neutrophil migration during the initiating stages of rheumatoid ...
LHY - The LHY gene, also known as the Late Elongated Hypocotyl gene, is a gene found in plants that encodes components of ... In addition to these feedback loops, post-translational modifications also play a role in changing the characteristics of the ... Griffin, EA; Staknis, D; Weitz, CJ (1999). "Light-independent role of CRY1 and CRY2 in the mammalian circadian clock". Science ... Moreno-Risueno, Miguel; Benfey, Phillip N. (2011). "Time-based patterning in development: the role of oscillating gene ...
However, the ability to perceive and respond to shade plays a very important role in all plants: they are sessile by nature and ... Auxin is transported to the hypocotyl to promote elongation, although the mechanism it uses to do so remains unclear. Shade ... Auxin signalling is also essential to hyponasty, though its role is not yet fully understood. Leaf curling is primarily a ... Water-imbibed seeds display hypocotyl elongation; if the shade were caused by excessive soil depth, this would help the ...
... owes its names to its role in the abscission of plant leaves. In preparation for winter, ABA is produced in ... is a naphthalene sulfonamide hypocotyl cell expansion inhibitor, which is an agonist of the seed ABA signaling pathway. It is ... Currently, its biosynthesis and biological role in animals is poorly known. ABA has recently been shown to elicit potent anti- ... One role of ABA produced by these pathogens seems to be to suppress the plant immune responses. ABA has also been found to be ...
Albuminous cells have a similar role to companion cells, but are associated with sieve cells only and are hence found only in ... In the embryo, root phloem develops independently in the upper hypocotyl, which lies between the embryonic root, and the ... Phloem sap is also thought to play a role in sending informational signals throughout vascular plants. "Loading and unloading ...
GALA 7 is necessary for virulence on Medicago truncatula, hinting that T3E diversity may play a role in determining the broad ... At this time, extracellular polysaccharide (EPS1) content is about 10 μg/g tissue in the taproot, hypocotyl, and midstem; EPS1 ... although some researchers hypothesize that gene-for-gene interactions may play a significant role in shaping virulence genes in ...
... few realize that plant sensitivity to light plays a role in the control of plant structural development (morphogenesis). The ... and the straightening of the epicotyl or hypocotyl hook of dicot seedlings. Many flowering plants use the pigment phytochrome ...
... has been isolated from a number of tissues in higher plants: cotyledon, hypocotyl and roots of ... which suggests that it might play a role in plant defences as a precursor to phytoalexins (defensive compounds produced by the ...
Most of the biological roles of AGPs have been identified through T-DNA insertional mutants characterization of genes or ... and GlcAT14C showed enhanced cell elongation rates in dark grown hypocotyls and light grown roots during seedling growth. In ... Li, Wenhua L.; Liu, Yuanyuan; Douglas, Carl J. (2017-01-01). "Role of Glycosyltransferases in Pollen Wall Primexine Formation ...
PRR7 and PRR9 also play a role in the entrainment of A. thaliana to a temperature cycle. Double-mutant plants with inactivated ... With regard to light sensitivity, particularly in red light which is associated with hypocotyl lengthening, all PRR mutants ... and Late Elongated Hypocotyl (LHY) at various times throughout the day. The expression of PRR9, PRR7, PRR5 and TOC1/PRR1 peak ...
doi:10.1016/s0953-7562(09)80867-8. Mouen Bedimo, J. A.; Bieysse, D.; Nyassé, S.; Nottéghem, J. L.; Cilas, C. (2010). "Role of ... commonly seed hypocotyls) to speed up the resistance screening process. Fungicide applications are the primary management ... "Appressorium turgor pressure of Colletotrichum kahawae might have a role in coffee cuticle penetration". Mycologia. 96: 1199- ...
The cardioprotective role effect of garlic is caused by catabolism of the polysulfide group in allicin to H 2S, a reaction that ... Ethylene in plant induces such responses: Seedling triple response, thickening and shortening of hypocotyl with pronounced ... The role of sulfur dioxide in mammalian biology is not yet well understood. Sulfur dioxide blocks nerve signals from the ... The biological roles of each of the gaseous signaling molecules are in short outlined below. Gasotransmitters is a subfamily of ...
Ovi spojevi mogu imati ulogu u fiziološkim mehanizmima spavanja.[17] These compounds may play a role in physiological sleep ... "Induction of embryogenic callus in Cucurbita pepo hypocotyl explants by indole-3-ethanol and its sugar conjugates". Physiologia ...
Morrell, Clare Katrina (1987) The role of calcium in auxin-induced cell elongation of Cucumis sativus hypocotyls. University of ... The role of calcium in auxin-induced cell elongation of Cucumis sativus hypocotyls ... The role of calcium in auxin-induced cell elongation of Cucumis sativus hypocotyls ... The role of calcium in auxin-induced cell elongation of Cucumis sativus hypocotyls ...
In the top third of the hypocotyl, ACC and GR24 have antagonistic roles in adventitious root formation, with ACC as an enhancer ... Also in adventitious root development in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, auxin plays a central role. The auxin maximum required for ... Hypocotyl elongation is also more strongly inhibited by light in the top half of the hypocotyl and can be rescued by exogenous ... In Columbia wild type, the top third of the hypocotyl contains nearly half of the total cells in the length of the hypocotyl ( ...
A variety of experiments with these mutants show that BRs play a major role in hypocotyl elongation in the light and dark. ... Our results suggest that auxin is required for hypocotyl elongation during photomorphogenesis, but has a limited role during ... To further investigate the role of auxin and auxin transport in hypocotyl elongation, we have examined the effects of NPA on ... and the transgenic plants suggest that the roles of auxin and BR in hypocotyl elongation function independently, at least to ...
The Role of Wall Ca^,2+, in the Regulation of Wall Extensibility During the Acid-induced Extension of Soybean Hypocotyl Cell ... Wall-Yielding Properties of Cell Walls from Elongating Cucumber Hypocotyls in Relation to the Action of Expansin * * Takahashi ... The Characteristics of the Adjustment in the pH of the Xylem Exudate of Segments of Vigna Hypocotyls during Xylem Perfusion : ... Auxin Changes Both the Extensibility and the Yield Threshold of the of Cell Wall of Vigna Hypocotyls : Nakahori Kiyoshi , Katou ...
S4). This tall hypocotyl phenotype of these six GI alleles in blue light further supports the role for GI in blue light ... Hypocotyl Analysis. Hypocotyl length was assayed by sowing seeds on Murashige and Skoog agar plates containing 3% Suc before ... To further investigate the role of GI in photomorphogenesis, we examined hypocotyl elongation in many GI alleles under LL of a ... Schultz TF, Kiyosue T, Yanovsky M, Wada M, Kay SA (2001) A role for LKP2 in the circadian clock of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell 13: ...
Brassinosteroids are known to have a role in hypocotyl elongation on both light- and dark-grown seedlings (31). Thus, it is ... The hypocotyls of wild-type seedlings grown at 29°C were 4- to 5-fold longer than the hypocotyls of 20°C grown seedlings (Fig. ... Measurement of Hypocotyl and Cell Length.. Hypocotyl lengths of 9-day-old seedlings were measured from shadow projections with ... The Arabidopsis hypocotyl is a useful model for investigating the regulation of plant growth. Hypocotyl elongation in ...
Roles of AGCVIII kinases in the hypocotyl phototropism of Arabidopsis seedlings (Plant Cell Physiol.) June 8, 2018. /in What ... They have demonstrated that D6PK (D6 PROTEIN KINASEs) plays critical role in hypocotyl phototropism. Additionally, AGC1-12, ... D6PK and AGC1-12 play functionally important role for maintaining both phototropism and gravitropism in the hypocotyl by ...
These compounds are proposed to play a role in plant wound and pathogen responses. Here we report the quantitative ... Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression. R A Creelman, M L ... Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression ... Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate wound gene expression ...
... to study changes in cell-wall mechanics associated with growth symmetry breaking within the hypocotyl epidermis. We show that, ... The Multifaceted Role of Pectin Methylesterase Inhibitors (PMEIs). *Alexandra Wormit, Björn Usadel ... Expanding roles for pectins in plant development Running title : Pectins and Plant Development. *Adam M. Saffer ... The Control of Growth Symmetry Breaking in the Arabidopsis Hypocotyl. @article{Peaucelle2015TheCO, title={The Control of Growth ...
Especially, soluble dietary fiber plays an important role in stabilizing blood sugar and blood cholesterol. The total dietary ... Then the air-dried maca hypocotyls were grounded into fine powder (to 75 μm particle size) using a crusher and freeze-dried. ... The Nutritional Composition of Maca in Hypocotyls (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) Cultivated in Different Regions of China,. Journal ... The Nutritional Composition of Maca in Hypocotyls (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) Cultivated in Different Regions of China. ...
... in the hypocotyls were also markedly increased by N limitation, with Suc showing the highest increase. Inhibition of ... first comprehensive study on relationship between N deficiency and sugar content on anthocyanin accumulation in the hypocotyls ... Flavonoid Accumulation Plays an Important Role in the Rust Resistance of Malus Plant Leaves. Yanfen Lu, Qi Chen, +5 authors ... Increased Sucrose in the Hypocotyls of Radish Sprouts Contributes to Nitrogen Deficiency-Induced Anthocyanin Accumulation. @ ...
Role of TOC1 in the Control of Hypocotyl Elongation during Seedling Deetiolation. Our results show a strong degree of enhanced ... We next examined the possible involvement of TOC1 in the light-dependent control of hypocotyl growth. Hypocotyl length was ... and long hypocotyls (data not shown). These results exclude the possibility that the long-hypocotyl phenotypes are attributable ... A) to (F) Inhibition of hypocotyl extension at the indicated intensities of blue light (BL; [A] and [B]), red light (RL; [C] ...
... is an ambient temperature-responsive microRNA that plays an important role in stress responses and the floral transition. ... In this study, we show that ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5-HOMOLOG (HYH) directly binds to the promoter of MIR169a and negatively ... In this study, we show that ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5-HOMOLOG (HYH) directly binds to the promoter of MIR169a and negatively ... is an ambient temperature-responsive microRNA that plays an important role in stress responses and the floral transition. ...
2) Identification GA-downstream factors that play a role in xylem expansion. During Arabidopsis hypocotyl development we can ... whereas the hypocotyl presents a continuous structure as the hypocotyl stops to elongate after few days and then growth only ... Arabidopsis hypocotyl as a model. Despite being herbaceous Arabidopsis has been recently shown to be a good model to study ... Moreover it can even be even misleading i.e Col and Ler two Arabidopsis strains differ in hypocotyl diameter with Col being the ...
Surely the role of the SAURs has already been demonstrated by the Gray lab (Spartz et al.). Again, refer to point one above. ... In A-D curves correspond to 6 hypocotyl segments, errorbars represent stdev.s. (E) Hypocotyl segments of AHA2δ95start to ... While the heat-shocked control hypocotyls bent upwards, the HS::axr3-1 line was utterly agravitropic (Figure 5D). Hypocotyl ... To measure the bending of hypocotyls after gravistimulation, the angle of the upper part of the hypocotyl was measured 6 hr ...
The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to ... Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid ... The hypocotyls are known to serve as floats during seed dispersal (hydrochory) and store nutrients that allow the seedling to ... Hypocotyl diameter variations were also monitored in the field on a Rhizophora species. The saplings were able to buffer rapid ...
The role of auxin induced ethylene synthesis and phase-dependent effects," Plant Growth Regulation, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 203-209 ... R. Pan and X. Tian, "Comparative effect of IBA, BSAA and 5,6-Cl2-IAA-Me on the rooting of hypocotyl in mung bean," Plant Growth ... Uniform seedlings with 6-7 cm long hypocotyls were cut 5 cm below the cotyledons and roots were removed. For precise dosing, ... Various plant growth regulators have been tested for rooting of mung bean hypocotyl cuttings [5-7]. Besides growth regulators, ...
To understand the transcriptional responses to flooding stress in roots including hypocotyl of soybean seedlings, genome-wide ... Furthermore, we found that flooding-specific up-regulation of genes encoding small proteins which might have roles in ... More than 6,000 of flooding-responsive genes in the roots including hypocotyl of soybean seedlings were identified. The ... Creelman RA, Tierney ML, Mullet JE (1992) Jasmonic acid/methyl jasmonate accumulate in wounded soybean hypocotyls and modulate ...
... hypocotyls; Co, cotyledons; Ro, roots; FB, floral buds; Fl, flowers; iS, immature siliques; mS, mature siliques; St, stems; RL ... A Pair of Related Genes with Antagonistic Roles in Mediating Flowering Signals ... A Pair of Related Genes with Antagonistic Roles in Mediating Flowering Signals ... A Pair of Related Genes with Antagonistic Roles in Mediating Flowering Signals ...
Its role as an ABA mimic may make pyrabactin an important tool for protecting crops against drought and cold weather. The ... Pyrabactin (for pyridyl containing ABA activator) is a naphthalene sulfonamide hypocotyl cell expansion inhibitor. A ...
hypocotyl elongation, but not seed germination, response to karrikins.. These results reveal a role for karrikins in priming ... inhibition of hypocotyl elongation were enhanced in the presence of. germination-active karrikins. HY5 is important for the ... New Role for Karrikins. Posted by Joseph j7uy5 on April 5, 2010 ... Dr Nelson said fires played a major role in shaping the ...
S4 Hypocotyl (a) and root (b) lengths of ctr1, rap2.2-3 ctr1, rap2.12-1 ctr1, rap2.2-3 rap2.12-1 ctr1 and the wildtype plants ... The hypocotyls of rap2.2-3 rap2.12-1 double mutants showed ethylene insensitivity. The constitutive triple response in ... Arabidopsis RAP2.2 plays an important role in plant resistance to Botrytis cinerea and ethylene responses. Authors. *. Yang ... Here, we evaluated the role of an ERF transcription factor, RELATED TO AP2 2 (RAP2.2), in Botrytis resistance and ethylene ...
... to study under salinity stress because the betalain accumulation could play an important role in protecting quinoa hypocotyl. ... EBCs play important roles in halophyte plants, such quinoa and Atriplex species. Their primary roles are the sequestration of ... Vierling, E. The roles of heat shock proteins in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. Plant Mol. Biol. 1991, 42, 579-620. [Google ... Jacobsen, S.-E.; Liu, F.; Jensen, C.R. Does root-sourced ABA play a role for regulation of stomata under drought in quinoa ( ...
Roles of MSH2 and MSH6 in cadmium-induced G2/M checkpoint arrest in Arabidopsis roots. Chemosphere 201, pp. 586-594. (10.1016/j ... Gene dosage effect of WEE1 on growth and morphogenesis from arabidopsis hypocotyl explants. Annals of Botany 110(8), pp. 1631- ... Roles of MSH2 and MSH6 in cadmium-induced G2/M checkpoint arrest in Arabidopsis roots. Chemosphere 201, pp. 586-594. (10.1016/j ... 7). The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in petal senescence is far from clear (Rogers, 2012) and we are currently ...
LUX mutants often express an elongated hypocotyl phenotype due to excess growth during the night. The EC also plays a role in ... There is evidence for NOX having an important role in the regulation of the plant circadian oscillator; overexpression of NOX ... The EE may be bound by Circadian Clock Associated 1 (CCA1) and Late Elongated Hypocotyl (LHY) proteins to suppress expression ... LUX is also associated with circadian control of hypocotyl growth factor genes PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and ...
  • Addition of MeJA to soybean suspension cultures also increased mRNA levels for three wound-responsive genes (chalcone synthase, vegetative storage protein, and proline-rich cell wall protein) suggesting a role for MeJA/JA in the mediation of several changes in gene expression associated with the plants' response to wounding. (pnas.org)
  • More than 6,000 of flooding-responsive genes in the roots including hypocotyl of soybean seedlings were identified. (springer.com)
  • Furthermore, we found that flooding-specific up-regulation of genes encoding small proteins which might have roles in acclimation to flooding. (springer.com)
  • LUX is also associated with circadian control of hypocotyl growth factor genes PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 5 (PIF5). (wikipedia.org)
  • In this objective, this research group will look into the role of outcrossing in diversifying populations of P. sojae, which may be contributing to the rapid adaptation of this pathogen to deployed R-genes (resistance genes). (usda.gov)
  • Established cultural techniques and markers linked to known avir genes will be used to evaluate the role of outcrossing in diversifying populations of Phytophthora sojae. (usda.gov)
  • To date, it is not known which genes specifically instruct these precursor cells to elaborate cotyledons, nor is the role of auxin in cotyledon development clear. (biologists.org)
  • En esta revisión, mostramos los resultados más recientes sobre los mecanismos involucrados en la biosíntesis de carotenoides mediada por luz y el efecto de la luz sobre la expresión de genes carotenogénicos en plantas. (scielo.cl)
  • Los estudios moleculares en torno a la expresión de genes carotenogénicos inducidos por luz permitirán facilitar el entendimiento de la regulación de la biosíntesis de carotenoides. (scielo.cl)
  • Our results lay a solid foundation for further studying the roles of candidate genes and miRNAs in Suaeda aralocaspica dimorphic seed germination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The motif co-occurrence analysis on the promoters of genes from an early up-regulated cluster showed the important roles of GCC box, HSE, ABRE, and CE3 in response to heat stress. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this study we show that a SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler subunit, BAF60, represses seedling growth by modulating DNA accessibility of hypocotyl cell size regulatory genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • BAF60 binds nucleosome-free regions of multiple G box-containing genes, opposing in cis the promoting effect of the photomorphogenic and thermomorphogenic regulator Phytochrome Interacting Factor 4 (PIF4) on hypocotyl elongation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, the expression analysis revealed that the CsVQ genes play important roles in the process of tea plant growth, development and response to salt and drought stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, our hypothesis for this thesis is that transcriptional regulation of genes during seed development determines the composition and content of seed reserves, and that these seed reserves play a major role in seed germination and seedling growth, especially at the heterotrophic stage under optimal and sub-optimal conditions. (wur.nl)
  • S HI- R ELATED S EQUENCE ( SRS) genes are plant-specific transcription factors containing a zinc-binding RING finger motif, which play a critical role in plant growth and development. (ebscohost.com)
  • In Silico Analysis of the Genes Encoding Proteins that Are Involved in the Biosynthesis of the RMS/MAX/D Pathway Revealed New Roles of Strigolactones in Plants. (ebscohost.com)
  • Therefore, plant PHO1 genes have undergone a functional diversification and acquired diverse roles beyond Pi transport and homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The degradation of PIFs not only inhibits the elongation of hypocotyl but also promotes chloroplast development by activating photosynthetic genes. (duke.edu)
  • Phytohormone-stimulated cell cycle reactivation in hypocotyls was accompanied by tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins. (oup.com)
  • VQ motif-containing (VQ) proteins are plant-specific proteins that interact with WRKY transcription factors and play important roles in plant growth, development and stress response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, studies conducted over the prior several years have revealed that WRKY transcription factors physically interact with a wide range of proteins that play important roles in plant responses to various stresses [ 7 ], which has become a hotspot in the study of WRKY biological functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Increasing evidence suggests diverse roles for these proteins in NO production modulating plant development, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. (bl.uk)
  • These results demonstrate that plant NRT2 proteins do have a role in HATS. (labome.org)
  • RAB GTPases) and elucidate possible role of the exocyst in recycling of plasma membrane proteins. (cas.cz)
  • The inability of exogenous auxin to stimulate prolonged cell expansion led to the suggestion that auxin plays little if any role in regulating plant growth by cell elongation ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • These compounds are proposed to play a role in plant wound and pathogen responses. (pnas.org)
  • In this study we investigate to what degree the hypocotyls and leaves can serve as water reservoirs once seedlings have settled, helping the plant to buffer the rapid water potential changes that are typical for the mangrove environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Various plant growth regulators have been tested for rooting of mung bean hypocotyl cuttings [ 5 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • To investigate the possible role of Al in growth induction, we studied morphological, physiological as well as biochemical changes of tea plant under different Al concentrations (0-4,000 μM). (chemweb.com)
  • The plant hormone auxin is involved in embryogenesis, organogenesis, vascular tissue differentiation, and hypocotyl and root elongation, as well as growth responses to environmental stimuli. (plos.org)
  • In a perspective, I speculate on a role for plant hormones in immune modulation, besides an important function in nodule organogenesis. (wur.nl)
  • The roles of sterols in plant development are not well understood, but evidence is emerging that they are required for cell division, polarity and patterning by mechanisms that are independent of brassinosteroids, of which they are precursors. (ebscohost.com)
  • Nitrilases are nitrile-converting enzymes commonly found within the plant kingdom that play diverse roles in nitrile detoxification, nitrogen recycling, and phytohormone biosynthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To understand the place and role of polyamines in plant adaptation, we focus the data concerning gene expression obtained by modern physicochemical methods on mutant and transgenic plants and also on natural stress-tolerant species manifesting a high tolerance to salinity, drought, and other abiotic factors. (deepdyve.com)
  • In the experiments reported here, the overexpression approach was used to present evidence that RGS1 protein plays critical roles in plant development and in modulating abscisic acid (ABA) and drought stress signal transduction. (mendeley.com)
  • report that COP1 has a positive role in plant responses to low-level ultraviolet B (UV-B) irradiation through a mechanism that includes stimulation of expression of the HY5 gene. (sciencemag.org)
  • SCR/WS (35S) line of plant hypocotyls showed complete agravitropism. (auburn.edu)
  • This review evaluates recent advances concerning the plant ABCB subfamilies including their evolution and structure, the involvement and regulation of ABCB-mediated auxin transport, and the roles of ABCBs in plant growth and development. (springer.com)
  • 2004). The objective of the present study was to investigate whether sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, plays an important role in plant growth and developments on the selected crop seedlings. (walktocurecancer.org)
  • The program will involve Professor Nagy visiting Durham University in March 2014 and giving an open seminar on the role of Phytochromes in Plant growth and survival. (dur.ac.uk)
  • We attempt to identify interactors of such RABs as a tool to determine particular role of different RABs in the plant cell. (cas.cz)
  • Furthermore, we study RAB GDP dissociation inhibitors (RAB GDI) that belong to basic regulators of small GTPases with redundant functions and play essential role in the plant cell. (cas.cz)
  • GA regulates many essential plant developmental processes, while JA plays a dominant role in mediating. (ebscohost.com)
  • Light plays a key role in multiple plant developmental processes. (ebscohost.com)
  • K. M. Folta, M. A. Pontin, G. Karlin-Neumann, R. Bottini, and E. P. Spalding, "Genomic and physiological studies of early cryptochrome 1 action demonstrate roles for auxin and gibberellin in the control of hypocotyl growth by blue light," The Plant J., Vol.36, pp. 203-214, 2003. (fujipress.jp)
  • An end stage embryo has five major components including the shoot apical meristem , hypocotyl , root meristem, root cap, and cotyledons . (wikipedia.org)
  • . It gives rise to the hypocotyl , shoot apical meristem , and cotyledons . (wikipedia.org)
  • reporter gene construct indicate that GH3.9 is expressed in the root-hypocotyl junction, leaves and the shoot apical meristem of young seedlings, in mature embryos, and in the root vascular tissue. (unl.edu)
  • 2011). To overcome this problem we recently developed a new approach, to study hypocotyl development in a quantitative way, that we called the quantitative histology approach. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • In addition, the GsMATE protein is an Al-induced citrate transporter of the MATE family and exerts an essential role in Al tolerance in Glycine soja . (biomedcentral.com)
  • inproceedings{Su2016IncreasedSI, title={Increased Sucrose in the Hypocotyls of Radish Sprouts Contributes to Nitrogen Deficiency-Induced Anthocyanin Accumulation}, author={Nana Su and Qi Wu and Jin Lei Cui}, booktitle={Front. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sucrose is able to restore the severely reduced starch and lipid contents as well as the deficient endodermal plastid size found in light-grown egy1 hypocotyls yet it fails to rescue the reduced plastid number and chlorophyll level in egy1 endodermal cells. (deepdyve.com)
  • Here, we show that PIF1, 3, 4, 5 together play a central role in sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation. (nih.gov)
  • Subsequent experiments showed that under various light/dark (L/D) cycle conditions sucrose still markedly induced hypocotyl elongation in Col-0, but exhibited little effects in pifq. (nih.gov)
  • Phytohormone gibberellins (GAs) have been proven to be required for sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation, but application of GA(3) (an active form of GAs) was not able to rescue the impairment observed in pifq, suggesting that impairment of sucrose-induced hypocotyl elongation in pifq is not due to the reduced endogenous GAs. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally, under continuous light condition, sucrose markedly inhibited the hypocotyl elongation in Col-0 but not in pifq, whereas exogenous GA(3) could recover the repression in Col-0 but only showed slight effect in pifq. (nih.gov)
  • Thus GI function in the regulation of a clock output can be biochemically separated from its role within the circadian clock. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Furthermore, the red light-mediated induction of CCA1/LHY expression was decreased in TOC1 RNA interference and toc1-2 mutant plants, indicating a role for TOC1 in the phytochrome regulation of circadian gene expression. (plantcell.org)
  • In the last few years considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the regulation and role of AOX. (scielo.br)
  • However, it plays an indirect role in regulation of endodermal plastid size. (deepdyve.com)
  • Shevyakova, N. 2006-08-29 00:00:00 In this review, we consider recent advances in the study of the multifaceted biological role of polyamines, primarily under stress conditions, discuss molecular mechanisms controlling their anabolism, catabolism, and transport, and also the regulation of gene expression for key enzymes of their biosynthesis and degradation. (deepdyve.com)
  • Here we discuss recent studies that suggest roles for protein phosphorylation in regulation of both auxin responses and polar auxin transport. (nih.gov)
  • Little peptides with big roles: regulation of apical meristems by CLE peptides. (purdue.edu)
  • Here, we review the evidence for the role of GA in these processes, and the regulation of the GA signalling pathway on exposure to abiotic stress. (biologists.org)
  • These cumulative data support an important role of NR and specifically NIAl in the regulation of hypoxic stress tolerance mechanisms at the physiological and molecular level. (bl.uk)
  • In tomato seedlings the hypocotyls length were significantly inhibited by the UV-B radiations and the phyB1 showed a negative regulation of stem elongation. (unipi.it)
  • In fact, it was recently proved that HY5 inhibits PIF4-directed hypocotyl elongation by competitive chromatin binding to common targets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Heterologous expression and physiological analyses indicate that phosphorylation of ABCB19 by phot1 inhibits its efflux activity, thereby increasing auxin levels in and above the hypocotyl apex to halt vertical growth and prime lateral fluxes that are subsequently channeled to the elongation zone by PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3). (unl.edu)
  • We exposed saplings of two Rhizophoraceae species to three levels of salinity (15, 30, and 0-5‰, in that sequence) while non-invasively monitoring changes in hypocotyl and leaf water content by means of mobile NMR sensors. (frontiersin.org)
  • As a proxy for water content, changes in hypocotyl diameter and leaf thickness were monitored by means of dendrometers. (frontiersin.org)
  • At warm temperatures, plants exhibit diverse architectural adjustments, including hypocotyl and petiole elongation, leaf hyponasty, and reduced stomatal density. (nih.gov)
  • We have identified an additional environmental control of hypocotyl growth. (pnas.org)
  • A key advantage of using the hypocotyl as a model is that elongation and radial growth are uncoupled. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • The apical region of each seedling's hypocotyl (2 cm) was excised after five days of growth for all experiments. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • Overall, our results suggest that the LUX gene has diverged in soybean where GmLUXb and GmLUXc share the role to control flowering time, but GmLUXc has evolved to regulate anther filament growth and seed set by regulating the Gibberellin hormone biosynthesis pathway. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • A central role for the gibberellin (GA) class of growth hormones in the response to abiotic stress is becoming increasingly evident. (biologists.org)
  • Moreover, amino acyl-beta-naphthylamide (aa-NA) conjugates resembling NPA in structure have NPA-like inhibitory activity on growth, suggesting a possible role of APs in NPA action. (nih.gov)
  • Together, these results provide new insights into the roles of ABCB19 and PIN3 in establishing phototropic curvatures and demonstrate that the proximity of light perception and differential phototropic growth is conserved in angiosperms. (unl.edu)
  • Here we report the role of a previously uncharacterized GH3 gene family member, GH3.9 , in root growth. (unl.edu)
  • We also provide evidence that ELF3, for which so far only a growth inhibitory role has been reported, can also act as a growth promoter under certain conditions. (ipb-halle.de)
  • The ability of exogenous auxin to promote cell elongation in excised stem and hypocotyl segments has been studied extensively ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • More recent studies, however, have found a correlation between endogenous auxin levels and stem and/or hypocotyl length ( 4 , 11 , 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Analysis of shoot internal morphology indicates that both the hypocotyl and the inflorescence stem have defective radial patterning (missing one ground tissue layer) that leads to shoots to agravitropism. (auburn.edu)
  • It's well established that photomorphogenic response are regulated from a complex interactions within a network of phytochrome, cryptochrome and UV-B phototransduction pathways in seedlings, on the other hand no information are available on the role of this interactions for accumulation of flavonoid and phenolic acids in tomato fruits. (unipi.it)
  • Lack of either results in a defective oscillator causing severely compromised output pathways, such as photoperiodic flowering and hypocotyl elongation. (ipb-halle.de)
  • In the screen for upstream regulators we identified a LONG PALE HYPOCOTYL (LPH) gene whose activity is indispensable for spatiotemporally correct expression of CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT-1 (CKI1), encoding the constitutively active sensor histidine kinase that activates MSP signaling. (muni.cz)
  • Loss-of-function genetic analysis plays a pivotal role in elucidating individual gene function as well as interactions among gene networks. (g3journal.org)
  • However, certain aspects of T-DNA alleles require caution, as highlighted in this study of an intronic insertion mutant ( ben1-1 ) in the BEN1 ( B RI1-5 EN HANCED 1 ) gene. (g3journal.org)
  • These complications associated with T-DNA-insertion alleles require caution, as highlighted in this study of an intronic insertion mutant ( ben1-1 ) in the BEN1 ( B RI1-5 EN HANCED 1 ) gene. (g3journal.org)
  • Lastly, the role of the alternative oxidase in non-thermogenic tissues is discussed in relation to the energy metabolism balance of the cell (supply in reducing equivalents/demand in energy and carbon) and with harmful reactive oxygen species formation. (scielo.br)
  • Light input plays an important role in adjusting the clock's phase as well as maintaining its pace, allowing for perception of both daily and seasonal information ( Aschoff, 1979 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • The EC also plays a role in the detection and response to temperature. (wikipedia.org)
  • FCA plays a dual role in this thermal response. (nih.gov)
  • Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a fundamental role in mammary gland development. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It plays a direct role in controlling the light-induced chlorophyll production, grana formation and plastid replication in endodermal cell. (deepdyve.com)
  • SHB1 plays dual roles in photoperiodic and autonomous flowering. (purdue.edu)
  • Background: SNP has recently been considered a new member of the phytohormones, which plays an important role in different physiological processes. (walktocurecancer.org)
  • 2010). During cell division, the exocyst also plays an important role in establishment and maturation of the new wall separating daughter cells (Fendrych et al. (cas.cz)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that iron plays a role in fungal-host interactions in both leaves [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] and roots [ 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Phytochrome interacting factors (PIFs) are members of a subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix transcript factors and have been proposed to act as positive regulators of hypocotyl elongation under normal condition. (nih.gov)
  • Based on homologies with glycosyltransferases of known functions, putative roles in the RG-II biosynthesis are proposed for some GT candidates. (plos.org)
  • The results suggest also that GGM-derived oligosaccharides may play an important role in adventitious roots elongation but not in their formation. (hindawi.com)
  • Cuttings were prepared from 6-day old seedlings each consisting of an apical bud, a pair of primary leaves, an epicotyl, and the uppermost 3.0 cm of a hypocotyl. (sinica.edu.tw)
  • Phytochromes have the capacity to steadily and rapidly sense changes in the incident light composition and thus play a key role in the dynamic adaptation of plants. (dur.ac.uk)
  • It was confirmed by the upregulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase) suggesting their possible role in providing protection against EMFr-induced oxidative damage. (stopumts.nl)
  • Its role as an ABA mimic may make pyrabactin an important tool for protecting crops against drought and cold weather. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study highlighted that protein tyrosine phosphorylation may play an important regulatory role in phytohormone-stimulated cell proliferation. (oup.com)
  • Thus, metal-binding siderophores secreted by fungi, which regulate iron distribution, play an important role in virulence [ 1 , 3 , 5 ] and in maintaining the mutualistic interaction of mycorrhizae [ 9 ]. (mdpi.com)