Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Viruses that produce tumors.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC
Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
Viruses whose taxonomic relationships have not been established.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.
The type species of RUBULAVIRUS that causes an acute infectious disease in humans, affecting mainly children. Transmission occurs by droplet infection.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
The type species of TOBAMOVIRUS which causes mosaic disease of tobacco. Transmission occurs by mechanical inoculation.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A family of RNA viruses that infect fungi and protozoa. There are three genera: TOTIVIRUS; GIARDIAVIRUS; and LEISHMANIAVIRUS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a PROPHAGE or integration of retroviral DNA into cellular DNA to form a PROVIRUS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.
The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.
Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.
The type species of ORBIVIRUS causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
A species in the ORTHOBUNYAVIRUS genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. A large number of serotypes or strains exist in many parts of the world. They are transmitted by mosquitoes and infect humans in some areas.
A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.
A group of viruses in the genus PESTIVIRUS, causing diarrhea, fever, oral ulcerations, hemorrhagic syndrome, and various necrotic lesions among cattle and other domestic animals. The two species (genotypes), BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 , exhibit antigenic and pathological differences. The historical designation, BVDV, consisted of both (then unrecognized) genotypes.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.
Virulent bacteriophage and sole member of the genus Cystovirus that infects Pseudomonas species. The virion has a segmented genome consisting of three pieces of doubled-stranded DNA and also a unique lipid-containing envelope.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Diseases of plants.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS causing leukemia, lymphosarcoma, immune deficiency, or other degenerative diseases in cats. Several cellular oncogenes confer on FeLV the ability to induce sarcomas (see also SARCOMA VIRUSES, FELINE).
Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.
Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC
A family of bullet-shaped viruses of the order MONONEGAVIRALES, infecting vertebrates, arthropods, protozoa, and plants. Genera include VESICULOVIRUS; LYSSAVIRUS; EPHEMEROVIRUS; NOVIRHABDOVIRUS; Cytorhabdovirus; and Nucleorhabdovirus.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
The type species of LEPORIPOXVIRUS causing infectious myxomatosis, a severe generalized disease, in rabbits. Tumors are not always present.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of COWPOX. It is closely related to but antigenically different from VACCINIA VIRUS.
Viruses whose hosts are in the domain ARCHAEA.
A species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), and the etiologic agent of LASSA FEVER. LASSA VIRUS is a common infective agent in humans in West Africa. Its natural host is the multimammate mouse Mastomys natalensis.
Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.
The type species in the genus NOROVIRUS, first isolated in 1968 from the stools of school children in Norwalk, Ohio, who were suffering from GASTROENTERITIS. The virions are non-enveloped spherical particles containing a single protein. Multiple strains are named after the places where outbreaks have occurred.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing an acute dengue-like fever.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Inoculation of a series of animals or in vitro tissue with an infectious bacterium or virus, as in VIRULENCE studies and the development of vaccines.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting dicotyledons. Transmission is mainly by mechanical inoculation and through propagative plant material. All species elicit formation of multivesicular inclusion bodies. There are at least eight genera: Aureusvirus, Avenavirus, CARMOVIRUS, Dianthovirus, Machlomovirus, Necrovirus, Panicovirus, and TOMBUSVIRUS.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A genus in the family TOMBUSVIRIDAE mostly found in temperate regions. Some species infecting legumes (FABACEAE) are reported from tropical areas. Most viruses are soil-borne, but some are transmitted by the fungus Olpidium radicale and others by beetles. Carnation mottle virus is the type species.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A mosquito-borne species of the PHLEBOVIRUS genus found in eastern, central, and southern Africa, producing massive hepatitis, abortion, and death in sheep, goats, cattle, and other animals. It also has caused disease in humans.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A family of unenveloped RNA viruses with cubic symmetry. The twelve genera include ORTHOREOVIRUS; ORBIVIRUS; COLTIVIRUS; ROTAVIRUS; Aquareovirus, Cypovirus, Phytoreovirus, Fijivirus, Seadornavirus, Idnoreovirus, Mycoreovirus, and Oryzavirus.
A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.

Inhibition of Pichinde virus replication by actinomycin D. (1/1788)

The yields of Pichinde virus, a member of the arenavirus group, were markedly inhibited when infected BHK 21 cells were incubated in the presence of 0.4 to 4 mug/ml of actinomycin D. Maximal inhibition was observed when actinomycin D was added after the adsorption of virus to cultures; however, addition of drug as late as 12 h after infection reduced the 24 h yield by 50%. Virus antigen synthesis, as measured by complement fixation and immunodiffusion, was not dramatically reduced by actinomycin D. The expression of virus antigens on the surface of infected cells was greater on cells treated with actinomycin D than on untreated cells. Putative defective particles with a density of Pichinde virus were not detected in fluids of cultures incubated with actinomycin D and 3H-amino acids. Actinomycin D appears to inhibit Pichinde virus late in the replicative cycle. The observations raise the possibility that the drug inhibits the synthesis of proteins of the host cell membrane which are required for virus maturation.  (+info)

Transmission bottlenecks as determinants of virulence in rapidly evolving pathogens. (2/1788)

Transmission bottlenecks occur in pathogen populations when only a few individual pathogens are transmitted from one infected host to another in the initiation of a new infection. Transmission bottlenecks can dramatically affect the evolution of virulence in rapidly evolving pathogens such as RNA viruses. Characterizing pathogen diversity with the quasispecies concept, we use analytical and simulation methods to demonstrate that severe bottlenecks are likely to drive down the virulence of a pathogen because of stochastic loss of the most virulent pathotypes, through a process analogous to Muller's ratchet. We investigate in this process the roles of host population size, duration of within-host viral replication, and transmission bottleneck size. We argue that the patterns of accumulation of deleterious mutation may explain differing levels of virulence in vertically and horizontally transmitted diseases.  (+info)

Sequence of the genomic RNA of nudaurelia beta virus (Tetraviridae) defines a novel virus genome organization. (3/1788)

The monopartite genome of Nudaurelia beta virus, the type species of the Betatetravirus genus of the family Tetraviridae, consists of a single-stranded positive-sense RNA (ss+RNA) of 6625 nucleotides containing two open reading frames (ORFs). The 5' proximal ORF of 5778 nucleotides encodes a protein of 215 kDa containing three functional domains characteristic of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of ss+RNA viruses. The 3' proximal ORF of 1836 nucleotides, which encodes the 66-kDa capsid precursor protein, overlaps the replicase gene by more than 99% (1827 nucleotides) and is in the +1 reading frame relative to the replicase reading frame. This capsid precursor is expressed via a 2656-nucleotide subgenomic RNA. The 3' terminus of the genome can be folded into a tRNA-like secondary structure that has a valine anticodon; the tRNA-like structure lacks a pseudoknot in the aminoacyl stem, a feature common to both genera of tetraviruses. Comparison of the sequences of Nudaurelia beta virus and another member of the Tetraviridae, Helicoverpa armigera stunt virus, which is in the genus Omegatetravirus, shows identities of 31.6% for the replicase and 24.5% for the capsid protein. The viruses in the genera Betatetravirus and Omegatetravirus of the Tetraviridae are clearly related but show significant differences in their genome organization. It is concluded that the ancestral virus with a bipartite genome, as found in the genus Omegatetravirus, likely evolved from a virus with an unsegmented genome, as found in the genus Betatetravirus, through evolution of the subgenomic RNA into a separate genomic component, with the accompanying loss of the capsid gene from the longer genomic RNA.  (+info)

Multiple mitochondrial viruses in an isolate of the Dutch Elm disease fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. (4/1788)

The nucleotide sequences of three mitochondrial virus double-stranded (ds) RNAs, RNA-4 (2599 nucleotides), RNA-5 (2474 nucleotides), and RNA-6 (2343 nucleotides), in a diseased isolate Log1/3-8d2 (Ld) of the Dutch elm disease fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi have been determined. All these RNAs are A-U-rich (71-73% A + U residues). Using the fungal mitochondrial genetic code in which UGA codes for tryptophan, the positive-strand of each of RNAs 4, 5, and 6 contains a single open reading frame (ORF) with the potential to encode a protein of 783, 729, and 695 amino acids, respectively, all of which contain conserved motifs characteristic of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRps). Sequence comparisons showed that these RNAs are related to each other and to a previously characterized RNA, RNA-3a, from the same O. novo-ulmi isolate, especially within the RdRp-like motifs. However, the overall RNA nucleotide and RdRp amino acid sequence identities were relatively low (43-55% and 20-32%, respectively). The 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences of these RNAs are different, but they can all be folded into potentially stable stem-loop structures. Those of RNA-4 and RNA-6 have inverted complementarity, potentially forming panhandle structures. Their molecular and biological properties indicate that RNAs 3a, 4, 5, and 6 are the genomes of four different viruses, which replicate independently in the same cell. These four viruses are also related to a mitochondrial RNA virus from another fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, recently designated the type species of the Mitovirus genus of the Narnaviridae family, and to a virus from the fungus Rhizoctonia solani. It is proposed that the four O. novo-ulmi mitochondrial viruses are assigned to the Mitovirus genus and designated O. novo-ulmi mitovirus (OnuMV) 3a-Ld, 4-Ld, 5-Ld, and 6-Ld, respectively. Northern blot analysis indicated that O. novo-ulmi Ld nucleic acid extracts contain more single-stranded (ss, positive-stranded) RNA than dsRNA for all three newly described mitoviruses. O. novo-ulmi RNA-7, previously believed to be a satellite-like RNA, is shown to be a defective RNA, derived from OnuMV4-Ld RNA by multiple internal deletions. OnuMV4-Ld is therefore the helper virus for the replication of both RNA-7 and another defective RNA, RNA-10. Sequence comparisons indicate that RNA-10 could be derived from RNA-7, as previously suggested, or derived directly from RNA-4.  (+info)

Comparative study of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax infected in different ways. (5/1788)

The transmission of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) was investigated in juvenile sea bass (3 g) Dicentrarchus labrax by using cell culture supernatant (SSN-1 cell line) containing nodavirus. Five methods of infection were tested: intramuscular injection (IM), intraperitoneal injection (IP), oral infection, bath exposure and cohabitation of healthy fish with infected fish. Some differences were observed in time of disease onset and severity of symptoms depending on the mode of infection used. Clinical symptoms such as whirling swimming and lethargic or hyperactive behaviour were generally reproduced, except for fish infected via oral and IP infection. First mortalities occurred 3 d after IM and IP infection and 6 d after for the other modes of infection. Cumulative mortalities were also variable: 100% after IM infection, 10% after IP infection, 32% for bath exposure, 43% after cohabitation and 24% via oral infection. Histopathologically, vacuolation was observed in the central nervous tissues and in the retina. The observed lesions were more or less severe depending on the mode of infection, the sampling time and the organs: lesions on the surviving fish (42 days post infection, d p.i.) seemed to be generally more conspicuous in the retina than in the brain of the same fish. In most cases, the presence of nodavirus was confirmed in the same samples of brain and retina by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The virus was not detected in other organs examined. The present results suggest that 2 forms of VER can be induced: IM injection leads to an acute form (severe nervous disorders with high and fast mortality) whereas oral infection, bath exposure and cohabitation induce a subacute form (less severe disorders and weak daily mortality). This experiment demonstrates experimentally induced horizontal transmission of VER in sea bass for the first time.  (+info)

Structural constraints on RNA virus evolution. (6/1788)

The recently discovered hepatitis G virus (HGV) or GB virus C (GBV-C) is widely distributed in human populations, and homologues such as HGV/GBV-CCPZ and GBV-A are found in a variety of different primate species. Both epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses support the hypothesis that GB viruses coevolved with their primate hosts, although their degree of sequence similarity appears incompatible with the high rate of sequence change of HGV/GBV-C over short observation periods. Comparison of complete coding sequences (8,500 bases) of different genotypes of HGV/GBV-C showed an excess of invariant synonymous sites (at 23% of all codons) compared with the frequency expected by chance (10%). To investigate the hypothesis that RNA secondary-structure formation through internal base pairing limited sequence variability at these sites, an algorithm was developed to detect covariant sites among HGV/GBV-C sequences of different genotypes. At least 35 covariant sites that were spatially associated with potential stem-loop structures were detected, whose positions correlated with positions in the genome that showed reductions in synonymous variability. Although the functional roles of the predicted secondary structures remain unclear, the restriction of sequence change imposed by secondary-structure formation provides a mechanism for differences in net rate of accumulation of nucleotide substitutions at different sites. However, the resulting disparity between short- and long-term rates of sequence change of HGV/GBV-C violates the assumptions of the "molecular clock." This places a major restriction on the use of nucleotide or amino acid sequence comparisons to calculate times of divergence of other viruses evolving under the same structural constraints as GB viruses.  (+info)

A highly membrane-active peptide in Flock House virus: implications for the mechanism of nodavirus infection. (7/1788)

BACKGROUND: Nodaviruses are among the simplest animal viruses, and are therefore attractive systems for deconvoluting core viral processes such as assembly, infection and uncoating. Membrane translocation of the single-stranded RNA genome of nodaviruses has been proposed to be mediated by direct lipid-protein interactions between a post-assembly autocatalytic cleavage product from the capsomere and the target membrane. To probe the validity of this hypothesis, we have synthesized a 21-residue Met-->Nle (norleucine) variant of the amino-terminal helical domain (denoted here as gamma1) of the cleavage peptide in Flock House nodavirus (FHV) and studied its ability to alter membrane structure and function. RESULTS: The synthetic peptide gamma1 increases membrane permeability to hydrophilic solutes, as judged by fluorescence experiments with liposome-encapsulated dyes and ion-conductance measurements. Furthermore, peptide orientation and location within lipid bilayers was determined using tryptophan-fluorescence-quenching experiments and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy. CONCLUSIONS: The helical domain of the FHV cleavage product partitions spontaneously into lipid bilayers and increases membrane permeability, consistent with the postulated mechanism for viral genome translocation. The existence of a membrane-binding domain in the FHV cleavage sequence suggests peptide-triggered disruption of the endosomal membrane as a prelude to viral uncoating in the host cytoplasm. A model for this interaction is proposed.  (+info)

Transmission of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) to yolk-sac larvae of the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus: occurrence of nodavirus in various organs and a possible route of infection. (8/1788)

The susceptibility of the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus yolk-sac larvae to viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) was investigated by waterborne challenge experiments with nodavirus. Transfer of VER was indicated by several lines of evidence. A significantly higher cumulative mortality was observed after challenge with virus compared to mock challenge, and increasing doses of virus resulted in shorter incubation periods. When the challenge was performed on the day after hatching, the time from inoculation to the time when 50% of the larvae were dead (LT50) ranged from 26 to 32 d. Postponement of challenge for 13 d reduced the LT50 to 14 d, indicating that the susceptibility of the larvae to the present nodavirus strain was low during the first 2 wk after hatching. The progression of the infection was monitored by sequential immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. On Day 18 after hatching the initial signs of infection were observed as a prominent focus of immunolabelling in the caudal part of the brain stem. In the same larvae immunolabelled single cell lesions were observed in the stratified epithelium of the cranial part of the intestine. The portal of entry into the larvae may thus have been the intestinal epithelium, while the route of infection to the CNS may have been axonal transport to the brain stem through cranial nerves such as the vagus nerves. Later in the infection, lesions became more severe and widespread and were also found throughout the brain and spinal cord and in the retina, cranial ganglia, intestine, liver, olfactory epithelium, yolk-sac epithelium, gills and pectoral fins. The mortality in all virus-challenged groups was 100%. This study thus demonstrates that the present nodavirus strain is able to replicate and cause VER in Atlantic halibut yolk-sac larvae at temperatures as low as 6 degrees C.  (+info)

Sacbrood virus (SBV) and deformed wing virus (DWV) are evolutionarily related positive-strand RNA viruses, members of the Iflavirus group, which infect the honeybee Apis mellifera, but have strikingly different levels of virulence when transmitted orally. Honeybee larvae orally infected with SBV usually accumulate high levels of the virus, which halts larval development and causes insect death. In contrast, oral DWV infection at the larval stage usually causes asymptomatic infection with low levels of the virus, although high doses of ingested DWV could lead to DWV replicating to high levels. We investigated effects of DWV and SBV infection on the transcriptome of honeybee larvae and pupae using global RNA-Seq and real-time PCR analysis. This showed that high levels of SBV replication resulted in down-regulation of the genes involved in cuticle and muscle development, together with changes in expression of putative immune-related genes. In particular, honeybee larvae with high levels of SBV ...
A negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus (or (-)ssRNA virus) is a virus that uses negative sense, single-stranded RNA as its genetic material. Single stranded RNA viruses are classified as positive or negative depending on the sense or polarity of the RNA. The negative viral RNA is complementary to the mRNA and must be converted to a positive RNA by RNA polymerase before translation. Therefore, the purified RNA of a negative sense virus is not infectious by itself, as it needs to be converted to a positive sense RNA for replication. These viruses belong to Group V on the Baltimore classification. In addition, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses have complex genomic sequences, cell cycles, and replication habits that use various protein complexes to arrange in specific conformations and carry out necessary processes for survival and reproduction of their genomic sequences. The complexity of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses carries into its ability to suppress the innate immune ...
A positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (or (+)ssRNA virus) is a virus that uses positive sense, single-stranded RNA as its genetic material. Single stranded RNA viruses are classified as positive or negative depending on the sense or polarity of the RNA. The positive-sense viral RNA genome can also serve as messenger RNA and can be translated into protein in the host cell. Positive-sense ssRNA viruses belong to Group IV in the Baltimore classification. Positive-sense RNA viruses account for a large fraction of known viruses, including many pathogens such as the hepatitis C virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and SARS and MERS coronaviruses, as well as less clinically serious pathogens such as the rhinoviruses that cause the common cold. Positive-sense ssRNA viruses have genetic material that can function both as a genome and as messenger RNA; it can be directly translated into protein in the host cell by host ribosomes. The first proteins to be expressed after infection serve genome ...
Hepatitis C trojan (HCV) is an enveloped, positive strand RNA computer virus of about 9. attributable to inherently different properties of low density particles, to association of these particles with factors stimulating fusion, or to co-floatation of factors enhancing fusion activity in genus of the Flaviviridae family (1). Based on sequence comparison, patient isolates are classified into seven genotypes, differing in their nucleotide sequence by 30C35% (2C5). The two viral surface proteins, E1 (residues 192C383) and E2 (residues 384C746), are processed by transmission peptidases of the endoplasmic reticulum from a 3,000-amino acid-long polyprotein encoded by the HCV genome (examined in Ref. 2). The E1 (31 kDa) and E2 (70 kDa) proteins are glycosylated in their large amino-terminal ectodomains (6) and are anchored in the viral membrane by their carboxyl-terminal transmembrane domains. E1 and E2 form a heterodimer stabilized by noncovalent interactions. This oligomer is usually thought to be ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 0 846 181 with the title cDNA corresponding to the antigenome of nonsegmented negative strand RNA viruses, and process for the production of such viruses encoding additional antigenically active proteins was granted on European patent application No. 96928446.2 (published as WO 97/06270). The patent was granted with 21 claims.. II. Claim 1 of the patent as granted read as follows:. 1. A method for the production of an infectious non-segmented negative-strand RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae comprising. (a) introducing a cDNA molecule contained in a plasmid, wherein said cDNA molecule comprises the entire (+)-strand sequence of said negative- strand RNA virus operatively linked to an expression control sequence, which allows the synthesis of anti-genomic RNA transcripts bearing the authentic 3 -termini, and wherein said cDNA molecule consists of an integral multiple of six nucleotides, into a helper cell expressing an ...
The great variety of genome organizations means that most plant positive strand viral RNAs differ from the standard 5-cap/3-poly(A) structure of eukaryotic mRNAs. The cap and poly(A) tail recruit initiation factors that support the formation of a closed loop mRNA conformation, the state in which translation initiation is most efficient. We review the diverse array of cis-acting sequences present in viral mRNAs that compensate for the absence of a cap, poly(A) tail, or both. We also discuss the cis-acting sequences that control translation strategies that both amplify the coding potential of a genome and regulate the accumulations of viral gene products. Such strategies include leaky scanning initiation of translation of overlapping open reading frames, stop codon readthrough, and ribosomal frameshifting. Finally, future directions for research on the translation of plant positive strand viruses are discussed.. ...
Zika Virus Ns5 Monoclonals Zika Virus Reagents Research Reagents Biofront Technologies. Zika virus is a single positive strand RNA virus with a genome that encodes three structural proteins and seven non-structural (NS) proteins: NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B and NS5. The flavivirus NS5 protein is the largest of the NS proteins and possesses enzymatic activities required for the synthesis of the 11 kb viral RNA genome, making it essential for replication and a prime target for drug candidates. Zika NS5 Mab 6A1 100 ug Zika NS5 Mab 6A1 500 ug Zika NS5 Mab 6A1 1 mg Zika NS5 Mab 8B8 100 ug Zika NS5 Mab 8B8 500 ug Zika NS5 Mab 8B8 1 mg Zika NS5 Mab 7A9 100 ug Zika NS5 Mab 7A9 500 ug Zika NS5 Mab 7A9 1mg
In the summer of 2005, Giau was a REU intern in Dr. C. Kaos lab at Texas A&M University. Her project was titled, Visualization of Fluorescent Brome Mosaic Virus RNA3 in an In-vivo Environment.. During my stay at Texas, I worked with a plant virus called Brome Mosaic Virus. In recent years, this virus has become a model system for positive strand RNA viruses.. The internship was a rewarding experience because it was my first time being exposed to scientific research on a larger scale. Within one lab there were at least 4-5 large scale projects going on. It was definately an action-packed environment for science majors.. Secondly, I was very amazed to see how these scientists were so dedicated to their work. The Post-doc that I worked under spent at least 12 hours a day in the lab during weekdays, and he was always in the lab on the weekends as well. Through this internship I found out that the lab is where I want to be in the future.. Giau graduated magna cum laude with a double major in ...
2nd International Symposium on Positive Strand RNA Viruses. Vienna, Austria, 26-30 June 1989. Topics include: Genome Replication; DI-RNAs and Vectors; Protein Translation, Cleavage and Modification; Virion Structure and Assembly; Antigenic Structure; Virus Receptors, Uptake and Disassembly; Pathogenesis and Virulence; Strategies for Control of Viral Disease; Viral Evolution. Satellite meeting 24-25 June 1989: World Health Organization Review on the development of dengue, Japanese encephalitis and other flavivirus vaccines. Contact: Dr F. X. Heinz; Institute of Virology; Kinderspitalgasse 15; A-1095 Vienna; Austria; Tel. no. (area code 222) 43 15 95; Fax no. (area code 222) 43 21 61
Next-generation sequencing is a valuable tool in our growing understanding of the genetic diversity of viral populations. Using this technology, we have investigated the RNA content of a purified nonenveloped single-stranded RNA virus, flock house virus (FHV). We have also investigated the RNA content of virus-like particles (VLPs) of FHV and the related Nudaurelia capensis omega virus. VLPs predominantly package ribosomal RNA and transcripts of their baculoviral expression vectors. In addition, we find that 5.3% of the packaged RNAs are transposable elements derived from the Sf21 genome. This observation may be important when considering the therapeutic use of VLPs. We find that authentic FHV virions also package a variety of host RNAs, accounting for 1% of the packaged nucleic acid. Significant quantities of host messenger RNAs, ribosomal RNA, noncoding RNAs, and transposable elements are readily detected. The packaging of these host RNAs elicits the possibility of horizontal gene transfer ...
Single-stranded RNA viruses have evolved to survive extremely high mutation rates.The ubiquity and effect of ssRNA viral diseases makes an understanding of the theoretical and mechanical underpinnings of rapid viral evolution vital to our ability to control them. In this body of work, we explore some of the ways in which ssRNA viruses can uncouple the rate at which variation is generated (mutation rate) from the rate at which variation is observed (measured rate of molecular evolution).. ...
RNA viruses have been isolated that infect marine organisms ranging from bacteria to whales, but little is known about the composition and population structure of the in situ marine RNA virus community. In a recent study, the majority of three genomes of previously unknown positive-sense single-stranded (ss) RNA viruses were assembled from reverse-transcribed whole-genome shotgun libraries. The present contribution comparatively analyzes these genomes with respect to representative viruses from established viral taxa. Two of the genomes (JP-A and JP-B), appear to be polycistronic viruses in the proposed order Picornavirales that fall into a well-supported clade of marine picorna-like viruses, the characterized members of which all infect marine protists. A temporal and geographic survey indicates that the JP genomes are persistent and widespread in British Columbia waters. The third genome, SOG, encodes a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) that is related to the RdRp of viruses in the family
RNA virus replication machineries.(A) RdRps of hepatitis C virus and reovirus. Hepatitis C virus is a (+)RNA virus from the Flaviviridae family, while reovirus
Single stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses are an incredibly diverse viral group capable of infecting plants and animals. Common ssRNA viruses causing human disease are picornaviridae (rhinovirus [the common cold], polio), coronoaviridae (SARS, MERS), and filoviridae (Ebola, Marburg). Positive ssRNA viruses have their genetic material directly translated into usable proteins, while negative ssRNA viruses use an RNA replicase enzyme to convert their genetic material to positive strands before being used to make proteins. As evidenced by the efficacy of the seasonal flu vaccine and the ongoing trials for an Ebola cure, pharmacological interventions to cure a ssRNA infection are few and far between.. Now, years after original research was published on ssRNA packaging within a cell, the English researchers have shown that viral RNA induces conformational changes in capsid proteins, essentially telling the viral packaging it is ready to bud from the infected cell. Previous research from this group showed ...
Most RNA viruses infecting mammals and other vertebrates show profound suppression of CpG and UpA dinucleotide frequencies. To investigate this functionally, mutants of the picornavirus, echovirus 7 (E7), were constructed with altered CpG and UpA compositions in two 1.1-1.3 Kbase regions. Those with increased frequencies of CpG and UpA showed impaired replication kinetics and higher RNA/infectivity ratios compared with wild-type virus. Remarkably, mutants with CpGs and UpAs removed showed enhanced replication, larger plaques and rapidly outcompeted wild-type virus on co-infections. Luciferase-expressing E7 sub-genomic replicons with CpGs and UpAs removed from the reporter gene showed 100-fold greater luminescence. E7 and mutants were equivalently sensitive to exogenously added interferon-β, showed no evidence for differential recognition by ADAR1 or pattern recognition receptors RIG-I, MDA5 or PKR. However, kinase inhibitors roscovitine and C16 partially or entirely reversed the attenuated phenotype of
Characterizing the genome of mature virions is pivotal to understanding the highly dynamic processes of virus assembly and infection. Owing to the different cellular fates of DNA and RNA, the life cycles of double-stranded (ds)DNA and dsRNA viruses are dissimilar. In terms of nucleic acid packing, dsDNA viruses, which lack genome segmentation and intra-capsid transcriptional machinery, predominantly display single-spooled genome organizations1-8. Because the release of dsRNA into the cytoplasm triggers host defence mechanisms9, dsRNA viruses retain their genomes within a core particle that contains the enzymes required for RNA replication and transcription10-12. The genomes of dsRNA viruses vary greatly in the degree of segmentation. In members of the Reoviridae family, genomes consist of 10-12 segments and exhibit a non-spooled arrangement mediated by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases11-14. However, whether this arrangement is a general feature of dsRNA viruses remains unknown. Here, using cryo-electron
RNA viruses exploit all known mechanisms of genetic variation to ensure their survival. Distinctive features of RNA virus replication include high mutation rates, high yields, and short replication times. As a consequence, RNA viruses replicate as complex and dynamic mutant swarms, called viral quas …
By the analysis of thermodynamic RNA secondary structure predictions, we previously obtained evidence for evolutionarily conserved large-scale ordering of RNA virus genomes (P. Simmonds, A. Tuplin, and D.J. Evans, RNA 10: 1337-1351, 2004). Genome-scale ordered RNA structure (GORS) was widely distributed in many animal and plant viruses, much greater in extent than RNA structures required for viral translation or replication, but in mammalian viruses was associated with host persistence. To substantiate the existence of large-scale RNA structure differences between viruses, a large set of alignments of mammalian RNA viruses and rRNA sequences as controls were examined by thermodynamic methods (to calculate minimum free energy differences) and by algorithmically independent RNAz and Pfold methods. These methods produced generally concordant results and identified substantial differences in the degrees of evolutionarily conserved, sequence order-dependent RNA secondary structure between virus ...
role of rna-protein interactions in the internal initiation of translation of plus-strand rna viruses : a novel target for antiviral therapeutics
Genome RNA replication of all (+)RNA viruses takes place in close association with rearranged intracellular membranes. We are only beginning to understand the biogenesis and ultrastructure of these virus-induced membrane structures. In collaboration with the virology groups of LUMC (Prof. Dr. Eric Snijder) and the University of Utrecht (Prof. Dr. Frank van Kuppeveld), EM and tomography approaches will be used to gain more insight into the architecture of the rearranged membranes, the localization of the viral replication enzymes, and the localization of host factors that are hijacked by picornavirus to facilitate replication of their RNA genome.. Host institute ...
RNA viruses generally have very high mutation rates as they lack DNA polymerases which can find and fix mistakes, and are therefore unable to conduct DNA repair of damaged genetic material. DNA viruses have considerably lower mutation rates due to the proof-reading ability of DNA polymerases within the host cell. Retroviruses integrate a DNA intermediate of their RNA genome into the host genome, and therefore have a higher chance of correcting any mistakes in their genome thanks to the action of proof-reading DNA polymerases belonging to the host cell. Although RNA usually mutates rapidly, recent work found that the SARS virus and related RNA viruses contain a gene that mutates very slowly.[4] The gene in question has a complex three-dimensional structure which is hypothesized to provide a chemical function necessary for viral propagation, perhaps as a ribozyme. If so, most mutations would render it unfit for that purpose and would not propagate. ...
RNA viruses generally have very high mutation rates as they lack DNA polymerases which can find and fix mistakes, and are therefore unable to conduct DNA repair of damaged genetic material. DNA viruses have considerably lower mutation rates due to the proof-reading ability of DNA polymerases within the host cell. Retroviruses integrate a DNA intermediate of their RNA genome into the host genome, and therefore have a higher chance of correcting any mistakes in their genome thanks to the action of proof-reading DNA polymerases belonging to the host cell. Although RNA usually mutates rapidly, recent work found that the SARS virus and related RNA viruses contain a gene that mutates very slowly.[4] The gene in question has a complex three-dimensional structure which is hypothesized to provide a chemical function necessary for viral propagation, perhaps as a ribozyme. If so, most mutations would render it unfit for that purpose and would not propagate. ...
RNA viruses replicate with low fidelity due to the error-prone nature of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which generates approximately one mutation per round of genome replication. Due to the large population sizes produced by RNA viruses during replication, this results in a cloud of closely related virus variants during host infection, of which small increases or decreases in replication fidelity have been shown to result in virus attenuation in vivo, but not typically in vitro. Since the discovery of the first RNA virus fidelity mutants during the mid-aughts, the field has exploded with the identification of over 50 virus fidelity mutants distributed amongst 7 RNA virus families. This review summarizes the current RNA virus fidelity mutant literature, with a focus upon the definition of a fidelity mutant as well as methods to confirm any mutational changes associated with the fidelity mutant. Due to the complexity of such a definition, in addition to reports of unstable virus fidelity ...
Previously, I have argued that in order to understand the origin of RNA viruses, it is imperative to completely ignore the mainstream view that a major part of our genome is made of the genetic debris of ancient inva-sions of RNA viruses. Instead, I have hypothesized that transposable and transposed elements might have been originally designed to generate variation in offspring and should therefore be renamed variation-and-integrity assuring genetic elements (short: VIGEs). Hence, the major part of genomes contains VIGEs and their degenerate remnants. As mentioned above, ERVs are mobile genetic elementscharacterized by gag and pol genes that closely resemble full-blown RNA viruses, such as influenza and human immunodeficiency viruses. The origin of such RNA viruses can therefore be understood as a transformed ERV. In other words, RNA viruses may form in genomes from gag-pol elements. Gag-pol elements may trans-mute into RNA viruses through sequential uptake and/or recombination of genomic ...
Print this page. or cell membrane- Non-cellular. 2. About 5 percent of the length of the virion is depicted. Average Virus 0.1 m m= 100 nm. Principles of Classification and Nomenclature ... II. Claude MUVUNYI M.D., Ph.D. Terminology. Eg. All pro- Last modified 18/02/2015. VIRUS STRUCTURE AND CLASSIFICATION. Tobacco necrosis virus. Baculovirus, Sacbrood virus, Entomopox virus, Granulosis virus . There are many different types of viruses, and many ways of classifying these. Structure of Influenza virus Influenza virion are usually spherical (diameter 80-110 nm). Structure 4. 2.1 - Taxonomic Classification Meaning of Viruses 2. nucleus, no . Structure. # NA is a target of the antiviral drugs Tamiflu 16. The external surface is ridged in parallel rows, sometimes arranged helically (Fig. Meaning and History of Viruses 2. Dimitri Ivanowski, a Russian botanist in 1892 demonstrated experimentally that sap […] The genome structure system classifies both viruses as single-stranded RNA viruses with ...
Zika virus, computer illustration. This is an RNA (ribonucleic acid) virus from the Flaviviridae family. It is transmitted to humans via the bite of an infected Aedes sp. mosquito. It causes zika fever, a mild disease with symptoms including rash, joint pain and conjunctivitis. In 2015 a previously unknown connection between Zika infection in pregnant women and microcephaly (small head) in newborns was reported. This can cause miscarriage or death soon after birth, or lead to developmental delays and disorders. - Stock Image F012/9109
Several factors play a role during the replication and transmission of RNA viruses. First, as a consequence of their enormous mutation rate, complex mixtures of genomes are generated immediately after infection of a new host. Secondly, differences in growth and competition rates drive the selection of certain genetic variants within an infected host. Thirdly, but not less important, a random sampling occurs at the moment of viral infectious passage from an infected to a healthy host. In addition, the availability of hosts also influences the fate of a given viral genotype. When new hosts are scarce, different viral genotypes might infect the same host, adding an extra complexity to the competition among genetic variants. We have employed a two-fold approach to analyse the role played by each of these factors in the evolution of RNA viruses. First, we have derived a model that takes into account all the preceding factors. This model employs the classic Lotka-Volterra competition equations but it ...
RNA viruses provide unique insights into the patterns and processes of evolutionary change in real time. The study of viral evolution is especially topical given the growing awareness that emerging and re-emerging diseases (most of which are caused by RNA viruses) represent a major threat to public health.
Students working in pairs or small groups receive a simulated virus: two paper cups taped together, enclosing a strip of paper listing an RNA or DNA sequence (an abbreviated viral genome). The students break open the cups (simulating viral uncoating in the host cell) and decide how host and/or viral enzymes will convert the genome into viral proteins and new genomes. The sequences provided describe a double-stranded DNA virus, single-stranded RNA viruses (+ or - strand), a retrovirus, and a double-stranded RNA virus. Templates for photocopying the genomes, sample worksheets, and an instructors answer key are included.
This graph shows the total number of publications written about RNA Viruses by people in this website by year, and whether RNA Viruses was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Preface. .. Part I: What is a virus?:.. 1. Towards a Definition of a Virus.. 2. Some Methods for Studying Animal Viruses.. 3. The Structure of Virus Particles.. 4. Classification of Viruses.. Part II: Virus Growth in Cells:.. 5. The Process of Infection: I. Attachment of Viruses and the Entry of Their Genomes into the Target Cell.. 6. The Process of Infection: IIA. The Replication of Viral DNA.. 7. The Process of Infection: IIB. Genome Replication in RNA Viruses.. 8. The Process of Infection: IIC. The Replication of RNA Viruses with a DNA Intermediate and Vice Versa.. 9. The Process of Infection: IIIA. Gene Expression in DNA Viruses and Reverse-Transcribing Viruses.. 10. The Process of Infection: IIIB. Gene Expression and its Regulation in RNA Viruses.. 11. The Process of Infection: IV. The Assembly of Viruses.. Part III: Virus Interactions with the Whole Organism:.. 12. The Immune System and Virus Neutralization.. 13. Interactions Between Animal Viruses and Cells.. 14. Animal Virus-Host ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Viruses that store their genetic information as RNA. A listing of the various families of human RNA viruses and some viruses in each: Picornavirus Polio...
Viruses impact nearly all organisms on Earth, with ripples of influence in agriculture, health, and biogeochemical processes. However, very little is known about RNA viruses in an environmental context, and even less is known about their diversity and ecology in soil, 1 of the most complex microbial …
Study RNA viruses flashcards from Anthos Christofides's class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. ✓ Learn faster with spaced repetition.
two. a pc code that may be inserted right into a application to damage data or bring about glitches. virus فيروس في الكومبيوتر комп. вирус vírus virus der Virus virus ιός Η/Υ virus arvutiviirus ویروس virus virusוירוס वाइरस, विषाणु virus (računalni) számítógépes vírus virus komputer virus コンピューターウイルス 컴퓨터 바이러스 (kompiuterio) virusas datorvīruss virus virusvirus wirus komputerowy زهر вирус počítačový vírus virus virus datavirus ไวรัสคอมพิวเตอร์ virüs 電腦病毒 вірус وائرس، کمپيوٹر نظام کو تباہ کرنے والا کوڈ vi rút máy tính 计算机病 ...
The external surface of some viruses that infect fungi have unanticipated enzyme activity. This is the conclusion of a study published in the journal...
About 95 per cent of us are infected with the Epstein-Barr virus. Cancer Virus is the compelling, thriller-like tale of its discovery
Viruses are small, self-replicating nucleic acid/protein aggregates that depend on the metabolism of their host cell for replication. Viruses do not have their own metabolism; it is thus a question whether viruses can be considered a life form. The genome of a virus can be single- or double-stranded DNA or RNA. Viruses can have a very simple structure and may consist of only a nucleic acid with a protein shell (capsid) for protection. Some viruses pathogenic to animals have a more complex structure: their capsid is surrounded by a membrane made of lipids and glycoproteins that originates in the membrane of the host cell. Viruses that multiply in bacteria are called bacteriophages.. In humans, viruses cause many diseases, including measles, mumps, rubella, chicken pox, rabies, hepatitis, or influenza; some cancers are also related to viral infections (e.g. papilloma viruses). There are vaccines against some of these diseases; the use of antibiotics does not help against viruses. ...
The virus family Flaviviridae encompasses several viruses, including (re)emerging viruses which cause widespread morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Members of this virus family are positive-strand RNA viruses and replicate their genome in close association with reorganized intracellular host cell membrane compartments. ...
Personally I think this may be a bit too curmudgeony. The campaign clearly had the desired effect by showing, well, that microbes can grow fast. So the microbes they used were not viruses. And so the ones they used were not harmful. It still is creepy in a way. It is a fine balance of course. We (the royal we here) want to promote microbes as being fun. And we also want to promote them as not always being dangerous. But microbes also do kill a lot of people. And this billboard will probably do more to get people talking and thinking about bacteria and mold than any other movie promotion in recent memory ...
First of all, cold and flu viruses are not simple viruses, and they are not harmless. They kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people every year. Secondly, this would depend highly on the risk group that the virus falls in. The NIH sets strict guidelines on who can handle infectious agents. Unfortunately, I can almost guarantee you that no one is going to give you even risk group 1 plant viruses, and they are certainly are not going to give you cold or flu viruses. Risk groups range from 1 to 4. To handle risk group 2 viruses, for example, you are expected to do so in a BSL-2 or higher laboratory, and anyone maintaining stocks of virus is going to do a hefty check of you and your facilities before shipping you anything.. Furthermore, even if you did obtain the virus, you would need to store it or maintain stocks of the virus in tissue culture. Its not like you can just get an eppendorf tube of virus in saline and expect it to survive in your refrigerator at home, and its not like companies ...
For more information about how parvo affects dogs, visit worst outbreak in memory of a fatal dog disease has forced the Orange County animal-control department to
Applies to: Exchange Server 2010 SP3, Exchange Server 2010 SP2. Topic Last Modified: 2012-07-23. You can use the Edge Rules agent and transport rules in Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 to help protect your organization from viruses.. New viruses threaten organizations every day. To minimize the damage caused by viruses, antivirus vendors and administrators must respond to virus threats as soon as possible. Despite a quick response, there will be a gap between the time that a virus threat appears and the time that a solution becomes available. This gap, when a virus threat remains unknown and unresolved, is called a zero-day virus threat. At the same time, viruses that have been circulating on the Internet for many years also continue to pose a significant threat to organizations. Although the majority of these viruses can be identified by antivirus scanners, antivirus scanners may be taken offline by mistake, updated with out-of-date definitions, or experience other problems that make them ...
In article ,m0tedkN-0003SzC at, ED at MOLBIOL.UCT.AC.ZA (Ed Rybicki) writes: , Perhaps the simple inclusion of Luria et al.s qualifier - , ...potentially pathogenic - serves to distinguish them adequately. , , (As in: Viruses have been defined as [potentially pathogenic] , entities whose genomes are elements of nucleic acid that replicate , inside living cells using the cellular synthetic machinery, and cause , the synthesis of specialised elements [virions] that can transfer the , genome to other cells S Luria et al., Virology, 3rd Edn) , What does pathogenic mean? Does this mean that plant cryptic viruses (which seem to cause no symptoms in their hosts) are not viruses? How about the various fungal viruses (such as the hypovirulence associated virus from the chestnu blight fungus) which dont have protein coats and are not transmitted extracellularly? I think that there are a number of things which are quite hard to put into human defined catagories.... Ethan ...
AJ Boulay ,aj.boulay at, wrote: ,As a student of biology, I am curious about the replication and ,classification of viruses. , ,I understand that viruses are inert until they infect a host, that they ,do not undergo replication or division, etc. , ,This leads to my question: How then do viruses proliferate? I can see an ,infected cell within the host replicating, but is this infected cell ,considered a virus? With this in mind, can viruses be classified as an ,organism at any time in thier life cylce? The virus is a free entity until it infects a host. I was correcting a professor last week when she called viruses organisms but I failed to come up with a suitable term to refer to them by. Calling them organisms is just for lack of better terminology. When a virus has infected an organism and is replicating, it can be considered alive and is classified as an organism. Viruses replicate using the machinery in the host organism. All the components of the progeny are assembled by the ...
A virus consists of a protein mantle that encapsulates a strand of DNA or RNA, either single-stranded or double-stranded. The DNA or RNA is injected into a cell nucleus, where the machinery of the cell takes the code and produces many more copies of the virus. These copies break out of the cell and each may go on to infect another cell and repeat the process. Some infections are benign to the cell and organism, while some cause rapid cell death and serious disease. Virus particles can be released from the host cell either by budding of the phospholipid membrane or by traumatic lysing. It is assumed that viral infection occurs passively, with the virus pathogen being delivered to its preferred host by Brownian motion and natural circulatory and behavioral processes of the organism. It is difficult, however, to observe a virus in situ due to the limitations of modern microscopes. Viruses are very small, with a typical size between 40 and 100 nm (1 nm = 10-9 m, nm=nanometer). The term virus ...
Although it is a single-stranded RNA virus, it does mutate to some extent, but it doesnt look like its going to mutate away from the vaccine.
Genome replication in picornaviruses is catalyzed by a virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, termed 3D. These viruses also use a small protein primer, named VPg, to initiate RNA replication. The recent explosion of structural information on picornaviral 3D polymerases has provided insights into the initiation of RNA synthesis and chain elongation. Comparing these data with results from previous structural analyses of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases that catalyze de novo RNA synthesis sheds light on the different strategies that these viruses use to initiate replication. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved ...
J Jordan Steel, Brian J Geiss, (2015) A Novel System for Visualizing Alphavirus Assembly. Journal of virological methods.. N. L. Sweeney, A. M. Hanson, S. Mukherjee, J. Ndjomou, B. J. Geiss, J. J. Steel, K. J. Frankowski, F. J. Schoenen, D. N. Frick (2015) Benzothiazole and pyrrolone flavivirus inhibitors targeting the viral helicase. ACS Infectious Diseases.. K. M. Bullard, R. C. Gullberg, E. Soltani, J. J. Steel, B. J. Geiss, S. Keenan (2015) Murine Efficacy and Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of the Flaviviral NS5 Capping Enzyme 2-thioxothiazolidin-4-one Inhibitor BG-223. PLoS ONE.. J. J. Steel, R. C. Gullberg, E. Soltani, B. J. Geiss, (2014) Oxidative Stress Influences Positive Strand RNA Virus Genome Synthesis and Capping. Virology.. J. J. Steel, A.W.E. Franz, I. Sanchez-Vargas, K. E. Olson, B. J. Geiss, (2013) Subgenomic Reporter RNA System for Detection of Alphavirus Infection in Mosquitoes. PLoS ONE.. J. J. Steel, B. R. Henderson, S. B. Lama, K. E. Olson, and B. J. Geiss, (2011) Infectious ...
Hypovirulent isolates of the fruit tree fungal pathogen Diaporthe ambigua have previously been shown to harbour a double-stranded (ds)RNA genetic element of about 4 kb. In this study, we established the complete cDNA sequence of this dsRNA, which represents a replicative form of a positive-strand RNA virus that we have named D. ambigua RNA virus (DaRV). The nucleotide sequence of the genome is 4113 bp and has a GC content of 53%. Two large ORFs are present in the same reading frame. They are most probably translated by readthrough of a UAG stop codon in the central part of the genome. The longest possible translation product (p125) has a predicted molecular mass of about 125 kDa. A significant homology can be found to the non-structural proteins of carmoviruses of the positive-strand RNA virus family Tombusviridae. These proteins also include the conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) domain. In contrast to the genome organization of these plant viruses, no ORF is present at the 3′ end of the
Using [3H]glucosamine and [3H]mannose labels, two virus-specific glycosylated polypeptide species with Mr values of about 200,000 (200K) and in the 75K to 100K range, respectively, were recognized in Berne virus-infected embryonic mule skin cells. In purified virions only the latter glycoprotein occurred. Concanavalin A was bound to the virion as evidenced by reduction in infectivity. Analyses using SDS-PAGE, blotting and glycoprotein identification with concanavalin A and horseradish peroxidase showed coincidence of the virion glycoprotein signals with the maximum infectivity and haemagglutinating activity in an isokinetic sucrose gradient. Polyclonal rabbit immune serum and a neutralizing and haemagglutination-inhibiting monoclonal antibody raised against Berne virus recognized both the 75K to 100K and the 200K glycoproteins. Using tunicamycin, a concentration-dependent inhibition of infectivity was noted; however, non-infectious particles containing the two major polypeptides (20K and 22K) were
Rapid RNA virus evolution is a major problem due to the devastating diseases caused by human, animal and plant-pathogenic RNA viruses. A previous genome-wide screen for host factors affecting recombination in Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV), a small monopartite plant virus, identified Xrn1p 5′-3′ exoribonuclease of yeast, a model host, whose absence led to increased appearance of recombinants [Serviene, E., Shapka, N., Cheng, C.P., Panavas, T., Phuangrat, B., Baker, J., Nagy, P.D., (2005). Genome-wide screen identifies host genes affecting viral RNA recombination. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 102 (30), 10545-10550]. In this paper, we tested if over-expression of Xrn1p in yeast or expression of the analogous Xrn4p cytoplasmic 5′-3′ exoribonuclease, which has similar function in RNA degradation in Arabidopsis as Xrn1p in yeast, in Nicotiana benthamiana could affect the accumulation of tombusvirus RNA. We show that over-expression of Xrn1p led to almost complete degradation of TBSV ...
A significant number of RNA viruses assemble their protein containers and genomic material simultaneously. Here the implications of this protein-RNA co-assembly are investigated using an extended version of a model first proposed by Adam Zlotnick in 1994 (Zlotnick, 1994). The inspirations for this extended model are the cases of bacteriophage MS2 and the STMV virus, viruses that have been well characterised experimentally. Example pathways of RNA virus assembly have been enumerated and kinetic simulations have been run on these networks. The results show the most likely pathways of virus assembly and the concentrations of the intermediates. This work will also demonstrate how kinetic traps may be avoided when proteins are able to bind RNA during assembly. Additionally modelled are DNA cages, which are three-dimensional shapes made from double-helical DNA molecules. Such cages have been seen within viruses but may also be constructed artificially. This model has been used to produce energetically ...
Polivirüsün hücresel yaşam döngüsü (1) CD155 reseptörüne bağlanmasıyla başlar. Virüs endositozla alınır, ve viral RNA serbest kalır (2). Translation of the viral RNA occurs by an IRES-mediated mechanism (3). The polyprotein is cleaved, yielding mature viral proteins (4). The positive-sense RNA serves as template for complementary negative-strand synthesis, producing double-stranded replicative form (RF) RNA(5). Many positive strand RNA copies are produced from the single negative strand (6). The newly synthesized positive-sense RNA molecules can serve as templates for translation of more viral proteins (7) or can be enclosed in a capsid (8), which ultimately generates progeny virions. Lysis of the infected cell results in release of infectious progeny virions (9).[2] ...
Reverse transcriptases (RTs) polymerize DNA on RNA templates. They fall into several structurally related but distinct classes, and form an assemblage of RT-like enzymes which, in addition to RTs, also includes certain viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRP) polymerizing RNA on RNA templates. It is generally believed that most RT-like enzymes originate from retrotransposons or viruses and have no specific function in the host cell, with telomerases being the only notable exception. Here we report on the discovery and properties of a novel class of RT-related cellular genes collectively named rvt. We present evidence that rvt are not components of retrotransposons or viruses, but single-copy genes with a characteristic domain structure, may contain introns in evolutionarily conserved positions, occur in syntenic regions, and evolve under purifying selection. These genes can be found in all major taxonomic groups including protists, fungi, animals, plants, and even bacteria, although they ...
in Gene (2004), 326. Some MX proteins are known to confer a specific resistance against a panel of single-stranded RNA viruses. Many diseases due to such viruses are known to affect cattle worldwide, raising the possibility ... [more ▼]. Some MX proteins are known to confer a specific resistance against a panel of single-stranded RNA viruses. Many diseases due to such viruses are known to affect cattle worldwide, raising the possibility that the identification of an antiviral isoform of a bovine MX protein would allow the implementation of genetic selection programs aimed at improving innate resistance of cattle. With this potential application in mind, the present study was designed to isolate the bovine Mx1 gene including its promoter region and to investigate its genomic organisation and promoter reactivity. The bovine Mx1 gene is made up of 15 exons. All exon-intron boundaries conformed to the consensus sequences. A PCR product that contained a approximately 1-kb, 5-flanking region ...
RNA enveloped viruses comprise several families belonging to plus and minus strand RNA viruses, such as retroviruses, flavoviruses and orthomyxoviruses. Viruses utilize cellular lipids during critical steps of replication like entry, assembly and egress. Growing evidence indicate important roles for lipids and lipid nanodomains in virus assembly. The proposed topic will cover key aspects of virus-membrane interactions during assembly and egress. A significant part of this special topic will address how enveloped viruses such as retroviruses, influenza, Ebola and Dengue viruses are able to recognize specific lipids in membrane during assembly and egress. Virus assembly and release involve specific and nonspecific interactions between viral proteins and membrane compartments. It is well established that assembly of retroviral Gag proteins occur predominantly on the PM. Membrane selection appears to be critical for productive virus production. Gaps in understanding of retroviral assembly still exist.
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There is no cure for this virus because RNA viruses arent diseases. They dont need a cure. They need cooperation.They are ribonucleic acid and a dynamic part of the genome. Our RNA is what allows us to evolve as a species. They are a natural part of our world and are microbes that have been…
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Benyviridae and Ophioviridae are both single-stranded RNA viruses that can infect plants and contain only one genus. Benyviridae, positive-sense RNA viruses with rod-shaped virions, can cause rhizomania, a disease in the roots of sugar beet. Some species of Ophioviridae are transmitted through soil and can infect many different plants including vegetables, trees and shrubs ...
Neurovirology is an interdisciplinary field representing a melding of virology, clinical neuroscience, molecular pathogenesis, diagnostic virology, molecular biology, and immunology. Neuroviral Infections: RNA Viruses and Retroviruses presents an…
genomes of accumulated deleterious changes (Muller, 1964) and to create or spread bene locial combinations of mutations in an efficient manner (Fisher, 1930;Muller, 1932), two processes which are not available to clonal organisms. Two distinct but not mutually exclusive types of genetic exchange operate in RNA viruses. The first, reassortment ...
genomes of accumulated deleterious changes (Muller, 1964) and to create or spread bene locial combinations of mutations in an efficient manner (Fisher, 1930;Muller, 1932), two processes which are not available to clonal organisms. Two distinct but not mutually exclusive types of genetic exchange operate in RNA viruses. The first, reassortment ...
This institute contributes to the education of students in Graduate School for Environmental and Life Science (Masters and Doctors Degree Course of Okayama University).
One fossil gene, called VP35, appeared in the same spot in the genomes of four different rodent species: two hamsters and two voles. This meant the material was likely acquired in or before the Miocene Epoch, prior to when these rodents evolved into distinct species some 16-23 million years ago.. In other words: It appears that the known filovirus family is at least as old as the common ancestor of hamsters and voles.. These rodents have billions of base pairs in their genomes, so the odds of a viral gene inserting itself at the same position in different species at different times are very small, Taylor says. Its likely that the insertion was present in the common ancestor of these rodents.. The genetic material in the VP35 fossil was more closely related to Ebola than to Marburg, indicating that the lines leading to these viruses had already begun diverging from each other in the Miocene.. The new study builds on Taylors previous work with Bruenn and other biologists, which used viral ...
Viruses are very small biological constructs which contain either DNA or RNA. As they lack cellular machinery and rely on an infected cell to actually replicate their viral genomes, there is debate as to whether viruses should be considered living. A virus consists of three main parts. 1) Genetic Material - This can be either DNA or RNA. Upon a viral infection, the virus inserts its genome into the host cell, where it is processed by various polymerases. 2) Protein capsid - this is a simple protein shell which envelops the genetic material and gives the virus structure. 3) Coat - there may exist certain proteins or lipids on the surface of the virus that identify the virus and aid in receptor binding to the cell surface. These surface modifications to the virus can induce an immune response in the host organism. The figure to the right is a schematic of a bacteriophage (virus that infects bacteria) inserting its DNA . Viral replication is essentially a positive feedback loop in which the ...
professor of biology at the University of Sydney, and his Australian colleagues decided to confront this mystery head on. Using viral genome data, they reconstructed the evolutionary history of 19 major virus families, each of which contained between 23 and 142 viruses found in diverse hosts ranging from mammals to fish to plants. They created phylogenetic, or evolutionary, trees for both the virus families and their host species and then compared them. They reasoned that if a virus had largely co-diverged with its host, evolving right alongside it, then the viruss phylogenetic tree should resemble its hosts: ancestral versions of the virus ought to have infected the hosts ancestors. But if the virus is jumping between species, the trees of the hosts and viruses will look different. How different depends on how many cross-species jumps are made ...
Viruses. Viruses and bacteria are too small to be seen without the aid of microscopes. As disease agents, their effects on mankind are well known. Both are ubiquitous and adaptable.. The Bridge Between Living and Non-Living. Someone once suggested that if people were the size of viruses, the entire population of the U.S. would fit on the end of two pencil erasers. There would be room left over for future generations. Extremely small, simple in structure, and widely distributed, viruses exist in a realm all their own. Viruses do not qualify as cells yet affect cells and so exist as if on a bridge between the living and nonliving.. Structure and Classification of Viruses. Viruses differ from cellular organisms in many ways. A virus contains only a single type of nucleic acid. This DNA or RNA may be single or double-stranded. The core of nucleic acid is covered by a protein coat called a capsid. Some of the proteins in the capsid are enzymes. A complete virus particle is called a virion. Some ...
So if viruses are not alive, what do they do and how do they do it? A virus, as long as it is not subjected to harsh conditions, is fairly stable. As it moves through the world, in saliva, on a counter top, or in a sneeze-induced projectile, it is waiting for its protein spikes to find the right cell. Once the virus finds a cell to which protein spikes can attach, it then migrates into the interior and takes over operations. Since a protein spike-cell wall match is necessary for the virus to enter, certain viruses can only infect certain cells. Once inside, the nucleic acid in the virus starts giving instructions to the cell, instructions which override those coming from the DNA in the nucleus of the cell. The virus then forces the cell to make copies of the virus, lots and lots of copies. After enough copies have been made, the virus moves on to other cells either by killing the host cell or diffusing back out through the cell wall ...
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A mathematical model that combines stochasticity and spatial structure describes the dynamics of the viral population during an infection cycle, and fitting the model to RNA and virus abundances over time shows that poliovirus follows a geometric replication mode.
Geoff Kuenning, a professor of computer science at Harvey Mudd College, provides this explanation. Malicious software comes in several flavors, distinguished primarily by their method of propagation. The two most pervasive forms are viruses and worms. A virus attaches itself to an existing program such that, when that program is executed, bad things happen. Like a biological virus, it cannot live without a host. In contrast, a worm is an independent program that reproduces itself without requiring a host program. Depending on the form, a worm may be able to propagate without any action on the victims part. Most malicious software today consists of worms rather than viruses. Worms and viruses require slightly different protection mechanisms because of their different propagation methods. A virus scanner operates by searching for the signatures of known viruses. A signature is a characteristic pattern that occurs in every copy of a virus. It might be a string of characters, such as a message that ...
See on - Virology News Viruses have generally been studied either as disease-causing infectious agents that have a negative impact on the host (most eukaryote-infecting viruses), or as tools for molecular biology (especially bacteria-infecting viruses, or phage). Virus ecology looks at the more complex issues of virus-host-environment interactions. For plant viruses this includes studies…
Lets face it: the last thing your computer needs is a virus. Viruses are nasty programs designed to damage computers and networks. A virus may cause odd messages to appear on screens, spread itself by sending unintended emails to your email contacts, damage your data, or worse. Whatever the case, a virus is never a welcome surprise. The Internet is a particularly dangerous tool for those who create viruses, as it provides them with access to so many computers, opening a whole new world of trouble. Most viruses spread when users share infected floppy discs, unknowingly run infected programs or open email attachments. If you download software (or just open attachments from friends, relatives, or business associates), theres a chance youll bring home one of these digital bugs. Still, its fairly easy to protect your computer and valuable info from viruses. Youll just need to consistently do a couple of things:. 1) Never open, view or run an unexpected email attachment, even if its from someone ...
It is January 21st, 2021. Its always sad and frustrating when I read an article that includes misinformation about the Wuhan virus. A trip to the CDCs website will give you the actual numbers, but its probable that the CDC hadnt changed their numbers to reflect reality at the time of this article. As of today, in the United States, 18,700 persons have died from the virus, the vast majority of whom were elderly. The leftist media currently exclaims that over 300,000 have died of the virus, but that is misleading. Just testing positive for the virus at the time of death will earn the deceased the medical code of a Covid-19 death, but there is a difference between dying FROM the virus and dying having tested positive for the virus. Only 6% of the deaths that the leftist media state have been solely from the virus. 6% is 18,700. The rest, most of whom were elderly, had an average of 2.9 co-morbidities and primarily died of an heart attack, suicide, diabetes complications, etc. and averaged ...
It is January 21st, 2021. Its always sad and frustrating when I read an article that includes misinformation about the Wuhan virus. A trip to the CDCs website will give you the actual numbers, but its probable that the CDC hadnt changed their numbers to reflect reality at the time of this article. As of today, in the United States, 18,700 persons have died from the virus, the vast majority of whom were elderly. The leftist media currently exclaims that over 300,000 have died of the virus, but that is misleading. Just testing positive for the virus at the time of death will earn the deceased the medical code of a Covid-19 death, but there is a difference between dying FROM the virus and dying having tested positive for the virus. Only 6% of the deaths that the leftist media state have been solely from the virus. 6% is 18,700. The rest, most of whom were elderly, had an average of 2.9 co-morbidities and primarily died of an heart attack, suicide, diabetes complications, etc. and averaged ...
The W32.Shodi.C program is a virus that pretends to be executable or .exe files. It can also drop a fixed access tool. When a file contaminated w/ a W32.Shodi.C virus is opened, it extracts the original file to a file with a .sho extension, and then it opens it. For instance, if notepad.exe is contaminated, the W32.Shodi.C program will extract the notepad program to notepad.sho and then opens it. The virus searches for the files with .exe extensions on all the hard drives, beginning w/ drive C. The virus looks for the folders on the hard drive, except names such as windows, system, and system32. The virus doesnt contaminate the files with names such as iexplorer.exe, ccApp.exe, and ccRegVfy.exe. The virus conceals itself to some of the files that it locates. The W32.Shodi.Cprogram changes its icon to resemble that of the host file. The virus creates a temporary duplicate of itself as %System%Shohdi.hdi ...
Mouse K virus was first discovered by Lawrence Kilham - thus K virus. It belongs to the family Pavovaviridae. The virus is usually spread by the oronasal route. When a young mouse is orally inoculated with the virus, the virus first replicates in the intestine and then spreads to other organs such as liver, lung, spleen and brain. Older mice may mount an immune response to the virus and thus may limit the spread of the virus through the body. However, athymic or nude mice suffer significantly if infected ...
Instead, the researchers focused on glycoproteins, which sit on the outside of all viruses and attach to cells in the body, allowing the viruses to do their dirty work by infecting cells and making us sick. Using that knowledge, the researchers created a macromolecule, which is basically one giant molecule made of smaller subunits. This macromolecule has key factors that are crucial in fighting viruses. First, its able to attract viruses towards itself using electrostatic charges. Once the virus is close, the macromolecule attaches to the virus and makes the virus unable to attach to healthy cells. Then it neutralizes the virus acidity levels, which makes it less able to replicate. ...
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Survey of Microorganisms. Virus Bacteria Cyanobacteria Algae Fungi protozoa. VIRUS. Obligated intracellular parasite. host specific: bacteriophage animal virus plant virus according to its genetic material DNA virus RNA virus Shape: Slideshow 202506 by Faraday
Emerging human and zoonotic RNA viruses including SARS-CoV cause significant global morbidity, mortality, and social disruption. The current model for RNA virus...
Principal Investigator:ENAMI Masayoshi, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:展開研究, Research Field:Virology
Watch video lessons, and learn about the different aspects of various viral infections, like the stomach flu, HIV and rabies. Take the quizzes that...
Medical Xpress is a web-based medical and health news service that features the most comprehensive coverage in the fields of neuroscience, cardiology, cancer, HIV/AIDS, psychology, psychiatry, dentistry, genetics, diseases and conditions, medications and more.
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Vivaldi Biosciences was developing small molecule antiviral drugs for the treatment of respiratory diseases caused by negative-strand RNA viruses, including
See the latest information on computer virus attacks and their removal. McAfee is the leader in internet security and virus detection. Keep up to date on the most recent virus threats, recently discovered viruses and recently updated viruses.
Viruses portal Animal virology List of viruses RNA virus TLR3 Virology Virus classification "Double-stranded RNA virus ... Double-stranded RNA viruses (dsRNA viruses) are a polyphyletic group of viruses that have double-stranded genomes made of ... Double-stranded RNA viruses evolved two separate times from positive-strand RNA viruses. In the Baltimore classification system ... 2008). "The Yeast dsRNA Virus L-A Resembles Mammalian dsRNA Virus Cores". Segmented Double-stranded RNA Viruses: Structure and ...
... ve RNA ancestor and the -ve RNA viruses from within the dsRNA viruses. The closest relation to the -ve stranded RNA viruses is ... virus Nedicistrovirus Nesidiocoris tenuis virus 1 Niflavirus Nylanderia fulva virus 1 Orsay virus Osedax japonicus RNA virus 1 ... The majority of fungal viruses are double-stranded RNA viruses. A small number of positive-strand RNA viruses have been ... each virion can be transcribed to several positive-sense RNAs. Ambisense RNA viruses resemble negative-sense RNA viruses, ...
All positive-strand RNA virus genomes encode RNA-dependent RNA polymerase a viral protein that synthesizes RNA from an RNA ... Positive-sense RNA viruses include pathogens such as the Hepatitis C virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and the MERS, SARS, ... The ability of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of these viruses to switch RNA templates suggests a copy choice model of RNA ... ssRNA viruses. Double-stranded RNA virus Negative-strand RNA virus Sense (molecular biology) Baltimore D (September 1971). " ...
Negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus Positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus Double-stranded RNA viruses DNA virus This ... Single-stranded RNA virus refers to RNA viruses with single-stranded RNA genomes. There are two kinds: ...
Negative-strand RNA viruses (−ssRNA viruses) are a group of related viruses that have negative-sense, single-stranded genomes ... All viruses in Negarnaviricota are negative-sense, single-stranded RNA (−ssRNA) viruses. They have genomes made of RNA, which ... ssRNA viruses include the Ebola virus, hantaviruses, influenza viruses, the Lassa fever virus, and the rabies virus. ... Kolakofsky D (April 2015). "A short biased history of RNA viruses". RNA. 21 (4): 667-669. doi:10.1261/rna.049916.115. PMC ...
The Infectious bronchitis virus D-RNA is an RNA element known as defective RNA or D-RNA. This element is thought to be ... Page for Infectious bronchitis virus D-RNA at Rfam (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Gammacoronaviruses). ... "Utilizing fowlpox virus recombinants to generate defective RNAs of the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus". The Journal of ... Tombus virus defective interfering (DI) RNA region 3 Dalton K, Casais R, Shaw K, Stirrups K, Evans S, Britton P, Brown TD, ...
Page for Bovine leukaemia virus RNA packaging signal at Rfam (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Deltaretroviruses). ... primary nucleotide sequence of the bovine leukemia virus RNA packaging signal can influence efficient RNA packaging and virus ... This family represents the bovine leukaemia virus RNA encapsidation (packaging) signal, which is essential for efficient viral ... Mansky, LM; Wisniewski, RM (April 1998). "The bovine leukemia virus encapsidation signal is composed of RNA secondary ...
Moss WN, Lee N, Pimienta G, Steitz JA (2014). "RNA families in Epstein-Barr virus". RNA Biology. 11 (1): 10-17. doi:10.4161/rna ... EBNA at Rfam Epstein-Barr virus stable intronic sequence RNAs (Molecular genetics, Non-coding RNA, Epstein-Barr virus). ... an Epstein-Barr virus noncoding RNA, recruit human ribosomal protein L22". RNA. 12 (5): 872-882. doi:10.1261/rna.2339606. PMC ... "RNA families in Epstein-Barr virus". RNA Biology. 11 (1): 10-17. doi:10.4161/rna.27488. PMC 3929418. PMID 24441309. Wu, Tzyy- ...
Epstein-Barr virus stable intronic sequence RNAs Hutzinger R, Feederle R, Mrazek J, Schiefermeier N, Balwierz PJ, Zavolan M, ... "Expression and processing of a small nucleolar RNA from the Epstein-Barr virus genome". PLOS Pathogens. 5 (8): e1000547. doi: ... Page for human herpesvirus 1 small nucleolar RNA at Rfam Page for EBER1 at Rfam Page for v-snoRNA1 at Rfam Page for IRES EBNA ... V-snoRNA1 is a box CD-snoRNA[clarification needed] identified in B lymphocytes infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (human ...
... (ebv-sisRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs generated by repeat introns in ... "The RNA WikiProject: Community annotation of RNA families". RNA. 14 (12): 2462-2464. doi:10.1261/rna.1200508. PMC 2590952. PMID ... however the virus generates proteins and RNAs to modulate host-virus interactions that maintain latent infection. In ways yet ... "Genome-wide analyses of Epstein-Barr virus reveal conserved RNA structures and a novel stable intronic sequence RNA". BMC ...
The Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) coat protein binding (CPB) RNA is an RNA element which is found in the 3′ UTR of the genome. AMV ... Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5′ UTR stem-loop Neeleman L, Linthorst HJ, Bol JF (January 2004). "Efficient translation of ... Page for Alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein binding (CPB) RNA at Rfam v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ... This family contains at least two coat protein binding sites which are thought to be essential for efficient RNA translation. ...
The bamboo mosaic virus satellite RNA cis-regulatory element is an RNA element found in the 5' UTR of the genome of the bamboo ... Page for Bamboo mosaic virus satellite RNA cis-regulatory element at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Potexviruses, All ... mosaic virus. This element is thought to be essential for efficient RNA replication. Bamboo mosaic potexvirus (BaMV) cis- ... regulatory element Potato virus X cis-acting regulatory element Poxvirus AX element late mRNA cis-regulatory element Annamalai ...
Page for Tombus virus defective interfering (DI) RNA region 3 at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Tombusviridae, All ... Infectious bronchitis virus D-RNA Red clover necrotic mosaic virus translation enhancer elements Ray D, White KA (2003). "An ... Tombus virus defective interfering (DI) RNA region 3 is an important cis-regulatory region identified in the 3' UTR of ... internally located RNA hairpin enhances replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus RNAs". J. Virol. 77 (1): 245-257. doi:10.1128/ ...
The Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5′ UTR stem-loop represents a putative stem-loop structure found in the 5′ UTR in RNA 1 of ... Page for Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 5′ UTR stem-loop at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, Bromoviridae, All stub ... RNA Vlot AC, Bol JF (October 2003). "The 5′ untranslated region of alfalfa mosaic virus RNA 1 is involved in negative-strand ... This family is required for negative strand RNA synthesis in the alfalfa mosaic virus and may also be involved in positive ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of ... Double-stranded RNA viruses, Viral plant pathogens and diseases, Virus families, Riboviria). ... Dolja, Valerian V (2001). "Capsid-Less RNA Viruses". eLS. doi:10.1002/9780470015902.a0023269. ISBN 978-0470016176. ICTVdB ... Endornaviridae is a family of viruses. Plants, fungi, and oomycetes serve as natural hosts. There are 31 species in this family ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... Tomato mottle mosaic virus Tropical soda apple mosaic virus Turnip vein-clearing virus (TVCV) Ullucus mild mottle virus Wasabi ... Tobacco latent virus Tobacco mild green mosaic virus Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) Tomato ... Brugmansia mild mottle virus Cactus mild mottle virus (CMMoV) Clitoria yellow mottle virus Cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus ...
Replication follows the positive-strand RNA virus replication model. Positive-strand RNA virus transcription is the method of ... Positive Sense RNA Viruses - Positive Sense RNA Viruses (2011) - ICTV". Retrieved 15 June 2021. Dolja, V. ... The genus has the following two species: Saccharomyces 20S RNA narnavirus Saccharomyces 23S RNA narnavirus "Virus Taxonomy: ... Member viruses have been shown to be required for sexual reproduction of Rhizopus microsporus. Narnaviruses have a naked RNA ...
Homologous recombination is very frequent in RNA viruses. Recombination frequently occurs among very similar viruses, where ... Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Holmes, Edward C. (August 2011). "Why do RNA viruses recombine?". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 9 (8): ... Banner, L. R.; Lai, M. M. (November 1991). "Random nature of coronavirus RNA recombination in the absence of selection pressure ...
"Iflaviridae - Positive Sense RNA Viruses". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). Retrieved 1 August 2020. ... and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains of various picorna-like virus polyproteins. The increased aggression of infected Apis ... Kakugo virus is a picorna-like virus most commonly found in the brains of worker bees. It is a subtype of the Deformed wing ... Kakugo is the first virus to have been found to cause aggressive behavior, although because the virus was only recently ...
Renault, Sylvaine (2012). "RNA Viruses in Parasitoid Wasps". Parasitoid Viruses Symbionts and Pathogens. Pivnick, Kenneth ( ... They have been shown to carry Rioviridae RNA viruses, one of only a few parasitoids to carry them. Stigenberg, Julia; Ronquist ... Beckage, Nancy (2011). Parasitoid Viruses: Symbionts and Pathogens. p. 194. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
Loeb L A, Harris C C Cancer Res 2008;68:6863-6872 "DNA and RNA Tumor Viruses." DNA and RNA Tumor Viruses. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 ... some virus are co-carcinogens like Herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4) Over intake beta ...
Attenuated RNA virus vaccines can revert to virulent forms. RNA viruses released in nature for pest control purposes can mutate ... Collective behavior of viruses was documented with mutant RNA viruses resistant to nucleotide analogues. The study of this ... and is comparable to values calculated for other RNA viruses. High mutation rates and quasispecies were verified for other RNA ... In RNA virus genetics when we speak of "a mutant" the entity we handle is a cloud of mutants in which the specific mutation to ...
In particular, reassortment occurs among influenza viruses, whose genomes consist of eight distinct segments of RNA. These ... flu strains were caused by reassortment between an avian virus and a human virus. In addition, the H1N1 virus responsible for ... Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Holmes, Edward C. (2011). "Why do RNA viruses recombine?". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 9 (8): 617-626 ... Studies on host-virus interactions in the chick embryo-influenza virus system. VI. Evidence for multiplicity reactivation of ...
Viruses that use RNA as their genetic material have rapid mutation rates, which can be an advantage since these viruses will ... Without proofreading error rates are a thousandfold higher; because many viruses rely on DNA and RNA polymerases that lack ... "Mutation rates among RNA viruses". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (24): 13910-3. Bibcode:1999PNAS...9613910D. doi:10.1073/ ... Viruses can also carry DNA between organisms, allowing transfer of genes even across biological domains. Large-scale gene ...
"DNA and RNA tumor viruses". The Lasker Foundation. Retrieved 30 December 2017. "Syracuse University's Charles T. Driscoll Jr. ... particularly of the tobacco mosaic virus; Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of the Biophysical Society ( ... known for his work in Tobacco mosaic virus; first president of the Biophysical Society; member of the National Academy of ... arbovirologist who discovered hundreds of viruses and advised on emerging infectious diseases Florence Wells Slater (B.A. 1900 ...
Viruses that use RNA as their genetic material have rapid mutation rates, which can be an advantage, since these viruses ... RNA enzymes) to proteins as the principal enzymes in cells. In line with the RNA world hypothesis, transfer RNA molecules ... Drake JW, Holland JJ (November 1999). "Mutation rates among RNA viruses". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... preventing the ancient equivalent of viruses from overwhelming the RNA world. Stop codons: Codons for translational stops are ...
... double-stranded RNA of viruses; or the unmethylated CpG islands of bacterial and viral DNA; and also of the CpG islands found ... TLR7 messenger RNA expression levels in dairy animals in a natural outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease have been reported. TLR4 ... Its ligand is retroviral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), which activates the TRIF dependent signalling pathway. To explore the ... February 2011). "A novel Toll-like receptor that recognizes vesicular stomatitis virus". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
... double-stranded RNA viruses; (IV) positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses; (V) negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses; ( ... Sokuluk virus, Yokose virus, Dakar bat virus, Bukalasa bat virus, Carey Island virus, Phnom Penh bat virus, Rio Bravo bat virus ... These zoonotic viruses include the rabies virus, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, Marburg virus, Nipah virus, and Hendra virus. While ... Most of the viruses harbored by bats are RNA viruses, though they are also known to have DNA viruses. Bats are more tolerant of ...
Wu, A. M.; Gallo, R. C. (1974). "Life cycle of RNA oncogenic viruses". Hamatologie Und Bluttransfusion. 14: 148-156. ISSN 0440- ... of Murine Type-C RNA Tumor Viruses". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 71 (5): 1871-1876. doi:10.1073/pnas.71.5. ... Wu, A M; Schultz, A; Gallo, R C (July 1976). "Synthesis of type C virus particles from murine-cultured cells induced by ... Wu applied this knowledge to probe the effects of drugs on mouse tumours induced by oncogenic viruses. He became director of ...
Since the genetic material in the virus consists of RNA the coat protein contains RNA binding sites. Additionally, the coat ... Bink HH, Pleij CW (2002). "RNA-protein interactions in spherical viruses". Arch Virol. 147 (12): 2261-79. doi:10.1007/s00705- ... The virus coat is composed of 180 copies of the coat protein arranged in an icosahedral shell. Fundamentally, the viral coat ... Canady MA, Larson SB, Day J, McPherson A (1996). "Crystal structure of turnip yellow mosaic virus". Nat Struct Biol. 3 (9): 771 ...
"Scientists Modify Viruses With CRISPR To Create New Weapon Against Superbugs". NPR. May 22, 2019. Retrieved May 28, 2019. " ... Wiedenheft B, Sternberg SH, Doudna JA (February 2012). "RNA-guided genetic silencing systems in bacteria and archaea". Nature. ... Reardon, Sara (2017). "Modified viruses deliver death to antibiotic-resistant bacteria". Nature. 546 (7660): 586-587. Bibcode: ...
Both RNA and DNA viruses can be made using existing methods. RNA viruses have historically been utilized due to the typically ... both in the case of DNA and RNA viruses. For many viruses, viral RNA is infectious when introduced into a cell (during ... With synthetic live viruses, it is not whole viruses that are synthesized but rather their genome at first, ... The ability to synthesize viruses has far-reaching consequences, since viruses can no longer be regarded as extinct, as long as ...
... thin viruses that infect bacteria) by fusing the virus's capsid protein to one peptide out of a collection of peptide sequences ... Danner S, Belasco JG (November 2001). "T7 phage display: a novel genetic selection system for cloning RNA-binding proteins from ... viruses that infect bacteria) to connect proteins with the genetic information that encodes them. In this technique, a gene ... "In vitro evolution of a neutralizing human antibody to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to enhance affinity and broaden ...
Positive-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of replication. Translation takes place by leaky scanning and RNA ... which includes Bristol virus, Lordsdale virus, Toronto virus, Mexico virus, Hawaii virus and Snow Mountain virus. Most ... "Norwalk virus", the virus has also been called "Norwalk-like virus", "small, round-structured viruses" (SRSVs), Spencer flu and ... in this virus is high even compared with other RNA viruses. In addition, a recombination hotspot exists at the ORF1-ORF2 (VP1) ...
Ravichandran V, Sabath BF, Jensen PN, Houff SA, Major EO (2006). "Interactions between c-Jun, nuclear factor 1, and JC virus ... is generated by alternative RNA processing". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (16): 10739-10745. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.16.10739. PMID 9099724. ... Müller K, Mermod N (2000). "The histone-interacting domain of nuclear factor I activates simian virus 40 DNA replication in ...
... it is not required for RNA transcription in all coronaviruses. In at least one coronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus ... N also serves as a chaperone protein for the formation of RNA structure in the genomic RNA. Synthesis of genomic RNA appears to ... The N-terminal domain - sometimes known as the RNA-binding domain, though other parts of the protein also interact with RNA - ... They made available the virus to the wider scientific community shortly thereafter "by depositing it into two virus reagent ...
... is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Rhabdoviridae. The virus's primary ... The nucleotide sequence of the ARV (Adelaide River virus) genome was derived from the 3` terminus to the end of the ... entry for Adelaide River virus v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles ... Wang, Y.; Cowley, J. A.; Walker, P. J. (1995-04-01). "Adelaide River virus nucleoprotein gene: analysis of phylogenetic ...
Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... RNA in ribozymes such as spliceosomes and ribosomes is similar to enzymes as it can catalyze chemical reactions. Individual ... The two nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, are polymers of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of a phosphate attached to a ... Proteins are made from amino acids that have been activated by attachment to a transfer RNA molecule through an ester bond. ...
The expression of non-coding RNAs, such as antisense Igf2r RNA (Air) on mouse chromosome 17 and KCNQ1OT1 on human chromosome ... that is to say genes that are inserted into the genome by viruses, among imprinted genes. It has also been postulated that if ... DeVeale B, van der Kooy D, Babak T (2012). "Critical evaluation of imprinted gene expression by RNA-Seq: a new perspective". ... The grouping of imprinted genes within clusters allows them to share common regulatory elements, such as non-coding RNAs and ...
The majority of RNA viruses lack an RNA proofreading facility, which limits their replication fidelity and hence their genome ... An exception to the rule of small genome sizes in RNA viruses is found in the Nidoviruses. These viruses appear to have ... It has been proposed that the small size of RNA viruses is locked into a three-part relation between replication fidelity, ... "The footprint of genome architecture in the largest genome expansion in RNA viruses". PLOS Pathog. 9 (7): e1003500. doi:10.1371 ...
Kishor A, White EJ, Matsangos AE, Yan Z, Tandukar B, Wilson GM (August 2017). "Hsp70's RNA-binding and mRNA-stabilizing ... Patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection who harbor a HSPA1B-1267 single nucleotide polymorphism have a ...
Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... Viruses that inhibit IFN signaling include Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), dengue type 2 virus (DEN-2), and viruses of the ... Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) is important for inducing interferons in response to the presence of double-stranded RNA viruses; ... Some viruses escape the anti-viral activities of interferons by gene (and thus protein) mutation. The H5N1 influenza virus, ...
Versatility in RNA structure and function provides the ability to assemble nanoparticles for nanomedicinal therapeutics. The ... Bacillus virus Φ29 (bacteriophage Φ29) is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophage with a prolate icosahedral head and a ... Φ29 has a unique DNA packaging motor structure that employs prohead packaging RNA (pRNA) to guide the translocation of the ... Guo, Peixuan; Zhang, Chunlin; Chen, Chaoping; Garver, Kyle; Trottier, Mark (1998-07-01). "Inter-RNA Interaction of Phage φ29 ...
The viruses cannot survive in the extremely acidic and hot conditions that Sulfolobus lives in, and so the viruses use ... All-Species Living Tree Project."16S rRNA-based LTP release 132". Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 2015-08 ... The viruses infecting archaea like Sulfolobus have to use a strategy to escape prolonged direct exposure to the type of ... The Sulfolobus viruses are temperate or permanent lysogens. Permanent lysogens differ from lysogenic bacteriophages in that the ...
AIDS is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Primary modes of HIV ... March 1999). "The effect of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on HIV-1 RNA blood plasma concentration". AIDS. 13 (4): 487-94. doi: ... Borkow G, Bentwich Z (May 2002). "Host background immunity and human immunodeficiency virus protective vaccines, a major ... Contaminated water enables the spread of various waterborne-pathogens, including bacteria (E. coli, cholera), viruses ( ...
Re F, Braaten D, Franke EK, Luban J (1995). "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vpr arrests the cell cycle in G2 by inhibiting ... "The transcription elongation factor CA150 interacts with RNA polymerase II and the pre-mRNA splicing factor SF1". Mol. Cell. ... Kino T, Chrousos GP (2004). "Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 accessory protein Vpr: a causative agent of the AIDS-related ... 1996). "Mutational analysis of cell cycle arrest, nuclear localization and virion packaging of human immunodeficiency virus ...
The virus is a monopartite strand of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA surrounded by a capsid made from a single viral ... ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: White clover mosaic virus Descriptions of Plant Viruses Family Groups - The Baltimore ... "About Plant Viruses / Florida Plant Viruses / Florida Plant Viruses and Their Inclusions / Science / Plant Industry / Divisions ... White clover mosaic virus (WClMV) is a plant pathogenic virus in the genus Potexvirus and the family Alphaflexiviridae. WClMV ...
... of cellular cofactors that stimulate the binding of RNA polymerase II and TRP-185 to human immunodeficiency virus 1 TAR RNA". ... The protein encoded by this gene has four repeats of quasi-RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains that bind RNAs. This protein ... The hnRNPs are RNA-binding proteins and they complex with heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). These proteins are associated with ... Conte MR, Grüne T, Ghuman J, Kelly G, Ladas A, Matthews S, Curry S (June 2000). "Structure of tandem RNA recognition motifs ...
They are found in a variety of viral genomes but are particularly common in RNA viruses. Many viruses that cause human disease ... These viruses include hepatitis C virus, HIV-1, influenza A virus, poliovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and SARS-CoV. ... Carrasco L (August 1995). "Modification of membrane permeability by animal viruses". Advances in Virus Research. 45: 61-112. ... Most viruses encoding viroporins can replicate their genomes in the absence of the viroporin, even if they are impaired in ...
Koev G, Miller WA (July 2000). "A positive-strand RNA virus with three very different subgenomic RNA promoters". Journal of ... 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNAs RNA polymerase II: transcribes genes encoding messenger RNA and certain small nuclear RNAs and ... microRNA RNA polymerase III: transcribes genes encoding transfer RNA, 5s ribosomal RNAs and other small RNAs General ... For transcription to take place, the enzyme that synthesizes RNA, known as RNA polymerase, must attach to the DNA near a gene. ...
In molecular biology mir-198 microRNA is a short RNA molecule. MicroRNAs function to regulate the expression levels of other ... "MicroRNA gene expression profile of hepatitis C virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma". Hepatology. 47 (4): 1223-32. doi: ...
1987). "Analysis of mutation in human cells by using an Epstein-Barr virus shuttle system". Mol. Cell. Biol. 7 (1): 379-87. doi ... 1997). "A serine/arginine-rich nuclear matrix cyclophilin interacts with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II". Nucleic ...
Another was that the virus coat, the protein capsid, is dependent upon the genetic material in the RNA core of the particle and ... The simulation provided new insights about activities of the virus. One discovery was that the virus, which looks symmetrical ... This suggests that the genetic material must already be present before the virus can build its coat when reproducing. Such ... In 2013, Schulten's group published a simulated structure of the human immunodeficiency virus capsid containing 64 million ...
CVnCoV uses unmodified RNA, unlike the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine and Moderna COVID-19 vaccine, which both use nucleoside ... Portals: Medicine Viruses COVID-19 (Wikipedia articles in need of updating from December 2021, All Wikipedia articles in need ... CureVac attempted to evade immune detection by altering the RNA sequence in a way that does not affect the coded protein, but ... doi:10.4161/rna.22269. PMC 3597572. PMID 23064118. "Understanding mRNA COVID-19 vaccines". US Centers for Disease Control and ...
RNA changes suggests that the first human infection was followed by exclusive human to human transmissions. The work led her to ... In May 2015, she delivered a TED Talk, called "How we'll fight the next deadly virus." "Her team was recently awarded funding ... "How we'll fight the next deadly virus". Retrieved 19 May 2016. Bazelon, Emily (3 June 2020). "What Will College Be ... "Accessing rare activities from random RNA sequences: the importance of the length of molecules in the starting pool". Chem Biol ...
As these tests detect RNA but not infectious virus, its "ability to determine duration of infectivity of patients is limited." ... The WHO additionally uses "the COVID‑19 virus" and "the virus responsible for COVID‑19" in public communications. The symptoms ... The virus may also enter the bloodstream from the lungs and cross the blood-brain barrier to gain access to the CNS, possibly ... The virus uses a special surface glycoprotein called a "spike" to connect to the ACE2 receptor and enter the host cell. ...
RNAS (1893-1944) - World War I fighter pilot officially credited with shooting down the Red Baron Colonel Lawrence Moore ... pioneer of oncolytic virus therapies for cancer Norman Bethune (1890-1939) - surgeon, inventor, socialist, battlefield doctor ...
... macacapox virus Akhmeta virus Alaskapox virus Camelpox virus Cowpox virus Ectromelia virus Monkeypox virus Raccoonpox virus ... Expression of early-phase genes by viral RNA polymerase begins at 30 minutes after infection. The viral core is completely ... Skunkpox virus Taterapox virus Vaccinia virus †Variola virus Volepox virus Among the path of evolution of the Orthopoxvirus ... "Virus Taxonomy: 2020 Release". International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV). March 2021. Retrieved 22 May 2021. ...
Infraspecific virus taxa, All stub articles, Virus stubs). ... virions consist of single-stranded positive-sense RNA enclosed ... Naik, Gautam (2013-10-30). "Study: Bat-to-Human Leap Likely for SARS-Like Virus -". Wall Street Journal. ... Virus Genes. 55 (4): 545-549. doi:10.1007/s11262-019-01668-w. PMC 7089380. PMID 31076983. Xu, L; Zhang, F; Yang, W; Jiang, T; ... Bats and Viruses: A New Frontier of Emerging Infectious Diseases (First ed.). John Wiley & Sons. pp. 127-155. doi:10.1002/ ...
Anti-RNA virus drugs, Antiviral drugs, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ... and also shows activity against other viral diseases such as Zika virus and foot and mouth disease virus. Merimepodib was ... This consequently inhibits synthesis of DNA and RNA, and results in antiviral and immunosuppressive effects. It progressed as ... January 2018). "Merimepodib, an IMPDH inhibitor, suppresses replication of Zika virus and other emerging viral pathogens". ...
Address: P.O. Box 288 Mossyrock, WA, 98564, US ...
Influenza viruses are an example of an RNA virus.. For decades, scientists who wanted to research the genome of RNA viruses, ... It was this messenger RNA workflow that was modified to sequence influenza viral RNA. Keller said that messenger RNA has a tail ... sequence the RNA genomes of the influenza viruses studied.. Now that Keller et al have managed to directly sequence RNA for the ... this methodology opens the door on a whole new category of research impacting RNA viruses. This study, entitled "Direct RNA ...
RNA. The HCV RNA was isolated and sequenced either to determine the genotype of the isolated virus or to determine the viral ... Partial Hepatitis C Virus RNA Sequences Isolated from Individuals (NHANES III Surplus) (SSNH3HCV) Data File: SSNH3HCV.xpt First ... Hepatitis C RNA: Testing for HCV RNA by reverse-transcriptase ¬polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of the 5 ... Hepatitis C virus genotypes and viral concentrations in participants of a general population survey in the United States. ...
... purification and characterization of recombinant ebola virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (EBOV RdRp). Active protein complexes ... Recombinant RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Complex of Ebola Virus Sci Rep. 2018 Mar 5;8(1):3970. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22328-3 ... Here we report on the expression, purification and characterization of recombinant ebola virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase ( ... RNA synthesis by multiprotein complexes of EBOV, influenza B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and monomeric enzymes of ...
Understanding and combating RNA viruses * Molecular biology of +RNA virus replication * Ultrastructure and function of viral ... Positive-stranded RNA (+RNA) viruses, the largest group of viruses, are important pathogens of humans and animals. Their ... Nidovirus RNA polymerases: Complex enzymes handling exceptional RNA genomes. Posthuma CC, Te Velthuis AJW, Snijder EJ. Virus ... Due to the relatively low fidelity of their RNA polymerase, +RNA viruses exhibit genetic variation and rapid evolution, ...
Genome, Viral, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, RNA Viruses, RNA, Viral, Sequence Analysis, RNA. ... from the viral RNA sample. Selective depletion improves both the data quality and the number of unique reads in viral RNA ... Here we outline a next-generation RNA sequencing protocol that enables de novo assemblies and intra-host variant calls of viral ... Gene-delivering viruses reach the brain in a step toward gene therapy for neurological diseases ...
Attenuation of RNA viruses by redirecting their evolution in sequence space Author(s): Gonzalo Moratorio, Rasmus Henningsson, ...
... negative-stranded RNA virus) by circumventing the above mentioned problem due to RNA/RNA hybridisation using an antigenomic ... In fact, rabies viruses were shortly thereafter identified as an example of a non-segmented negative-stranded RNA virus of the ... Its title, Recombinant infectious non-segmented negative strand RNA virus, had no legal value and, besides, the word virus ... On pages 6 and 7, recombinant production of viruses in general (including DNA viruses, positive- or negative- stranded RNA ...
Unlike double-stranded DNA viruses, which pump their genome into a preformed capsid1,2,3, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses, ... RNA-protein interactions12,13,14, and RNA virus assembly15,16,17. Its positive-sense ssRNA genome of 3,569 bases is enclosed in ... Unlike double-stranded DNA viruses that pump their genome into a preformed capsid, ssRNA viruses co-assemble their capsid with ... The maturation protein is responsible for attaching the virus to an F-pilus and delivering the viral genome into the host ...
RNA), a discovery that could offer clues to how some viruses, including HIV, control expression of their genetic material. ... A protein-RNA structure hints at how viruses commandeer human proteins. November 11, 2015. Researchers at Case Western Reserve ... "We solved the three-dimensional structure of the protein bound to an RNA hairpin derived from the HIV virus," said Blanton ... That information could lead to new strategies to block viruses from replicating, thereby limiting or halting infection.. RNA is ...
Selective 2′ hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) analysis of the mutant RNAs revealed only mild effects on ... Selective 2 hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension (SHAPE) analysis of the mutant RNAs revealed only mild effects on ... Interestingly, the deletion of bpPurines revealed an additional severe defect on RNA propagation that was independent of... ... Interestingly, deletion of bpPurines revealed an additional severe defect on RNA propagation that was independent of the ...
LOINC Code 34461-4 West Nile virus RNA [Presence] in Cerebral spinal fluid by NAA with probe detection ... WNV RNA CSF Ql NAA+probe. Display Name. West Nile virus RNA NAA+probe Ql (CSF). Consumer Name Alpha. West Nile virus, Spinal ... West Nile virus. Language Variants Get Info. zh-CNChinese (China). 西尼罗河病毒 RNA:. 存在情况或阈值:. 时间点:. 脑脊液:. 序数型:. 探针法.基因扩增.靶向. nl-NL ... West Nile virus RNA. Property. PrThr. Time. Pt. System. CSF. Scale. Ord. Method. Probe.amp.
Search RNA viruses as keywords on MyScienceWorks publications - page 1 ... Targeting Emerging RNA Viruses by Engineered Human Superantibody to Hepatitis C Virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Glab-ampai, ... RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a unique and highly conserved enzyme across all members of the RNA virus superfamilies. ... RNA virus YkV1 (family Yadokariviridae) and an unrelated double-stranded (ds) RNA virus YnV1 (proposed family "Yadonushiviridae ...
The VEE, WN, and YF viral RNA was detected throughout the 90-day period in all samples examined. Infectious VEE virus could be ... At regular intervals over a 90-day period, the dried virus samples were eluted, tested for infectivity by culture and titration ... The results of this study demonstrate that viral nucleic acids and infectious virus can be recovered from arbovirus samples air ... viruses were blotted onto filter paper discs, air-dried, and stored at room temperature. ...
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) mediate a major antiviral response in insects. Virus-derived PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) can ... RNA interference (RNAi) utilizes small non-coding RNAs to regulate different aspects of animal physiology, including immune ... Our work describes for the first time a model to study virus infection in sandflies and highlights the importance of the siRNA ... Here we show that virus infection triggers activation of the siRNA pathway but not production of piRNAs in the sandfly ...
RNA viruses: replication and structure Ribosomes: structure, function and biogenesis. Other Authors:. Federation of European ...
Elshina, E., & Te Velthuis, A. J. (2021). The influenza virus RNA polymerase as an innate immune agonist and antagonist.. Cell ... The influenza virus RNA polymerase as an innate immune agonist and antagonist.. ... The influenza A virus RNA polymerase is one of viral proteins that affect innate immune activation during infection, but the ... Influenza A viruses cause a mild-to-severe respiratory disease that affects millions of people each year. One of the many ...
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Enanta Pharmaceuticals Doses First Subject in a Phase 1 Clinical Study of EDP-721, Its Oral Hepatitis B Virus RNA Destabilizer ... oral hepatitis B virus (HBV) RNA destabilizer being developed for use in an all-oral combination regimen for chronic HBV ... respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). ... About Hepatitis B Virus Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. ...
Simian virus 40 Subject RNA ✖ Remove constraint Subject: RNA ... From Phage MS2 to Tumor Virus SV40, 1962-1970. *Restriction ... Start Over You searched for: Language English ✖ Remove constraint Language: English Subject Simian virus 40 ✖ Remove constraint ...
CE-IVD marked mini spin kit for the isolation of viral RNA/DNA, MN ... NucleoSpin RNA Virus, Midi kit for viral RNA from cell-free fluids Content 25 Preps ... NucleoSpin Dx Virus, Mini kit for CE certified purification of viral RNA/DNA ... For U.S. customers please order the equivalent research use only NucleoSpin RNA Virus, REF 740956.50 ...
... of dengue viruses reacted with Edge Hill virus, confirming the genetic relationship between the viruses. ... relationship was detected between dengue viruses of serotype 1 and 4 and between dengue virus serotype 2 and Edge Hill virus. A ... virus serotypes. The synthesis was carried out using an oligo(dT) primer, suggesting the presence of a short poly(A) region at ... the largest amount of cDNA and were therefore used to investigate further the relatedness of flavivirus genomes by cDNA-RNA ...
RNA Virus Infections Active Not Recruiting Phase 1 / 2 Trials for Pidacmeran (DB16401). Back to RNA Virus Infections ...
LOINC Code 85622-9 Zika virus RNA [Presence] in Serum or Plasma by NAA with probe detection ... LP203271-4 Zika virus RNA. Zika virus contains an inner nucleocapsid composed of RNA and multiple copies of the viral capsid (C ... ZIKV RNA SerPl Ql NAA+probe. Display Name. ZIKV RNA NAA+probe Ql. Consumer Name Alpha. Zika virus, Blood. Example Answer List ... Zika virus RNA:. PrThr:. Pt:. Siero/Plasma:. Ord:. Sonda.amp.tar. es-MXSpanish (Mexico). ARN del virus del Zika:. Presencia o ...
However, NGS is not widely used for small RNA viruses because of incorrectly perceived cost estimates and inefficient ... and customized tools for the characterization of the genomes of RNA viruses. The combination of multiplexing NGS technology ... In this study, we have utilized NGS-based random sequencing of total RNA combined with barcode multiplexing of libraries to ... Thirty libraries were prepared from diagnostic samples amplified in allantoic fluids and their total RNAs were sequenced in a ...
The RNA, termed 4 1/2s RNA, occupies a larger molecular volume on Sephadex G-l00 than cellular RNA and does not appear to ... Shepherd, Wilma M (1969) The effect of infection with pseudorabies virus on low molecular weight RNAs in BHK 21/13 cells. PhD ... The effect of infection of viruses of the Herpes group on the population of low molecular weight RNAs in mammalian cells is ... Reported in this thesis are investigations designed to compare low molecular weight RNAs in non-infected and pseudorabies virus ...
Dive into the research topics of Antiviral antibody responses to systemic administration of an oncolytic RNA virus: The impact ... title = "Antiviral antibody responses to systemic administration of an oncolytic RNA virus: The impact of standard concomitant ... N2 - Oncolytic reovirus therapy for cancer induces a typical antiviral response to this RNA virus, including neutralizing ... AB - Oncolytic reovirus therapy for cancer induces a typical antiviral response to this RNA virus, including neutralizing ...
Possible sites of virus persistence were investigated through measurements of the levels of FMDV RNA in the DSP as well as ... Possible sites of virus persistence were investigated through measurements of the levels of FMDV RNA in the DSP as well as ... Possible sites of virus persistence were investigated through measurements of the levels of FMDV RNA in the DSP as well as ... Possible sites of virus persistence were investigated through measurements of the levels of FMDV RNA in the DSP as well as ...
... has been an economically important virus in the USA for over 30 years. However the complete sequence of only one TSWV ... The ORF potentially codes for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of 330.9 kDa. Two untranslated regions of 241 and 33 ... The large (L) RNA of a TSWV WA-USA isolate was cloned and sequenced. It consisted of 8914 nucleotides (nt) encoding a single ... Phylogenetic analysis using nucleotide sequences of the complete L RNA showed that TSWV WA-USA isolate clustered with the ...
  • This method, often referred to as "reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction" (RT-PCR), works well for clinical purposes, such as identifying specific viruses from respiratory samples taken from sick patients. (
  • Hepatitis C RNA: Testing for HCV RNA by reverse-transcriptase ¬polymerase-chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of the 5' noncoding region was performed on anti-HCV positive samples. (
  • Here we report on the expression, purification and characterization of recombinant ebola virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (EBOV RdRp). (
  • Due to the relatively low fidelity of their RNA polymerase, +RNA viruses exhibit genetic variation and rapid evolution, allowing them to readily adapt to new circumstances and - for example - emerge as human pathogens. (
  • Discovery of an essential nucleotidylating activity associated with a newly delineated conserved domain in the RNA polymerase-containing protein of all nidoviruses. (
  • RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is a unique and highly conserved enzyme across all members of the RNA virus superfamilies. (
  • The influenza virus RNA polymerase as an innate immune agonist and antagonist. (
  • The influenza A virus RNA polymerase is one of viral proteins that affect innate immune activation during infection, but the mechanisms behind this activity are not well understood. (
  • In this review, we discuss how the viral RNA polymerase can both activate and suppress innate immune responses by either producing immunostimulatory RNA species or directly targeting the components of the innate immune signalling pathway, respectively. (
  • Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive overview of the polymerase residues, and their mutations, associated with changes in innate immune activation, and discuss their putative effects on polymerase function based on recent advances in our understanding of the influenza A virus RNA polymerase structure. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequences of the RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of known Tospoviruses by Maximum Likelihood method. (
  • Recent work has focused on short overlapping genes identified in the arteriviruses, cardioviruses and potyviruses, and the atypical programmed ribosomal frameshifting and RNA polymerase slippage mechanisms used to express them. (
  • Most COVID-19 diagnostic tests rely on a method called PCR, short for polymerase chain reaction, which searches for pieces of the SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA in a sample. (
  • Viral material contained within used rinderpest devices was stable enough after storage for one week at 21 °C to extract RNA from five different RPV strains and amplify it by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). (
  • One of the main reasons that the virus is challenging, is due to its' RNA polymerase. (
  • The polymerase of influenza is very mistake prone and causes the virus to mutate rapidly. (
  • 14. Baltimore D. RNA-dependent DNA polymerase in virions of RNA tumour viruses. (
  • Messenger RNA is a kind of intermediary that tells the body how to convert the instructions contained in the genome into actual proteins. (
  • RNA is one of three macromolecules -- along with DNA and proteins -- essential to all forms of life. (
  • Now, with EDP-721, we have an oral compound that has demonstrated preclinically the ability to destabilize HBV RNAs, leading to a reduction in viral proteins, including S antigen, which we believe is essential for the treatment of HBV. (
  • Frog oocytes synthesize and completely process the precursor polypeptide to virion structural proteins after microinjection of avian myeloblastosis virus RNA. (
  • After microinjection of Xenopus laevis oocytes with RNA from avian myeloblastosis virus, viral structural proteins p27, p19, p15, and p12 are formed by a sequence of posttranslational cleavages of a high-molecular-weight precursor polypeptide. (
  • During the course of infection, the genome or its derivatives must direct translation of virus proteins, genome replication and genome packaging. (
  • When coronavirus RNA is present in the sample, it prompts the CRISPR proteins to snip the molecular probes, causing the whole sample to emit light. (
  • In the test, CRISPR Cas13 proteins are "programmed" to recognize segments of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA and then combined with a probe that becomes fluorescent when cleaved. (
  • When the Cas13 proteins are activated by the viral RNA, they start to cleave the fluorescent probe. (
  • By studying RNA metabolism in infected cells, Alfredo Castello and his team in the Department of Biochemistry, have identified dozens of cellular proteins that are key regulators of virus infection. (
  • New research from Alfredo Castello's laboratory published in Molecular Cell has discovered that virus infection rewires cellular RNA-binding proteins on a global level. (
  • Spikey proteins on the surface of the virus latch onto cell membranes. (
  • Virus proteins are mainly located in beta cells , supporting the hypothesis that enterovirus infections may contribute to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes . (
  • Antibodies are proteins made by your immune system to attack foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. (
  • The RNA segments for HA and NA determine the structure of the HA and NA proteins on the surface of influenza viruses. (
  • Researchers at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) have identified a novel mechanism by which adenovirus hijacks post-translational modification of host proteins, allowing the virus to replicate efficiently in host cells. (
  • These RNA-binding proteins, RALY and hnRNP-C, seem to play a role in slowing the production of virus by binding to viral RNA. (
  • These findings reveal a quicker way that viruses can take over host processes without degrading host proteins," said Matthew D. Weitzman, PhD , an investigator in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at CHOP . (
  • We are also beginning to understand ubiquitin's role in regulating RNA splicing, so further research that analyzes host splicing changes during adenovirus infection may provide insights into host pathways altered by the ubiquitination of RNA-binding proteins. (
  • A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 7 and neuraminidase 7. (
  • Interferons are proteins made by host cells in response to pathogens such as viruses, acting as a signalling system to switch on pathways that can activate an immune response. (
  • This particle belongs to a class of molecules that sort and secrete proteins made by the cell, a rather useful tool for viruses that might want to hijack the cellular machinery for its own end. (
  • The envelope of virus is inlaid with two virally encoded proteins: envelope (E) protein and membrane (M) protein. (
  • RNA, lipids, and proteins. (
  • The RNA contains information to specify the amino acids that make up the proteins, which are the actual building blocks for the virus particle. (
  • Patients infected with high-hazard viruses: scientific basis for infection control. (
  • 14. Tomori O, Monath TP, Lee V, Fagbami A, Fabiyi A. Bwamba virus infection: a sero-survey of veterbrates in five ecological zones in Nigeria. (
  • This scientific achievement may shed light upon how influenza viruses function, their lifecycle, and how they change during the course of infection. (
  • Stored sera from a population of individuals, who tested positive for hepatitis C infection as part of the NHANES III (1988-1994) survey, were analyzed for the presence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. (
  • The prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in the United States, 1988 through 1994. (
  • The maturation protein is responsible for attaching the virus to an F-pilus and delivering the viral genome into the host during infection 8 , but how the genome is organized and delivered is not known. (
  • That information could lead to new strategies to block viruses from replicating, thereby limiting or halting infection. (
  • The effect of infection of viruses of the Herpes group on the population of low molecular weight RNAs in mammalian cells is considered in more detail. (
  • Evidence is then presented, that from as early as 2 hours post infection there exists in the cytoplasm of paeudorabies infected cells, pulsed for 30 minutes with [3H] uridine-5-T, a species of RNA not detected in similarly labelled non-infected cultures. (
  • Patients' responses to infection by reovirus are largely unaffected by the concomitant drug treatments tested, providing confidence that RNA viral treatment or infection is compatible with standard of care treatments. (
  • There have been significant discrepancies in reports regarding the pathogenesis of FMDV infection in cattle with specific emphasis on the anatomical sites involved in early and persistent virus replication. (
  • In this study, collection of small biopsy samples from the dorsal soft palate (DSP) of live animals was used to investigate the level of FMDV RNA present at this site at sequential time points during the infection. (
  • Possible sites of virus persistence were investigated through measurements of the levels of FMDV RNA in the DSP as well as mandibular and retropharyngeal lymph nodes beyond 28 days after infection. (
  • Results indicated only low levels of FMDV RNA present in samples of pharyngeal epithelia during both early and persistent phases of infection with significantly higher levels of virus detected in pharyngeal excretions. (
  • It is concluded that the targeted area for sampling within the DSP does not harbour significant levels of virus replication during acute or persistent FMDV infection in cattle. (
  • Unlike many other tests that are available, this test also gives an estimate of viral load, or the number of virus particles in a sample, which can help doctors monitor the progression of a COVID-19 infection and estimate how contagious a patient might be. (
  • When the immune system recognizes the virus, it sends out cytokines to the site of infection. (
  • Difficulties in detecting viral RNA could be due to the very small number of infected cells , the possible activity of PCR inhibitors, and the presence-during persistent infection -of the viral genome in unencapsidated forms. (
  • Terms and Abbreviations Used in This Publication Acute hepatitis C Newly acquired symptomatic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (
  • characterized by detection of HCV RNA greater than or equal to 6 months after newly acquired infection. (
  • 3] Secondary infection by a different dengue virus serotype has been confirmed as an important risk factor for the development of DHF. (
  • Dengue vaccine was approved by the FDA in 2019 for prevention of dengue disease caused by dengue virus serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 in individuals aged 9-16 years with laboratory-confirmed previous dengue infection who live in endemic areas. (
  • Two of the recipients died of West Nile Virus infection. (
  • ABSTRACT Hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) infections remain major public health problems in Egypt and data are needed on risk factors for infection. (
  • RÉSUMÉ L'infection par le virus de l'hépatite B et C (VHB et VHC) reste un problème de santé publique majeur en Égypte et des données sur les facteurs de risque pour cette infection sont nécessaires. (
  • Once the "good" genetic changes are identified, CDC will then synthesize H3N2 viruses with those properties that can be used to make vaccine that offers better protection against H3N2 flu infection. (
  • One way viruses promote infection is through ubiquitination, an enzymatic post-translational modification in which a ubiquitin protein is attached to a substrate protein. (
  • Previous research had only identified host targets that were marked for destruction during infection, and none of these substrates was linked to RNA processing. (
  • However, CHOP researchers identified two substrates of viral-mediated ubiquitination that aid the processing of viral RNA but that surprisingly do not degrade when ubiquitinated in the midst of adenovirus infection. (
  • Ubiquitination during adenovirus infection blocks their interaction with viral RNA, and so the virus is able to replicate faster and more efficiently. (
  • Co-infection rates between the viruses ranged from 1% (hMPV and Adenovirus) to 12% (hMPV and Human Bocavirus). (
  • I was working on the development of a system of quantification of co-infection events for influenza A viruses. (
  • There is strong evidence of a possible association of infection by Zika virus in pregnant women in Brazil and the occurrence of microcephaly in newborn infants. (
  • Based on the typical clinical features, differential diagnosis for infection by Zika virus is widespread. (
  • When a virus infects bacteria, it injects DNA or RNA into the cell, which responds by releasing a form of nuclease (Cas9) to take a snippet of the DNA or RNA sequence and store something equivalent to a genetic memory of the infection. (
  • That way, the cell has a memory of and thus a defense against infection from such a virus in the future. (
  • Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral haemorrhagic disease caused by yellow fever virus infection and is identical to other viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) in characteristics, such as Dengue hemorrhagic fever, Lassa fever, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. (
  • Burkitt's lymphoma arises due to an early infection with EBV virus resulting in infected B cells Footnote 4 Footnote 8 . (
  • Hepatitis C is a serious virus infection that over time can cause liver damage and even liver cancer. (
  • If the blood test for hepatitis C antibody is negative, then there is no hepatitis C virus infection and no further action needed. (
  • If the blood test for hepatitis C antibody is positive, then there needs to be a follow-up RNA blood test for hepatitis c virus infection. (
  • If the RNA is positive, then there is hepatitis C virus infection. (
  • The virus may be isolated from the blood during the first few days of infection. (
  • They did so with the RNA genomes of five influenza (Flu) A viruses, including seasonal influenza A and avian influenza A viruses. (
  • However, while the genomes of people and other living things consist of DNA, some things that aren't technically "living," such as viruses, have genomes coded by RNA instructions instead. (
  • Rambo-Martin's work translated the data into something that made sense, and he was able to confirm that the molecular work performed did, in fact, sequence the RNA genomes of the influenza viruses studied. (
  • Nidovirus RNA polymerases: Complex enzymes handling exceptional RNA genomes. (
  • Here we outline a next-generation RNA sequencing protocol that enables de novo assemblies and intra-host variant calls of viral genomes collected from clinical and biological sources. (
  • The DEN-1 and DEN-2 prototype strains produced the largest amount of cDNA and were therefore used to investigate further the relatedness of flavivirus genomes by cDNA-RNA hybridization. (
  • Andrew Firth will talk about RNA viruses: characterizing hidden features revealed via comparative genomics RNA viruses have compact multifunctional genomes. (
  • RNA viruses have compact multifunctional genomes. (
  • To realize these multiple roles, RNA virus genomes commonly have many overlapping coding and non-coding functional elements. (
  • We have been using comparative genomics to systematically identify 'hidden' functional elements in RNA virus genomes. (
  • RNA virus genomes are compact, often containing multiple overlapping reading frames and functional secondary structure. (
  • The family Caliciviridae includes viruses with single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genomes of 7.4-8.3 kb. (
  • In a historic first, a group of CDC laboratory and bioinformatics scientists became the first to directly sequence an RNA genome. (
  • For decades, scientists who wanted to research the genome of RNA viruses, such as influenza, had to do so using an indirect and time-consuming method that involved first converting the single-stranded RNA into double-stranded DNA. (
  • The new method described in this study has the potential to allow researchers to decode the genome of an RNA virus with greater detail (and less distortion) than ever before. (
  • Now that Keller et al have managed to directly sequence RNA for the first time, the group hopes to find details of the influenza A virus' genome that are otherwise hidden and extremely difficult to detect. (
  • Keller says this research may shed new light on the intricate lifecycle of an influenza virus as it replicates (i.e., copies) its genome and itself. (
  • Their unconventional molecular biology includes an RNA genome that also serves as the mRNA for the expression of the viral replicative enzymes. (
  • Mutations in encephalomyocarditis virus 3A protein uncouple the dependency of genome replication on host factors phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIIα and oxysterol-binding protein. (
  • 1. A genetically manipulated infectious replicating non-segmented negative-stranded RNA virus mutant comprising an insertion and/or deletion in an open reading frame, a pseudogene region or an intergenic region of the virus genome. (
  • 7. A genetically manipulated infectious replicating rabies virus mutant comprising an insertion and/or deletion in an open reading frame, a pseudogene region or an intergenic region of the virus genome, characterized in that the virus mutant carries a heterologous nucleic acid sequence encoding an epitope or polypeptide of a pathogenic virus or microorganism. (
  • Packaging of the genome into a protein capsid and its subsequent delivery into a host cell are two fundamental processes in the life cycle of a virus. (
  • We traced approximately 80% of the backbone of the viral genome, built atomic models for 16 RNA stem-loops, and identified three conserved motifs of RNA-coat protein interactions among 15 of these stem-loops with diverse sequences. (
  • This atomic description of genome-capsid interactions in a spherical ssRNA virus provides insight into genome delivery via the host sex pilus and mechanisms underlying ssRNA-capsid co-assembly, and inspires speculation about the links between nucleoprotein complexes and the origins of viruses. (
  • Molecular hybridisation experiments are reported which indicate that a proportion of the 4s RNA synthesised in pseudorabies virus infected cells, which possesses all the characteristics of tRNA, is specified by the viral genome. (
  • Nepoviruses are characterized by their icosahedral virus particles and bipartite genome of single-stranded (+) RNA (RNA-1 and RNA-2). (
  • An analysis of the ecological and genetic factors that might explain this rate variation revealed some evidence of significantly lower substitution rates in vector-borne viruses, as well as a weak correlation between rate and genome length. (
  • HBV contains a DNA genome while HCV is an RNA virus. (
  • Genome-Wide Identification of Non-coding RNAs in Komagatella pastoris str. (
  • The viral genome is a single positive-stranded, infectious RNA molecule, about 11 kb in length. (
  • The yellow fever virus genome. (
  • A protein [virus protein, genome-linked by a capsid architecture with 32 distinct cup-shaped depressions. (
  • Abbreviations: VPg, virus protein, genome-linked. (
  • The agent is a double-stranded RNA virus of the genus Coltivirus in the family Reoviridae, the entire genome of which has been sequenced. (
  • Researchers at Case Western Reserve University and the University of Michigan have produced the first image of an important human protein as it binds with ribonucleic acid (RNA), a discovery that could offer clues to how some viruses, including HIV, control expression of their genetic material. (
  • HCV RNA Hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid. (
  • RNA Ribonucleic acid. (
  • albopictus mosquitoes that hatched tested positive for Zika RNA (ribonucleic acid), meaning that females collected in the field had encountered Zika and passed fragments of the virus to their offspring. (
  • Corona-viruses (CoV) are a family of RNA (ribonucleic acid) viruses. (
  • Sequence-specific, single primer amplification and detection of PCR products for identification of hepatitis viruses. (
  • However, there was no success in amplification of RpRSV RNA-2 for any of the primer pairs tested. (
  • Temperature did not affect adversely the extraction and amplification of the viral RNA but humidity impaired RNA extraction and amplification. (
  • Qualitative RT-PCR for HCV RNA Test to detect HCV RNA by amplification of viral genetic sequences. (
  • Quantitative assays for HCV RNA Tests to detect HCV RNA concentration (viral load) by amplification of viral genetic sequences or by signal amplification. (
  • The donor's serum sample was positive for West Nile Virus IgM, IgG, and neutralizing antibodies by serologic testing but negative for West Nile Virus RNA by nucleic acid amplification testing. (
  • Viral genomic single-stranded RNA directs the pathway toward a T =3 capsid. (
  • Both purine-rich sequences have earlier been proposed to act as potentially redundant Gag binding sites to initiate the process of MPMV genomic RNA (gRNA) packaging. (
  • On the other hand, RNA viruses evolve very rapidly and there are many sequenced isolates, thus providing potential for powerful comparative genomic analyses, even within single virus species. (
  • VPg), 10-15 kDa] is covalently linked to the 5-terminus of General y, caliciviruses are stable in the environment and enteric genomic RNAs, which are also polyadenylated at their 3-termini caliciviruses are acid-stable. (
  • The cytoplasmic replication of +RNA viruses can be explosive, with dramatic consequences for the architecture and functioning of the infected cell. (
  • Our research focuses on the in-depth molecular biological and biochemical dissection of +RNA virus replication, and on the functional characterization of viral enzymes in particular. (
  • Using biochemical and molecular biological approaches, bioinformatics, and advanced electron microscopy, we aim to increase our understanding of +RNA virus replication and evolution. (
  • This will facilitate the development of strategies to combat these pathogens, for example by identifying inhibitors of virus replication or improving the technology to develop +RNA virus-based vaccine vectors. (
  • Suramin inhibits Zika virus replication by interfering with virus attachment and release of infectious particles. (
  • By understanding how hnRNP A1 binds to RNA, the scientists may find ways to jam up components of the replication machinery when the protein is coopted by disease. (
  • They found that hnRNP A1, a protein essential to cell function and virus replication, has a significantly different structure than its only previously known form: binding to DNA. (
  • In addition, EDP-514, our potent core inhibitor inhibits several stages of HBV replication, from uncoating and nuclear import of the virus, to capsid assembly and recycling. (
  • Stenfeldt, C & Belsham, GJ 2012, ' Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA in pharyngeal epithelium biopsy samples obtained from infected cattle: Investigation of possible sites of virus replication and persistence ', Veterinary Microbiology , vol. 154, no. 3-4, pp. 230-239. (
  • Belsham, Graham J. / Detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus RNA in pharyngeal epithelium biopsy samples obtained from infected cattle : Investigation of possible sites of virus replication and persistence . (
  • Given the absence of any known natural mechanism that could explain BTV-8 persistence over this long period without replication, we hypothesise that the second outbreak could have been initiated by accidental exposure of livestock to frozen material contaminated with virus from approximately 2008. (
  • Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. (
  • In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types. (
  • Resveratrol also significantly reduced the replication of monkeypox virus, a zoonotic virus that is endemic in Western and Central Africa and causes human mortality. (
  • number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. (
  • Two essential steps in the HIV life cycle are replication - when the virus turns its RNA copy into DNA - and integration - the moment when viral DNA becomes part of the host cell's DNA. (
  • 1,10,12,13 It has been hypothesized that ongoing, undetected RESTV infections and replication in pigs and other animals could result in the emergence of more pathogenic viruses in humans and/or livestock. (
  • Virus specific RNA in cells transformed by RNA tumour viruses. (
  • Figure 3: Conserved interaction motifs between RNA stem-loops and coat protein dimers. (
  • The team of scientists reveals the mechanism used by the protein, hnRNP A1 to link to the section of RNA, called the 'hairpin loop. (
  • We solved the three-dimensional structure of the protein bound to an RNA hairpin derived from the HIV virus," said Blanton Tolbert, a chemistry professor at Case Western Reserve. (
  • But because the hairpin loop is found in other viruses and throughout healthy cells, our findings may help explain how the protein connects to the other hairpin targets. (
  • They are also exploring the development of antagonistic agents that would disrupt the interaction of the protein with viruses. (
  • A monoclonal antibody to the envelope protein (V3) of dengue viruses reacted with Edge Hill virus, confirming the genetic relationship between the viruses. (
  • Zika virus contains an inner nucleocapsid composed of RNA and multiple copies of the viral capsid (C) protein. (
  • The new diagnostic test takes advantage of the CRISPR Cas13 protein, which directly binds and cleaves RNA segments. (
  • In samples of pancreatic tissue , enterovirus RNA was also detected, but in extremely small quantities and in a smaller proportion of cases compared to the enteroviral protein . (
  • A Sensitive Yellow Fever Virus Entry Reporter Identifies Valosin-Containing Protein (VCP/p97) as an Essential Host Factor for Flavivirus Uncoating. (
  • Neuraminidase (NA) protein* segments from swine H3N2 triple-reassortant viruses. (
  • The researchers found a unique ubiquitination mechanism that alters protein-RNA binding and promotes viral RNA processing. (
  • The findings, which elucidate how adenovirus alters host protein-RNA binding to promote the production of viral RNA, were published today in Nature Microbiology . (
  • For each virus species, we used the search terms comprising the virus name (including all synonyms sourced from King et al. (
  • Despite only comprising half of all known viral species, RNA viruses are disproportionately responsible for many of the worst epidemics in human history, including outbreaks of influenza, poliomyelitis, Ebola, and most recently, the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. (
  • Circular RNAs (circRNAs) as novel regulatory molecules have been recognized in diverse species, including viruses. (
  • Determination of the sequence homology between the four RNA species of cucumber mosaic virus by hybridization analysis with complementary DNA. (
  • The occurrence of persistently infected "carriers" of FMD-virus (FMDV) in ruminant species adds further complications to disease control. (
  • The fact that the species of Aedes mosquitoes that transmit the Zika virus are found throughout the world, it is likely that the outbreak from spreading to other countries. (
  • In a recent test of Asian tiger mosquitoes collected in Brazil, researchers found fragments of Zika virus RNA, raising concerns that it may be carried by species other than Zika's known primary vector, the yellow fever mosquito. (
  • Over 100 species comprise the genus Flavivirus, which includes other notable human pathogens, such as dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Zika virus (ZIKV), West Nile virus (WNV), Kyasanur Forest disease virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. (
  • Ebola Reston virus (RESTV) is one of the six virus species of the Ebola virus in the family Filoviridae. (
  • [ 5 ] Although the virus has been found in many tick species, the vector and major reservoir for Colorado tick fever is D andersoni , also known as the Rocky Mountain wood tick. (
  • Most commonly, the mosquitoes involved are Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, two species which can also transmit other mosquito-borne viruses, including dengue. (
  • Imported virus infections. (
  • WATERTOWN, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Enanta Pharmaceuticals, Inc., (NASDAQ: ENTA), a clinical stage biotechnology company dedicated to creating small molecule drugs for viral infections and liver diseases, today announced that it has dosed the first subject in its Phase 1 clinical trial of EDP-721, a novel, oral hepatitis B virus (HBV) RNA destabilizer being developed for use in an all-oral combination regimen for chronic HBV patients. (
  • Studies of arthropod-borne virus infections in Queensland. (
  • Evidence of changes induced by bacteriophage and animal virus infections at a variety of different points in the host cell translation mechanism are described and the implications of such changes discussed on a theoretical basis. (
  • An estimated 70 to 80 percent of human West Nile Virus infections are asymptomatic. (
  • Most West Nile Virus infections are acquired through bites from infected mosquitoes. (
  • In 6 clusters of organ transplant-transmitted West Nile Virus infections reported to public health agencies in the United States, 12 of 16 recipients were infected. (
  • Coronaviruses are RNA viruses and the respiratory infections they can cause in humans can range from mild to severe. (
  • 1 in 5 infections result in severe disease, where the virus affects several organs such as the liver, spleen and kidneys. (
  • One study in Finland found ~15% (5% for each group) of rapid virus detection specimens had adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and human bocavirus (a Parvoviridae virus causing respiratory infections identified in 2005). (
  • Genetic detection and characterization of Lujo virus, a new hemorrhagic fever-associated arenavirus from southern Africa. (
  • Simple, sensitive and specific detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype B DNA in dried blood samples for diagnosis in infants in the field. (
  • As part of GREP a rapid diagnostic strip test for the detection of rinderpest virus (RPV) in the field was developed allowing a rapid response to suspect outbreaks. (
  • Differential Detection of Encapsidated versus Unencapsidated Enterovirus RNA in Samples Containing Pancreatic Enzymes-Relevance for Diabetes Studies. (
  • Incubation of pancreatic homogenate on wet ice for 20 h did not influence the detection of encapsidated virus . (
  • In contrast, a 15-min incubation on wet ice dramatically reduced detection of unencapsidated forms of virus . (
  • CDC is using next-generation gene sequencing tools to analyze flu viruses as part of CDC's Advanced Molecular Detection (AMD) initiative. (
  • There can be difficulties in detecting respiratory viruses including not actually testing for a particular organism or differences in detection methods. (
  • The rate at which the fluorescence becomes brighter is related to the number of virus particles in the sample. (
  • Arenaviridae are RNA viruses whose particles are spherical and have an average diameter of 110-130 nanometers. (
  • Based on how similar viruses works, it seems likely that once the virus's particles enter the body, they attach to receptors on the surface of cells. (
  • Peramivir elicits antiviral activity by inhibiting influenza virus neuraminidase, an enzyme that releases viral particles from the plasma membrane of infected cells. (
  • Virus RNA, viral antigen, or infectious viral particles could be detected in postmortem tissues. (
  • Measurements of airborne influenza virus in aerosol particles from human coughs. (
  • So the Covid19 vax race is on and a new player has surfaced the mRNA vaccine, where particles similar to the real virus are injected into you and making your body create synthetic genes and they in theory provide the body with a safe target to create immunity. (
  • Some types of cancer have a rather cunning way to give themselves a boost by tricking healthy cells inside tumours into popping out particles that look like viruses . (
  • Caliciviruses are similar to picornaviruses in the pres- image reconstruction of recombinant Norwalk virus-like particles ence of VPg and in sequence similarity of their RNA-directed (left). (
  • Targeted reconstruction of T cell receptor sequence from single cell RNA-seq links CDR3 length to T cell differentiation state. (
  • 3. Woolhouse ME, Adair K, Brierley L. RNA viruses: a case study of the biology of emerging infectious diseases. (
  • I. European patent No. 0 702 085 with the title 'Recombinant infectious non-segmented negative strand RNA virus' and claiming priority from the European patent application 94202089 of 18 July 1994 was granted with 18 claims on the basis of the European patent application No. 95201936.2 filed on 14 July 1995. (
  • Claim 15 related to a process for the preparation of a genetically manipulated infectious replicating rabies virus and claims 16 and 17 related to further features of the process of claim 15. (
  • In March 2018, in addition to an infectious bronchitis virus RNA sample kit, BioChek confirmed that a Salmonella enteritidis typhoid-Heidelberg NA test kit will be launched. (
  • Claim 14 was directed to a vaccine comprising a rabies virus mutant according to the preceding claims 1 to 13. (
  • Ontogeny of yellow fever 17D vaccine: RNA oligonucleotide fingerprint and monoclonal antibody analyses of vaccines produced worldwide. (
  • These changes can impact how well the flu vaccine works, or can also result in the emergence of new influenza viruses against which people have no preexisting immunity, triggering a pandemic. (
  • One example of how AMD technology is used in vaccine development is to address mutations that may occur in vaccine viruses during growth in eggs used in the production of vaccine viruses. (
  • These mutations can change the vaccine virus so much that the immune response to vaccination may not protect as well against circulating viruses. (
  • For example, in some years certain influenza viruses may not appear and spread until later in the influenza season, making it difficult to prepare a candidate vaccine virus in time for vaccine production. (
  • This can make vaccine virus selection very challenging. (
  • What about the flu virus causes it to mutate so quickly from year to year requiring a new vaccine every season? (
  • For example with chickenpox there is one virus and one vaccine, why then with the flu are there countless strains and a new vaccine every year? (
  • There is no vaccine and no specific antiviral treatment available for the condition of the Zika virus. (
  • Adenoviruses are not the only viral vectors that can be used: pharmaceutical giant Merck says it is working on a potential COVID vaccine using an engineered vesicular stomatis virus , previously used successfully in its Ebola vaccine. (
  • These will establish whether the vaccine actually protects against the virus in the real world. (
  • As the machine takes these measurements, it decodes the genetic sequence of the DNA or RNA strand. (
  • One capability of the nanopore sequencer is to sequence messenger RNA. (
  • It was this messenger RNA workflow that was modified to sequence influenza viral RNA. (
  • were able to get the machine to specifically target and sequence flu virus RNA. (
  • A distinguishing feature of the Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) packaging signal RNA secondary structure is a single-stranded purine-rich sequence (ssPurines) in close vicinity to a palindromic stem loop (Pal SL) that functions as MPMV dimerization initiation site (DIS). (
  • The use of hybridization analysis with complementary DNA to determine the RNA sequence homology between strains of plant viruses: its application to several strains of cucumoviruses. (
  • This analysis revealed widespread evidence for positive epistatic interactions at both synonymous and nonsynonymous nucleotide sites and in both clonal and recombining viruses, with the majority of these interactions spanning very short sequence regions. (
  • Energy-based RNA consensus secondary structure prediction in multiple sequence alignments. (
  • West Nile Virus RNA was detected in spleen/lymph node homogenate. (
  • Subsequently, all 4 organ donor recipients were tested and had positive results for West Nile Virus RNA. (
  • West Nile Virus RNA was detected in samples from the spleen/lymph node, skin, and fat associated with the tibia bone, as well as 1 of 2 muscle specimens, 1 of 4 tendon specimens, and 1 of 2 bone marrow specimens. (
  • We identified West Nile Virus RNA in spleen/lymph node homogenate, skin, fat, muscle, tendon, and bone marrow samples obtained postmortem from a donor associated with transmission of West Nile Virus through solid organ transplantation. (
  • The second year was a specialisation in fundamental virology, with general and specific lectures on viruses, practical courses and seminars. (
  • According to speakers at the 2016 European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress, bacteria, viruses, and RNA therapeutics are just a few of the avenues being pursued as the next wave of new anti-cancer agents. (
  • At ESMO, Ramon Alemany, PhD, a researcher at the Catalan Institute of Oncology in Barcelona, Spain, outlined why bacteria and viruses have great promise as anti-cancer agents: They are self-amplifying and can be tumor-selective, immunostimulatory oncolytic agents. (
  • The idea of using bacteria and viruses as anti-cancer agents is not new, however. (
  • [ 2 ] Since the 1990s, scientists have been modifying viruses and bacteria to develop tumor selectivity. (
  • Other tests may miss early signs of disease because there aren't enough viruses , bacteria , or other pathogens in the sample, or your body hasn't had enough time to develop an antibody response. (
  • A single liter of seawater has about one billion bacteria and 10 billion viruses. (
  • A comprehensive method for amplicon-based and metagenomic characterization of viruses, bacteria, and eukaryotes in freshwater samples. (
  • However, current case criteria have determined that SARS follows the clinical, laboratory, and transmission characteristics of an RNA coronavirus named SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV). (
  • RNA viruses, such as the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, are in a life-and-death race the moment they infect a cell. (
  • In December, 2019, a novel droplets that travel for 1-2 m and settle on surfaces on coronavirus emerged in Wuhan City of Hubei Province in which the virus can remain alive for hours to days [5]. (
  • Detecting Zika RNA fragments without finding live Zika virus suggests that either the female parent was not itself infected with live Zika virus or it was not able to transfer live Zika virus to her eggs," Smartt says. (
  • It is important to test all mosquitoes collected in areas with a high number of Zika cases for Zika RNA, and if the mosquitoes are positive for Zika RNA they must be tested for live Zika virus prior to transport or use in a laboratory for experiments. (
  • The MERS- and SARS-coronaviruses, the alphavirus Chikungunya virus, and the flavivirus Zika virus are prominent examples of such (re)emerging +RNA viruses with a serious impact on human health and society. (
  • Coronaviruses are single-stranded RNA viruses, about 120 nanometers in diameter. (
  • Theories being investigated are that the virus, similar to other coronaviruses, originated in bats and spilled over into humans through an intermediary host animal. (
  • Coronaviruses are RNA viruses with glycoprotein spikes that give them a crown like appearance [1,2]. (
  • This thesis concerns the evolutionary analysis of rapidly evolving RNA viruses, with a focus on avian influenza and the use of Bayesian methodologies which account for uncertainty in the evolutionary process. (
  • As avian influenza viruses present an epidemiological and economic threat on a global scale, knowledge of how they are circulating and evolving is of substantial public health importance. (
  • In the first part of this thesis I consider avian influenza viruses of haemagglutinin (HA) subtype H7 which, along with H5, is the only subtype for which highly pathogenic influenza has been found. (
  • The processing pattern of virus-specific precursor polypeptides is the same in X. laevis oocytes as in chick embryo fibroblasts infected with avian myeloblastosis virus, but the processing takes place at a much slower rate. (
  • Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a single-stranded RNA virus in the Paramyxoviridae family that is closely related to avian metapneumovirus. (
  • bic, a novel gene activated by proviral insertions in avian leukosis virus-induced lymphomas, is likely to function through its noncoding RNA. (
  • Therefore, the RdRp is an attractive target for a broadly effective therapeutic agent against RNA viruses. (
  • RNA synthesis by multiprotein complexes of EBOV, influenza B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and monomeric enzymes of hepatitis C and Zika (ZIKV) viruses required a 5'-phosporylated primer. (
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging teratogenic arbovirus that persists in semen and is sexually transmitted. (
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus transmitted primarily by the Aedes mosquito which was first identified in a sentinel monkey in the Zika forest in Uganda in 1947. (
  • Specifically, neuraminidase-a glycoprotein located on the surface of the influenza virus-cleaves the attachment between hemagglutinin on the viral surface and the sialic acid receptor on the host cell membrane, thereby facilitating the release of the virion from the cell. (
  • Of 2 glycoproteins on the surface of the RNA viral envelope, one mediates neuraminidase and hemagglutination activity, whereas the other is responsible for fusion to the lipid membrane of the host cell. (
  • The protocol has enabled rapid deep sequencing of over 600 Lassa and Ebola virus samples-including collections from both blood and tissue isolates-and is broadly applicable to other microbial genomics studies. (
  • Transmission electron micrograph of the ebola virus, hemorrhagic fever. (
  • Reduced evolutionary rate in reemerged Ebola virus transmission chains. (
  • For assays that target the Zika virus envelope (E) gene, use [ LOINC:81149-7 ]. (
  • We are particularly interested in characterizing unusual translation mechanisms - such as ribosomal frameshifting, stop codon readthrough, non-AUG initiation and IRES-mediated initiation - that are so frequently used by RNA viruses for gene expression. (
  • Luis Valentin-Alvarado, a Ph.D. student at UC Berkeley, describes how CRISPR gene editing technology can be used to create diagnostic tests for COVID-19 and other viruses. (
  • A phylogenetic method for detecting positive epistasis in gene sequences and its application to RNA virus evolution. (
  • Clinical trials have been conducted to test a variety of strategies in which CD4+ T or stem cells are obtained from a patient, the CCR5 gene is either mutated or its translation blocked by RNA interference, and then the resulting virus-resistant cells are returned to the patient. (
  • Positive-stranded RNA (+RNA) viruses, the largest group of viruses, are important pathogens of humans and animals. (
  • Viruses of the kingdom Orthornavirae are the causative agents of many diseases in humans, animals and plants and play an important role in the ecology of the biosphere. (
  • The Lassa virus is transmitted to humans via contact with food or household items contaminated with rodent urine or faeces. (
  • The Zika virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito of the genus Aedes , mainly Aedes aegypti . (
  • Nonhuman primates and humans are probably the main reservoirs of the virus, and anthroponotic transmission (man-vector-man) occurs during outbreaks. (
  • COVID-19 is a new strain of corona-virus that has not been previously identified in humans. (
  • Peñas J, Miranda ME, de los Reyes VC, Sucaldito MN, Magpantay R. Risk assessment of Ebola Reston virus in humans in the Philippines. (
  • TMPRSS2 also acts on the S2 subunit of the spike glycoprotein, causing an irreversible conformational change, activating it, and facilitating fusion of the virus to the cell membrane. (
  • This virus contains a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA surrounded by a glycoprotein envelope. (
  • Like other flaviviruses, YFV contains a small glycoprotein-containing lipid envelope surrounding a nucleocapsid which encloses one viral RNA. (
  • The spike glycoprotein helps the virus latch onto and gain entry into the host cell, so that the virus can infect the cell. (
  • Birds are the preferred host of WNV, and the American robin is an important amplifier host since it develops enough virus in its serum to infect feeding mosquitoes. (
  • Isolation of virus strains from mosquitoes collected in Queensland, 1972-1976. (
  • mosquitoes to understand sylvatic transmission risk of yellow fever virus in Brazil. (
  • A viral disease transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes infected with Zika Virus. (
  • Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, non-steroidal should be avoided until dengue can be discarded to reduce the risk of hemorrhage.When traveling to countries where the Zika virus or other viruses transmitted by mosquitoes have been reported, the recommendation is to use insect repellent, long sleeves and pants, and stay in places with air conditioning or window and door fitted with insect screens. (
  • The transmission pathways of dengue virus (DENV) among mosquitoes are a topic that has gained relevance in recent years because they could explain the maintenance of the virus in the wild independently of the human-mosquito horizontal transmission cycle. (
  • The virus is transmitted from human to human by the bites of infected female mosquitoes. (
  • Behavior of dengue virus in solution. (
  • Variable amounts of cDNA were synthesized in vitro from RNA extracted from several flaviviruses, including the four prototype dengue (DEN) virus serotypes. (
  • The flaviviruses studied are related to each other to some extent since the hybrids formed exhibited about 30% S 1 nuclease resistance, but a closer relationship was detected between dengue viruses of serotype 1 and 4 and between dengue virus serotype 2 and Edge Hill virus. (
  • Identification of distinct antigenic determinants of dengue-2 virus by using monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Dengue virus-specific and flavivirus group determinants identified with monoclonal antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence. (
  • In a small proportion of cases, the virus causes increased vascular permeability that leads to a bleeding diathesis or disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). (
  • It is approved only in individuals previously infected by any dengue virus serotype or in whom this information is unknown. (
  • Persons not previously infected are at an increased risk of severe dengue disease when vaccinated and subsequently infected with dengue virus. (
  • Although dengue virus and chickungunya share the same vector for transmission, dengue fever is indigenous in many countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region and has resulted in geographically wide-ranging epidemics in the past. (
  • Generally, NucleoSpin® RNA Virus is suited for the simultaneous purification of viral RNA and DNA (support protocol). (
  • 2016). Viral RNA of the Zika virus has been identified in the brain and liver of fetuses and in the brain, eyes, spleen, liver and placenta of pregnant mothers, with the highest viral load existing in the placenta. (
  • We have previously discovered a virus neo-lifestyle exhibited by a capsidless positive-sense (+), single-stranded (ss) RNA virus YkV1 (family Yadokariviridae) and an unrelated double-stranded (ds) RNA virus YnV1 (proposed family "Yadonushiviridae") in a phytopathogenic ascomycete, Rosellinia necatrix. (
  • Simple DNA extraction method for dried blood spots and comparison of two PCR assays for diagnosis of vertical human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transmission in Rwanda. (
  • To investigate the pervasiveness of epistasis in RNA viruses, we used a parsimony-based computational method to identify pairs of co-occurring mutations along phylogenies of 177 RNA virus genes. (
  • Scientists have known for about a decade that some more aggressive types of cancer express high levels of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), an action usually triggered by the presence of viruses. (
  • Ramachandran S, Xia GL, Ganova-Raeva LM, Nainan OV, Khudyakov Y. End-point limiting-dilution real-time PCR assay for evaluation of hepatitis C virus quasispecies in serum: Performance under optimal and suboptimal conditions. (
  • RNA is usually undetectable in serum after 13.2 days, but on rare occasions, has been found in serum beyond 40 days. (
  • This term is used to report the presence of Zika virus RNA in serum. (
  • NucleoSpin® RNA Virus is designed for the isolation of viral nucleic acids from serum, plasma, or any cell-free biological fluids. (
  • characterized by sustained disappearance of serum HCV RNA and normalization of liver enzymes. (
  • The laboratory diagnosis is usually performed by testing the plasma or serum to detect the virus, viral nucleic acid or virus specific immunoglobulin M and neutralizing antibodies. (
  • Perlmutter, J. D. & Hagan, M. F. Mechanisms of virus assembly. (
  • The mechanisms underlying virus emergence are rarely well understood, making the appearance of outbreaks largely unpredictable. (
  • The origin of this virus and the mechanisms underlying its re-emergence are unknown. (
  • However, the sensors and mechanisms that facilitate RNA virus-induced production of IL-1beta are not well defined. (
  • This reflects two antagonistic processes: the virus hijacking key cellular resources and the antiviral defence mechanisms of the cell. (
  • Here we review the pharmacology of these drugs and the mechanisms whereby the virus infects cells. (
  • A newly published investigation of molecular and biochemical mechanisms revealed that CADs are injurious to human cells, not to the virus. (
  • A team led by scientists from the University of Pennsylvania has explored the biochemical mechanisms behind one of cancer's more clever forms of subterfuge, one that uses fake viruses to activate a pathway that helps them grow and resist treatment. (
  • models have considered exclusively mechanisms involving UVB acting directly on RNA. (
  • However, UVA inactivation has been demonstrated for other enveloped RNA viruses, through indirect mechanisms involving the suspension medium. (
  • Influenza A viruses cause a mild-to-severe respiratory disease that affects millions of people each year. (
  • Approximate geographic distribution of Dermacentor andersoni ticks and counties of residence for confirmed and probable Colorado tick fever (CTF) virus disease cases, United States, 2010-2019. (
  • Enanta's research and development efforts have produced clinical candidates for the following disease targets: respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). (
  • China is currently reporting a total of 44,653 cases of the respiratory virus and 1,113 deaths. (
  • Some of these viruses invade the upper respiratory tract - the nose and the throat - while others invade the lower respiratory tract and can lead to pneumonia. (
  • During the 2003 epidemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), it was thought that the SARS-causing virus belonged to the Paramyxoviridae family. (
  • Common viral causes of pneumonia include Respiratory Syncytial virus, Influenza and B, Parainfluenza, Human metapneumovirus and Adenovirus. (
  • The disease spreads by droplets generated by infected respiratory disease (the SARS virus in 2002-2003 and the people during sneezing and coughing. (
  • 13. Padula PJ, Edelstein A, Miguel SD, López NM, Rossi CM, Rabinovich RD. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome outbreak in Argentina: molecular evidence for person-to-person transmission of Andes virus. (
  • The structure of the DNA complex did not demonstrate the molecular recognition that must take place to bind RNA hairpins. (
  • Reported in this thesis are investigations designed to compare low molecular weight RNAs in non-infected and pseudorabies virus infected BHK 21/13 cells. (
  • The RNA, termed 4 1/2s RNA, occupies a larger molecular volume on Sephadex G-l00 than cellular RNA and does not appear to contain methyl groups, derived from [14C]methylmethionine. (
  • Rates of molecular evolution in RNA viruses: a quantitative phylogenetic analysis. (
  • This analysis revealed a significant relationship between genetic divergence and isolation time for an extensive array of RNA viruses, although more rate variation was usually present among lineages than would be expected under the constraints of a molecular clock. (
  • Despite the lack of a molecular clock, the range of statistically significant variation in overall substitution rates was surprisingly narrow for those viruses where a significant relationship between genetic divergence and time was found, as was the case when synonymous sites were considered alone, where the molecular clock was rejected less frequently. (
  • West Nile Virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, was detected in North America in 1999 and has since become endemic to the United States, where it causes annual seasonal outbreaks. (
  • Yellow fever virus (YFV) is an RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus. (
  • The program targets SARS-CoV-2 and other RNA viruses with pandemic potential. (
  • Scientists are looking at the genetic sequences of 10 generations of H3N2 flu viruses as they grow and evolve in eggs. (
  • A screening blood test, called an antibody test, shows if a person has ever been infected with the hepatitis C virus. (
  • If the antibody test is positive, a follow-up RNA blood test is needed to see if a person is still infected with the hepatitis C virus. (
  • Oncolytic reovirus therapy for cancer induces a typical antiviral response to this RNA virus, including neutralizing antibodies. (
  • This work provides a comprehensive snapshot of the virus-host cell battlefield and opens new avenues for the development of antiviral therapies. (
  • There are no drugs or vaccines approved for the new virus, though research efforts are ongoing, but at least one Chinese hospital has started a clinical trial with an antiviral medication whose brand name is Kaletra and that has been most used in the United States to treat HIV patients. (
  • Even though he had stopped taking antiviral drugs, there was no evidence of the virus in his blood following his treatment, and his immune system gradually recovered. (
  • Raspberry ringspot virus (RpRSV) belongs to the family Comoviridae and the genus Nepovirus. (
  • These viruses are transmitted mainly by nematodes of the genus Longidorus, which feed on the roots of plants. (
  • Even though the mumps virus, Rubulavirus, shares similar morphologic features to human parainfluenza viruses (known as hPIVs, as part of the Paramyxovirus genus), no cross-immunity between these viruses is known. (
  • The mumps virus does share various epidemiologic characteristics with other well-known viral pediatric diseases, such as measles (RNA virus, of the genus Morbillivirus , in the Paramyxoviridae family) and rubella (RNA virus, of the genus Rubivirus , in the Togaviridae family). (
  • The animal reservoir, or host, of Lassa virus is a rodent of the genus Mastomys , commonly known as the "multimammate rat. (
  • Epstein-Barr virus belongs to genus lymphocryptovirus of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae in the Herpesviridae family Footnote 1 Footnote 2 . (
  • Colorado tick fever virus (CTF) is the prototype virus from which the genus coltivirus derives its name ( Col orado ti ck fever). (
  • It is an RNA virus that belongs to the alphavirus genus of the family Togaviridae. (
  • Rubella is a single-stranded RNA virus classified as the only member of the genus Rubivirus in the Togaviridae family. (
  • Adenovirus manipulation of ubiquitination is particularly important for efficient production of viral RNA. (
  • References were compiled for each virus, and the virus was assigned to pyramid level independently by 2 of the authors (L.B. and C.M.). The key references providing evidence of human transmissibility for the level 3 viruses (Table 2 in the text) are in the Technical Appendix Table. (
  • The association of plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA level at study entry and over time with clinical progression was evaluated in 187 patients from AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 116A who had little or no prior zidovudine treatment. (
  • Now that the CRISPR-based assay has been developed for SARS-CoV-2, it could be modified to detect RNA segments of other viral diseases, like the common cold, influenza or even human immunodeficiency virus. (
  • Also approved, but only in Latvia and Georgia, is Rigvir®, which contains a live nonpathogenic enteric cytopathic human orphan 7 virus that has not been genetically modified. (
  • Dilutions of encapsidated and unencapsidated virus were spiked into human pancreas homogenate and analyzed by RT-PCR. (
  • HIV Human immunodeficiency virus. (
  • The human hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV) are major health problems worldwide and cause a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations ranging from an apparently healthy carrier state to acute self-limited or fulminant hepatitis and later to chronic liver disease which is frequently associated with liver cirrhosis that ultimately develops into hepatocellular carcinoma (the 5th most common cancer in the world) (1,2). (
  • In addition, a supplemental new drug application (sNDA) has been approved for Triumeq tablet, lowering the minimum weight that a child with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be prescribed this medicine to 25kgs from 40kgs. (
  • In addition to today's regulatory milestones, an application to approve the new dispersible tablet of the fixed dose combination of abacavir, dolutegravir and lamivudine for the treatment of paediatric patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and to extend the current approved Marketing Authorisation of Triumeq tablets to include a paediatric indication for children is currently under review by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). (
  • As many of you know I am a UFO/Paranormal researcher with a particular interest in human/ alien viruses. (
  • Keller said that messenger RNA has a tail end that is comprised of a sequences of "A's. (
  • MV-NIS, an engineered measles virus, is being tested in myeloma with promising results, including one patient who had a durable complete remission at all disease sites. (
  • Because of the morbidity of measles and rubella, the World Health Organization (WHO) maintains a worldwide Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (LabNet) to monitor the behavior of the viruses. (
  • Mechanism and structural diversity of exoribonuclease-resistant RNA structures in flaviviral RNAs. (
  • Before library construction, selective RNase H-based digestion is used to deplete unwanted RNA - including poly(rA) carrier and ribosomal RNA - from the viral RNA sample. (