A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The family Hirundinidae, comprised of small BIRDS that hunt flying INSECTS while in sustained flight.
Virus diseases caused by the TOGAVIRIDAE.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.
A family of wingless, blood-sucking insects of the suborder HETEROPTERA, including the bedbugs and related forms. Cimex (BEDBUGS), Heamatosiphon, and Oeciacus are medically important genera. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The family Passeridae comprised of small, mainly brown and grey seed-eating birds with conical bills.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. Included are some members of the following families: ARENAVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; TOGAVIRIDAE; and FLAVIVIRIDAE. (From Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed)
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Infections caused by arthropod-borne viruses, general or unspecified.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines in the United States, southern Canada, and parts of South America.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The amount of DNA (or RNA) in one copy of a genome.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The complete gene complement contained in a set of chromosomes in a fungus.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
Diseases of plants.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
Viruses that produce tumors.
The genetic complement of an archaeal organism (ARCHAEA) as represented in its DNA.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose members preferentially inhabit the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts. The genus contains many species. Newly described members of human enteroviruses are assigned continuous numbers with the species designated "human enterovirus".
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
RNA viruses) replicate within the nucleus. Segmented genomes: Bunyaviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Arenaviridae, and Reoviridae ( ... "Togaviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-10. Viruses portal. ... As a general rule, DNA viruses replicate within the cell nucleus while RNA viruses replicate within the cytoplasm. Exceptions ... A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus ...
From the viral RNA, a double-stranded RNA template is made. This dsRNA template then is transcribed and replicated, which is ... After being taken in through endocytosis, a low pH triggers a membrane fusion, which delivers the viral RNA genomes into the ... It is of the viral family Togaviridae. It was isolated from mosquitos in 1957 in South Africa, MDIV antigens have now been ... Middelburg virus is a single stranded, linearly arranged, positive stranded RNA virus. MIDV has an enveloped capsid that ...
... the 26S RNA - is replicated from a negative-stranded RNA intermediate. This serves as template for the synthesis of viral ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Martellivirales Family: Togaviridae Genus: Alphavirus Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus ... enveloped viruses with a genome of a single strand of positive-sense RNA. The total genome length ranges between 11,000 and ... virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Ndumu virus O'nyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon ...
It was first isolated in 1953 in Tanzania and is an RNA virus with a positive-sense single-stranded genome of about 11.6kb. It ... Several animal models have also suggested Chikungunya virus may establish persistent infections. In a mouse model, viral RNA ... It appears that in vitro, Chikungunya virus is able to replicate in human epithelial and endothelial cells, primary fibroblasts ... Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), is a member of the genus Alphavirus, and family Togaviridae. ...
Matonaviridae remains part of the realm that it was already in as Togaviridae, Riboviria, because of its RNA genome and RNA ... The sequences for the structural proteins are first replicated by the viral RNA polymerase (Replicase) via a complementary (-) ... Phylogenetic analysis of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of alphaviruses, rubella virus and other positive-sense RNA viruses ... Chen MH, Icenogle JP (April 2004). "Rubella virus capsid protein modulates viral genome replication and virus infectivity". ...
The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine ... Semliki Forest virus has been used extensively in biological research as a model of the viral life cycle and of viral ... The SFV virus was genetically modified with microRNA target sequences so that it only replicated in brain tumour cells and not ... Togaviridae. *Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. * ...
Numerous RNA viruses are capable of genetic recombination when at least two viral genomes are present in the same host cell. ... are not considered RNA viruses because they use DNA intermediates to replicate. Reverse transcriptase, a viral enzyme that ... This analysis suggests that alphaviruses and flaviviruses can be separated into two families-the Togaviridae and Flaviridae, ... ve RNA ancestor and the -ve RNA viruses from within the dsRNA viruses. The closest relation to the -ve stranded RNA viruses is ...
RNA genome, which encompasses two ORF's (Open Reading Frame which is an incessant stretch of codons that do not contain a stop ... Therefore, with further study the Eilat virus can compensate in making clear the viral factors other pathogenic similar viruses ... However, the Eilat virus can replicate consummately in an insect host and fails completely to even enter the cells of ... The Eilat virus is from the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. Alphaviruses are miniature spherical shaped (around 70 nm in ...
ZIKV can persist in semen for several months, with viral RNA detected up to one year. The virus replicates in the human testis ... Viral genome replication depends on the making of double-stranded RNA from the single-stranded, positive-sense RNA (ssRNA(+)) ... "Zika virus (strain Mr 766)". Viral Zone. Schmaljohn AL, McClain D (1996). "54. Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) and Flaviviruses ( ... positive-sense RNA genome. It is most closely related to the Spondweni virus and is one of the two known viruses in the ...
When the virus reactivates into lytic replication, it is believed that the virus genome is replicated as a continuous linear ... PAN, polyadenylated nuclear RNA - non-coding linear and circular RNAs miRNAs (mirKs) - viral microRNAs expressed during latency ... Togaviridae. *Rubella virus *Rubella. *Congenital rubella syndrome ("German measles" ). *Alphavirus infection. *Chikungunya ... Once the virus newly infects a cell, the lipid membrane is shed and the virion travels to the nucleus. The viral genome is ...
The DENV genome is about 11000 bases of positive-sense, single stranded RNA (ssRNA) that codes for three structural proteins ( ... When macrophages consume the 'neutralized' virus, the virus is able to replicate within the macrophage, causing disease. These ... Dengue virus is transmitted by species of the mosquito genus Aedes. Several molecules that interact with the viral E protein ( ... 54: Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) and Flaviviruses (Flaviviridae)". In Baron S (ed.). Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). University ...
Viral genome replication depends on the making of double-stranded RNA from the single-stranded, positive-sense RNA (ssRNA(+)) ... Zika virus replicates in the mosquito's midgut epithelial cells and then its salivary gland cells. After 5-10 days, the virus ... ViralZone: Zika virus (strain Mr 766). *. Schmaljohn AL, McClain D (1996). "54. Alphaviruses (Togaviridae) and Flaviviruses ( ... positive-sense RNA genome. It is most closely related to the Spondweni virus and is one of the two known viruses in the ...
The positive- or plus-sense genome, then makes viral complementary RNA (vcRNA) copies of itself. The RNA copies are a template ... Lassa virus replicates very rapidly, and demonstrates temporal control in replication.[19] The first replication step is ... Structure and genome[edit]. Lassa viruses[12][13] are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented, ambisense RNA viruses. Their ... both S and L RNA genomes synthesize the antigenomic S and L RNAs, and from the antigenomic RNAs, genomic S and L RNA are ...
DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... HPV genomes integrate into host genome by disruption of E2 ORF, preventing E2 repression on E6 and E7. Thus, viral genome ... HPV infection is limited to the basal cells of stratified epithelium, the only tissue in which they replicate.[91] The virus ... Togaviridae. *Rubella virus *Rubella. *Congenital rubella syndrome ("German measles" ). *Alphavirus infection. *Chikungunya ...
... and the virus. The full genome of the virus is integrated into the genome of the wasp and the virus only replicates in a ... They promote viral RNA destruction. MicroRNA attach to viral-RNA because they are complementary. Then the complex is recognised ... the genome of each virus is integrated into the host wasp genome ... the genome of the virus has eukaryotic characteristic such as ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015.. *^ Webb, B. A. (1998). Polydnavirus biology, genome structure, and ...
... is unique among viral polymerases in that it has reverse transcriptase activity to convert RNA into DNA to replicate the genome ... Endogenous hepatitis B virus genomes have been described in crocodilian, snake and turtle genomes.[7] This suggests that these ... These envelope proteins can assemble independently of the viral capsid and genome into non-infectious virus-like particles that ... Inside this capsid the genome is converted from RNA to pdsDNA through activity of the polymerase as an RNA-dependent-DNA- ...
A retrovirus is a type of RNA virus that inserts a copy of its genome into the DNA of a host cell that it invades, thus ... The host cell then treats the viral DNA as part of its own genome, transcribing and translating the viral genes along with the ... This DNA is often integrated into the host genome, as in the case of retroviruses and pseudoviruses, where it is replicated and ... RNA: consists of a dimer RNA. It has a cap at the 5' end and a poly(A) tail at the 3' end. The RNA genome also has terminal ...
Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or for the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis.[1] ... non-infectious RNA genomes.[40] Ebolavirus genomes contain seven genes including 3'-UTR-NP-VP35-VP40-GP-VP30-VP24-L-5'-UTR.[30] ... Like other filoviruses, EBOV replicates very efficiently in many cells, producing large amounts of virus in monocytes, ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ...
Viruses that establish lifelong latent infections must ensure that the viral genome is maintained within the latently infected ... The gammaherpesviruses replicate and persist in lymphoid cells but some are capable of undergoing lytic replication in ... The main stages in the lifecycle of Gamma herpes virus are namely • Virus attachment and entry • Viral DNA injection through ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015.. *^ a b c "Virus Taxonomy: 2019 Release". talk.ictvonline.org. International ...
... containing RNA or DNA. Viruses require a host cell to replicate. Some of the diseases that are caused by viral pathogens ... Viruses may also undergo sexual interaction when two or more viral genomes enter the same host cell. This process involves ... and Togaviridae. HIV is a notable member of the family Retroviridae which affected 37.9 million people across the world in 2018 ... Vaccines exist for viruses such as the measles, mumps, and rubella viruses and the influenza virus.[30] Some viruses such as ...
Temin HM, Baltimore D (1972). RNA-directed DNA synthesis and RNA tumor viruses. Advances in Virus Research. 17. pp. 129-86. doi ... non-B viral hepatitis genome". Science. 244 (4902): 359-62. Bibcode:1989Sci...244..359C. CiteSeerX doi:10.1126 ... Bacteriophages are the viruses that infect and replicate in bacteria. They were discovered in the early 20th century, by the ... The virus was later shown to be a previously unrecognised herpes virus, which is now called Epstein-Barr virus.[55] ...
In general, RNA viruses have smaller genome sizes than DNA viruses because of a higher error-rate when replicating, and have a ... Negative-sense viral RNA is complementary to mRNA and thus must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an RNA-dependent RNA ... A virus has either a DNA or an RNA genome and is called a DNA virus or an RNA virus, respectively. The vast majority of viruses ... I: dsDNA viruses. II: ssDNA viruses. III: dsRNA viruses. IV: (+)ssRNA viruses. V: (−)ssRNA viruses. VI: ssRNA-RT viruses. VII: ...
In order to replicate, poxviruses produce a variety of specialized proteins not produced by other DNA viruses, the most ... important of which is a viral-associated DNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Both enveloped and unenveloped virions are infectious. ... August 2006). "Genome sequence diversity and clues to the evolution of variola (smallpox) virus". Science (Submitted manuscript ... Togaviridae. *Rubella virus *Rubella. *Congenital rubella syndrome ("German measles" ). *Alphavirus infection. *Chikungunya ...
The complete sequence of the viral genome was published in 1986.[33] Virus-specific proteins continue to be made by the ... the virus replicates in neuronal cell bodies, and virions are shed from the cells and carried down the axons to the area of ... RNA virus. Paramyxoviridae. *MeV *Measles. Togaviridae. *Rubella virus *Rubella. *Congenital rubella syndrome ... Varicella zoster virus is not the same as herpes simplex virus; however, they belong to the same family of viruses.[10] ...
Viral Characteristics. *These positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses are medium in size (50 - 70 nm) have a spherical ... They replicate in the cytoplasm of macrophages and endothelial cells.. *The genome is 13K nucleotides in length, has a 5- ... single-stranded RNA viruses, established in 1996, was classified formerly in the Togaviridae family. It has only one genus, ... Equine Viral Arteritis. Cause. Equine arteritis virus.. Occurrence. Hosts are horses, donkeys and mules. Equine viral arteritis ...
The induced CTL lysed murine tumor cells transformed with the HPV16 genome and EL4 cells loaded with an immunodominant class I- ... characterization and the in vivo immunotherapeutic potential of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expressing the HPV16 E6 ... The transforming potential of these high-risk HPVs depends on the expression of the E6 and E7 early viral gene products. Since ... the RNA is self-replicating, since it encodes its own replicase, and replication results in high-level expression of the viral ...
RNA viruses) replicate within the nucleus. Segmented genomes: Bunyaviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Arenaviridae, and Reoviridae ( ... "Togaviridae". ViralZone. SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics. Retrieved 2015-10-10. Viruses portal. ... As a general rule, DNA viruses replicate within the cell nucleus while RNA viruses replicate within the cytoplasm. Exceptions ... A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organisms body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus ...
It thus includes in addition to the viruses in Bunyaviridae, viruses in the families Arenaviridae, Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, ... The genome consists of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA.. *Replication is in the cell nucleus with budding at the cell ... Confirmation requires isolation and identification of the virus. The virus replicates on the chorioallantoic membrane of ... Viral Characteristics. *These viruses are 80 - 120 nm in diameter, have a helical nucleocapsid surrounded by an envelope, on ...
Genome organization and replication. The RNA genome encodes the non-structural proteins in a single ORF immediately after a 5′ ... Upon generation of sufficient C protein, this protein assembles with the viral RNA to form the viral nucleocapsids. This ... When alphaviruses replicate in mammalian cells, particles have significantly more cholesterol than when the virus is propagated ... Sequences do not comprise the complete genome.. List of other related viruses which may be members of the genus Alphavirus but ...
Viral proteins are made in cytoplasm. Some exceptions. *Hep B virus replicate DNA from an RNA intermedia ... They use DNA intermediary transcribed viral reverse transcriptase template to produce viral genomes. *So it has another extra ... Togaviridae (Rubella Virus) ... Most DNA viruses assemble in the nucleus *Most RNA viruses ... Herpes Simplex Virus (HS) -Varicella zoster virus (VZV) -Human immunodeiciency virus (HIV) -Hepetitis B virus (HBV) -Hep C (HCV ...
Surprisingly, CD8+ T cells do not seem to function in acute pathogenesis or viral clearance, at least in mice. CHIKV RNA and Ag ... Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne enveloped alphavirus in the Togaviridae family. CHIKV has a single- ... the virus likely replicates in fibroblasts, mesenchymal cells, and osteoblasts (20, 21). CHIKV induces a local cytokine and ... stranded positive sense RNA genome that encodes four nonstructural proteins (nsP1, nsP2, nsP3, and nsP4) and five structural ...
... positive-sense RNA viruses (9a, 27). The genome encodes four nonstructural proteins (nsP1 to nsP4) involved in genome ... Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus (VEEV) is an Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae, a group of enveloped, single- ... The E2 envelope protein forms spikes on the surface of the virion that interact with cellular receptors for viral entry and ... arise via mutation of progenitor enzootic strains that replicate poorly in equines. Sequencing studies have implicated ...
During viral replication, full-length RNA transcripts of the viral genome are inserted into maturing virus particles. The viral ... C. The rubella virus is an RNA virus and a mem34. ber of the family Togaviridae. In adults and D. The etiologic agents for the ... rationales i. C. Retroviruses are RNA viruses that replicate by means of DNA intermediates produced by the viral enzyme reverse ... b. The virus is unusual in that an RNA intermediate is required for replication of the genome. The virus needs a viral-encoded ...
The viral capsid protein is a virulence factor for the Rubella virus due to its ability to help the virus replicate post entry ... NCBI: Taxonomy Genome: Rubivirus Description. The Rubella Virus is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus. The Rubella ... Domain = Viruses , Group = Group IV ((+) ssRNA) , Family = Togaviridae , Genus = Rubivirus , Species = Rubella Virus ... Genome. The genome of the Rubella virus is made of 9,762 nucleotides. The genome encodes for 5 different proteins including: ...
... replication switches to replicate positive-sense genomic RNA and transcribe subgenomic RNA. The structural polyprotein is ... Complete genome sequences of 15 Chikungunya virus isolates from Puerto Rico. Genome Announc5:e00561-17. doi:10.1128/genomeA. ... Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus in the Togaviridae family that is associated with large-scale ... It is also possible that the Opal524R virus may revert back to wild type in vivo, thereby leading to equivalent levels of viral ...
... mucous membrane Viral diseases associated with maculopapular rash. Viral disease associated with vesicular rash. Human warts. ... Togaviridae. Genus : Rubivirus. The virus is enveloped, pleomorphic with helical nucleocapsid. The viral genome is SS-RNA with ... the virus replicates in the epithelial cells of the URT. The virus spreads by blood to the lymphoid tissues and replicates ... The viral genome is linear ds-DNA. 41 Herpesviruses There are eight human herpes viruses.. Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). ...
... in particular for detecting the virus or for preparing pharmaceutical compositions. The RuV-specific antigens recognized by ... The present invention provides novel antibody sequences that bind and neutralize Rubella Virus (RuV). The novel sequences can ... is an example of such viruses. RuV is member of the Togaviridae family presenting an RNA genome, two non-structural proteins, ... replicate, and persist in various cell types, in particular neural and joint tissue (such as synovial cells). The viral ...
... among them the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is responsible of viral genome replication originating double-strand RNA ... a process known as virus-host cell co-evolution. Positive-single stranded RNA (+sRNA) viruses are an important group of viral ... among them the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is responsible of viral genome replication originating double-strand RNA ... a process known as virus-host cell co-evolution. Positive-single stranded RNA (+sRNA) viruses are an important group of viral ...
... and yellow fever virus, its vaccine, and the importance of curiosity-driven research. ... The history of learning to grow hepatitis C virus in culture, ... viral genome sequences led to recategorization of Togaviridae, ... such as a nucleotide prodrug that targets the RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase, which have fewer side effects and a shorter ... In 2005, a rare HCV isolate (JF09) from a patient in Japan with acute fulminant disease was able to replicate without adaptive ...
An increasing number of novel mycoviruses are being reported, including double-stranded (ds) RNA, circular single-stranded (ss ... Fungal viruses, or mycoviruses, are widespread in all major groups of fungi and next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently ... Here we discuss in depth the molecular features of known viruses infecting R. solani and their potential as biological control ... R. solani harbors a range of dsRNA and ssRNA viruses, either belonging to established families, such as Endornaviridae, ...
... the 26S RNA - is replicated from a negative-stranded RNA intermediate. This serves as template for the synthesis of viral ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Martellivirales Family: Togaviridae Genus: Alphavirus Aura virus Barmah Forest virus Bebaru virus ... enveloped viruses with a genome of a single strand of positive-sense RNA. The total genome length ranges between 11,000 and ... virus Mosso das Pedras virus Mucambo virus Ndumu virus Onyong-nyong virus Pixuna virus Rio Negro virus Ross River virus Salmon ...
... viral genome-derived RNA segments that can be expressed in mosquito midguts and salivary glands to ablate homologous virus ... Togaviridae) and La Crosse virus (LACV, Bunyaviridae) and total RNA recovered from cell lysates. Small RNA (sRNA) libraries ... Virus derived from pMRE16ic replicated with the same efficiency as parental virus in vertebrate (BHK-21) and mosquito (C6/36) ... Small RNA Profiling of Dengue Virus-mosquito Interactions Implicates the PIWI RNA Pathway in Anti-viral Defense BMC ...
Rescue and Characterization of Recombinant Virus from a New World Zika Virus Infectious Clone ... RNA viruses, such as flaviviruses, are able to efficiently replicate and cap their RNA genomes in vertebrate and invertebrate ... have evolved RNA capping enzymes to form the viral RNA cap structure that protects the viral genome and directs efficient viral ... The goal of this study was to use a recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV; family Togaviridae; genus Alphavirus) that expresses B2 ...
... leading to a failure to replicate and accumulate viral RNA. Whether the block is a result of RNA degradation, altered RNA ... Forest virus RNA genome defines a region in the nsP2 sequence that is required for efficient packaging of the genome into virus ... In these studies we showed that ZAP also potently inhibits multiple members of the Alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae, ... Due to a lack of proofreading ability in their RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, alphaviruses replicate their genomes with ...
Viruses detected in 2014 were phylogenetically different from the virus isolated in Japan in 1978. ... Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. ... An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. ... Nasal swab samples were suspended in 2.5 mL of transport medium (7). Viral RNA and DNA were extracted from the blood samples ...
Genome is translated to give replicase. This replicates the RNA to give an antisenseRNA, which is replicated to give a +ive ... Host cell factors, which interact with the viral proteins and RNAs, and are recruited to the membranes. ... Synthesise -ssRNA subgenomic RNA from full length genomic RNA. Copy this to make +ssRNA subgenomic RNA.  Initiation of ... A subgenomic antisense RNA is then made by pausing at certain sites, allowing the RNA to hybridise to near the 5 end and so ...
A total of 27 RNA-Seq libraries from midguts of mosquitoes that had received PM or SM (not) containing CHIKV at 1 and 2 days ... Fewer than 80 genes responded differentially to the presence of CHIKV in midguts of mosquitoes that had acquired the virus ... including chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Following oral acquisition, an arbovirus has to persistently infect several organs in the ... The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector for medically important arthropod-borne viruses, ...
However, research addressing the effect of host innate immune evasion on the pathology caused by viral infections is less ... Given their genetic flexibility, these viruses have therefore developed multiple strategies to evade the innate immune response ... Already many molecular mechanisms of innate immune evasion by +ssRNA viruses have been identified. ... viruses comprise many (re-)emerging human pathogens that pose a public health problem. Our innate immune system and, in ...
Group VI: viruses possess single-stranded RNA genomes and replicate using reverse transcriptase. The retroviruses are included ... "Virus Taxonomy Portal." (Website.) Viral Bioinformatics Resource Center & Viral Bioinformatics - Canada. Retrieved on 2007-09- ... Norwalk virus, Hepatitis E virus Naked Icosahedral ss 4.Togaviridae Rubella virus Enveloped Icosahedral ss ... RNA viruses. For more details on this topic, see RNA virus.. *Group III: viruses possess double-stranded RNA genomes, e.g. ...
... and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has increased worldwide, due in part to the lack of a specific antiviral treatment. For this ... significantly inhibited infection with both viruses during the implementation of the two experimental strategies employed here ... After the translation of the RNA, the nonstructural viral proteins (which are responsible for replicating the viral genome) and ... Togaviridae, and Bunyaviridae, and they are capable of producing diseases in both humans as well as in animals [3]. Viruses of ...
... viral proteins. [0008] Genomic viral RNA must be packaged into viral particles in order for the virus to be transmitted. The ... genomes (Paramyxoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Filoviridae and Borna Disease Virus, Togaviridae) or those having segmented genomes ( ... replicating RNA templates or for translating polypeptides from a negative stranded RNA template. Therefore negative strand RNA ... Two essential requirements are shared between these viruses: the genomic RNAs must be efficiently copied into viral RNA, a form ...
... preferably a RNA pol I-pol II system) for the efficient intracellular synthesis of viral RNA. The resultant minimal plasmid ... Picornaviridae viruses, Coronaviridea viruses, Togaviridae viruses and Paramyxoviruses comprise a nonsegmented RNA genome. ... most RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells. During their evolution the RNAs of these viruses have not been ... 0070] A "negative strand RNA virus" is a virus in which the viral genome comprises negative strand RNA. Negative strand RNA is ...
Although viruses share several features with living organisms, such as the presence of genetic material (DNA or RNA), they are ... Virus A virus is a parasite that must infect a living cell to reproduce. ... as replicative proteins for replicating the virus genome. Viral genomes must also provide templates that can be replicated to ... Togaviridae equine encephalitis virus. insects/horses. CNS disease in horse and humans. ...
The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine ... Semliki Forest virus has been used extensively in biological research as a model of the viral life cycle and of viral ... The SFV virus was genetically modified with microRNA target sequences so that it only replicated in brain tumour cells and not ... Togaviridae. *Arbovirus encephalitides: Eastern equine encephalomyelitis *EEEV. *Western equine encephalomyelitis *WEEV. * ...
  • In addition, the RNA is self-replicating, since it encodes its own replicase, and replication results in high-level expression of the viral proteins in host cells. (nature.com)
  • These RNA transcripts are fully infectious, ie introduction into cells suffices to initiate replication and a full infection cycle, resulting in virus formation. (nature.com)
  • Basic structural characteristics, such as genome type, virion shape and replication site, generally share the same features among virus species within the same family. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are four non-structural proteins, designated nsP1-4, which encode the viral replication machinery of the togaviruses. (ictvonline.org)
  • Alteration of the glycosylation can negatively affect viral replication. (ictvonline.org)
  • While RUBV and the alphaviruses share homology in the cis -acting elements at the 5′ end of the genome and in the subgenomic promoter region, there are major differences in their replication processes. (ictvonline.org)
  • Historically, CHIKV was transmitted principally by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, but in 2006 the virus acquired a single mutation (A226V) in the E1 protein that facilitated enhanced replication and transmission in Aedes albopictus mosquitoes, which expanded its geographical range ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • C57BL/6, CD1, IRC) results in an acute disease similar to that in humans, including high viremia, viral replication in joint and muscle tissues, synovitis, and myositis ( 16 - 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Damage from viral replication and immune cell infiltration results in local edema, extensive myofiber degeneration, and injury and loss of mesenchymal cells lining the synovium and periosteum ( 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The first peak is most likely due to extensive viral replication in the foot, which results in cell death, cytokine production, and tissue edema. (jimmunol.org)
  • The genome encodes four nonstructural proteins (nsP1 to nsP4) involved in genome replication and three major structural proteins (capsid and E2 and E1 envelope glycoproteins) which are expressed from a 26S subgenomic message colinear with the 3′ one-third of the genomic RNA. (asm.org)
  • 3. Uncoating occurs when there is either the separation of the capsid from the genome or rearrangement of the capsid proteins exposing the genome for transcription and replication. (issuu.com)
  • [6] The virus initially infects the respiratory tract and begins the replication process in that location. (kenyon.edu)
  • among them the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is responsible of viral genome replication originating double-strand RNA molecules (dsRNA) as intermediates, which accumulate representing a potent threat for cellular dsRNA receptors to initiate an antiviral response. (frontiersin.org)
  • A common feature shared by these viruses is their ability to rearrange cellular membranes to serve as platforms for genome replication and assembly of new virions, supporting replication efficiency increase by concentrating critical factors and protecting the viral genome from host anti-viral systems. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review summarizes current knowledge regarding cellular dsRNA receptors and describes prototype viruses developing replication niches inside rearranged membranes. (frontiersin.org)
  • As forced intracellular parasites, viral agents relay on the host cell biosynthetic pathway in order to follow their replication program to generate new viral progeny. (frontiersin.org)
  • The integron system came next: replacing the structural genes with a selectable marker meant the viral replication system could be tested in cell lines, even if viral progeny weren't produced. (asm.org)
  • The first is non-structural and encodes proteins (nsP1-nsP4) necessary for transcription and replication of viral RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four nonstructural proteins (nsP1-4) which are produced as a single polyprotein constitute the virus' replication machinery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The processing of the polyprotein occurs in a highly regulated manner, with cleavage at the P2/3 junction influencing RNA template use during genome replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have identified viral genome-derived RNA segments that can be expressed in mosquito midguts and salivary glands to ablate homologous virus replication and transmission. (jove.com)
  • We have demonstrated that both transient and heritable expression of virus-derived effector RNAs in cultured mosquito cells can silence virus replication, and have characterized the mechanism of RNA-mediated resistance. (jove.com)
  • We analyzed ZAP's ability to inhibit viruses from other families and found that ZAP potently inhibits the replication of multiple members of the Alphavirus genus within the Togaviridae , including Sindbis virus, Semliki Forest virus, Ross River virus, and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. (asm.org)
  • We determined that ZAP expression inhibits Sindbis virus replication after virus penetration and entry, but before the amplification of newly synthesized plus strand genomic RNA. (asm.org)
  • Our studies indicate that, in addition to inhibiting MMLV replication, ZAP's range of targets also includes multiple members of the Alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae . (asm.org)
  • Following translation of the nsPs, replication complexes are established on cellular membranes, where the genomic RNA is transcribed to the complementary minus strand. (asm.org)
  • Following replication in the midgut, the virus then disseminates to secondary tissues including nerve tissue, hemocytes, fatbody, and the salivary glands. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Virus classification is based mainly on phenotypic characteristics, including morphology , nucleic acid type, mode of replication, host organisms , and the type of disease they cause. (wikidoc.org)
  • These groups are designated by Roman numerals and separate viruses based on their mode of replication, and genome type. (wikidoc.org)
  • Baltimore classification (first defined in 1971) is a classification system which places viruses into one of seven groups depending on a combination of their nucleic acid ( DNA or RNA ), strandedness (single-stranded or double-stranded), and method of replication . (wikidoc.org)
  • Given their genetic flexibility, these viruses have therefore developed multiple strategies to evade the innate immune response in order to optimize their replication capacity. (mdpi.com)
  • Each of these proteins fulfills important functions during entry and viral replication in the host cell. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Replication occurs via a negative strand intermediate giving rise to a full length genomic RNA for export in new virions and a subgenomic message that is translated into the structural proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because these properties are shared by certain bacteria ( rickettsiae , chlamydiae ), viruses are now characterized by their simple organization and their unique mode of replication. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other viruses, however, such as the herpesviruses , actually enter a time known as "viral latency," when little or no replication is taking place until further replication is initiated by a specific trigger. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a mosquito antiviral response important in restricting RNA virus replication and has been shown to be active against some arboviruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A factor of particular interest in this relationship is the interaction of viral replication and the mosquito RNA interference (RNAi) response to infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During replication of the alphavirus genome, positive- and negative-sense RNAs form dsRNA intermediates that could be recognized and cleaved by Dicer-2. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, other insect viruses are known to contain RNAi suppressors that aid in their replication via suppression of the RNAi response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These areas are important for BTV replication but they also indicate the pathways that may be used by related viruses, which include viruses that are pathogenic to man and animals, thus providing the basis for developing strategies for intervention or prevention. (highveld.com)
  • The two remaining non-structural proteins, NS1 and NS2, are produced at high levels in the cytoplasm and are believed to be involved in virus replication, assembly and morphogenesis. (highveld.com)
  • In addition research into animal viruses has made an important contribution to our understanding of viruses in general, their replication, molecular biology, evolution and interaction with the host. (caister.com)
  • The arteriviruses are highly species specific, but share many biological and molecular properties, including virion morphology, a unique set of structural proteins, genome organization and replication strategy, and the ability to establish prolonged or true persistent infection in their natural hosts. (caister.com)
  • Coronavirus (CoV) genome replication takes place in the cytoplasm in a membrane-protected microenvironment, and starts with the translation of the genome to produce the viral replicase. (caister.com)
  • Viral RNAs have a conserved 3′ structure essential for RNA replication initiation. (ictvonline.org)
  • This proteolytic cleavage of the replicase distinguishes the benyviruses from all other viruses with rod-shaped particles, which have their replication-associated proteins encoded in two ORFs. (ictvonline.org)
  • The initial interaction of host and virus particles in peripheral tissue prior to nervous system infection can be complex, often involving significant productive replication and spread among a variety of cell types, including those present at mucosal surfaces as well as those of the immune and nervous systems. (prolekare.cz)
  • On the other hand, some viruses (e.g., rabies virus) are neurotropic and invade neurons at neuromuscular junctions with limited peripheral replication in other cell types. (prolekare.cz)
  • What are the late stages of viral replication? (cueflash.com)
  • The success of the evolution of RNA virus es arises from their capacity to utilize varying replication approaches and to adapt to a wide range of biological niches faced during viral spread in the host. (mediaatlas.si)
  • The error-prone replication ability of RNA virus es and the shorter generation times can be used to explain the variations in evolution rates between DNA and RNA virus es. (mediaatlas.si)
  • For this, we have to consider the various aspects of the HIV replication cycle in the host cell that influence the RNA and/or DNA genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Replication then takes place at intracellular compartments known as cytoplasmic viral factories in the endoplasmic reticulum resulting in a dsRNA genome. (kenyon.edu)
  • Afterwards it was confirmed to suppress the replication of positive-stranded RNA viruses (Alphavirus and Flavivirus of Togaviridae), negative stranded RNA viruses ( Filoviridae such as EBOV and MARV) and retroviruses (Retroviridae such as HIV, HBV and MMLV) in human cell lines. (rroij.com)
  • The Baltimore classification , developed by David Baltimore , is a virus classification system that groups viruses into families, depending on their type of genome ( DNA , RNA , single-stranded (ss), double-stranded (ds), etc..) and their method of replication . (ipfs.io)
  • As with most RNA viruses, this class replicates in the "Core" capsid that is in cytoplasm , not having to use the host replication polymerases to as much a degree as DNA viruses. (ipfs.io)
  • Replication is monocistronic and includes individual, segmented genomes, meaning that each of the genes codes for only one protein, unlike other viruses that exhibit more complex translation. (ipfs.io)
  • The replication of viruses happens in the cytoplasm or nucleus (for segmented class V viruses). (ipfs.io)
  • Animal RNA viruses can be placed into about four different groups depending on their mode of replication. (wikidoc.org)
  • Positive-sense viruses have their genome directly utilized as if it were mRNA, producing a single protein which is modified by host and viral proteins to form the various proteins needed for replication. (wikidoc.org)
  • Once a cell becomes infected, viruses hijack its transcription and translation machinery to promote their own replication. (oncohemakey.com)
  • such errors most commonly lead to loss of viral fitness but occasionally benefit the virus in its quest for replication. (oncohemakey.com)
  • We previously demonstrated that ZAP blocks replication of Sindbis virus (SINV), the prototype Alphavirus in the Togaviridae family at an early step prior to translation of the incoming genome and that synergy between ZAP and one or more interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) resulted in maximal inhibitory activity. (nih.gov)
  • The determinants important for efficient replication of template RNA were mapped to the 5' region of the genome. (bvsalud.org)
  • Viruses quickly and efficiently disarm host intrinsic, innate and adaptive defenses and usurp cellular anabolic pathways resulting in virus production accompanied by cell death (permissiveinfection), virus production without cell death (chronic infection) or inhibition of virus replication with the possibility of future reactivation (latent infection). (transbiomedicine.com)
  • In all except enveloped viruses, it is responsible for the attachment of the viruses to the host cell ( adsorption, see the chapter on replication, and determines specific viral antigenicity. (50webs.org)
  • RNAs are formed when the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex switches, mid-replication, from one RNA molecule to another. (biology-online.org)
  • VEEV causes a characteristic bi-phasic illness where the primary replication in lymphoid tissues is followed by viral replication in central nervous system (CNS) (Johnston and Peter, 1996). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Virus Oncolitici 0 domande Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. (lookformedical.com)
  • Ultrastructural changes associated with virus replication were also noted in leukocytes in the head kidney of virus-infected fish. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The alphavirus genome resembles eukaryotic mRNA, which possesses a 5′ cap and 3′ poly (A) tail and codes for early non-structural and late structural phases during replication. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viruses are mainly classified by phenotypic characteristics, such as morphology , nucleic acid type, mode of replication, host organisms , and the type of disease they cause. (jakearchibald.com)
  • Virus Oncolytiques 0 questions Tumor-selective, replication competent VIRUSES that have antineoplastic effects. (lookformedical.com)
  • These are translated directly from the full-length 42S genomic RNA and form the virus replicase responsible for RNA replication and transcription ( Takkinen, 1986 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a widespread human pathogen that in 80% cases establishes persistent replication in the liver [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These adaptations sometimes comprise a stepwise process that includes 1) initial viral introduction/establishment in the recipient species, followed by 2) finite adjustment/optimization of the virus replication and transmission strategies for specific environments associated with a new host [1] , [2] . (prolekare.cz)
  • These viruses are characterized by their competency to replicate in their vectors, while their replication are restricted in vertebrate cells. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • The result was positive, suggesting viral replication in culture and confirming the presence of BFV within the specimen of the patient. (cdc.gov)
  • Viral genome replication depends on the making of double-stranded RNA from the single-stranded, positive-sense RNA (ssRNA(+)) genome followed by transcription and replication to provide viral mRNAs and new ssRNA(+) genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus trigger the rearrangement and morphology remodeling of intracellular organelles, including the quality control of intracellular organelles, the hijacking of the modified organelle membranes, morphology remodeling for viral replication, and degradation of intracellular organelles by virus-triggered selective autophagy. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Each step of viral replication is closely accompanied by the rearrangement of intracellular organelles. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Viruses have evolved several strategies to remodel the mitochondria for viral replication and assembly, including spatial distribution, morphology remodeling, and metabolism reprogramming. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • To maximize the effectiveness of DNA replication, African swine fever virus (ASFV) infection recruits the mitochondria around the viral factories, associated with the morphology change and accumulation of the mitochondria. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • It was speculated that the translation and ATP synthesis are coupled and compartmentalized around viral factories to promote virus replication [ 16 ] (Figure 1C). (encyclopedia.pub)
  • A great diversity is evident in their physical properties, genome size, gene contents, replication mode and infectivity. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These functions are restricted to: (i) recognition of the host cell, (ii) replication according to the viral group, and (iii) capsid building. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In mammals, early resistance to viruses relies on interferons, which protect differentiated cells but not stem cells from viral replication. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the past decades, the rise of genetic-based screening methods and high-throughput sequencing approaches allowed the uncovering of unique and elusive aspects of RNA virus replication and pathogenesis at an unprecedented scale. (bvsalud.org)
  • During a virus replication in a host cell, copies of the viral genome are generated and viral proteins are expressed and processed before they assemble to mature virions while taking advantage of the ceBular infrastructure. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The common basis is that virus replication and assembly of progeny requires the environment of a living host ceil and an ordered series of specific interactions between viral nucleic acids, viral and host cell proteins, and lipid membranes, that leads to segregation and assembly of the macromolecular virion structure. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Mononuclear phagocytes are considered to be main targets for Dengue Virus (DENV) replication. (springer.com)
  • 6 ] have shown strain differences of DENV, originating either from mild or severe cases, with respect to their growth in human monocytes, suggesting that characteristics inherent to virus genome and replication were related with disease severity. (springer.com)
  • This report describes the construction, characterization and the in vivo immunotherapeutic potential of recombinant Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expressing the HPV16 E6 and E7 proteins (SFV-E6E7). (nature.com)
  • 1 The HPV genome encodes 7 early (E) nonstructural regulatory proteins, and two late (L) structural proteins. (nature.com)
  • 13 Alphaviruses consist of a nucleocapsid with one copy of a single-stranded RNA molecule surrounded by an envelope containing spike proteins. (nature.com)
  • The RNA genome encodes the non-structural proteins in a single ORF immediately after a 5′ non-coding region. (ictvonline.org)
  • CHIKV has a single-stranded positive sense RNA genome that encodes four nonstructural proteins (nsP1, nsP2, nsP3, and nsP4) and five structural proteins (capsid, E3, E2, 6K, and E1) from two open reading frames. (jimmunol.org)
  • 5. The envelope is the outer coating composed of a phospholipid bilayer, which is composed of viral-encoded glycoproteins and sometimes viralencoded matrix proteins. (issuu.com)
  • The genome encodes for 5 different proteins including: P90 and P150, which are both non-structural proteins and three virion proteins, which include the capsid, E2 and E1 (Envelope Proteins). (kenyon.edu)
  • The four non-structural protein genes are encoded in the 5′ two-thirds of the genome, while the three structural proteins are translated from a subgenomic mRNA colinear with the 3′ one-third of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alphaviral glycoprotein E1 is a class II viral fusion protein, which is structurally different from the class I fusion proteins found in influenza virus and HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • This serves as template for the synthesis of viral structural proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The E1 and E2 proteins mediate contact between the virus and the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 5′-terminal two-thirds of the genomic 49S RNA is directly translated to produce the four nonstructural proteins (nsPs), while the structural proteins are encoded by a subgenomic 26S RNA derived from the 3′ one-third of the genome. (asm.org)
  • Viral proteins, in complexes termed "capsomers," form the surface of the icosahedron. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The length of helical viruses can depend on the length of the genome, the DNA or RNA within, since there are often regular structural interactions between the nucleic acids of the genome and the proteins that cover it. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Embedded in the envelope are surface proteins, usually glycoproteins that help the virus interact with the surface of the cell it is infecting. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In these viruses, cell-surface interactions are mediated by the capsid proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Semliki Forest virus is a positive-stranded RNA virus with a genome of approximately 13,000 base pairs which encodes nine proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • [3] The 5' two thirds of the genome encode four non-structural proteins concerned with RNA synthesis and the structural proteins are encoded in the 3' third. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the host cell the genetic material of a DNA virus is replicated and transcribed into messenger RNA by host cell enzymes, and proteins coded for by viral genes are synthesized by host cell ribosomes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • there may also be a few enzymes or regulatory proteins involved in assembling the capsid around newly synthesized viral nucleic acid, in controlling the biochemical mechanisms of the host cell, and in lysing the host cell when new virions have been assembled. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In viruses that have membranes, membrane-bound viral proteins are synthesized by the host cell and move, like host cell membrane proteins, to the cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some viruses have only a few genes coding for capsid proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Although in general viruses "steal" their lipid envelope from the host cell, virtually all of them produce "envelope proteins" that penetrate the envelope and serve as receptors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some envelope proteins facilitate viral entry into the cell, and others have directly pathogenic effects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • BTV, like the other members of the family is a complex non-enveloped virus with seven structural proteins and a RNA genome consisting of 10 double-stranded (ds) RNA segments of different sizes. (highveld.com)
  • and the role of host proteins in virus entry and virus release. (highveld.com)
  • BTV virions (550S) are architecturally complex structures composed of 7 discrete proteins that are organised into two concentric shells, the outer and inner capsids, and a genome of 10 dsRNA segments. (highveld.com)
  • The outer capsid, which is composed of two major structural proteins (VP2 and VP5), is involved in cell attachment and virus penetration during the initial stages of infection. (highveld.com)
  • VP2 and VP5 are removed, to yield a transcriptionally active 470S core particle which is composed of two major proteins VP7 and VP3, and the three minor proteins VP1, VP4 and VP6 in addition to the dsRNA genome. (highveld.com)
  • However, one of these proteins, Q0IFK9, subsequently called aBravo (aedine broadly active antiviral protein), was found to mediate antiviral activity against positive strand RNA arboviruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • Processing of the viral polyprotein is achieved cotranslationally by viral encoded proteases, giving rise to the different mature viral proteins. (caister.com)
  • Viral RNA as well as viral proteins interact with different components of the host cell, acting as key determinants of viral pathogenesis. (caister.com)
  • Acidifcation from the viral proteins will triggers virus genome release. (cueflash.com)
  • What are the proteins that make up the Procapsid (for icosehedral viruses)? (cueflash.com)
  • MATURATIONAL PROTEASES trigger conformational changes, scaffolding proteins come out, genome is either inserted into the empty capsid or the capsid assembles around genome (like polio virus). (cueflash.com)
  • The open reading frame of the Zika virus reads as follows: 5′-C-prM-E-NS1-NS2A-NS2B-NS3-NS4A-NS4B-N​S5-3′ and codes for a polyprotein that is subsequently cleaved into capsid (C), precursor membrane (prM), envelope (E), and non-structural proteins (NS). (kenyon.edu)
  • Zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) are the largest transcription factor family in human genome. (rroij.com)
  • 4920 ) . The genome encodes three major structural proteins, the mirid bug and two envelope proteins ( Aguilar et al. (thesportsfamilyclub.org)
  • 4922 ) . Additionally, the envelope proteins interact with the mirid bug during viral assembly and release of atoms ( Aguilar et al. (thesportsfamilyclub.org)
  • 4923 ) . The EEEV genome besides encodes four non-structural proteins, including a peptidase, that are used for viral reproduction, RNA, and polypeptide processing ( Aguilar et al. (thesportsfamilyclub.org)
  • The positive-sense RNA viruses and indeed all RNA defined as positive-sense can be directly accessed by host ribosomes to immediately form proteins. (ipfs.io)
  • Viruses with polycistronic mRNA where the genome RNA forms the mRNA and is translated into a polyprotein product that is subsequently cleaved to form the mature proteins. (ipfs.io)
  • This means that the gene can utilize a few methods in which to produce proteins from the same strand of RNA, all in the sake of reducing the size of its gene. (ipfs.io)
  • All of which are different mechanisms with which to produce proteins from the same strand of RNA. (ipfs.io)
  • With relatively few proteins made by the virus, it is able to accomplish many tasks, with each protein serving multiple functions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In recent years, remarkable progress has been made in determining, at atomic and subnanometeric levels, the structures of a number of key viral proteins and of the virion capsids of several dsRNA viruses, highlighting the significant parallels in the structure and replicative processes of many of these viruses. (wikidoc.org)
  • The positive-sense RNA molecule then acts as viral mRNA, which is translated into proteins by the host ribosomes . (wikidoc.org)
  • The resultant protein goes on to direct the synthesis of new virions, such as capsid proteins and RNA replicase, which is used to produce new negative-sense RNA molecules. (wikidoc.org)
  • These all associate with proteins to form a single large complex which is replicated using virally-encoded replicase to form new virions. (wikidoc.org)
  • Although viruses are minute particles composed only of a genome surrounded by a few proteins, they have a fiendish way of wreaking havoc not only on humans, as everyone who ever had the flu knows, but also on animals, plants, and even bacteria. (oncohemakey.com)
  • In turn, many viruses mount defenses against the attack from their host by encoding proteins that actively subvert innate and adaptive immune responses. (oncohemakey.com)
  • Viruses are autonomous infectious particles that differ widely from other microorganisms in a number of characteristics: they have no cellular structure, consisting only of proteins and nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). (50webs.org)
  • If the genome RNA has the polarity opposite to that of the mRNA, and therefore cannot be translated into proteins until it has first been transcribed into a complementary strand, it is called a minus-strand (or negative-strand) or antisense RNA strand and the viruses are antisense or minus-strand viruses. (50webs.org)
  • Both cell-coded and viral proteins are integrated in the membrane when these elements are transformed into the envelope, frequently in the form of spikes (or peplomers. (50webs.org)
  • The complementary minus strand, formed by the nSP, acts as a template for the production of genomic RNA, and also for sub-genomic RNA, which encodes the virus structural proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 5′ two-thirds of the genome encodes four non-structural proteins (nsP1-4). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • After this, virus subgenomic 26S RNA continues to be translated and virus structural proteins are the main products of cellular translation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The genome codifies four non-structural proteins (NS P 1-4) and three structural proteins (C, E1 and C2). (elsevier.es)
  • Assembly of structural proteins and single stranded positive RNA, and virion maturation. (elsevier.es)
  • However, investigation of HCV redox biology so far remained in the paradigm of oxidative stress, whereas no attention was given to the identification of redox switches among viral proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • Based on these data, redox-sensitive posttranslational modifications of HCV NS5B and other proteins merit a more detailed investigation and analysis of their role(s) in the virus life cycle and associated pathogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • Virus membrane fusion is carried out by the 80 spike proteins on the surface of the virus. (rupress.org)
  • Cross-section of Zika virus , showing the viral envelope composed of envelope proteins (red) and membrane proteins (purple) embedded in the lipid membrane (white): The capsid proteins (orange) are shown interacting with the RNA genome (yellow) at the center of the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • A positive-sense RNA genome can be directly translated into viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • As in other flaviviruses, such as the similarly sized West Nile virus, the RNA genome encodes seven nonstructural proteins and three structural proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • [24] One of the structural proteins encapsulates the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Successful viral reproduction requires the precise assembly of progeny virions from viral genomes, structural proteins, and membrane components. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Viral RNAs contain the information needed to synthesize their own proteins, to replicate, and to spread to susceptible cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • This is largely achieved by the concerted action of regulatory structural elements on viral RNAs and a subset of host proteins, whose dedicated function across all stages of the infection steps is critical to complete the viral cycle. (bvsalud.org)
  • Importantly, not only the RNA sequence but also the RNA architecture imposed by the presence of specific structural domains mediates the interaction with host RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), ultimately affecting virus multiplication and spreading. (bvsalud.org)
  • The present invention provides a virosome comprising a virosomal membrane comprising at least one lipid and envelope proteins of an enveloped virus and nucleocapsid particles of said enveloped virus located on the inside and the outside of the virosome and attached to said envelope protects Furthermore, the invention provides a vaccine comprising the virosome of the invention and a method for the production of a virosome of the invention. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Common to all enveloped viruses rs the outer shell of the virus, composed of a lipid membrane with integrated viral proteins, and, as a consequence, the necessary interaction between membrane-associated and soluble viral proteins or protein-based structures, e.g. the nucleocapsids in order to assemble a mature enveloped virus. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Virus-derived or recombinant envelope proteins can be purified and formulated with or without additional lipids into proteoliposomes. (allindianpatents.com)
  • There are examples of chimerical virosomal structures, which integrate envelope proteins from different viruses. (allindianpatents.com)
  • SFV belongs to the genus Alphavirus of the family of the Togaviridae . (nature.com)
  • Alphavirus RNA has a positive polarity enabling the genomic RNA to initiate an infection when introduced into the cytoplasm of a cell. (nature.com)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging alphavirus that causes debilitating acute and chronic arthritis. (jimmunol.org)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne enveloped alphavirus in the Togaviridae family. (jimmunol.org)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus (VEEV) is an Alphavirus in the family Togaviridae , a group of enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses ( 9a , 27). (asm.org)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus responsible for several significant outbreaks of debilitating acute and chronic arthritis and arthralgia over the past decade. (asm.org)
  • Alphavirus is a genus of RNA viruses, the sole genus in the Togaviridae family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection with Sindbis virus (SIN), the type alphavirus, can lead to a painful polyarthritis, while disease caused by Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) ranges from a mild influenza-type illness to fatal encephalitis. (asm.org)
  • Initial translation and processing of the alphavirus plus strand RNA produces the four nsPs, nsP1 to nsP4 ( 10 , 22 ). (asm.org)
  • Getah virus (genus Alphavirus , family Togaviridae ) is a mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated in Malaysia in 1955 from Culex spp. (cdc.gov)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus) whilst one, salmonid alphavirus, is of economic importance to the farmed fish industry. (caister.com)
  • The species Getah virus (GETV) belongs to the Alphavirus genus of the Togaviridae family. (frontiersin.org)
  • Salmon pancreas disease virus, more commonly known as salmonid alphavirus (SAV), is a single-stranded positive sense RNA virus and the causative agent of pancreas disease and sleeping disease in salmonids. (bvsalud.org)
  • The alphavirus capsid protein (Cp) selectively packages genomic RNA (gRNA) into the viral nucleocapsid to produce infectious virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Together our data suggest a model for selective alphavirus genome recognition and assembly. (bvsalud.org)
  • The trans-replicase tools and approaches developed here can be instrumental in studying alphavirus recombination and evolution, but can also be applied to study other viruses such as picornaviruses, flaviviruses and coronaviruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an alphavirus in the family Togaviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus belonging to the family Togaviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Upon infection of vertebrate cells in continuous culture, the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) initiates apoptosis and IFN synthesis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus that belongs to the family Togaviridae , genus Alphavirus. (elsevier.es)
  • The virus gets destroyed by desiccation and by temperatures above 58 °C. 1 The alphavirus genus includes about 29 species, seven of these viruses can causes joint disorders in humans including CHIKV, O'nyong-nyong (Central Africa), Ross River and Barmah Forest (Australia and the Pacific), Semliki Forest (Africa), Sindbis (Africa, Asia, Australia and Europe), and Mayaro (South America and the French Guyana). (elsevier.es)
  • Semliki Forest virus (SFV) is an enveloped alphavirus that requires cellular membrane cholesterol for both membrane fusion and efficient exit of progeny virus from infected cells. (rupress.org)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus, is recurring in epidemic waves. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The most problematic viruses encountered in the field are mainly, but not exclusively, RNA viruses belonging to the Novirhabdovirus , Aquabirnavirus , Alphavirus and Betanodavirus genera. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The particle core (40 nm) consists of 240 copies of the capsid protein (C or CP) arranged in a T4 symmetry surrounding the genomic RNA. (ictvonline.org)
  • However, in rubiviruses (Rubella virus, RUBV), the core particle consists of multiple CP disulfide-linked homodimers with the genomic RNA. (ictvonline.org)
  • A sub genomic positive strand RNA - the 26S RNA - is replicated from a negative-stranded RNA intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • After interaction of the nucleocapsids with the 60S ribosomal subunit in the cytosol, the genomic RNA is released and translated ( 22 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • Assembly of nucleocapsids occurs by oligomerization of the capsid protein and selection of the genomic RNA through recognition of an encapsidation signal ( 4 , 22 , 24 ). (asm.org)
  • In contrast to siRNAs, piRNAs are produced in Dicer-independent manner from a long single-stranded RNA transcribed from repetitive elements or genomic loci known as piRNA clusters. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More viral genomic and subgenomic RNA accumulated in cells and mosquitoes infected with TE/3'2J virus expressing B2 (TE/3'2J/B2) compared to TE/3'2J and TE/3'2J virus expressing GFP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this review, we aim to explore how genetic events such as spontaneous mutations could alter the genomic organization of RNA virus es in such a way that they impact virus replications and plaque morphology. (mediaatlas.si)
  • The RNA genome is reverse transcribed into dsDNA by the viral reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme that generates both strands of DNA using the genomic RNA template for first strand synthesis and the resulting cDNA for second strand synthesis, while the (integrated) dsDNA genome is transcribed into viral RNA by the host RNA polymerase II. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We are not certain about the origin of viruses, although we know from ancient texts as well as more modern data-driven genomic analyses that viruses have been around for a very long time. (oncohemakey.com)
  • Based on the genomic data, a valid case can be made for the viral strain examined in this study to be considered a new SAV genotype. (bvsalud.org)
  • Genomic characterization of the virus showed divergent origin compared with viruses previously detected, supporting the hypothesis that the range of Barmah Forest virus extends beyond Australia. (cdc.gov)
  • A full-length cDNA copy of the viral genome has been cloned in a bacterial plasmid including a prokaryotic DNA-dependent RNA polymerase such that viral RNA can be transcribed in vitro . (nature.com)
  • Studies from model systems facilitated development of new drugs, such as a nucleotide prodrug that targets the RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase, which have fewer side effects and a shorter treatment course. (asm.org)
  • 1. An expression plasmid comprising an RNA polymerase I (pol I) promoter and pol I terminator sequences, which are inserted between an RNA polymerase II (pol II) promoter and a polyadenylation signal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Reverse transcriptase is actually a combination of two enzymes: a polymerase that assembles the new DNA copy and an RNase that degrades the source RNA. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This characteristic of the RNA polymerase in RNA virus es led to the generation of diverse offspring with different genotypes in shorter generation times. (mediaatlas.si)
  • Hepatitis delta virus uses host RNA polymerase II to replicate via double rolling circle RNA synthesis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Negative-sense viral RNA is complementary to mRNA and thus must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an RNA polymerase before translation. (wikidoc.org)
  • Negative-sense viruses must have their genome copied by an RNA polymerase or transcriptase to form positive-sense RNA. (wikidoc.org)
  • This means that the virus must bring along with it the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme. (wikidoc.org)
  • Here, we report that one of such redox switches is the NS5B protein that exhibits RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Since 2011, multiple compounds that target enzymatic activity and/or functions of the HCV protease (NS3 protein), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp, NS5B protein), and the regulatory NS5A protein were approved for the treatment of CHC [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Virion associated lipids are derived from the host cell membranes during the process of virus maturation and budding. (ictvonline.org)
  • The E2 envelope protein forms spikes on the surface of the virion that interact with cellular receptors for viral entry and include the major antigenic determinants that define VEEV subtypes ( 9a ). (asm.org)
  • 5. The classification of viruses is based on nucleic acid type, size and shape of virion, and presence or absence of an envelope. (issuu.com)
  • Virion is the entire viral particle. (issuu.com)
  • the membrane is cleaved and then resealed around the virion, thus becoming the viral envelope. (issuu.com)
  • Together these make up the virion , or virus particle. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Classification of viruses considers the genome characteristics, virion shape and macromolecular composition, and other properties, such as antigenicity and host range. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When a complete virus particle ( virion ) comes in contact with a host cell, only the viral nucleic acid and, in some viruses, a few enzymes are injected into the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For certain viruses the RNA is replicated by a viral enzyme ( transcriptase ) contained in the virion, or produced by the host cell using the viral RNA as a messenger. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In other viruses a reverse transcriptase contained in the virion transcribes the genetic message on the viral RNA into DNA, which is then replicated by the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • portal protein: where the genome will come out in the mature virion infection. (cueflash.com)
  • Retroviruses are a special class of viruses, as they alternate between a ssRNA (in the virion) and a dsDNA genome (integrated in the host genome). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The double-stranded (ds)RNA viruses represent a diverse group of viruses that vary widely in host range (humans, animals, plants, fungi , and bacteria ), genome segment number (one to twelve), and virion organization (T-number, capsid layers, or turrets). (wikidoc.org)
  • A mature virus particle is also known as a virion. (50webs.org)
  • It has been suggested that similarity in virion assembly and structure observed for certain viral groups infecting hosts from different domains of life (e.g., bacterial tectiviruses and eukaryotic adenoviruses or prokaryotic Caudovirales and eukaryotic herpesviruses) reflects an evolutionary relationship between these viruses. (jakearchibald.com)
  • In a mature virion, the viral genome is encapsulated and protected by a capsid shell, a complex structure built of multiple (usually identical) protein subunits. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Following infection by the respiratory route the virus replicates in pulmonary macrophages and then in bronchial lymph nodes. (ivis.org)
  • A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike the epizootic IAB and IC viruses that exploit equines as amplification hosts by generating high-titered viremia as required for infection of mosquito vectors, the enzootic ID strains are generally equine avirulent and generate little or no viremia ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • [3] The treatment for Rubella viral infection is to simply treat the signs and symptoms that are occurring due to the lack of an effective anti-viral drug. (kenyon.edu)
  • [3] From the respiratory tract, the virus replicates then enters the lymphatic system where it can lead to a systemic infection. (kenyon.edu)
  • The virus can still be spread person-to-person without signs of clinical infection. (kenyon.edu)
  • This interactome generates a pressure on host organisms evolving mechanisms to neutralize viral infection, which places the pressure back onto virus, a process known as virus-host cell co-evolution. (frontiersin.org)
  • The novel sequences can be used for the medical management of RuV infection, in particular for detecting the virus or for preparing pharmaceutical compositions. (justia.com)
  • The administration of such antibodies can inhibit the propagation of the virus in the patient, and potentially block the outbreak of a viral infection in the population. (justia.com)
  • One of the interesting properties of Hepatitis C as compared to some of the other flaviviruses like yellow fever virus for example is that it is extremely good at establishing and maintaining a chronic infection in most people who are infected. (asm.org)
  • In our effort to better understand virus-host interactions, we tested ZAP's ability to inhibit infection by other viruses. (asm.org)
  • An outbreak of Getah virus infection occurred among racehorses in Japan during September and October 2014. (cdc.gov)
  • Outbreaks of Getah virus infection have occurred among horses in 1978, 1979, and 1983 in Japan ( 2 ) and in 1990 in India ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • An inactivated whole-virus vaccine (Nisseiken Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) is available to prevent Getah virus infection and is mainly administered to thoroughbred racehorses registered by the Japan Racing Association. (cdc.gov)
  • we identified Getah virus infection among these horses. (cdc.gov)
  • The outbreak of Getah virus infection in 1978 occurred at this facility. (cdc.gov)
  • Since interferons have been implicated in inflammatory diseases and immunopathology in addition to their protective role in infection, antagonizing the immune response may have an ambiguous effect on the clinical outcome of the viral disease. (mdpi.com)
  • It has developed multiple mechanisms to sense invading viruses, and subsequent signal transduction pathways are targeted at the initial containment of infection in the body. (mdpi.com)
  • The DENV infection process is initiated through the binding of the virus to receptors on the cell surface via the E protein, followed by endocytosis, in which variations in pH trigger the fusion of this protein with the endosomal membrane, releasing the nucleocapsid (RNA bound to the C protein) into the cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TE/3'2J/B2 exhibited increased infection rates, dissemination rates, and infectious virus titers in mosquitoes following oral bloodmeal. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The invention provides antisense antiviral compounds and methods of their use in inhibition of growth of viruses of the picornavirus, calicivirus, togavirus and flavivirus families, as in treatment of a viral infection. (google.com)
  • Chikungunya is a viral infection that is transmitted by mosquitoes. (findatopdoc.com)
  • The exogenous short interfering RNA (exo-siRNA) pathway plays a major antiviral role in controlling virus infection in mosquito cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • RVF virus primarily infects domestic livestock (sheep, goats, cattle) causing high rates of neonatal mortality and abortion, with human infection resulting in a wide variety of clinical outcomes, ranging from self-limiting febrile illness to life-threatening haemorrhagic diatheses, and miscarriage in pregnant women. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Soon after infection, the single stranded positive RNA that constitutes the viral genome is efficiently translated using a cap-independent mechanism driven by the internal ribosome entry site element (IRES). (caister.com)
  • However, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the infection caused by each virus is distinct, as are the diseases they cause. (caister.com)
  • A method of inhibiting viral infection in a mammal in need of same, includes administering an effective amount of at least one of the compounds of FGI-103 which are represented by 273, 365 and 510 either prophylactically to prevent viral infection, or therapeutically following viral infection. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We will focus on neurons, despite the other cellular complexity, because neurons provide direct avenues for viral infection. (prolekare.cz)
  • Recognition that viral infection follows nerve pathways enabled the development of viruses for neuronal circuit tracing [6] - [8] . (prolekare.cz)
  • These same conduits are utilized for the long distance spread of viral infection within the host organism. (prolekare.cz)
  • a Receptor required ALONG with the main receptor for the next steps of viral infection. (cueflash.com)
  • Rubella virus (RV) infection in children and adults usually presents as a mild self-limited illness. (cdc.gov)
  • This study first determined and described the disease course of horse infected with GETV in China, sequenced and characterized the genome of the field horse-derived GETV strain, and therefore presented an unequivocal report of GETV infection in horses in China. (frontiersin.org)
  • On August 13, 2010, public wellness functionaries in Southwest Michigan informed community members that a 3rd individual had contracted an infection from Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus. (thesportsfamilyclub.org)
  • Infection status with EEEV in mosquitoes was determined using cell culture and RT-PCR assays, and all viral isolates were sequenced and compared to other EEEV strains by phylogenetic analysis. (springer.com)
  • Time course of HIV infection showing correlation of viral load, CD4 + T cell, and CD8 + T cell counts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infection is caused by both vertical and horizontal transmission of virus. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Most infecting viruses check if the host file already has an infection. (everything2.com)
  • Cell-to-cell spread of the RNA interference response suppresses Semliki Forest virus (SFV) infection of mosquito cell cultures and cannot be antagonized by SFV. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • As such, purified RNA of a positive-sense virus can directly cause infection though it may be less infectious than the whole virus particle. (wikidoc.org)
  • 4 Other viruses such as pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses have been isolated since the late 1990s repeatedly from humans, who commonly died as sequela of the infection. (oncohemakey.com)
  • My aim is to understand the factors determining the outcome of virus infection in arthropods (persistence, clearance or pathogenesis) especially in mosquitoes and thereby contribute to understanding vector competence. (bnitm.de)
  • The RNA interference (RNAi) pathway is able to restrict virus infection in a wide range of arthropods including mosquitoes and ticks. (bnitm.de)
  • However, little is known about the induction, mechanism and importance of the piRNA pathway on arboviral and mosquito-specific viral infection in aedine mosquitoes. (bnitm.de)
  • Chikungunya is an infection caused by the chikungunya virus (CHIKV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses require a number of different enzymes depending on genome type and mode of infection. (50webs.org)
  • Since April 2015, about one million people have suffered from Zika Virus (ZV) infection collectively and, approximately over 6400 cases of ZV have been reported in Americas and territories alone. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • 24] ZV infection during pregnancy causes Congenital Zika Virus syndrome (CZS) which is a defined set of congenital conditions in newborns. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • Antibody Dependent Enhancement of infection is the phenomenon that results in magnifying the host cell infection by the viruses of same family due to the presence of cross-reactive antibodies. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • Reduction in virus titre was observed in IT inoculated and oral fed mosquitoes irrespective of the infection mode. (bvsalud.org)
  • A striking example of a defined lipid requirement in membrane fusion is the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) 1 fusion protein, which mediates the cholesterol and sphingolipid- dependent fusion of the virus membrane with the cellular membrane during virus infection. (rupress.org)
  • This simple virus structure protects the virus RNA genome, mediates virus fusion with the cell membrane to release the nucleocapsid and initiate infection, and is efficiently assembled during the budding of progeny virions from the host cell plasma membrane. (rupress.org)
  • SFV is a highly developed system to study virus membrane fusion and budding, two key steps in infection by all enveloped viruses. (rupress.org)
  • Using infectious viruses or virus-like replicon particles expressing the E2-210Q and E2-210L residues, we determined that E2-L210Q acts primarily at the level of infection of A. albopictus midgut epithelial cells. (prolekare.cz)
  • This process has been well documented for several single-host viruses such as pandemic influenza A virus, the SARS coronavirus and canine parvovirus (reviewed in [3] , [4] ) that do not rely on alternating infection of disparate hosts for their maintenance in nature. (prolekare.cz)
  • Unlike arboviruses, which have a dual-host tropism by cycling between vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors, ISVs replicate exclusively in arthropod populations, causing a persistent viral infection, as such they are mainly maintained in nature by vertical transmission route. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • We report a case of Barmah Forest virus infection in a child from Central Province, Papua New Guinea, who had no previous travel history. (cdc.gov)
  • View Department of Pathology profile » My main research interest is to better understand the mechanisms that enable emerging viruses to evade host immune responses and cause disease, and to identify cellular factors that contribute to viral infection. (utmb.edu)
  • View Sealy Center for Molecular Medicine profile » Dr. Bao's research focuses on host-virus interaction, particularly in the infection of RSF and hMPV, with the goal of generating suitable vaccine candidates to prevent paramyxovirus infection. (utmb.edu)
  • The infection, known as Zika fever or Zika virus disease, often causes no or only mild symptoms, similar to a very mild form of dengue fever . (wikipedia.org)
  • IFITM3 is a trans-membrane protein in a cell that is able to protect it from viral infection by blocking virus attachment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whereas DENV was not found in saliva at day 10 post-infection (pi), an average of 174 ± 455 viral particles was detected in 38.1% of mosquitoes tested at day 21 after an infectious blood-meal at a higher titer of 10 9 MID 50 /ml. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among the major groups of viruses, RNA viruses contribute significantly to the global mortality and morbidity index associated with viral infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • The initial interaction with complement and the nature of this interaction play an important role in determining host resistance versus susceptibility to the viral infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • DENV antigens detected in 25 out of 35 patients, were observed early during in vitro infection (3 days), significantly diminished with time, indicating that virus replicated, however monocytes controlled the infection. (springer.com)
  • It has only one genus, Arterivirus , whose virus species are antigenically distinct from each other. (ivis.org)
  • Viruses known to infect humans that have not been associated with disease: the family Anelloviridae and the genus Dependovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bunyavirus - This genus consists of a large number of serologically grouped and ungrouped viruses. (ivis.org)
  • The Rubella Virus is the only member of the genus Rubivirus within the Togaviradae family. (kenyon.edu)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV), a member of Orbivirus genus within the Reoviridae family causes serious disease in livestock (sheep, goat, cattle). (highveld.com)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the prototypic member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family. (caister.com)
  • Recently, we have demonstrated the antiviral properties of ZAP against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), a single-stranded RNA virus of the Enterovirus genus within the Picornaviridae as a major causative agent of viral myocarditis (VMC), not only in cell line but also in murine model of CVB3- induced acute myocarditis [ 15 ]. (rroij.com)
  • Hepatitis delta virus, the only member of the only species in the genus Deltavirus , is a unique human pathogen. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • ZV belongs to flavivirus genus, shares structural similarities with Dengue Virus (DENV) that are the mainstay for vaccine development research and consists of positive-sense RNA, a capsid with an outer shell. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • 11] Virus (ZV) is classified in the Family of Flaviviridae and Genus of Flavivirus virus of Arboviruses. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • Hepatovirus is the lone virus in its own genus. (stanford.edu)
  • Poliomyelitis (commonly known as polio ) is an infectious disease caused by polioviruses 1, 2, and 3 in the enterovirus genus of the picornaviridae viral family. (stanford.edu)
  • Other viruses have also a serious impact in the field such as the infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), an Aquabirnavirus infecting for instance salmonid and viruses belonging to the Betanodavirus genus which cause serious diseases in several marine fish species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rubella virus (RV), a positive-stranded RNA virus, is the only member of the genus Rubivirus within the Togaviridae family. (ubc.ca)
  • Signature)( FIV-bDepartment of TA-1-tvi__06, The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate ^L4C_7.0 2 6/5 \DE-6 (2/88)ABSTRACTRubella virus (RV), a positive-stranded RNA virus, is the only member of the genus Rubivirus withinthe Togaviridae family. (ubc.ca)
  • Groups: I - dsDNA II - ssDNA III - dsRNA IV - positive-sense ssRNA V - negative-sense ssRNA VI - ssRNA-RT VII - dsDNA-RT The clinical characteristics of viruses may differ substantially among species within the same family: List of latent human viral infections Pathogenic bacteria Taylor, M.P. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increasing number of novel mycoviruses are being reported, including double-stranded (ds) RNA, circular single-stranded (ss) DNA, negative sense (−)ssRNA, and positive sense (+)ssRNA viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • R. solani harbors a range of dsRNA and ssRNA viruses, either belonging to established families, such as Endornaviridae , Tymoviridae , Partitiviridae , and Narnaviridae , or unclassified, and some of them have been associated with hypervirulence or hypovirulence. (mdpi.com)
  • Positive sense ssRNA virus families. (brainscape.com)
  • (+)ssRNA viruses (+)sense RNA (e.g. (wikidoc.org)
  • ssRNA-RT viruses (+)sense RNA with DNA intermediate in life-cycle (e.g. (wikidoc.org)
  • Positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses comprise many (re-)emerging human pathogens that pose a public health problem. (mdpi.com)
  • Already many molecular mechanisms of innate immune evasion by +ssRNA viruses have been identified. (mdpi.com)
  • The positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses (+ssRNA) comprise many pathogens that are a serious threat to human health. (mdpi.com)
  • Human +ssRNA viruses that currently have a large impact on public health include dengue virus (DENV) and the more recent (re-)emerging viruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Its genome is linear, positive-sense ssRNA and contains a 5′ terminal cap, two large open reading frames (ORFs), and a 3′ terminal poly(A) tract. (frontiersin.org)
  • Next, the virus membrane fuses with the endosomal membrane and the ssRNA genome of the virus is released into the cytoplasm of the host cell. (kenyon.edu)
  • The dsRNA genome is then transcribed resulting in additional ssRNA genomes. (kenyon.edu)
  • The ssRNA viruses belong to Class IV or V of the Baltimore classification. (ipfs.io)
  • Class IV and V ssRNA viruses do not depend as heavily as DNA viruses on the cell cycle. (ipfs.io)
  • Their nucleic acid is usually single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) but may be double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). (wikidoc.org)
  • Viruses with ssRNA are divided into two groups: if the RNA of the genome has the same polarity as the viral mRNA and can thus function directly as messenger RNA it is called a plus-strand (or positive-strand) or sense RNA strand and these viruses are sense or plus-strand viruses. (50webs.org)
  • The genome alone is infectious. (ivis.org)
  • Minuscule, acellular and infectious agents have both DNA OR RNA -Causes infections to humans animals and plants -Causes the majority of diseases plaguing the industrialized world -Cannot carry out any metabolic pathway -Neither grow nor respond to the enviroment. (brainscape.com)
  • In 2005, a rare HCV isolate (JF09) from a patient in Japan with acute fulminant disease was able to replicate without adaptive mutations and production of infectious viral progeny! (asm.org)
  • any member of a unique class of infectious agents, which were originally distinguished by their smallness (hence, they were described as "filtrable" because of their ability to pass through fine ceramic filters that blocked all cells, including bacteria) and their inability to replicate outside of and without assistance of a living host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The viral capsid will migrate when ready to the virus modified membrane and then bud into a free infectious virus. (cueflash.com)
  • Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) of chickens (a coronavirus) 3 different types present, these types have significant antigenic differences, but perhaps very little genetic or biological difference between these viruses. (scribd.com)
  • Because arthropod transmission plays a very large part in infectious animal disease, specifically potential emergent virus epidemics, I will dedicate the next part of this essay to a discussion of them. (educate-yourself.org)
  • Lentiviruses are known for their cytolytic and immunosuppressive properties and include viruses such as simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus (CAEV), and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus of salmonids and infectious bursal disease virus of poultry are two economically important birnaviruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Purified RNA of a negative-sense virus is not infectious by itself as it needs to be transcribed into positive-sense RNA. (wikidoc.org)
  • This virus, termed SARS-CoV, which in its wild-type form infects civets, a cat-like carnivore, mutated and became infectious to humans and then within this host rapidly underwent further positive selection. (oncohemakey.com)
  • While data in infected cells demonstrate Cp binding to the proposed genome packaging signal (PS), mutagenesis experiments show that PS is not required for production of infectious SFV or Chikungunya virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a highly infectious emerging pathogen of bioterrorism interest. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Virus 1 quesito Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. (lookformedical.com)
  • PKR increased levels of serum IFN and the rate of clearance of infectious virus from the brain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In summary, in response to SFV, PKR exerts an early antiviral effect that delays virus protein production and release of infectious virus and, whilst PKR is not required for induction of apoptosis or activation of the type I IFN response, it strongly augments the type I IFN response and contributes to clearance of infectious virus from the mouse brain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • [ 28 ] In addition, ISVs such as Eilat virus (EILV) and Negev virus could be experimentally transmitted to adult mosquitoes via a high-titer of an infectious blood meal. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • View Department of Pathology profile » I have a long-standing interest in the study of pathogenesis of infectious diseases, particularly experimental animal models of acute viral diseases including viral hemorrhagic fevers and arbovirus encephalitides. (utmb.edu)
  • 2019. Wild and farmed salmon (Salmo salar) as reservoirs for infectious salmon anaemia virus, and the importance of horizontal- and vertical transmission. (uib.no)
  • Viruses have evolved di ff erent strategies to hijack subcellular organelles during their life cycle to produce robust infectious progeny. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Their capacity to transmit arboviruses was investigated by providing infectious blood-meals using an artificial feeding system followed by detection of viral particles in mosquito saliva. (biomedcentral.com)
  • At day 10 after an infectious blood-meal at a titer of 10 8 MID 50 /ml, 30% of mosquitoes delivered an average of 515 ± 781 viral particles of CHIKV in saliva collected using a forced salivation technique and 55% with an average of 245 ± 304 viral particles when infected with WNV. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The recent establishment of reverse genetics systems to recover infectious fish RNA viruses entirely from cDNA has made possible to genetically manipulate the viral genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Major viral diseases are mainly due to two antigenetically distinct Novirhabdoviruses which can coexist in the same fish farms: the viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and the infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Positive sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that have a spherical appearance due to the envelope, but the nucleocapsid is icosahedral in shape. (ivis.org)
  • Alphaviruses are small, enveloped RNA viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid (reviewed in reference 22 ). (asm.org)
  • Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an icosahedral core containing a positive-sense RNA genome. (caister.com)
  • EEEV is an enveloped virus with an icosahedral mirid bug, and possesses a non-segmented, single-stranded RNA genome, doing it a member of the Baltimore categorization IV ( Aguilar et al. (thesportsfamilyclub.org)
  • Birnaviridae is a family of viruses with bi-segmented dsRNA genomes totalling about 6 kbp forming icosahedral, non-enveloped virions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Caliciviruses are icosahedral nonenveloped viruses with a positive-sense single strand RNA genome that does not exceed 8.6 kb. (caister.com)
  • The virus is naked with an icosahedral capsid. (stanford.edu)
  • Like other flaviviruses, Zika virus is enveloped and icosahedral and has a nonsegmented, single-stranded, 10- kilobase , positive-sense RNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus consists of a host derived lipid bilayer membrane, membrane glycoprotein spikes, and the C protein which together with viral RNA forms the icosahedral nucleocapsid. (ubc.ca)
  • Positive single-stranded RNA families: three non-enveloped (Astroviridae, Caliciviridae and Picornaviridae) and four enveloped (Coronaviridae, Flaviviridae, Retroviridae and Togaviridae). (wikipedia.org)
  • It thus includes in addition to the viruses in Bunyaviridae, viruses in the families Arenaviridae, Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae and Rhabdoviridae. (ivis.org)
  • In recent years, the list of these 'mosquito specific viruses' (MSVs) has been growing, encompassing viruses from different families ( Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, Togaviridae ) as well as some that are unclassified. (bnitm.de)
  • Zika virus ( ZIKV ) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae . (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017. New virus of the family Flaviviridae detected in lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus). (uib.no)
  • Arboviruses represent a wide variety of RNA viruses including the families of Flaviviridae and Togaviridae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viral DNA or RNA serves as the template for mRNA production. (issuu.com)
  • b. mRNA codes for viral protein and enzymes necessary for nucleic acid synthesis. (issuu.com)
  • Zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP, also known as zinc finger CCCH-type antiviral 1, ZC3HAV1) prevents the accumulation of viral mRNA in the cytoplasm by targeting viral RNA for degradation. (rroij.com)
  • The mRNA is transcribed in the normal way from viral DNA using the host transcriptase enzymes, into two types of mRNA's: 1) early mRNA, transcribed prior to the synthesis of viral DNA, and 2) late mRNA, transcribed from progeny DNA. (ipfs.io)
  • Positive-sense viral RNA is identical to viral mRNA and thus can be immediately translated by the host cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Double-stranded reoviruses contain up to a dozen different RNA molecules which each code for an mRNA. (wikidoc.org)
  • Subunit vaccines are DNA, modified mRNA and virus-like particles (VLP) vaccines. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • The formal taxonomic classification of viruses is the responsibility of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) system, although the Baltimore classification system can be used to place viruses into one of seven groups based on their manner of mRNA synthesis. (jakearchibald.com)
  • View Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology profile » Our laboratory is focused on two areas of biomedical importance: (i) host-pathogen interactions involving pathogenic flaviviruses such as dengue, yellow fever and zika viruses, and (ii) alternative splicing regulation of the interleukin-7 receptor alpha (IL7Ra) pre-mRNA and its connection to autoimmunity, especially in the context of multiple sclerosis. (utmb.edu)
  • Types of RNA include messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), and other non-coding RNAs. (anthropogeny.org)
  • In marked difference with other biological systems, the genome of positive strand RNA viruses is also the mRNA. (bvsalud.org)
  • Passive immunotherapy consists of the administration to individuals of pharmaceutical compositions comprising therapeutic antibodies with a defined binding specificity for a pathogenic antigen (a toxin, a human protein, a virus, or a parasite, for example). (justia.com)
  • Most alphaviruses lose the peripheral protein E3, but in Semliki viruses it remains associated with the viral surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 15527835 Phosphorylation of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) VP22 protein is regulated by cellular kinases and the UL13 viral kinase, but the sites at which these enzymes induce phosphorylation of HSV-2 VP22 are not known. (jove.com)
  • A previously unknown rat protein, designated zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP), was recently found to exhibit antiviral activity against Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV), a member of the Retroviridae . (asm.org)
  • Reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was conducted using a primer pair targeting nonstructural protein 1 (NSP1) of Getah virus (OneStep RT-PCR Kit, QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany) by using the RNA extracted from the blood samples ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 3. A reassortant influenza A virus according to claim 1 characterized in that the PA protein comprises at least one of the amino acid modifications selected from the group consisting of N10S, P275L, and D682N. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 7. A reassortant influenza A virus according to claim 1 characterized in that the polynucleotide encoding the NS1 protein comprises a modification, substitution and/or deletion of at least one nucleotide. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 12. A reassortant influenza virus according to claim 1 comprising a NP protein that comprises amino acid sequence SEQ ID NO: 10 or at least a part thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Moreover, we identified a number of protein coding genes producing gene-specific siRNAs and piRNAs that were generally expressed at much lower levels than the TE-associated small RNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A virus consists of genetic material, which may be either DNA or RNA, and is surrounded by a protein coat and, in some viruses, by a membranous envelope. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Dicer 2 (Dcr2) nuclease is a key effector protein in this pathway, which cleaves viral double-stranded RNA into virus-derived siRNAs that are further loaded onto an effector called Argonaute 2 (Ago2), which as part of the multiprotein RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) targets and cleaves viral RNA. (bvsalud.org)
  • This process occurs concomitantly with the inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, caused by the expression of viral proteases. (caister.com)
  • CoV N protein is required for coronavirus RNA synthesis, and has RNA chaperone activity that may be involved in template switch. (caister.com)
  • The minor CP amber readthrough protein ( c. 75 kDa) is detected near one extremity of BNYVV particles and initiates virus assembly. (ictvonline.org)
  • A VIRAL PILOT PROTEIN will enable the DNA translocation through the inner membrane. (cueflash.com)
  • [3] The 3' NCR forms a loop structure and the 5' NCR allows translation via a methylated nucleotide cap or a genome-linked protein. (kenyon.edu)
  • 1014 ) . Like other positive sense RNA viruses, interlingual rendition of the two unfastened reading frames of the EEEV genome consequences in the formation of a big polypeptide that is subsequently cleaved into smaller protein units ( Aguilar et al. (thesportsfamilyclub.org)
  • Its ~1.7 kb circular negative-sense RNA genome encodes a protein, hepatitis delta antigen, which occurs in two forms, small and large, both with unique functions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Any of a kingdom (Virus) of prokaryote s, usually ultramicroscopic, that consist of nucleic acid , either RNA or DNA , within a case of protein . (everything2.com)
  • The empty virus capsule (protein coat, sheath, etc) is discarded. (everything2.com)
  • Capsid protein of eastern equine encephalitis virus inhibits host cell gene expression. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus capsid protein inhibits nuclear import in mammalian but not in mosquito cells. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) is a host factor that mediates inhibition of viruses in the Filoviridae, Retroviridae and Togaviridae families. (nih.gov)
  • Viruses are complexes consisting of protein and an RNA or DNA genome. (50webs.org)
  • The capsid is the shell of virus-coded protein that encloses the nucleic acid and is more or less closely associated with it. (50webs.org)
  • These viruses bear a certain surface protein (hemagglutinin) in their envelope that enables them to do this. (50webs.org)
  • Virus Incompleti 0 domande Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. (lookformedical.com)
  • Virus Helper 0 domande Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. (lookformedical.com)
  • The double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) is a key regulator of protein translation, interferon (IFN) expression and cell survival. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The srf-3 mutant emphasizes the relationship between the role of cholesterol in membrane fusion and virus exit, and most significantly, identifies a novel spike protein region involved in the virus cholesterol requirement. (rupress.org)
  • The genome is monopartite and polyadenylated at the 3 end, but has a VPg protein at the 5 end in place of a cap. (stanford.edu)
  • [25] The RNA genome forms a nucleocapsid along with copies of the 12-kDa capsid protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many other organisms rely instead on RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by a specialized Dicer protein that cleaves viral double-stranded RNA. (bvsalud.org)
  • This review provides an overview on the recent breakthroughs achieved by using these reverse genetics systems in terms of viral protein function, virulence and host-specificity factor, vaccine development and vector design. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Non-enveloped viruses lack a lipid-based membrane and assemble from protein and nucleic acid molecules only. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Viral RNA and DNA were extracted from the blood samples and nasal swab samples by using a nucleic acid isolation kit (MagNA Pure LC Total Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit, Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). (cdc.gov)
  • The virus particle is elongated or pleomorphic (not spherical), and the nucleic acid is spiral. (scribd.com)
  • They have no metabolic systems of their own, but rather depend on the synthetic mechanism of a living host cell, whereby the viruses exploit normal cellular metabolism by delivering their own genetic information, i.e., nucleic acid, into the host cell. (50webs.org)
  • The host cell accepts the nucleic acid and proceeds to produce the components of new viruses in accordance with the genetic information it contains. (50webs.org)
  • the nucleic acid of RNA viruses is usually single-stranded (ss), with the exception of the reoviruses, and is also segmented in a number of virus families. (50webs.org)
  • Virus A Dna 0 domande Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA. (lookformedical.com)
  • Virus Riassortanti 0 domande Viruses containing two or more pieces of nucleic acid (segmented genome) from different parents. (lookformedical.com)
  • 4 . The method of claim 1 , wherein said target nucleic acid sequence is RNA. (google.com)
  • A way of dividing the sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) molecule into a set of consecutive, non-overlapping triplets called codons. (anthropogeny.org)
  • These viruses are 80 - 120 nm in diameter, have a helical nucleocapsid surrounded by an envelope, on the surface of which are glycoprotein projections. (ivis.org)
  • The virus is enveloped, pleomorphic with helical nucleocapsid. (slideplayer.com)
  • Helical nucleocapsid assembly or icosehedral nucleocapsid assembly, formation of viral envelope and the budding of enveloped viruses. (cueflash.com)
  • The nucleocapsid, in turn, is enveloped within a host-derived membrane modified with two viral glycoproteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • This pure in vitro approach achieves the generation of the outer shell of enveloped viruses, the envelope, but does not include the core of the virus, the nucleocapsid. (allindianpatents.com)
  • They replicate in the cytoplasm of macrophages and endothelial cells. (ivis.org)
  • As a general rule, DNA viruses replicate within the cell nucleus while RNA viruses replicate within the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exceptions are known to this rule: poxviruses replicate within the cytoplasm and orthomyxoviruses and hepatitis D virus (RNA viruses) replicate within the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The virus replicates in the cytoplasm and matures by budding into vesicles in the Golgi region and then released by exocytosis at the cell surface. (ivis.org)
  • Expression of either the full-length rat ZAP or the amino-terminal one-third fused to the product of the zeocin resistance gene (NZAP-Zeo) was inhibitory, and the mechanism of the block was found to be a dramatic and specific loss of viral mRNAs from the cytoplasm, but not the nuclei, of cells ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • The low pH in the endosome triggers membrane fusion between the viral envelope and the endosome, releasing the nuclear material of virus into the cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
  • So, we have included recent data explaining the mechanism by, even though viruses have evolved elegant hideouts, host cells are still able to develop dsRNA receptors-dependent antiviral response. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recognition of viral double-strand RNA (dsRNA) molecules by intracellular Toll-like receptors (TLRs) or retinoic acid inducible gene I-like receptors (RLRs) is a central event which entails the early steps of the immune response elicited during viral infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • RIG-I, the leading member of the RLRs, is activated upon dsRNA recognition generating the production of an anti-viral state in the infected-cell and in the surrounding tissue. (frontiersin.org)
  • Since we consider TLR3, RIG-I, and MDA-5 as "major sentries" of viral dsRNA molecules, a brief revision of their specific anti-viral action will be presented in this report. (frontiersin.org)
  • dsRNA viruses (e.g. (wikidoc.org)
  • siRNA is originated from exo- and endogenous double stranded RNA (dsRNA), which is processed by the RNAse III enzyme Dicer-2 (Dcr-2) into 21-nt siRNA duplexes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • RNAi is a highly conserved molecular pathway triggered by the presence of intracytoplasmic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that results in the cleavage of RNA molecules with sequence homologous to the dsRNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Keene et al (2004) and Campbell et al (2008) used dsRNA injection to show that transient knockdown of key RNAi components increases viral loads in individual mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Phage display technologies take advantage of the small dimension and the adaptability of the genome of filamentous phage (such as M13) that infect bacterial cells (e.g. (justia.com)
  • Among pathogenic antigens that can be targeted using therapeutic antibodies, viruses that infect human cells are of particular importance. (justia.com)
  • Alphaviruses that could infect both vertebrates and arthropods are referred dual-host alphaviruses, while insect-specific alphaviruses such as Eilat virus and Yada yada virus are restricted to their competent arthropod vector. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) does not infect large numbers of people like the afore-mentioned viruses, 35% of diagnosed patients die of MERS [ 2 ], and considering the virus' genetic possibilities, any change that increases transmissibility between humans would mean a serious public health threat that is considered worth preparing for. (mdpi.com)
  • A virus is a parasite that must infect a living cell to reproduce. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) can persistently infect and cause limited damage to mosquito vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • avian influenza viruses can directly infect humans. (caister.com)
  • What Common Virus Families Infect the Nervous System? (prolekare.cz)
  • Getah virus (GETV) is a mosquito-borne virus that was first determined in Malaysia in 1955, and can infect humans and multiple other mammals. (frontiersin.org)
  • Viruses in this category include the Anelloviridae , Circoviridae , and Parvoviridae (which infect vertebrates), the Geminiviridae and Nanoviridae (which infect plants), and the Microviridae (which infect prokaryotes ). (ipfs.io)
  • Both viruses have isometric, spherical virions, infect giant freshwater prawns and together cause white tail disease, which is responsible for mass mortalities and severe economic losses in hatcheries and farms. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Unlike a worm , a virus cannot infect other computers without assistance. (everything2.com)
  • Pathogenic H5N1 viruses, which were, and by some still are, feared to evolve into pandemic viruses, have thus far failed to mutate to achieve sustained human-to-human transmission, while concomitantly, another influenza A virus arose from a triple reassortment between viruses that naturally infect humans, avians, and swine, and caused the 2007 influenza pandemic. (oncohemakey.com)
  • In addition to arboviruses that infect and replicate in both arthropods and vertebrates, there is a class of arthropod-specific viruses that replicate only in arthropods. (bnitm.de)
  • It is defined as the ability of a particular virus to productively infect and replicate in a specific cell type, tissue, or species. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Most alphaviruses have conserved domains involved in regulation of viral RNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present invention is based on the development of a dual promoter system (preferably a RNA pol I-pol II system) for the efficient intracellular synthesis of viral RNA. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • CoV transcription involves a discontinuous RNA synthesis (template switch) during the extension of a negative copy of the subgenomic mRNAs. (caister.com)
  • Pathogenesis may consist of virus penetration into monocytes or dendritic cells, cell activation and synthesis induction of cytokines, arachdonic acids and very likely nitric oxide. (springer.com)
  • Bunyaviridae is a large family of mainly arthropod-borne viruses (arborviruses) with several significant veterinary pathogens. (ivis.org)
  • Bunyaviridae is the largest family of vertebrate viruses. (ivis.org)
  • 4. The eclipse period is the stage when the genetic material is replicated but intact virions are not yet detectable. (issuu.com)
  • Viruses are lifeless particles designed for setting virus-host interactome assuring a new generation of virions for dissemination. (frontiersin.org)
  • Because host cells do not have the ability to replicate "viral RNA" but are able to transcribe messenger RNA, RNA viruses must contain enzymes to produce genetic material for new virions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Benyviridae is a family of plant viruses with rod-shaped virions. (ictvonline.org)
  • Reverse transcription, translation, splicing, encapsidation in virions to name a few, all have their own requirements with respect to the viral RNA genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One of these includes RNA replicase , which copies the viral RNA to form a double-stranded replicative form, in turn this directs the formation of new virions. (wikidoc.org)
  • The SIN genome consists of a single, capped, positive-sense RNA molecule of approximately 11.7 kb and contains a 5′ untranslated region (UTR) as well as a 3′ UTR and a poly(A) tail. (asm.org)
  • The Zika virus is a positive sense single-stranded RNA molecule 10794 bases long [3] with two non-coding regions flanking regions known as the 5' NCR and the 3' NCR. (kenyon.edu)
  • Reverse transcriptase , a viral enzyme that comes from the virus itself after it is uncoated, converts the viral RNA into a complementary strand of DNA, which is copied to produce a double stranded molecule of viral DNA. (wikidoc.org)
  • A second process, recombination, can occur ineither segmented or unsegmented viruses when `donor'nucleotide sequence is introduced into a single, contiguous ` acceptor ' RNA molecule to produce a new RNA containing genetic information from more than one source. (biology-online.org)
  • Its genome is composed by a single stranded positive polarity RNA molecule. (elsevier.es)
  • When alphaviruses replicate in mammalian cells, particles have significantly more cholesterol than when the virus is propagated in invertebrate cells. (ictvonline.org)
  • Once inside living cells, viruses induce the host cell to synthesize virus particles. (issuu.com)
  • Small viruses that produce uniform particles can be crystallized. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The viral particles are sometimes unstable in sap with strong infectivity losses within one to five days at room temperature. (ictvonline.org)
  • Although a straightforward culturing method remains lacking for noroviruses, important progress has been made in immunological studies using virus-like particles. (caister.com)
  • Notably, Cp's top binding site is maintained throughout virus assembly, and specifically binds and assembles with Cp into core-like particles in vitro. (bvsalud.org)
  • Virus particles (digitally colored purple) are 40 nm in diameter, with an outer envelope and a dense inner core. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, for several viral agents it's been observed both, a complex rearrangement of cellular membranes and a strong innate immune antiviral response induction. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, expression of ZAP did not induce a broad-spectrum antiviral state as some viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus, poliovirus, yellow fever virus, and herpes simplex virus type 1, replicated to normal levels in ZAP-expressing cells. (asm.org)
  • Elucidation of the antiviral mechanism by which ZAP inhibits Sindbis virus translation may lead to the development of agents with broad activity against alphaviruses. (asm.org)
  • The transmission of Dengue virus (DENV) and Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has increased worldwide, due in part to the lack of a specific antiviral treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The antisense antiviral compounds are substantially uncharged oligomers having a targeting base sequence that is substantially complementary to a viral target sequence which spans the AUG start site of the first open reading frame of the viral genome. (google.com)
  • Recognition and degradation of viral RNA are essential for antiviral innate immune responses. (rroij.com)
  • In this review, we discuss novel findings in the field of mosquito antiviral responses to arboviruses, in particular RNA interference, the up-and-coming field of general immune-signalling pathways, and cell death/apoptosis. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • It is known for several arthropods that they have different innate immune responses against viruses, some working globally antiviral and others been specific for a certain virus. (bnitm.de)
  • RNAi can be divided in several pathway depended on the small RNAs produced: small interfering RNA (siRNA) either exogenous (known as antiviral response) or endogenous, microRNA (miRNA) and PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA). (bnitm.de)
  • Presently, research in my group focuses mainly on mosquito-borne (arbo)viruses (such as Zika virus, chikungunya virus and dengue virus) and the role of poorly characterized small RNA pathways (such as the piRNA pathway) in the antiviral response in mosquitoes. (bnitm.de)
  • In the first male-killing Wolbachia strain tested for antiviral effects, we found no evidence that it conferred protection against two RNA viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we focus on distinct types of positive strand RNA viruses that differ in the regulatory elements used to promote translation of the viral RNA, as well as in the mechanisms used to evade the series of events connected to antiviral response, including translation shutoff induced in infected cells, assembly of stress granules, and trafficking stress. (bvsalud.org)
  • We identified an isoform of Dicer, named antiviral Dicer (aviD), that protects tissue stem cells from RNA viruses-including Zika virus and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-by dicing viral double-stranded RNA to orchestrate antiviral RNAi. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cell culture passage of alphaviruses, including VEEV ( 2 ) and Sindbis virus ( 7 , 13 ), results in selection for binding to heparan sulfate (HS), and this selection is accompanied by mutations that increase the positive charge of E2 and the small-plaque phenotype characteristic of natural, epizootic VEEV strains ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Alphaviruses belong to group IV of the Baltimore classification of viruses, with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transmission between species and individuals occurs mainly via mosquitoes, making the alphaviruses a member of the collection of arboviruses - or arthropod-borne viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alphaviruses are small, spherical, enveloped viruses with a genome of a single strand of positive-sense RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of alphaviruses to the cell surface is possible through a number of receptors in different species and is mediated by the viral glycoprotein E2 ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • Alphaviruses comprise a group of small, enveloped single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses. (caister.com)
  • Due to their small size alphaviruses have historically been utilised as model systems for the analysis of viral pathogenesis. (caister.com)
  • Most alphaviruses (family Togaviridae) including Sindbis virus (SINV) and other human pathogens, are transmitted by arthropods. (bvsalud.org)
  • Replicases of alphaviruses of the Semliki Forest virus complex were able to cross-utilize each other's templates as well as those of outgroup alphaviruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • Alphaviruses (family Togaviridae ) produce disease in a variety of animals and replicate in invertebrates, birds and mammals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Alphaviruses are single-stranded, positive-sense, enveloped RNA viruses with a genome of approximately 11.5 kb with a 5′ cap and a 3′ poly(A) tail. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Wolbachia pipientis from Drosophila melanogaster (wMel) is an endosymbiotic bacterium that restricts transmission of human pathogenic flaviviruses and alphaviruses, including dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses, when introduced into the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Simian hemorrhagic fever virus: Causes hemorrhagic fever in several species of African monkeys. (ivis.org)
  • The true situation is that lentiviruses are rapidly replicating and spawning dozens of quasi-species until a particularly effective one overruns the ability of the host's immune system to defeat it. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, unlike the mammalian reoviruses, Orbiviruses comprising 14 serogroups, are vectored to a variety of vertebrates by arthropod species (e.g., gnats, mosquitoes and ticks) and replicate in both hosts. (highveld.com)
  • This paper is the first up-to-date review of the pathology of these flaviviruses in birds, with a special emphasis on the difference in susceptibility among avian species, in order to understand the specificity of the host spectrum of each of these viruses. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The RNA genome of the lentivirus family of retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), contains e.g. an above average percentage of adenine (A) nucleotides, while being extremely poor in cytosine (C). Such a deviant base composition has implications for the amino acids that are encoded by the open reading frames (ORFs), both in the requirement of specific tRNA species and in the preference for amino acids encoded by e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A viral species is not defined on the basis of the disease symptoms it causes. (cueflash.com)
  • Members of this species, named extra small virus, are satellite viruses of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus, an unclassified virus related to members of the family Nodaviridae . (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The capsid is made up of subunits, the capsomers, the number of which varies but is specific and constant for each viral species. (50webs.org)
  • In several virus species enzymes are a component of the virus particle, for example the neuraminidase required for invasion and release of myxoviruses. (50webs.org)
  • Before 1982, it was thought that viruses could not be made to fit Ernst Mayr 's reproductive concept of species, and so were not amenable to such treatment. (jakearchibald.com)
  • In 1991, the more specific principle that a virus species is a polythetic class of viruses that constitutes a replicating lineage and occupies a particular ecological niche was adopted. (jakearchibald.com)
  • In July 2013, the ICTV definition of species changed to state: "A species is a monophyletic group of viruses whose properties can be distinguished from those of other species by multiple criteria. (jakearchibald.com)
  • [3] Viruses are real physical entities produced by biological evolution and genetics, whereas virus species and higher taxa are abstract concepts produced by rational thought and logic. (jakearchibald.com)
  • The virus/species relationship thus represents the front line of the interface between biology and logic. (jakearchibald.com)
  • Unlike the system of binomial nomenclature adopted in cellular species, there is currently no standardized form for virus species names. (jakearchibald.com)
  • At present, the ICTV mandates that a species name must contain as few words as possible while remaining distinct, and must not only contain the word virus and the host name. (jakearchibald.com)
  • [8] Species names often take the form of [Disease] virus , particularly for higher plants and animals. (jakearchibald.com)
  • In 2019, the ICTV published a proposal to adopt a more formalized system of binomial nomenclature for virus species names, to be voted on in 2020. (jakearchibald.com)
  • Bromoviridae 0 questions A family of RNA plant viruses with a wide host range in crops and horticultural species. (lookformedical.com)
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) triggers massive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and affects expression of genes encoding ROS-scavenging enzymes. (hindawi.com)
  • However, much less is known about the adaptive processes that mediate cross-species jumps for double-host viruses such as arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). (prolekare.cz)
  • West Nile virus (WNV) replicates in a wide variety of avian species, which serve as reservoir and amplification hosts. (cdc.gov)
  • We infected flies with two positive sense RNA viruses known to replicate in a range of Drosophila species (Drosophila C virus and Flock House virus) and measure the rate of death in Wolbachia positive and negative host lines with the same genetic background. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Lentivirus decorated with HCV glycoproteins allowed the study of viral attachment and entry. (asm.org)
  • The viral membrane-anchored surface glycoproteins are responsible for receptor recognition and entry into target cells through membrane fusion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The E1 and E2 viral glycoproteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Completed nucleocapsids are then transported to the plasma membrane, where they interact with viral glycoproteins and enveloped virus buds from the cell ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • The reassortant viruses generated by cotransfection of plasmids may comprise genes encoding the surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin and neuraminidase from an influenza virus currently infecting the population and the internal genes from an attenuated influenza virus. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The outermost surface of the virus is almost entirely covered by heterodimers of glycoproteins E1 and E2, arranged in interconnective trimers, which form an outer shell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The blockage of the oxidation-reduction process is related to the formation of Cys-ZnONp-ConA system on the electroactive area and its subsequent interaction with viral glycoproteins. (bvsalud.org)
  • The viral glycoproteins are made just like regular glycoproteins (through the GOlgi) and transported to the cell membrane where they are inserted. (cueflash.com)
  • Furthermore, domains B on the E2 glycoproteins have less freedom of movement in the immature virus, keeping the fusion loops protected under domain B. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Partly double-stranded DNA viruses: Hepadnaviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Double-stranded RNA genome: Reoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2. The genome is either DNA or RNA (single or double stranded). (issuu.com)
  • viruses possess double-stranded DNA and include such virus families as Herpesviridae (examples like HSV1 ( oral herpes ), HSV2 ( genital herpes ), VZV ( chickenpox ), EBV ( Epstein-Barr virus ), CMV ( Cytomegalovirus )), Poxviridae (smallpox) and many tailed bacteriophages . (wikidoc.org)
  • viruses possess double-stranded RNA genomes, e.g. rotavirus . (wikidoc.org)
  • Like the other members of the family, Orbiviruses which encompass, besides BTV, the agents causing African horse sickness (AHSV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer (EHDV), have the characteristic double-stranded and segmented features of their RNA genomes. (highveld.com)
  • This review will discuss all aspects of the lentiviral genome composition, both of the RNA and of its derived double-stranded DNA genome, with a focus on HIV-1, the nucleotide composition over time, the effects of artificially humanized codons as well as contributions of immune system pressure on HIV nucleotide bias. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eukaryote-infecting viruses replicate mostly within the nucleus - usually via a rolling circle mechanism , forming double-stranded DNA intermediate in the process. (ipfs.io)
  • A genome of DNA or RNA, double-stranded or single-stranded, linear or circular, and in some cases segmented. (50webs.org)
  • The two largest groups are double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) and single-stranded RNA (ssRNA+) viruses. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Aedes aegypti is the primary vector for the currently most prevalent arboviruses, which include dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as Sindbis and Chikungunya viruses are transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Approximately 100 of the more than 520 known arthropodborne viruses (arboviruses) cause human disease. (educate-yourself.org)
  • With exception of these four main arboviruses, many other mosquito-associated viruses have been isolated and identified in recent years. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arboviruses comprise a group of viruses that reproduce in sensitive blood-sucking arthropods [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The former two kinds of arboviral diseases were caused by mosquito-borne arboviruses: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and dengue virus (DENV), respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The latter two kinds of are arboviral diseases were caused by tick-borne arboviruses: tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) (also known as Xinjiang hemorrhagic fever virus, XHFV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Arthropod-borne viruses - arboviruses - are a significant threat to public health. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The focus of my work is the study of virus-host/vector interactions, especially for arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and their interactions with innate immune pathways especially in arthropod vectors. (bnitm.de)
  • Phylogenetic analyses based on sequence identities between ISVs and other mosquito-borne viruses suggest strong evidence that ISVs may be ancestral to arboviruses. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • that comprises several human arboviruses, including Ross River virus (RRV), Sindbis virus, and chikungunya virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are an important cause of human illnesses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The non-structural genes occupy approximately two-thirds of the genome. (ictvonline.org)
  • There are two open reading frames (ORFs) in the genome, nonstructural and structural. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of the Semliki Forest virus revealed a structure that is similar to that of flaviviral glycoprotein E, with three structural domains in the same primary sequence arrangement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Partly due to this BTV has been in the forefront of molecular studies for last three decades and now represents one of the best understood viruses at the molecular and structural levels. (highveld.com)
  • The two ORFs encode nonstructural (nsP1 to nsP4) and structural polyproteins [C (capsid), E3, E2, 6K, E1], which are flanked by a 44 nt 26S junction region associated with transcription of an intracellular subgenomic 26S RNA ( Strauss and Strauss, 1994 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Due to similarities in genome organization between the different genera, recombination predomoninantly occurs at the start of the major structural gene which encodes the capsid, VP1. (caister.com)
  • The first open reading frame in their positive strand RNA genome encodes for the non-structural polyprotein, a precursor to four separate subunits of the replicase. (bvsalud.org)
  • 12] The structural similarities among Zika and other flavivirus, for example Dengue Virus [DENV], are the primary focus for the current vaccine and therapeutic research against ZV. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • Structural studies of Chikungunya virus maturation. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The hypothesis underlying the research described here is that genetic manipulation of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes can profoundly and permanently reduce their competence to transmit dengue viruses to human hosts. (jove.com)
  • A total of 27 RNA-Seq libraries from midguts of mosquitoes that had received PM or SM (not) containing CHIKV at 1 and 2 days post-feeding were generated and sequenced. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fewer than 80 genes responded differentially to the presence of CHIKV in midguts of mosquitoes that had acquired the virus along with SM or PM. SM feeding induced differential expression (DE) of 479 genes at day 1 and 314 genes at day 2 when compared to midguts of sugarfed mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Semliki Forest virus was first isolated from mosquitoes in the Semliki Forest , Uganda by the Uganda Virus Research Institute in 1942 and described by Smithburn and Haddow. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TE-specific small RNAs produced by both the siRNA and piRNA pathways represent an important aspect of genome stability and genetic variation, which might have a strong impact on the evolution of the genome and vector competence in the malaria mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These mosquitoes function as span vectors, reassigning the virus from septic birds to clean mammals, reptilians, and amphibious vehicles ( Schmitt et al. (thesportsfamilyclub.org)
  • Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) causes a highly pathogenic zoonosis that circulates in an enzootic cycle involving the ornithophagic mosquito, Culiseta melanura , and wild passerine birds in freshwater hardwood swamps in the northeastern U.S. Epidemic/epizootic transmission to humans/equines typically occurs towards the end of the transmission season and is generally assumed to be mediated by locally abundant and contiguous mammalophagic "bridge vector" mosquitoes. (springer.com)
  • The family name derives from the Japanese village of Nodamura where Nodamura virus was first isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Molecular strategies for interrupting arthropod-borne virus transmission by mosquitoes. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Hence, a study was designed to determine whether Bagaza virus (BAGV), a flavivirus isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in India, alters susceptibility of Cx. (bvsalud.org)
  • quinquefasciatus mosquitoes to Japanese encephalitis (JEV) and West Nile viruses (WNV). (bvsalud.org)
  • quinquefasciatus mosquitoes altered their susceptibility to JEV and WNV producing low virus yield. (bvsalud.org)
  • And at that time there was a mosquito infestation and they isolated a virus from mosquitoes and then retrospectively looking back we even had outbreaks in Indonesia in 1779 and the United States in 1827, so this is a disease that's been around for a long time and it's just that our diagnostic capability wasn't up to par to actually identify it. (upmcphysicianresources.com)
  • ISVs are also refereed to as mosquito-specific viruses as they are generally identified and discovered in mosquitoes. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the primary vector for medically important arthropod-borne viruses, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The chikungunya virus causes a sudden onset of fever along with severe joint pain . (findatopdoc.com)
  • Once an individual is infected with the chikungunya virus, there will be a sudden onset of fever , which would last for a few days. (findatopdoc.com)
  • Several tests can be used for the identification of the chikungunya virus. (findatopdoc.com)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused large-scale epidemics of fever, rash and arthritis since 2004. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Large epidemics can occur, as witnessed by the current epidemic of chikungunya virus ( Powers & Logue, 2007 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Chikungunya virus has disseminated widely and autochthonous cases have already been reported in the Americas. (elsevier.es)
  • Life cycle of the Chikungunya virus. (elsevier.es)
  • The adaptation of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to a new vector, the Aedes albopictus mosquito, is a major factor contributing to its ongoing re-emergence in a series of large-scale epidemics of arthritic disease in many parts of the world since 2004. (prolekare.cz)
  • Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging arbovirus capable of causing explosive outbreaks of febrile illness, polyarthritis, and polyarthralgia, inflicting severe morbidity on affected populations. (asm.org)
  • Here we present a cryo-EM, 6.8-Å resolution structure of an "immature" Chikungunya virus in which the cleavage site has been mutated to inhibit proteolysis. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Chikungunya Virus: Pathophysiology, Mechanism, and Modeling. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • All togaviruses contain a single strand of positive sense RNA as their genetic material. (ictvonline.org)
  • It is enveloped, spherical and has a positive-strand RNA genome of ~12 kilobases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The minus strand in turn functions as a template both for the production of additional plus strand RNA and for the transcription of the 26S subgenomic molecules. (asm.org)
  • positive strand viruses. (brainscape.com)
  • Virology term 1 - positive strand viruses. (brainscape.com)
  • 5. The expression plasmid of claim 1, further comprising a negative strand RNA virus viral gene segment inserted between the pol I promoter and the termination signal. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The expression plasmid of claim 5, wherein the negative strand RNA virus is a member of the Orthomyxoviridae virus family. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • ssDNA viruses (+ strand or "sense") DNA (e.g. (ipfs.io)
  • Ambisense RNA viruses transcribe genes from both the positive or negative strand. (wikidoc.org)
  • Herpes Simplex Virus 2 VP22 Phosphorylation Induced by Cellular and Viral Kinases Does Not Influence Intracellular Localization Virology. (jove.com)
  • This report highlights the recent accomplishments of GVN researchers in several important areas of medical virology, including severe virus epidemics, anticipation and preparedness for changing disease dynamics, host-pathogen interactions, zoonotic virus infections, ethical preparedness for epidemics and pandemics, one health and antivirals. (bvsalud.org)
  • Journal of General Virology ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profiles are a freely available series of concise, review-type articles that provide overviews of the classification, structure and properties of individual virus orders, families and genera. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • 2. Exam 1 Clicker Questions, Exam 1 Terminology, Exam 2 Clicker Questions Show Class Virology Test 1, Virology Test 2, Final: Togaviridae Show Class Virology. (salentostreet.it)
  • This family of enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses, established in 1996, was classified formerly in the Togaviridae family. (ivis.org)
  • One family of single-stranded DNA viruses infects humans: Parvoviridae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hepatitis D virus has not yet been assigned to a family, but is clearly distinct from the other families infecting humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • One family of enveloped viruses causes gastroenteritis (Coronaviridae). (wikipedia.org)
  • The RLRs family, including the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I), the melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2), represent another powerful anti-viral tool parallel to that comprised by TLR3. (frontiersin.org)
  • Many well known viruses are found in this group, including the picornaviruses (which is a family of viruses that includes well-known viruses like Hepatitis A virus, enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, poliovirus, and foot-and-mouth virus), SARS virus, hepatitis C virus, yellow fever virus, and rubella virus. (wikidoc.org)
  • Chikungunya is an RNA virus and is a member of the Togaviridae family. (findatopdoc.com)
  • The Reoviridae family is one of the largest families of viruses and includes major human pathogens (e.g., rotavirus) as well as other vertebrate, plant and insect pathogens. (highveld.com)
  • The family includes equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), lactate dehydrogenaseelevating virus (LDV) of mice and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). (caister.com)
  • The CCCH zinc finger family containing the motif with three Cys and one His residues, which has been well-known to be involved in the RNA stability and metabolism [ 5 , 6 ]. (rroij.com)
  • There is only one well-studied example in which a class 1 virus is not replicating within the nucleus: the Poxvirus family, a highly pathogenic virus that infects vertebrates and includes the smallpox virus. (ipfs.io)
  • The virus family Caliciviridae contains four genera Norovirus , Sapovirus , Lagovirus and Vesivirus . (caister.com)
  • VEEV is an arthropod borne virus in the family Togaviridae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Virus Degli Insetti 0 domande Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE. (lookformedical.com)
  • Virus Des Insectes 0 questions Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE. (lookformedical.com)
  • So this virus is in the family called Togaviridae and it's an RNA virus and in general anything that's an RNA virus is cool and most of the DNA viruses are boring. (upmcphysicianresources.com)
  • Page 273 in: Lennette's Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Infections (Fourth ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skin infections: Rash site and, depending on the virus, serum and urine b. (issuu.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells are able to detect viruses at multiple steps and benefit from redundant mechanisms with the aim of limiting viral infections. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, research addressing the effect of host innate immune evasion on the pathology caused by viral infections is less prevalent in the literature, though very relevant and interesting. (mdpi.com)
  • Viral infections of the nervous system have provided exceptional insight at many levels, from pathogenesis to basic biology. (prolekare.cz)
  • Viral infections can enter the brain via the blood (e.g. (prolekare.cz)
  • Long lasting protection against viral infections is best achieved via vaccinations through live attenuated virus es (LAVs). (mediaatlas.si)
  • Increased monitoring and improvements in detection methods may help to reduce the number of infections but regulations and standards need to be addressed in order to reduce viral contamination in the natural environment. (caister.com)
  • These newly isolated and identified mosquito-associated viruses are probably responsible for human and animal infections and diseases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Each year, more people die of viral infections than of natural disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes, and tsunamis combined, or even manmade tragedies such as war. (oncohemakey.com)
  • Not only do viruses cause acute or chronic infections with potentially fatal outcome, but they also contribute to other diseases. (oncohemakey.com)
  • In acute virus infections, the fight between virus and host literally lasts until the death of one of the adversaries. (oncohemakey.com)
  • In chronic infections, a truce is eventually reached where virus and host coexist, generally at the expense of the well-being of the latter. (oncohemakey.com)
  • The severity in disease and death associated with RNA virus infections shows a tip in the scale favoring viruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • The viral genome is SS-RNA, with negative polarity. (slideplayer.com)
  • They could be grouped into positive sense or negative sense according to the sense of polarity of RNA. (ipfs.io)
  • RNA viruses can be further classified according to the sense or polarity of their RNA into negative-sense and positive-sense , or ambisense RNA viruses. (wikidoc.org)
  • 7 Pathogenesis After entry, the virus replicates in the epithelial cells of the URT. (slideplayer.com)
  • 20 Pathogenesis After entry, the virus replicates in the epithelial cells lining the URT and invades sub-epithelial tissue. (slideplayer.com)
  • Gaining insight into the pathogenesis of these viruses is thus relevant to thoroughly understand them and identify new treatment and prevention options. (mdpi.com)
  • The molecular pathogenesis of Semliki Forest virus: A model virus made useful? (wikipedia.org)
  • In depth knowledge of the molecular basis of the viral cycle is needed to control viral pathogenesis and disease spreading. (caister.com)
  • Viruses are associated with 20% of cancers, they have been implicated in the pathogenesis of human arteriosclerosis and autoimmune diseases, and they are linked to an overall reduction in life expectancy. (oncohemakey.com)
  • View Department of Microbiology & Immunology profile » My research focuses on tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses, including their pathogenesis, ecology, tick-virus interaction, and vaccine development. (utmb.edu)
  • Yet, another facet of virus-induced activation is the exacerbation in pathogenesis contributing to the overall morbidity. (bvsalud.org)
  • the virus is also pathogenic to pig fetuses and newborn piglets ( 3 , 4 ) and can cause fever in humans ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • [1] Notable human pathogenic RNA viruses include SARS , Influenza and Hepatitis C . (wikidoc.org)
  • Once produced and loaded into RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), siRNAs guide in sequence-specific manner the recognition and cleavage of the target RNA molecules by the Argounate-2 (Ago-2) containing RISC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The genome consists of two molecules of single-stranded positive-sense RNA: RNA1 and RNA2. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • These molecules have divergent roles in different cellular processes and virus-vector interactions. (bnitm.de)
  • The first, reassortment, occurs only in multipartite viruses and involves swapping one or more of the discrete RNA molecules that make up the segmented viral genome. (biology-online.org)
  • In some families the genetic material (RNA or DNA) is segmented and composed of multiple molecules of different lengths. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we evaluated the reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity of the sensor for the virus of Dengue type 2 (DENV2), Zika (ZIKV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), and Yellow fever (YFV). (bvsalud.org)
  • Frequent occasional outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging viral diseases such as Dengue fever, West Nile Fever, Zika virus disease, Chikungunya disease, Middle east respiratory syndrome, Ebola virus disease and many others have been targets for therapeutic interventions. (mediaatlas.si)
  • Starting in May 2015 an outbreak of Zika virus began in Brazil and spread to much of Central and South America. (kenyon.edu)
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first isolated from a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda in 1947. (kenyon.edu)
  • Zika Virus (ZV) has infected over one million people worldwide. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • ZV crosses the placenta, infects developing fetus and causes Congenital Zika Virus syndrome (CZS) including microcephaly in newborns. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • 16] Main lineages of the Zika virus involved in French Polynesia epidemic and in Americas were Asian and African respectively. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • Zika virus spreads by a mosquito, Anopheles Aegypti. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • View Department of Microbiology & Immunology profile » Research in my laboratory focuses on molecular determinants of phenotypic variations between individual strains and major groups of medically-important flaviviruses, including West Nile, dengue, and Zika viruses. (utmb.edu)
  • For the recent outbreak, see 2015-16 Zika virus epidemic . (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Zika virus is related to the dengue , yellow fever , Japanese encephalitis , and West Nile viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 2007 to 2016 [update] , the virus spread eastward, across the Pacific Ocean to the Americas, leading to the 2015-16 Zika virus epidemic . (wikipedia.org)
  • Electron micrograph of Zika virus . (wikipedia.org)
  • A longitudinal study shows that 6 hours after cells are infected with Zika virus , the vacuoles and mitochondria in the cells begin to swell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses with complex transcription, for which subgenomic mRNAs, ribosomal frameshifting , and proteolytic processing of polyproteins may be used. (ipfs.io)
  • With most of these viruses, genes are expressed in two disparate host systems, vertebrate and arthropod. (ivis.org)
  • New viruses can be identified based on their homologs to existing viral sequences, but many new viruses encode genes with no known homologs - the dark matter of viral sequences! (asm.org)
  • But no virus has the thousands of genes required by even the simplest cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • e.g. the early genes such as tat , rev , nef , and the untranslated 5' leader RNA are less A-rich than the pol gene (Table 2 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The stability of the base composition over time also holds when examining smaller genome fragments, e.g. from the gag or pol genes, and is even true for highly variable genes such as env . (biomedcentral.com)
  • One thus might call viruses vagabond genes. (50webs.org)
  • Over the last two decades it has become increasingly clear that many RNA viruses add the capacity to exchange genetic material with one another, and to acquire genes from their hosts, to this evolutionary repertoire. (biology-online.org)
  • Whole genome microarrays were performed to identify the significantly modulated genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Viruses are the simplest replicating units, characterized by a limited number of coding genes and an exceptionally high rate of overlapping genes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, although viruses span three orders of magnitude in genome length, they almost never have over 1500 overlapping nucleotides, or over four significantly overlapping genes per virus. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Our findings undermine the generality of the compression theory, which emphasizes optimal packing and length dependency to explain overlapping genes and capsid size in viral genomes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This can be achieved efficiently with recombinant viral vectors. (nature.com)
  • The broad host range for these viruses includes vertebrates and invertebrates, with arthropods being the usual vectors of transmission to mammals. (asm.org)
  • A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors. (lookformedical.com)
  • Phlebotomine sandflies are implicated as vectors due to their predominance in endemic areas, repeated virus isolations and their ability to transmit the virus by transovarial and venereal routes. (bvsalud.org)
  • These systems have provided powerful tools to study all aspects of the virus biology and virus-host interactions but also gave the opportunity to use these viruses as live vaccines or as gene vectors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some viruses use the plasma membrane, whereas others use endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, or nuclear membranes. (issuu.com)
  • Upon exposure of the virus to the acidity of the endosome, E1 dissociates from E2 to form an E1 homotrimer, which is necessary for the fusion step to drive the cellular and viral membranes together. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an enveloped virus, acidification causes the FUSION of two membranes which releases the genome. (cueflash.com)
  • There is Receptor mediated fusion with the plasma membrane that has no Acidification and that leaves the viral envelope as a patch on the plasma membrane once fused and receptor mediated endocytosis that has acidification to cause fusion of the two membranes. (cueflash.com)
  • All Lipids are derived entirely from cellular membranes, not from the new viral membrane. (cueflash.com)
  • The envelope, which surrounds the capsid in several virus families, is always dependent on cellular membranes (nuclear or cell membrane, less frequently endoplasmic reticulum). (50webs.org)
  • The transforming potential of these high-risk HPVs depends on the expression of the E6 and E7 early viral gene products. (nature.com)
  • Most CHIKV strains contain a conserved opal stop codon at the end of the viral nsP3 gene. (asm.org)
  • 8. A reassortant influenza A virus according to claim 1 characterized in that at least two gene segments are derived from an H5N1 strain. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The siRNA and piRNA pathways have been shown in insects to be essential for regulation of gene expression and defence against exogenous and endogenous genetic elements (viruses and transposable elements). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are involved in regulation of gene expression, RNA based immunity and activity of transposable elements (TEs) and their remnants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Semliki Forest virus, as efficient gene therapy and/or vaccine delivery vehicles. (caister.com)
  • pzg66 mutants display significant developmental defects: The downregulation of pzg gene action by RNA inter ference brought about an in depth reduction in tissue size and signi cantly delayed larval development. (fakinhibitors.com)
  • Although RNA usually mutates rapidly, recent work found that the SARS virus and related RNA viruses contain a gene that mutates very slowly. (wikidoc.org)
  • [4] The gene in question has a complex three-dimensional structure which is hypothesized to provide a chemical function necessary for viral propagation, perhaps as a ribozyme . (wikidoc.org)
  • First, we brie¯y review current knowledge of RNA virus recombination and describe new methods for detecting its occurrence using gene sequence data. (biology-online.org)
  • 22. The method of claim 21, wherein the recombinant viral vector further comprises a deletion in a HCMV or RhCMV gene or gene region non-essential for growth in vivo. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 27. The method of claim 21, wherein the recombinant viral vector further comprises at least one deletion in a HCMV or RhCMV gene required for optimal growth in certain cell types. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • We sought a unified evolutionary explanation that accounts for their genome sizes, gene overlapping and capsid properties. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Instead, we propose that gene novelty and evolution exploration offer better explanations to size constraints and gene overlapping in all viruses. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites unable to self-replicate. (issuu.com)
  • Although viruses share several features with living organisms, such as the presence of genetic material (DNA or RNA), they are not considered to be alive. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some animal viruses enter host cell and permanently alter its genetic material resulting in cancer - transformation of the cell. (scribd.com)
  • An RNA virus is a virus that has ribonucleic acid (RNA) as its genetic material and does not replicate using a DNA intermediate. (wikidoc.org)
  • RNA viruses generally have very high mutation rates as they lack DNA polymerases which can find and fix mistakes, and are therefore unable to conduct DNA repair of damaged genetic material. (wikidoc.org)
  • Virus A Rna 0 domande Viruses whose genetic material is RNA. (lookformedical.com)
  • A virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material. (anthropogeny.org)
  • We are now developing virus-resistant mosquito lines by transformation with transposable elements that express effector RNAs from mosquito-active promoters. (jove.com)
  • Diseases caused by mosquito-borne viruses are world-wide among the most challenging public health burdens in tropical countries. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Once the latter has been overcome by the virus, the mosquito can transmit the virus to another vertebrate host during probing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Semliki Forest virus is spread mainly by mosquito bites. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the medically relevant malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae TEs constitute 12-16% of the genome size. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also, SINV more efficiently replicates in mosquito cells when RNAi is inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, virus persists in the mosquito vector with minimal associated pathology. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a mosquito-borne viral zoonosis that was first discovered in Kenya in 1930 and is now endemic throughout multiple African countries and the Arabian Peninsula. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • West Nile Virus, Usutu virus, Bagaza virus, Israel turkey encephalitis virus and Tembusu virus currently constitute the five flaviviruses transmitted by mosquito bites with a marked pathogenicity for birds. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • As a mosquito-borne virus, GETV was first isolated from Culex sp. (frontiersin.org)
  • [4] ZIKV is closely related to other mosquito-borne flaviviruses such as the dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. (kenyon.edu)
  • The purpose of this review is to describe the newly isolated mosquito-associated viruses in mainland China which belong to five viral families, including their virological properties, phylogenetic relationships, serological evidence, as well as to appeal the public health concentration worldwide. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This article focuses on the mosquito-associated viruses isolated from variety of arthropods, humans and animals that have been identified in mainland China in recent years, which belong to 5 viral families, and a lot of them are important zoonotic pathogens (Figure 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chikungunya is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquito bites. (elsevier.es)
  • Since the discovery of CFAV, wild mosquito populations have been shown to act as a reservoir for a wide variety of ISVs, which suggests a significant heterogeneity among these viruses. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • In the mosquito cell line C6/36, virus detection was significantly reduced in the presence of SNP, when compared to that of untreated cells. (springer.com)
  • The present invention provides novel antibody sequences that bind and neutralize Rubella Virus (RuV). (justia.com)
  • The invention relates to novel antibody sequences isolated from phage display libraries having binding and neutralizing activities specific for a virus. (justia.com)
  • Learning the viral genome sequences led to recategorization of Togaviridae, which were previously grouped based on similar viral structure. (asm.org)
  • The SFV virus was genetically modified with microRNA target sequences so that it only replicated in brain tumour cells and not in normal brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The quick evolution of RNA genomes could lead to variant sequences that differ by one or two nucleotides from the wild-type sequence in the population. (mediaatlas.si)
  • Nucleotide composition does obviously affect the secondary and tertiary structure of the RNA genome and its biological functions, but it does also influence phylogenetic analysis of viral genome sequences, and possibly the activity of the integrated DNA provirus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compared with the genome sequences of other GETV strains, twelve unique nucleotide substitutions were observed in GZ201808. (frontiersin.org)
  • For SINV these include the extreme 5'- end of the genome and sequences corresponding to the first stem-loop structure in the 5' untranslated region. (bvsalud.org)
  • hybrid sequences resulting from aberrant homologous recombination (when similar viruses exchange sequence without maintaining strict alignment) and nonhomologous recombination (recombination between unrelated RNA sequences) are also commonly observed (Lai, 1992). (biology-online.org)
  • Provirus 0 domande Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. (lookformedical.com)
  • RNA virus sequences) in a pooled sample employing an INVADER. (google.com)
  • Scanning electron microscope image of Rubella virus . (kenyon.edu)
  • The Rubella Virus is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus. (kenyon.edu)
  • Rubella virus has been eliminated from the United States due to the emphasis that it has placed on the vaccination that has been licensed since 1969. (kenyon.edu)
  • The genome of the Rubella virus is made of 9,762 nucleotides. (kenyon.edu)
  • Although there is only a single serotype of the Rubella virus, there have been 2 different clades identified. (kenyon.edu)
  • Rubella virus is transmitted through direct contact with respiratory fluid. (kenyon.edu)
  • The Rubella virus is infective at a dose of 30 viral units injected under the skin, 10 viral units inhaled into the respiratory tract or 60 viral units via nasal drops. (kenyon.edu)
  • Rubella virus has infected people all over the world. (kenyon.edu)
  • The last major Rubella virus outbreak in the United States, took place from 1964 to 1965. (kenyon.edu)
  • During the Rubella virus outbreak, 20,000 children were born with Rubella Syndrome. (kenyon.edu)
  • Contains live attenuated measles, mumps and rubella virus strains. (slideplayer.com)
  • Viral etiology: Rubella virus. (slideplayer.com)
  • Rubella Virus (RuV, German Measles) is an example of such viruses. (justia.com)
  • A skyline plot of viral population diversity did not provide evidence of reduction of diversity as a result of vaccination, but should be useful as a baseline for such reductions as vaccination programs for rubella become widespread in mainland China. (cdc.gov)
  • In China, in addition to RA27/3, a domestically developed rubella vaccine known as BRD-II (WHO name: RVi/Beijing.CHN/0.80/VAC), derived from a 1979 genotype 2A virus, has also been used in vaccination campaigns. (cdc.gov)
  • Rubella virological surveillance is important to identify circulating viruses, track importation of new viruses, and monitor disappearance of specific wild-type RV lineage 6 7 8 . (cdc.gov)
  • Elucidation of antigenic epitopes on the rubella virus. (ubc.ca)
  • The segmented RNA genome may undergo genetic reassortment leading to new strains. (ivis.org)
  • Equine-virulent, epidemic/epizootic strains of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus (VEEV) arise via mutation of progenitor enzootic strains that replicate poorly in equines. (asm.org)
  • Using phylogenetic approaches, we identified seven amino acid changes in the VEEV genome that represent putative determinants of emergence of the 1992 to 1993 epizootic/epidemic serotype IC strains from enzootic ID viruses circulating sympatrically in western Venezuela ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Vermont strains from 2012 clustered with viral strains previously isolated in Virginia yet were genetically distinct from an earlier EEEV isolate from Vermont during 2011. (springer.com)
  • Such viruses are produced in cells coinfected with different strains of a given virus. (lookformedical.com)
  • Can detection algorithms distinguish co-infecting pathogens and closely related viral strains? (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has recently been found that this is the case for some strains of Wolbachia , which both cause cytoplasmic incompatibility and protect their hosts against viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since many years, goals of different laboratories around the world have been mainly but not exclusively devoted to the development of new vaccine approaches based in part on live attenuated viruses to prevent viral diseases in aquaculture [ 11 , 12 ] and the determination of potential genetic factors that could explain the differences of virulence existing between virus strains and their host range restriction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These compounds appear to selectively inhibit Caspase 8 as a method of preventing infective viral particle release. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The respective antibodies recognize the receptors on the viral particle and the host cell membrane. (symbiosisonlinepublishing.com)
  • One possible approach is the integration of antigens into a higher structure, e.g. a virus-like particle. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The history of learning to grow hepatitis C virus in culture, and yellow fever virus, its vaccine, and the importance of curiosity-driven research. (asm.org)
  • Charlie Rice gives the history of learning to grow hepatitis C virus in culture, from pitfalls to hurdles and successes along the 20-year journey. (asm.org)
  • Together with hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV accounts for approximately 80% of HCC cases in the world [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • These viruses can be traced all the way back to Ancient Egyptian records of polio epidemics, but are still around and cause a menagerie of diseases today, from polio to hepatitis A to the common cold. (stanford.edu)
  • The resulting disease is hepatitis A. For more information, see the Hepatitis A Viral Profile below. (stanford.edu)
  • 6 . The compound of claim 1 , wherein said oligomer has a T m , with respect to binding to said viral target sequence, of greater than about 50 C., and said compound is actively taken up by mammalian cells. (google.com)
  • Mammalian viruses capable of initiating tumors are called oncoviruses. (scribd.com)
  • This in turn affects RNA infectivity altering viral RNA production levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral infectivity, dissemination and transmission in Ae. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Mutations introduced in these elements drastically reduced infectivity of recombinant SINV genomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • A lipid -containing envelope is a common feature of animal viruses, but uncommon in plant viruses. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Enveloped viruses do not adsorb to the host cell with the capsid, but rather with their envelope. (50webs.org)
  • To determine whether selection of second-step adaptive mutations in CHIKV or other arthropod-borne viruses occurs in nature, we tested the effect of an additional envelope glycoprotein amino acid change identified in Kerala, India in 2009. (prolekare.cz)
  • Like the relatively consistent classification systems seen for cellular organisms , virus classification is the subject of ongoing debate and proposals. (wikidoc.org)
  • The neuronal cell body contains the core cellular components and the nucleus with all the cellular RNA transcription machinery. (prolekare.cz)
  • Virus classification is the process of naming viruses and placing them into a taxonomic system similar to the classification systems used for cellular organisms . (jakearchibald.com)
  • However, viruses often hijack critical host functions or trigger pathological dysfunctions, perturbing cellular proteostasis, macromolecular complex organization or stoichiometry, and post-translational modifications. (bvsalud.org)
  • Viruses transmitted almost exclusively by arthropods: Bunyavirus, Flavivirus, and Togavirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagram of the typical genome structure of a flavivirus. (kenyon.edu)
  • After inoculation of CHIKV into the skin, the virus likely replicates in fibroblasts, mesenchymal cells, and osteoblasts ( 20 , 21 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Despite the major impact of CHIKV on global health, viral determinants that promote CHIKV-induced disease are incompletely understood. (asm.org)
  • These results indicate that the continuous CHIKV circulation in an A. albopictus -human cycle since 2005 has resulted in the selection of an additional, second-step mutation that may facilitate even more efficient virus circulation and persistence in endemic areas, further increasing the risk of more severe and expanded CHIK epidemics. (prolekare.cz)
  • albopictus was able to transmit chikungunya (CHIKV), dengue (DENV) and West-Nile (WNV) viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell lysis: Naked viruses lyse host cell and leave through a hole in the plasma membrane. (issuu.com)
  • For this to work the cells must be in close contact and the virus has to be able to cause membrane fusion. (cueflash.com)
  • What is a virus that enters by plasma membrane fusion? (cueflash.com)
  • How is a viral membrane formed and released? (cueflash.com)
  • Where does a virus get its lipids for the membrane? (cueflash.com)
  • Most RNA viruses ONLY bud from the plasma membrane. (cueflash.com)
  • What acts as the 'glue' to bring viral capsids to membrane areas? (cueflash.com)
  • Membrane fusion and budding are key steps in the life cycle of all enveloped viruses. (rupress.org)
  • SFV infects cells by cell surface receptor binding, uptake via receptor-mediated endocytosis, and low pH-triggered fusion of the virus membrane with that of the endosome. (rupress.org)
  • Enveloped RNA viruses have a selective advantage of not only modulating the host responses but also recruiting membrane-associated regulators of complement activation (RCAs). (bvsalud.org)
  • Integration of the viral DNA in the genome of the host cell, which is an essential step in HPV16- or HPV18-induced development of cervical carcinoma, results in a loss of E1- or E2-mediated transcriptional control. (nature.com)
  • These viruses are labile outside the host. (ivis.org)
  • Adsorption is attachment of the virus to a specific receptor on the host cell. (issuu.com)
  • 2. Pentration is entry of the virus into the host cell. (issuu.com)
  • 6. Viruses are then released from the host cell. (issuu.com)
  • Also mediate adsorption of the virus to the host cell surface. (slideplayer.com)
  • The F-glycoprotein, mediate penetration of the virus to the host cell by fusion process and mediate fusion of infected cells together to form multinucleated giant cell (syncytium formation). (slideplayer.com)
  • Controlling available RNAs in cell - host shut off. (brainscape.com)
  • Following ingestion of a viremic bloodmeal from a vertebrate host, the midgut is the first organ that becomes infected by the virus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The viral product of the system is produced when the plasmids of the system are introduced into a suitable host cell. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In insects the major source of piRNAs is transposable genetic elements that are considered as selfish or parasitic elements of the host genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • they replicate by using the biochemical mechanisms of a host cell to synthesize and assemble their separate components. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some of these may already have been present within the initial virus, and others may be coded for by the viral genome for production within the host cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Some viruses do not produce rapid lysis of host cells, but rather remain latent for long periods in the host before the appearance of clinical symptoms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The viruses exhibit significant morbidity and mortality in the vertebrate host. (biomedcentral.com)
  • for BVDV frequently nonhomologous RNA recombination events lead to the appearance of genetically distinct viruses that are lethal to the host. (caister.com)
  • Lysogeny results in the spread of the virus without killing the host cell. (scribd.com)
  • It was originally identified in rat as a host factor that inhibits Moloney murine leukemia virus (MMLV) in cells [ 14 ]. (rroij.com)
  • 4920 ) . The genome is about 11.7 kilabases in size and is of a positive sense, intending it can work straight as an messenger RNA transcript and be read from 5 ' to 3 ' by the host cell ribosome during interlingual rendition ( Aguilar et al. (thesportsfamilyclub.org)
  • These types of viruses must enter the host nucleus before it is able to replicate. (ipfs.io)
  • Furthermore, these viruses require host cell polymerases to replicate the viral genome and, hence, are highly dependent on the cell cycle . (ipfs.io)
  • The cell walls break down and release these viruses into the host . (everything2.com)
  • DNA viruses have considerably lower mutation rates due to the proof-reading ability of DNA polymerases within the host cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Retroviruses integrate a DNA intermediate of their RNA genome into the host genome, and therefore have a higher chance of correcting any mistakes in their genome thanks to the action of proof-reading DNA polymerases belonging to the host cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Viruses, which range in size from 10 to 300 nm in diameter with genomes of minimally 2 kilobases to over 1.2 megabases, are unable to propagate themselves, but require a host cell to replicate. (oncohemakey.com)
  • Notwithstanding, many of the newly discovered viruses seem to evolve from animal reservoirs through mutations that allow for an extension of their host range. (oncohemakey.com)
  • In biological terms, hemagglutinin plays a decisive role in adsorption and penetration of the virus into the host cell. (50webs.org)
  • They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells. (lookformedical.com)
  • Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. (lookformedical.com)
  • So, the investigation of the interplay between the virus and host cell processes requires additional endeavors. (hindawi.com)
  • 1 The host range of insect-specific viruses identified up to date. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • Viral tropism is fundamental to consider with regards to host restriction of ISVs. (encyclopedia.pub)
  • The main research goal is to unravel the highly complex host-pathogen interaction and identify novel prophylactic and therapeutic strategies to combat these viral pathogens. (utmb.edu)
  • My main research interest is to better understand the mechanisms that enable tick-borne viruses to cause disease and to study the host-vector-pathogen interface. (utmb.edu)
  • However, due to their reduced coding capacity RNA viruses rely on host cells to complete their multiplication cycle. (bvsalud.org)
  • Complement, a part of the innate arm of the immune system, is integral to the frontline defense of the host against innumerable pathogens, which includes RNA viruses. (bvsalud.org)
  • Unlike cells, which contain all the structures needed for growth and reproduction, viruses are composed of only an outer coat (capsid), the genome, and, in some cases, a few enzymes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Viral subversion of apoptotic enzymes: escape from death row. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The high mutation rate of RNA viruses is mostly due to the absence of a proof reading mechanism in their replicating enzymes (i.e. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Hydroxyl radical cleavage occurs where the genome is exposed. (brainscape.com)
  • Genomes are multipartite single stranded, positive sense RNAs with 5′ m 7 G cap and 3′ polyA and there is post-translational cleavage of the viral replicase. (ictvonline.org)
  • Newly synthesized linear RNAs are circularized after autocatalytic cleavage and ligation. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • [2] The only reservoir for the virus is in humans. (kenyon.edu)
  • The virus is able to cause a lethal encephalitis in rodents, [4] but generally only mild symptoms in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples include Norwalk virus, a norovirus, thought to be responsible for roughly 90% of epidemic, non-bacterial outbreaks of gastroenteritis in humans around the world. (caister.com)
  • Fewer than 200 viruses are known to cause disease in humans. (oncohemakey.com)
  • They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals. (lookformedical.com)
  • Blood samples were collected from the sick horse, and PCR/RT-PCR analysis was performed to screen for equine viral pathogens associated with fever. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pubmed ID: 12225924 Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses are increasingly significant public health problems, and novel methods are needed to control pathogen transmission. (jove.com)
  • Arbovirus 0 domande Arthropod-borne viruses. (lookformedical.com)
  • We aim to facilitate development of new and improved vaccines, diagnostics and therapeutics for this important group of emerging and re-emerging arthropod-borne viruses. (utmb.edu)
  • Of 49 febrile horses tested by reverse transcription PCR, 25 were positive for Getah virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification was used to detect equine influenza virus in the nasal swab samples ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • This extreme stability of the nucleotide composition may possibly be achieved by negative selection, perhaps conserving semi-stable RNA secondary structure as reverse transcription would be significantly affected for a less A-rich genome where secondary structures are expected to be more stable and thus more difficult to unfold. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The E1/E2 heterodimers of Sindbis virus (SINV) have been shown to be capable of producing three distinct morphological structures of varying dimensions. (ictvonline.org)
  • Paradoxically, the artificial, cell culture passage-associated HS binding mutations attenuate VEEV ( 2 ) and Sindbis virus ( 7 , 13 ) for mice, while natural VEEV mutations that increase the E2 positive charge are associated with equine virulence. (asm.org)
  • Using a temperature-sensitive Sindbis virus mutant expressing luciferase, we further showed that translation of incoming viral RNA is blocked by ZAP expression. (asm.org)