Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.

Comparative study of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax infected in different ways. (1/218)

The transmission of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) was investigated in juvenile sea bass (3 g) Dicentrarchus labrax by using cell culture supernatant (SSN-1 cell line) containing nodavirus. Five methods of infection were tested: intramuscular injection (IM), intraperitoneal injection (IP), oral infection, bath exposure and cohabitation of healthy fish with infected fish. Some differences were observed in time of disease onset and severity of symptoms depending on the mode of infection used. Clinical symptoms such as whirling swimming and lethargic or hyperactive behaviour were generally reproduced, except for fish infected via oral and IP infection. First mortalities occurred 3 d after IM and IP infection and 6 d after for the other modes of infection. Cumulative mortalities were also variable: 100% after IM infection, 10% after IP infection, 32% for bath exposure, 43% after cohabitation and 24% via oral infection. Histopathologically, vacuolation was observed in the central nervous tissues and in the retina. The observed lesions were more or less severe depending on the mode of infection, the sampling time and the organs: lesions on the surviving fish (42 days post infection, d p.i.) seemed to be generally more conspicuous in the retina than in the brain of the same fish. In most cases, the presence of nodavirus was confirmed in the same samples of brain and retina by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The virus was not detected in other organs examined. The present results suggest that 2 forms of VER can be induced: IM injection leads to an acute form (severe nervous disorders with high and fast mortality) whereas oral infection, bath exposure and cohabitation induce a subacute form (less severe disorders and weak daily mortality). This experiment demonstrates experimentally induced horizontal transmission of VER in sea bass for the first time.  (+info)

Transmission of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) to yolk-sac larvae of the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus: occurrence of nodavirus in various organs and a possible route of infection. (2/218)

The susceptibility of the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus yolk-sac larvae to viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) was investigated by waterborne challenge experiments with nodavirus. Transfer of VER was indicated by several lines of evidence. A significantly higher cumulative mortality was observed after challenge with virus compared to mock challenge, and increasing doses of virus resulted in shorter incubation periods. When the challenge was performed on the day after hatching, the time from inoculation to the time when 50% of the larvae were dead (LT50) ranged from 26 to 32 d. Postponement of challenge for 13 d reduced the LT50 to 14 d, indicating that the susceptibility of the larvae to the present nodavirus strain was low during the first 2 wk after hatching. The progression of the infection was monitored by sequential immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. On Day 18 after hatching the initial signs of infection were observed as a prominent focus of immunolabelling in the caudal part of the brain stem. In the same larvae immunolabelled single cell lesions were observed in the stratified epithelium of the cranial part of the intestine. The portal of entry into the larvae may thus have been the intestinal epithelium, while the route of infection to the CNS may have been axonal transport to the brain stem through cranial nerves such as the vagus nerves. Later in the infection, lesions became more severe and widespread and were also found throughout the brain and spinal cord and in the retina, cranial ganglia, intestine, liver, olfactory epithelium, yolk-sac epithelium, gills and pectoral fins. The mortality in all virus-challenged groups was 100%. This study thus demonstrates that the present nodavirus strain is able to replicate and cause VER in Atlantic halibut yolk-sac larvae at temperatures as low as 6 degrees C.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of borna disease virus: granulocyte fractions of psychiatric patients harbor infectious virus in the absence of antiviral antibodies. (3/218)

Borna disease virus (BDV) causes acute and persistent infections in various vertebrates. During recent years, BDV-specific serum antibodies, BDV antigen, and BDV-specific nucleic acid were found in humans suffering from psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, viral antigen was detected in human autopsy brain tissue by immunohistochemical staining. Whether BDV infection can be associated with psychiatric disorders is still a matter of debate; no direct evidence has ever been presented. In the present study we report on (i) the detection of BDV-specific nucleic acid in human granulocyte cell fraction from three different psychiatric patients and (ii) the isolation of infectious BDV from these cells obtained from a patient with multiple psychiatric disorders. In leukocyte preparations other than granulocytes, either no BDV RNA was detected or positive PCR results were obtained only if there was at least 20% contamination with granulocytes. Parts of the antigenome of the isolated virus were sequenced, demonstrating the close relationship to the prototype BDV strains (He/80 and strain V) as well as to other human virus sequences. Our data provide strong evidence that cells in the granulocyte fraction represent the major if not the sole cell type harboring BDV-specific nucleic acid in human blood and contain infectious virus. In contrast to most other reports of putative human isolates, where sequences are virtually identical to those of the established laboratory strains, this isolate shows divergence in the region previously defined as variable in BDV from naturally infected animals.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a ranavirus isolated from largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. (4/218)

An iridovirus, isolated from largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides following a die-off among adult fish and provisionally designated largemouth bass virus (LMBV), was characterized by analysis of viral protein synthesis in infected cells, viral DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), and sequence determination of the major capsid protein and viral DNA methyltransferase genes. All 3 approaches yielded results consistent with the suggestion that LMBV was a member of the genus Ranavirus. Moreover, LMBV was nearly identical to 2 isolates from Southeast Asia which had been previously detected in imported ornamental fish. It remains to be determined whether infection of largemouth bass resulted from exposure to an imported virus, or whether the presence of similar viruses in southeast Asia and the southeastern United States indicates that iridovirus species are not geographically limited as suggested earlier, but rather globally distributed.  (+info)

Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. (5/218)

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.  (+info)

Pathogenicity of nodavirus strains from striped jack Pseudocaranx dentex and Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus, studied by waterborne challenge of yolk-sac larvae of both teleost species. (6/218)

The present study shows that differences in pathogenicity exist among fish nodavirus strains. In challenge trials, a Japanese strain (SJ93Nag) was highly virulent to larvae of the striped jack Pseudocaranx dentex but replication was not detected in larvae of Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus at 6 degrees C. Conversely, a Norwegian nodavirus strain (AH95NorA) that was highly virulent to the Atlantic halibut larvae did not replicate in striped jack larvae at 20 degrees C. Occurrence of the disease viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) and cumulative mortality were significantly different in the 2 species when challenged with the 2 nodavirus strains. The presence of nodavirus in nervous tissue was monitored by immunohistochemical methods. Our results support the view that the genetic diversity among nodavirus strains reflects the existence of different viral phenotypes which may be adapted to infect different host species and/or for replicating at different temperatures. Fish nodaviruses represent surveyable pathogens well suited for studying the relation between viral genotypic and phenotypic properties such as host specificity, temperature optima, neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence.  (+info)

Surface disinfection of Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus eggs with ozonated sea-water inactivates nodavirus and increases survival of the larvae. (7/218)

Disinfection by ozonation of sea-water may reduce the risk of transmission of nodavirus, a major fish pathogen, via Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus eggs. In the present study, eggs at 4 d prior to hatching were exposed to nodavirus and then to ozonated sea-water using different concentrations (0.3 to 10 mg l-1) and exposure times (0.5 to 10 min). None of the larvae from virus-exposed eggs washed with ozonated sea-water developed viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), which was detected in all dead larvae from eggs exposed to nodavirus but not washed with ozonated sea-water. In the non-treated control group about 20% of the dead larvae developed the disease. This suggests that the halibut eggs taken from a large-scale production facility were already contaminated with nodavirus. The egg groups which had been treated with 4 mg O3 l-1 for 0.5 min or with lower total ozone exposures had a higher survival and no adverse effects on the development of the larvae after hatching were observed. Although a slight delay in hatching was found, after 2 d the cumulative hatching had normalised. In the egg groups with high total exposure (4 mg O3 l-1 for 1 min or higher total ozone exposures) a pronounced negative effect on hatching was observed. Our results indicate that the egg surface may be important in the transfer of nodavirus and that nodavirus associated with the surface of the egg may be inactivated by ozonated sea-water.  (+info)

Enteric virus infections and diarrhea in healthy and human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. (8/218)

Forty-three stool samples from 27 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive children and 38 samples from 38 HIV-negative children, collected during a 15-month period, were examined for enteric viruses. Diagnostic assays included enzyme immunoassays for rotavirus, adenovirus, and Norwalk virus; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for picobirnavirus and atypical rotavirus; and PCR for astrovirus and enterovirus. Specimens from HIV-positive children were more likely than those of HIV-negative children to have enterovirus (56 versus 21%; P < 0.0002) and astrovirus (12 versus 0%; P < 0.02), but not rotavirus (5 versus 8%; P > 0.5). No adenoviruses, picobirnaviruses, or Norwalk viruses were found. The rates of virus-associated diarrhea were similar among HIV-positive and HIV-negative children. Enteroviruses were excreted for up to 6 months in HIV-positive children; however, no evidence for prolonged excretion of poliovirus vaccine was observed. These results suggest that although infection with enterovirus and astrovirus may be frequent in HIV-infected children, enteric viruses are not associated with the diarrhea frequently suffered by these children.  (+info)

1. Influenza (flu): Caused by the influenza virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches.
2. HIV/AIDS: Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is an RNA virus that attacks the body's immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
3. Hepatitis B: Caused by the hepatitis B virus, which is an RNA virus that infects the liver and can cause inflammation, scarring, and cancer.
4. Measles: Caused by the measles virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause fever, cough, and a rash.
5. Rabies: Caused by the rabies virus, which is an RNA virus that attacks the central nervous system and can cause brain damage and death.
6. Ebola: Caused by the Ebola virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the blood vessels and can cause fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and bleeding.
7. SARS-CoV-2: Caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause COVID-19.

RNA virus infections are often difficult to treat and can be highly contagious, so it's important to take precautions to prevent transmission and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.

Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:

1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.

Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.

Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.

Orthomyxoviridae infections are a group of viral infections caused by the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, which includes influenza A and B viruses, as well as other related viruses. These infections can affect both humans and animals and can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe.

The most common type of Orthomyxoviridae infection is seasonal influenza, which occurs when the virus is transmitted from person to person through the air or by contact with infected surfaces. Other types of Orthomyxoviridae infections include:

1. Pandemic influenza: This occurs when a new strain of the virus emerges and spreads quickly around the world, causing widespread illness and death. Examples of pandemic influenza include the Spanish flu of 1918 and the Asian flu of 1957.
2. Avian influenza: This occurs when birds are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected birds or their droppings.
3. Swine influenza: This occurs when pigs are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected pigs or their droppings.
4. H5N1 and H7N9: These are two specific types of bird flu viruses that have caused serious outbreaks in humans in recent years.

Symptoms of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, these infections can lead to pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory complications, as well as hospitalization and even death.

Diagnosis of Orthomyxoviridae infections is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or viral culture. Treatment is generally focused on relieving symptoms and supporting the immune system, with antiviral medications may be used in severe cases.

Prevention of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include avoiding close contact with infected birds or pigs, wearing protective clothing and gear when handling animals, and practicing good hygiene such as washing hands frequently. Vaccines are also available for some species of birds and pigs to protect against these viruses.

Overall, Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that can cause serious illness in humans and other animals, and it's important to take precautions to prevent exposure and spread of these viruses.

RSV infections can cause a range of symptoms, including:

* Runny nose
* Decreased appetite
* Coughing
* Sneezing
* Wheezing
* Apnea (pauses in breathing)
* Blue-tinged skin and lips (cyanosis)
* Fever
* Inflammation of the lower respiratory tract (bronchiolitis)
* Pneumonia

In severe cases, RSV infections can lead to hospitalization and may require oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation. In rare cases, RSV infections can be life-threatening, particularly in premature babies and infants with underlying medical conditions.

There is no specific treatment for RSV infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and managing the infection, such as providing hydration and nutrition, administering oxygen therapy, and monitoring vital signs.

Prevention measures for RSV infections include:

* Frequent handwashing, especially after contact with an infected person or their secretions
* Avoiding close contact with anyone who has RSV infection
* Keeping children home from school or daycare if they are showing symptoms of RSV infection
* Practicing good hygiene, such as avoiding sharing utensils or personal items with anyone who is infected

There is currently no vaccine available to protect against RSV infections, but researchers are working on developing one.

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When the dsRNA is exogenous (coming from infection by a virus with an RNA genome or laboratory manipulations), the RNA is ... Ahlquist P (May 2002). "RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, viruses, and RNA silencing". Science. 296 (5571): 1270-3. Bibcode: ... Berkhout B, Haasnoot J (May 2006). "The interplay between virus infection and the cellular RNA interference machinery". FEBS ... Biology portal Viruses portal DNA-directed RNA interference Saurabh S, Vidyarthi AS, Prasad D (March 2014). "RNA interference: ...
Kondo H, Chiba S, Toyoda K, Suzuki N (2013). "Evidence for negative-strand RNA virus infection in fungi". Virology. 435 (2): ... Most fungal viruses belong to double-stranded RNA viruses, but about 30% belong to positive-strand RNA virus. However, negative ... "RNA world" as both types of RNA viruses infect bacteria as well as eukaryotes. Although the origin of viruses is still not well ... single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genomes. However, negative single-stranded RNA viruses and single-stranded DNA viruses have also ...
Lafon, M. (2016). Reiss, Carol Shoshkes (ed.). Neurotropic Viral Infections (Vol. 1): Neurotropic RNA Viruses (2nd edn). ... Lathe has also argued that infection may play a role in Alzheimer disease, and has worked with Rudy Tanzi and Rob Moir at ... The prion theory has been widely questioned, and the prion (PrP) protein is now recognized to be an RNA-binding protein. Darlix ... Itzhaki, Ruth F; Lathe, Richard (1 January 2018). "Herpes Viruses and Senile Dementia: First Population Evidence for a Causal ...
In: Cellular signaling and innate immune responses to RNA virus infections. (2009) Washington, DC: ASM Press. pp. 287-299. ... The L segment encodes for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Batai virus is geographically spread throughout Asia and Europe. It ... Classified via the Baltimore scheme, Batai virus is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus. The orthobunyavirus genome has ... Batai orthobunyavirus (BATV) is a RNA virus belonging to order Bunyavirales, genus Orthobunyavirus. Batai virus (BATV) is an ...
Co-infection weakens selection against epistatic mutations in RNA viruses. Genetics Montville, R., R. Froissart, S. K. Remold, ... Evolvability of an RNA virus is determined by its mutational neighbourhood. Nature 406:625-628. Wichman, H. A., L. A. Scott, C ... Fitness of RNA virus decreased by Muller's ratchet. Nature 348:454-455. Turner, P. E., and L. Chao. 2003. Escape from ... Evolution by small steps and rugged landscapes in the RNA virus _6. Genetics 151:921-927. Klovins, J., N. A. Tsareva, M. H. de ...
Shiraki K, Daikoku T (February 2020). "Favipiravir, an anti-influenza drug against life-threatening RNA virus infections". ... In a study published in the Scientific Reports, Syrian hamster model for Nipah virus infection was used, which closely mirrors ... June 2009). "T-705 (favipiravir) and related compounds: Novel broad-spectrum inhibitors of RNA viral infections". Antiviral ... The mechanism of its actions is thought to be related to the selective inhibition of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.[ ...
A viral infection caused by Paramyxovirus, a single-stranded RNA virus. Common symptoms include fever, headache and bilateral ... Treatment of individual infections may prevent injury to the gland parenchyma. In the past, the disease was treated with ... TB can also affect the heart, thyroid and adrenal glands but the main site of infection is the lungs. Risk factors are chronic ... Viruses linked to this can include; hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, paramyxovirus, influenza A, and adenovirus. Treatment is anti ...
"RIG-I Detects Viral Genomic RNA during Negative-Strand RNA Virus Infection". Cell. 140 (3): 397-408. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2010.01 ... Viruses that belong to this family are single stranded (-) RNA viruses that replicate within the nucleus of the host's cells. ... Influenza type C virus causes mild respiratory infections and are not known to cause epidemics, unlike the other two. Barclay ... Research gathered for the article explained how one of the human cell's defences against RNA viruses comes in the form of RIG- ...
October 2009). "Activation of MDA5 requires higher-order RNA structures generated during virus infection". Journal of Virology ... MDA5, an RNA helicase, is known to be activated by complex high molecular weight dsRNA transcribed from the viral genome. In a ... The RNA fragments produced by RNAse L have double stranded regions, as well as specific markers, that allow them to be ... Degradation of all RNA within the cell (which usually occurs with cessation of translation activity caused by protein kinase R ...
"Mycophenolic acid inhibits dengue virus infection by preventing replication of viral RNA". Virology. 304 (2): 211-21. doi: ... such as activation of latent viral infections, including shingles, other herpes infections, cytomegalovirus, and BK virus ... A combination of mycophenolate and ribavirin has been found to stop infection by and replication of dengue virus in vitro. It ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert that people are at increased risk of opportunistic infections, ...
A3G combats HIV infection by interacting with and mutating the virus' RNA. The mutations genetically damage the virus protein ... RNA editing APOBEC3G Viral infectivity factor Michael Wentzel (12 January 2004). "UR Invests in Anti-HIV Startup". Rochester ... which allowed A3G to function normally and halt the spread of the virus. The company is also researching drugs that protect A3G ... and render HIV unable to replicate which halts the spread of the virus. In laboratory testing, OyaGen was able to use drug ...
Guo J, Peters KL, Sen GC (2000). "Induction of the human protein P56 by interferon, double-stranded RNA, or virus infection". ... "Enhanced Expression of Interferon-Regulated Genes in the Liver of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Detection ... Lafage M, Clauss I, Couez D, Simonetti J, Wathelet MG, Huez G (Jul 1992). "The interferon- and virus-inducible IFI-56K and IFI- ... Late activation of interferon-induced genes IFI-54k and IFI-56k in human RH cells infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus ...
Sun Y, Leaman DW (2005). "Involvement of Noxa in cellular apoptotic responses to interferon, double-stranded RNA, and virus ... infection". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (16): 15561-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M412630200. PMID 15705586. Ceballos E, Muñoz-Alonso MJ, Berwanger ...
Mice lacking cGAS are more vulnerable to lethal infection by DNA viruses and RNA viruses. In addition, cGAS has been shown to ... "cGAS-STING effectively restricts murine norovirus infection but antagonizes the antiviral action of N-terminus of RIG-I in ...
"A non-coding RNA of insect HzNV-1 virus establishes latent viral infection through microRNA". Sci Rep. 1: 60. Bibcode:2011NatSR ... eds.). Unassigned Viruses. In: Virus Taxonomy: The Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Springer ... Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that play important roles in the regulation of genes in eukaryotic ... Virus encoded miRNAs are commonly reported in DNA viruses and several nudiviruses have been reported to encode miRNAs. The ...
Various candidates have been implicated, including upper respiratory tract infection by some novel RNA virus. Despite intensive ... While the specific cause is unknown, it is thought to result from an excessive immune system response to an infection in ... A plausible explanation is that it may be caused by an infection that triggers an inappropriate immunologic cascade in a small ... In 2020, reports of a Kawasaki-like disease following exposure to SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, emerged in ...
"Mini viral RNAs act as innate immune agonists during influenza virus infection". Nature Microbiology. 3 (11): 1234-1242. doi: ... to understanding the structural basis of influenza virus RNA synthesis by solving structures of the influenza virus RNA ... "Influenza virus RNA polymerase: insights into the mechanisms of viral RNA synthesis". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. 14 (8): 479 ... "Crystal structure of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from influenza C virus". Nature. 527 (7576): 114-117. doi:10.1038/ ...
RNA-directed RNA polymerase (NS5B) inhibitor treatment of hepatitis C virus infection". Drugs of the Future. 34 (4): 282-290. ... Specifically, PSI-6130 inhibits the hepatitis C virus RNA dependant RNA polymerase called NS5B. PSI-6130 is currently being ... 2006). "Inhibition of hepatitis C replicon RNA synthesis by beta-D-2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-2'-C-methylcytidine: a specific inhibitor ... a potent inhibitor of hepatitis C virus replication". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 48 (17): 5504-8. doi:10.1021/jm0502788. ...
"Diverse responses of the bivalve-killing dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama to infection by a single-stranded RNA virus ...
hnRNP A1's pro-viral effect is present in the Sindbis virus (a positive sense RNA virus) infection model. hnRNP A1 has been ... In the case of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a positive sense RNA virus, hnRNP A1 interacts with a crucial region near the 3' end of ... hnRNP A1 is involved in the life cycle of DNA, positive sense RNA, and negative sense RNA viruses are multiple stages post- ... promoting synthesis of negative-strand RNA. hnRNP A1 has a similar role in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection in ...
In some cases the research has highlighted fundamental limitations to their use for the treatment of acute RNA virus infections ... and was subsequently investigated for Ebola virus disease and Marburg virus infections before being studied as a post-infection ... One approach used in repositioning is to look for drugs that act through virus-related targets such as the RNA genome (i.e. ... In March 2020, the main protease (3CLpro) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus was identified as a target for post-infection drugs. The ...
Infection by RNA viruses can trigger the RNAi cascade. It is likely dicer is involved in viral immunity as viruses that infect ... J Clin Invest Berkhout B, Haasnoot J (May 2006). "The interplay between virus infection and the cellular RNA interference ... A form of RNA called Alu RNA (the RNA transcripts of alu elements)) was found to be elevated in patients with insufficient ... Small interfering RNA (siRNA) are produced and function in a similar manner to miRNA by cleaving double-stranded RNA with Dicer ...
Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein and Its Binding to Viral RNA during Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection Inhibits Virus ... Known for his studies in the fields of RNA virus replication and vaccine development, Vrati is an elected fellow of the ... Kalia, Manjula; Khasa, Renu; Sharma, Manish; Nain, Minu; Vrati, Sudhanshu (1 January 2013). "Japanese Encephalitis Virus ... molecular mechanisms of virus replication, assembly, egress as well as the clinical development of an oral rotavirus vaccine. ...
Some evidence suggests that the drug's actions are more effective at preventing infections from RNA viruses than infections ... "Antiviral activity of arbidol against influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, coxsackie virus and ... Umifenovir inhibits membrane fusion of influenza virus. Umifenovir prevents contact between the virus and target host cells. ... B and poliovirus infection of mammalian cells when introduced either in advance of viral infection or during infection. Side ...
If these viruses each contain an RNA segment with a lethal damage, multiple infection can lead to reactivation providing that ... In segmented RNA viruses, "mating" can occur when a host cell is infected by at least two virus particles. ... Multiplicity reactivation has been reported to occur in influenza virus infections after induction of RNA damage by UV- ... Influenza virus, whose genome consists of 8 physically separated single-stranded RNA segments, is an example of this type of ...
As was later shown, this activity was not due to infection by RNA tumor viruses, but rather to endogenous reverse transcriptase ... Later, Green's research extended to the RNA tumor viruses (tumor inducing viruses with an RNA genome). Before reverse ... He coupled this basic research to the effort to detect RNA tumor viruses in human cancer. Tremendous effort was directed to the ... Grandgenett, D. P.; Gerard, G. F.; Green, M. (1973). "A Single Subunit from Avian Myeloblastosis Virus with Both RNA-Directed ...
"Intracellular coordination of potyviral RNA functions in infection". Frontiers in Plant Science. 5: 110. doi:10.3389/fpls. ... Carrot virus Y (CarVY) is a (+)ss-RNA virus that affects crops of the carrot family (Apiaceae), such as carrots, anise, chervil ... Infection by the virus leads to deformed roots and discolored or mottled leaves. The virus is spread through insect vectors, ... Entire fields have been abandoned due to crop infection. The severe root defomalities associated with early virus infection ...
Best investigates the mechanisms underpinning early immune activation after infection with RNA viruses and how emerging viruses ... Her virus models include emerging flaviviruses (such as Zika virus and encephalitis) and filoviruses (Ebola virus). In 2011, ... She investigated virus-host interactions involved in flavivirus pathogenesis. It was during this time that she developed her ... Best researches interactions between pathogenic viruses and the host immune response using flavivirus as a model. Best earned a ...
"Scientists Modify Viruses With CRISPR To Create New Weapon Against Superbugs". NPR. May 22, 2019. Retrieved May 28, 2019. " ... The intended therapeutic targets are antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections. The company was founded as a spin-off from ... Wiedenheft B, Sternberg SH, Doudna JA (February 2012). "RNA-guided genetic silencing systems in bacteria and archaea". Nature. ... Reardon, Sara (2017). "Modified viruses deliver death to antibiotic-resistant bacteria". Nature. 546 (7660): 586-587. Bibcode: ...
For many viruses, viral RNA is infectious when introduced into a cell (during infection or after reverse transcription). These ... Both RNA and DNA viruses can be made using existing methods. RNA viruses have historically been utilized due to the typically ... it is not whole viruses that are synthesized but rather their genome at first, both in the case of DNA and RNA viruses. ... The ability to synthesize viruses has far-reaching consequences, since viruses can no longer be regarded as extinct, as long as ...
... thin viruses that infect bacteria) by fusing the virus's capsid protein to one peptide out of a collection of peptide sequences ... The N2 domain binds to the F pilus during virion infection freeing the N1 domain which then interacts with a TolA protein on ... Danner S, Belasco JG (November 2001). "T7 phage display: a novel genetic selection system for cloning RNA-binding proteins from ... Those that remain can be eluted, used to produce more phage (by bacterial infection with helper phage) and to produce a phage ...
Positive-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of replication. Translation takes place by leaky scanning and RNA ... The virus is named after the city of Norwalk, Ohio, US where an outbreak occurred in 1968. Norovirus infection is characterized ... which includes Bristol virus, Lordsdale virus, Toronto virus, Mexico virus, Hawaii virus and Snow Mountain virus. Most ... "Norwalk virus", the virus has also been called "Norwalk-like virus", "small, round-structured viruses" (SRSVs), Spencer flu and ...
... it is not required for RNA transcription in all coronaviruses. In at least one coronavirus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus ... A patient in the state of Washington was given a diagnosis of coronavirus infection on 20 January. A group of scientists based ... N also serves as a chaperone protein for the formation of RNA structure in the genomic RNA. Synthesis of genomic RNA appears to ... The N-terminal domain - sometimes known as the RNA-binding domain, though other parts of the protein also interact with RNA - ...
Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... have been validated as important during various stages of the infection lifecycle of M. tuberculosis. Amino acids are either ... RNA in ribozymes such as spliceosomes and ribosomes is similar to enzymes as it can catalyze chemical reactions. Individual ... The two nucleic acids, DNA and RNA, are polymers of nucleotides. Each nucleotide is composed of a phosphate attached to a ...
Patients with chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection who harbor a HSPA1B-1267 single nucleotide polymorphism have a ... Kishor A, White EJ, Matsangos AE, Yan Z, Tandukar B, Wilson GM (August 2017). "Hsp70's RNA-binding and mRNA-stabilizing ...
Some viruses can encode proteins that bind to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to prevent the activity of RNA-dependent protein ... with viral replication by protecting cells from virus infections. However, virus-encoded genetic elements have the ability to ... Viruses that inhibit IFN signaling include Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), dengue type 2 virus (DEN-2), and viruses of the ... Toll Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) is important for inducing interferons in response to the presence of double-stranded RNA viruses; ...
Versatility in RNA structure and function provides the ability to assemble nanoparticles for nanomedicinal therapeutics. The ... Reilly, Bernard E.; Spizizen, John (1965). "Bacteriophage Deoxyribonucleate Infection of Competent Bacillus subtilis1". Journal ... Bacillus virus Φ29 (bacteriophage Φ29) is a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophage with a prolate icosahedral head and a ... Φ29 has a unique DNA packaging motor structure that employs prohead packaging RNA (pRNA) to guide the translocation of the ...
HIV infection and TB are also closely tied. Being infected with HIV increases the rate of activation of latent TB infections, ... AIDS is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Primary modes of HIV ... March 1999). "The effect of Plasmodium falciparum malaria on HIV-1 RNA blood plasma concentration". AIDS. 13 (4): 487-94. doi: ... Chronic worm infections can further burden the immune system. At the same time, chronic worm infections can cause immune ...
The virus is a monopartite strand of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA surrounded by a capsid made from a single viral ... In the western United States and south western Canada it had been found in clover in a mixed infection with another potexvirus ... ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: White clover mosaic virus Descriptions of Plant Viruses Family Groups - The Baltimore ... "About Plant Viruses / Florida Plant Viruses / Florida Plant Viruses and Their Inclusions / Science / Plant Industry / Divisions ...
Clements GB, Klein G, Povey S (1975). "Production by EBV infection of an EBNA-positive subline from an EBNA-negative human ... 1987). "Analysis of mutation in human cells by using an Epstein-Barr virus shuttle system". Mol. Cell. Biol. 7 (1): 379-87. doi ... 1997). "A serine/arginine-rich nuclear matrix cyclophilin interacts with the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II". Nucleic ...
RNA changes suggests that the first human infection was followed by exclusive human to human transmissions. The work led her to ... In May 2015, she delivered a TED Talk, called "How we'll fight the next deadly virus." "Her team was recently awarded funding ... "How we'll fight the next deadly virus". Retrieved 19 May 2016. Bazelon, Emily (3 June 2020). "What Will College Be ... which used advanced genomic sequencing technology to identify a single point of infection from an animal reservoir to a human ...
As these tests detect RNA but not infectious virus, its "ability to determine duration of infectivity of patients is limited." ... or have very mild symptoms and can also spread the virus. As is common with infections, there is a delay between the moment a ... The WHO additionally uses "the COVID‑19 virus" and "the virus responsible for COVID‑19" in public communications. The symptoms ... 19 in individuals with a high clinical suspicion of infection. Detection of a past infection is possible with serological tests ...
... resulting in human infection. Aerosols of concentrated virus may result in Orthopoxvirus infection, especially in unimmunized ... Expression of early-phase genes by viral RNA polymerase begins at 30 minutes after infection. The viral core is completely ... macacapox virus Akhmeta virus Alaskapox virus Camelpox virus Cowpox virus Ectromelia virus Monkeypox virus Raccoonpox virus ... Skunkpox virus Taterapox virus Vaccinia virus †Variola virus Volepox virus Among the path of evolution of the Orthopoxvirus ...
Ross River fever is also known as Ross River virus infection or Ross River virus disease. Ross River virus is named after the ... Ross River virus (RRV) is a small encapsulated single-strand RNA Alphavirus endemic to Australia, Papua New Guinea and other ... Viruses. 13, 265. DOI: 10.3390/v13020265 Harley D, Sleigh A, Ritchie S (2001). "Ross River virus transmission, infection, and ... Serology (blood tests) is the appropriate manner by which to diagnose Ross River virus. Within 7 days of infection, the virus ...
It is most commonly used as a co-factor in eukaryotes and functions as an important functional key in enzymes like RNA ... Because of zinc's antibiotic nature, it is often used in many drugs against bacterial infections in humans. Inversely, due to ... of essential proteins in plants as well as development of plant organelles like cell walls to prevent damage from viruses and ... Feig AL, Uhlenbeck OC (1999). "The role of metal ions in RNA biochemistry" (PDF). Cold Spring Harbor Monograph Series. 37: 287- ...
"Host cell cathepsins potentiate Moloney murine leukemia virus infection". Journal of Virology. 81 (19): 10506-14. doi:10.1128/ ... Kim JC, Spence RA, Currier PF, Lu X, Denison MR (April 1995). "Coronavirus protein processing and RNA synthesis is inhibited by ...
It is a single-stranded, negative sense, RNA virus in the Bunyavirales order. The discovery represented the first time a ... Krüger DH, Schonrich G, Klempa B. Human pathogenic hantaviruses and prevention of infection. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:685-93. ... Sangassou virus Bat-borne virus Weiss S, Witkowski PT, Auste B, Nowak K, Weber N, Fahr J, et al. Hantavirus in bat, Sierra ... Magboi virus (MGBV) is a novel, bat-borne Orthohantavirus discovered in a slit-faced bat trapped near the Magboi Stream in ...
ICTVdB - The Universal Virus Database: Hemp mosaic virus Family Groups - The Baltimore Method Hemp Mosaic Virus - RNA Pro ( ... Once a plant has become infected with the virus the host will never be free from infection. The virus is destroyed through ... The Sunn-hemp mosaic virus should not be confused with the hemp mosaic virus. The virus causes cellular mutations, stunted ... Hemp mosaic virus is known as one of the most stable viruses. It has a very wide survival range. As long as the surrounding ...
Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture ... The virus is present in urine for between three and nine weeks after infection, and it can be transmitted in semen for up to ... Lassa virus is a member of the Arenaviridae, a family of negative-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. Specifically it is an old ... The Lassa virus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic. They therefore list it for ...
RNA-1 codes for replication proteins, and the proteinase and putative helicase are linked to symptomology of the virus. RNA-2 ... such as infection of Phomopsis fungus decreasing germination of seed and seedling vigor). (Smith, Wisconsin Field Crops ... The feeding creates an easy opening for the virus to get in, after which the virus begins its attack on the host. The virus ... having two single stranded positive-sense RNAs (RNA-1 and RNA-2) separately encapsulated in isomeric particles, and are between ...
RNA-based viruses were developed because of the ability to transcribe directly from infectious RNA transcripts. RNA vectors are ... This method can be used on plants that are not susceptible to Agrobacterium infection and also allows transformation of plant ... Viruses used for gene therapy to date include retrovirus, adenovirus, adeno-associated virus and herpes simplex virus. However ... The first virus to be used as a vaccine vector was the vaccinia virus in 1984 as a way to protect chimpanzees against hepatitis ...
In Japan, the geographic clustering of infections suggest that the virus is more dependent on mother-to-child transmission. In ... The viral RNA is packed into the icosahedral capsid which is contained inside the protein inner envelope. The lipid outer ... Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 or human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I), also called the adult T-cell lymphoma virus type ... Individuals infected with HTLV-1 are at risk for opportunistic infections-diseases not caused by the virus itself, but by ...
Drugs that inhibit enzymes needed for the replication of viruses are effective in treating viral infections. Antiviral drugs ... This is a potent enzyme inhibitor, in this case preventing the RNA polymerase II enzyme from transcribing DNA. The algal toxin ... de Leuw P, Stephan C (April 2018). "Protease inhibitor therapy for hepatitis C virus-infection". Expert Opinion on ... Reardon JE (November 1989). "Herpes simplex virus type 1 and human DNA polymerase interactions with 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'- ...
Since all types of PRRs play a role in the identification and eradication of the infection, their specific agonists mount a ... RLRs initiate the release of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferon (IFN I). RLRs are RNA helicases, which have been ... oncolytic virus therapy, T-cell therapy and cancer vaccines. NOD2 has been associated through a loss- and gain- of function ... In a healthy individual Helicobacter pylori infection is targeted by the combination of PRRs, namely TLRs, NLRs, RLRs and CLR ...
The genetics in the virus is a single strand RNA.[citation needed] Poulet FM, Bowser PR, Casey JW (January 1996). "PCR and RT- ... PCR analysis of infection and transcriptional activity of walleye dermal sarcoma virus (WDSV) in organs of adult walleyes ( ... This virus is related to the walleye epidermal hyperplasia viruses type 1 and type 2 (WEHV-1& WEHV-2), all belonging to the ... Rovnak J, Quackenbush SL (September 2010). "Walleye dermal sarcoma virus: molecular biology and oncogenesis". Viruses. 2 (9): ...
... and/or other processes including cell lysis due to viral infection, cellular exudation and excretion from viable cells, virus ... Circulating free DNA Exogenous DNA Extracellular RNA RNAs present in environmental samples Thomsen, Philip Francis; Sigsgaard, ... The earliest version of this analysis began with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in microbes to better understand microbes that live in ... Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto (2007). "Viral infection plays a key role in extracellular DNA ...
Corbett, Kizzmekia Shanta (August 2014). Characterization of Human Antibody Responses to Dengue Virus Infections in a Sri ... Her prior research suggested that messenger RNA (mRNA) encoding S protein could be used to excite the immune response to ... Kizzmekia Corbett joins TWiV to review her career and her work on respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, and ... "Pre-existing Neutralizing Antibody Responses Distinguish Clinically Inapparent and Apparent Dengue Virus Infections in a Sri ...
In September 2013, NIAID contracted with BioCryst for the development of galidesivir as a treatment for Marburg virus disease ... "HHS Contracts with BioCryst Pharmaceuticals to Develop New Ebola Drug". Infection Control Today. Retrieved January 9, 2021. " ... awarded BioCryst a contract for the continued development of galidesivir as a potential treatment for diseases caused by RNA ... "BioCryst , Oral Drugs for Viruses , Galidesivir". BioCryst Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved January 9, 2021. "Broad-Spectrum ...
... have many of these proteins in common with the PVA-induced RNA granules [2]. ... High molecular weight ribonucleoprotein complexes associated with PVA infection, which contain in addition to helper component- ... RNA silencing proteins in PVA infection High molecular weight ribonucleoprotein complexes associated with PVA infection, which ... "Formation of Potato virus A-induced RNA granules and viral translation are interrelated processes required for optimal virus ...
... in the expression of human immunodeficiency virus RNA and cytokine mRNA in rectal mucosa during the progression of infection. ... HIV RNA and cytokine mRNA expression vary during HIV disease progression. HIV RNA expression is greatest in the intermediate ... Variation in the expression of human immunodeficiency virus RNA and cytokine mRNA in recta ... Citocinas/genética; Infecções por HIV/imunologia; Infecções por HIV/virologia; HIV-1; RNA Viral/genética; RNA Viral/isolamento ...
Virus Diseases. Coronavirus Infections. Coronaviridae Infections. Nidovirales Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Lung Diseases. ... Infections. Communicable Diseases. COVID-19. Respiratory Tract Infections. Paramyxoviridae Infections. Disease Attributes. ... Baseline SAD-RV infection-related mortality rate (main study) [ Time Frame: at Day 28 ]. *Baseline SAD-RV infection-related ... All eligible subjects in the PoI with a respiratory infection due to any SAD-RV infection except PIV. Eligible subjects with ...
Hepatitis C is a serious virus infection that over time can cause liver damage and even liver cancer. Early treatment can ... If the RNA is positive, then there is hepatitis C virus infection. Refer for further evaluation and connect to medical care. ... If the RNA is negative, then there is hepatitis C virus infection and no further action needed. ... then there needs to be a follow-up RNA blood test for hepatitis c virus infection. ...
Influenza A virus is a major human and animal pathogen with the potential to cause catastrophic loss of life. The virus ... We describe the crystal structure of a large fragment of one subunit (PA) of influenza A RNA polymerase bound to a fragment of ... The recent emergence in Asia of avian influenza related to highly pathogenic forms of the human virus has highlighted the ... Here we demonstrate the importance to viral replication of a subunit interface in the viral RNA polymerase, thereby providing a ...
Categories: RNA Virus Infections Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
... results from infection by the varicella zoster virus. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this condition. ... Inborn errors in RNA polymerase III underlie severe varicella zoster virus infections. J Clin Invest. 2017 Sep 1;127(9):3543- ... Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which infects and kills T cells, can also allow the virus to become active ... Shingles (also known as herpes zoster) results from infection by the varicella zoster virus. This common virus causes ...
Synthesis of the precursor to avian RNA tumor virus internal structural proteins early after infection. Gallis BM, Eisenman RN ... Human macrophage-colony stimulating factor: alternative RNA and protein processing from a single gene. Cerretti DP, Wignall J, ... Translation of poly(riboadenylic acid)-enriched messenger RNAs from the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in heterologous cell- ...
Virus Diseases::RNA Virus Infections::Nidovirales Infections::Coronaviridae Infections::Coronavirus Infections [DISEASES], : ... Virus Diseases::RNA Virus Infections::Nidovirales Infections::Coronaviridae Infections::Coronavirus Infections [DISEASES], : ... Infection Control::Quarantine [HEALTH CARE], :Infecciones::Virosis::Infecciones por Virus ARN::Infecciones por Nidovirales:: ... Infection Control::Quarantine [HEALTH CARE], :Infecciones::Virosis::Infecciones por Virus ARN::Infecciones por Nidovirales:: ...
Lentivirus Infections. Retroviridae Infections. RNA Virus Infections. Virus Diseases. Genital Diseases. Urogenital Diseases. ... HIV Infections. Blood-Borne Infections. Communicable Diseases. Infections. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. Sexually ... Change From Baseline in HIV-1 RNA at Week 48 [ Time Frame: Baseline to Week 48 ]. The change from baseline in log10 HIV-1 RNA ( ... Change From Baseline in HIV-1 RNA at Week 96 [ Time Frame: Baseline to Week 96 ]. The change from baseline in log10 HIV-1 RNA ( ...
Steps of a viral infection, illustrated generically for a virus with a + sense RNA genome. ... I thought only living organisms had DNA/RNA. How come virus would be classified as non-living yet have DNA/RNA? ... Generally viruses are classified as non-living, even though they have DNA/RNA. They might be able to go either way, but they do ... Steps of viral infection. Viruses reproduce by infecting their host cells, providing instructions in the form of viral DNA or ...
First, since Zika virus RNA are short-lived, negative results do not preclude infection. Secondly, testing for Zika virus IgM ... The dashed line represents the detection of Zika virus RNA. The presence of Zika virus RNA is relatively short-lived, with a ... with prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA.. Four women reported symptoms and had Zika virus testing with RNA detected, 17 to ... Because viral RNA levels decline over time, a negative result does not rule out Zika virus infection. Therefore, serum IgM ...
The Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) is a RNA defective virus; and an infection with HDV only occurs in the presence of acute or ... Co-infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) in persons with acute or chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to ... NHANES testing for markers of infection with hepatitis viruses will be used to determine secular trends in infection rates ... infection. Because of the high rate of asymptomatic infection with these viruses, information about the prevalence of these ...
CDC updates recommendations for preconception counseling and prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus. ... CDC updates recommendations for preconception counseling and prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus. ... Reports indicate that concentrations of detectable Zika virus RNA in semen decrease after infection (17,19-28). Zika virus RNA ... Zika virus RNA has been detected up to 10 weeks after symptom onset (33,34). Zika virus RNA was detected in whole blood of a ...
... infection, is distinguished from other arthropod-borne causes of viral encephalitis (eg, western equine encephalitis, eastern ... Self-reported symptoms associated with West Nile virus infection in RNA-positive blood donors. Transfusion. 2006 Feb. 46 (2): ... encoded search term (West Nile Virus (WNV) Infection and Encephalitis (WNE)) and West Nile Virus (WNV) Infection and ... The disease is caused by the West Nile virus, a positive-strand RNA flavivirus. [4] It is transmitted via the bite from the ...
... particularly due to the budding mechanism of viral egress in which viruses acquire their external lipid membrane directly from ... Analysis of Virion-Incorporated Host Proteins Required for Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection through a RNA Interference ... and host-encoded proteins in vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, influenza virus, and HIV-1 [24,25,26,28,48,49,50]. ... including murine leukemia virus (MLV) and vaccinia virus, have successfully visualized viruses using light scattering [76,77]; ...
HCV Hepatitis C virus. HCV-positive Positive for anti-HCV as verified by supplemental testing or positive for HCV RNA. HCV RNA ... Serosurvey of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infection among hospital-based surgeons. J ... Prevalence of hepatitis C virus .... Figure 3. Hepatitis C virus infection testing .... This page last reviewed: Wednesday, ... Routes of infection, viremia, and liver disease in blood donors found to have hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 1996; ...
Oral and subcutaneous DHEA has been observed to protect rodents against the lethality of RNA and DNA viruses, and lethal ... Immune response facilitation and resistance to virus and bacterial infections with dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). In: The ... virus and bacterial infection, stress, pregnancy, hypertension, collagen and skin integrity, fatigue, depression, memory and ... Androstenediol regulates systemic resistance against lethal Infections in mice. Annals of NY Academy of Sciences 685: 293-95, ...
There are four families of RNA viruses that are known to cause the infections: Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, and ... It is believed that only a few virions (virus particles) are sufficient to cause infection [56]. ... Development of CMX001 for the treatment of poxvirus infections. Viruses. 2010;2(12):2740-2762. ... The virus is not shed during the incubation period, which can be from 7 to 17 days but most commonly is 10 to 14 days (Figure 1 ...
2015). Analysis of gene expression changes in peach leaves in response to Plum pox virus infection using RNA-Seq. Mol. Plant ... Part II: Gene expression and metabolite accumulation in the response of fruits to Penicillium digitatum infection. Food Chem. ... I have used genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics to increase our knowledge on the fruit responses after the infection of ... I have also participated in the study of differential tomato transcriptomic responses induced by Pepino mosaic virus isolates, ...
Zika virus infection is diagnosed based on detection and isolation of Zika virus RNA from serum using nucleic acid ... Zika virus RNA can be found transiently in amniotic fluid, thus absence of RNA via NAAT does not rule out congenital Zika virus ... Zika virus RNA can be found transiently in amniotic fluid, thus absence of RNA via NAAT does not rule out congenital Zika virus ... Testing for Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women. Pregnant women with symptoms and possible exposure to Zika virus should ...
Known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.. *Exposed to live or live attenuated vaccine ≤ 4 weeks prior to ... defined as HCV RNA is detected) infection. ... ongoing or active infection;. *uncontrolled infection requiring ... Has a known history of Hepatitis B (defined as Hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] reactive) or known active Hepatitis C virus ...
DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal ... DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal ... CNS Infection CNS Infections Central Nervous System Infection Infection, CNS Infections, CNS Infections, Central Nervous System ... CNS Infection. CNS Infections. Central Nervous System Infection. Infection, CNS. Infections, CNS. Infections, Central Nervous ...
The conserved 5 termini of RNAs 1 and 2 of Tomato aspermy virus are dispensable for infection but affect virulence. Virus ... Stability and competitiveness of interviral recombinant RNAs derived from a chimeric cucumovirus. Virus Research. 140:216-221. ... Enhanced resistance and neutralization of defense responses by suppressors of RNA silencing. Virus Research. 130:103-109. ... Virus-like particle facilitated deposition of hydroxyapatite bone mineral on nanocellulose after exposure to phosphate and ...
The fragile, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus is relatively unstable outside the host. Infection is transmitted mainly via ... Canine distemper virus is a paramyxovirus closely related to the viruses of measles and rinderpest Rinderpest Rinderpest was ... The virus initially replicates in the lymphatic tissue of the respiratory tract. A cell-associated viremia results in infection ... The disease is due to an inflammatory reaction associated with persistent canine distemper virus infection in the CNS; however ...
... host cell is a prerequisite for viral entry and infection and an essential step in the life cycle of all enveloped viruses, ... The instant invention also provides nucleic acids, compositions, and methods effective against paramyxovirus infection. ... Accordingly, the instant invention provides therapeutic agents and vaccines effective against paramyxoviruses viruses, ... Fusion of the membrane of enveloped viruses with the plasma membrane of a receptive ...
... hepatitis A virus infection is associated with a limited type I interferon response and persistence of intrahepatic viral RNA. ... Hepatitis A infection is a vaccine-preventable illness. The primary means of hepatitis A virus (HAV) transmission in the United ... Outbreak of Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) Infections among Persons Who Use Drugs and Persons Experiencing Homelessness. ... Number of hepatitis A infections in persons who report drug use;. *Number of hepatitis A infections in persons who report ...
  • If the blood test for hepatitis C antibody is negative, then there is no hepatitis C virus infection and no further action needed. (
  • If the blood test for hepatitis C antibody is positive, then there needs to be a follow-up RNA blood test for hepatitis c virus infection. (
  • If the RNA is positive, then there is hepatitis C virus infection. (
  • [ 8 ] Other age-adjusted risk factors positively correlated with death due to WNE include chronic kidney disease, hepatitis C virus infection, and immunosuppression. (
  • Zika virus has dogs in Ecuador. (
  • She is involved in developing clinical guidance for healthcare providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible exposure to Zika virus. (
  • Dr. Oduyebo is also involved with the US Zika Pregnancy Registry, and provides technical assistance to support state, tribal, local and territorial health departments collecting information about pregnancy and infant outcomes following laboratory evidence of confirmed or possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. (
  • Dr. Berry-Bibee is a practicing OB-GYN and a guest researcher at the CDC, currently serving on CDC's Zika Virus Emergency Response on the Pregnancy and Birth Defects Task Force Contraception Access Team. (
  • CDC has updated its interim guidance for persons with possible Zika virus exposure who are planning to conceive ( 1 ) and interim guidance to prevent transmission of Zika virus through sexual contact ( 2 ), now combined into a single document. (
  • Guidance for care for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure was previously published ( 3 ). (
  • Possible Zika virus exposure is defined as travel to or residence in an area of active Zika virus transmission ( ), or sex* without a condom † with a partner who traveled to or lived in an area of active transmission. (
  • Based on new though limited data, CDC now recommends that all men with possible Zika virus exposure who are considering attempting conception with their partner, regardless of symptom status, § wait to conceive until at least 6 months after symptom onset (if symptomatic) or last possible Zika virus exposure (if asymptomatic). (
  • Recommendations for women planning to conceive remain unchanged: women with possible Zika virus exposure are recommended to wait to conceive until at least 8 weeks after symptom onset (if symptomatic) or last possible Zika virus exposure (if asymptomatic). (
  • Couples with possible Zika virus exposure, who are not pregnant and do not plan to become pregnant, who want to minimize their risk for sexual transmission of Zika virus should use a condom or abstain from sex for the same periods for men and women described above. (
  • Women of reproductive age who have had or anticipate future Zika virus exposure who do not want to become pregnant should use the most effective contraceptive method that can be used correctly and consistently. (
  • Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of congenital microcephaly and serious brain abnormalities ( 4 ). (
  • The risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal Zika virus infection around the time of conception is unknown. (
  • To date, there have been no published reports of adverse pregnancy outcomes after periconceptional Zika virus infection. (
  • Zika virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. (
  • Zika virus can also be transmitted through sex without a condom. (
  • The risk for sexual transmission of Zika virus from a person infected with Zika virus remains unknown. (
  • Most reported sexual transmissions have been from persons with symptomatic Zika virus infections, including from men to female sex partners ( 10 - 12 ), from a man to his male sex partner ( 13 ), and from a woman to her male sex partner ( 14 ). (
  • Two new reports describe one presumed and one more definitive case of sexual transmission from men with asymptomatic Zika virus infection to female sex partners ( 15 , 16 ). (
  • Sexual transmission of Zika virus has been associated with condomless anal sex and vaginal sex and possibly also with fellatio ( 17 ). (
  • Among reported cases of sexually transmitted Zika virus infection, the longest reported period between sexual contact that might have transmitted Zika virus and symptom onset was 32-41 days (based on an incubation period of 3-12 days) ( 18 ). (
  • Data on the detection of Zika virus RNA in semen can inform estimates of the periods during which sexual transmission might occur. (
  • Confirmation of Zika virus infection based on diagnostic testing is challenging due to test sensitivity, specificity, and the epidemiologic prevelance of Zika. (
  • Diagnostic testing of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is based on molecular and serologic methods. (
  • A negative NAAT for Zika virus does not rule out infection due to transient viremia during active infection. (
  • IgM antibody can remain positive for up to 12 weeks or longer in patients with history of Zika virus infection making it difficult to interpret recent or acute infection. (
  • Zika virus IgM antibody assays can be used on serum, plasma, whole blood, or cerebrospinal fluid. (
  • Differentiation from other flaviviruses and late diagnosis of Zika virus infection more than 3 months from illness is possible with PRNT. (
  • As the prevelance of Zika virus infection has declined, potential detection of false-positive test results is likely. (
  • Prompt diagnosis and laboratory confirmation of Zika virus infection is challenging. (
  • Zika virus infection is diagnosed based on detection and isolation of Zika virus RNA from serum using nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). (
  • After the initial week of illness, serologic testing for virus-specific immunoglobin M (IgM) and neutralizing antibodies against Zika virus infection can be performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (
  • In patients within 7 days of symptom onset, a positive serum NAAT for Zika is suggestive of the presence of acute Zika virus infection. (
  • In patients within 7 days of symptom onset, a negative serum NAAT and IgM antibody testing is suggestive of absence of Zika virus infection. (
  • In patients more than 7 days to 12 weeks from symptom onset, a negative IgM antibody testing is suggestive of absence of Zika virus infection. (
  • A 4-fold higher titer based on PRNT results might not differentiate anti-Zika virus antibodies from cross-reacting antibodies in all persons with previous infection or vaccination against a related flavivirus. (
  • A viral disease transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes infected with Zika Virus. (
  • The Zika virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito of the genus Aedes , mainly Aedes aegypti . (
  • Transmission associated with blood transfusion is possible, since the RNA of Zika virus was identified in asymptomatic blood donors during a current surge. (
  • There is strong evidence of a possible association of infection by Zika virus in pregnant women in Brazil and the occurrence of microcephaly in newborn infants. (
  • About 1 in 5 people infected with the Zika virus become symptomatic. (
  • Based on the typical clinical features, differential diagnosis for infection by Zika virus is widespread. (
  • There is no vaccine and no specific antiviral treatment available for the condition of the Zika virus. (
  • Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, non-steroidal should be avoided until dengue can be discarded to reduce the risk of hemorrhage.When traveling to countries where the Zika virus or other viruses transmitted by mosquitoes have been reported, the recommendation is to use insect repellent, long sleeves and pants, and stay in places with air conditioning or window and door fitted with insect screens. (
  • The fact that the species of Aedes mosquitoes that transmit the Zika virus are found throughout the world, it is likely that the outbreak from spreading to other countries. (
  • Human macrophage-colony stimulating factor: alternative RNA and protein processing from a single gene. (
  • 1993). The second glycoprotein is the fusion protein (F), a type I membrane glycoprotein, which facilitates the membrane fusion event between the virion and host cell during virus infection (reviewed in Lamb, 1993). (
  • When the guide RNA binds to the genome, the Cas9 protein cuts the DNA. (
  • The researchers also noted that when the guide RNA did bind non-specifically, the Cas9 protein disengaged from the DNA almost immediately. (
  • In the the Nature paper, researchers noted that when the guide RNA does bind correctly, only then does the Cas9 protein undergo specific changes to its structure (known as conformational changes), which enable it to cut the DNA. (
  • When the guide RNA detects the virus, the Cas9 protein chops up the viral genome, thus inhibiting the infection. (
  • If the system worked too non-specifically, then the guide RNA could bind to portions of the bacteria's own genome and the Cas9 protein would self-attack the bacteria. (
  • Lastly, we identified heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) as a protein relevant for the infection. (
  • HCV RNA Hepatitis C virus ribonucleic acid. (
  • RNA Ribonucleic acid. (
  • Because of the high rate of asymptomatic infection with these viruses, information about the prevalence of these diseases is needed to monitor prevention efforts. (
  • The Culex mosquito, common in the eastern United States, is the primary vector responsible for infecting humans with West Nile virus. (
  • The Australian black flying fox is a reservoir of Hendra virus, which can be transmitted to horses and sometimes humans. (
  • Bats' fierce immune systems drive viruses to higher virulence, making them deadlier in humans. (
  • The Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus, is a host to the Marburg virus, which can infect monkeys and cross over into humans to cause a deadly hemorrhagic fever. (
  • The project, Bat One Health, explores the link between loss of bat habitat and the spillover of bat viruses into other animals and humans. (
  • Nonhuman primates and humans are probably the main reservoirs of the virus, and anthroponotic transmission (man-vector-man) occurs during outbreaks. (
  • Peiris, J. S., de Jong, M. D. & Guan, Y. Avian influenza virus (H5N1): a threat to human health. (
  • Fodor, E., Mingay, L. J., Crow, M., Deng, T. & Brownlee, G. G. A single amino acid mutation in the PA subunit of the influenza virus RNA polymerase promotes the generation of defective interfering RNAs. (
  • Kawaguchi, A., Naito, T. & Nagata, K. Involvement of influenza virus PA subunit in assembly of functional RNA polymerase complexes. (
  • Deng, T., Sharps, J. L. & Brownlee, G. G. Role of the influenza virus heterotrimeric RNA polymerase complex in the initiation of replication. (
  • 3D structure of the influenza virus polymerase complex: localization of subunit domains. (
  • 18, 19, 20] Pregnant women were more than four times as likely to be hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza virus in 2009 compared with the general population, and though pregnant women represent only 1% of the U.S. population, they accounted for 5.9% of ICU admissions and 5.7% of deaths associated with the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. (
  • Influenza virus is a significant risk for newborns and infants due to their incompletely developed immune systems. (
  • While studies are inconclusive on the impact of maternal influenza virus on fetal and neonatal outcomes, infants under 6 months have higher rates of hospitalization and increased mortality associated with influenza infection relative to infants greater than 6 months and children in other age groups. (
  • A syringe will then be inserted into the hole, and inject influenza virus into a specific cavity (a sac) inside the egg. (
  • There the influenza virus will grow and multiply. (
  • Quantitative assays for HCV RNA Tests to detect HCV RNA concentration (viral load) by amplification of viral genetic sequences or by signal amplification. (
  • High molecular weight ribonucleoprotein complexes associated with PVA infection, which contain in addition to helper component-proteinase (HCPro) many viral and host proteins [1], have many of these proteins in common with the PVA-induced RNA granules [2]. (
  • Importantly, these proteins are required for the systemic spread of viral infection and the formation of stable viral particles. (
  • Horisberger, M. A. The large P proteins of influenza A viruses are composed of one acidic and two basic polypeptides. (
  • Braam, J., Ulmanen, I. & Krug, R. M. Molecular model of a eucaryotic transcription complex: functions and movements of influenza P proteins during capped RNA-primed transcription. (
  • The incorporation of biologically active host proteins into HIV-1 is a well-established phenomenon, particularly due to the budding mechanism of viral egress in which viruses acquire their external lipid membrane directly from the host cell. (
  • characterized by sustained disappearance of serum HCV RNA and normalization of liver enzymes. (
  • The laboratory diagnosis is usually performed by testing the plasma or serum to detect the virus, viral nucleic acid or virus specific immunoglobulin M and neutralizing antibodies. (
  • characterized by detection of HCV RNA greater than or equal to 6 months after newly acquired infection. (
  • NASBA was used for the detection of the viral RNA in sera of patients clinical y diagnosed as having dengue virus infection, and compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (
  • NASBA will be useful in the early detection of acute dengue virus infection. (
  • However, it generally requires a thermal cycler, which is expensive, and takes more than 12 hours for RNA extraction detection(3). (
  • Hepatitis viruses constitute a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the acute and chronic consequences of these infections. (
  • Co-infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) in persons with acute or chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to fulminant hepatitis. (
  • Terms and Abbreviations Used in This Publication Acute hepatitis C Newly acquired symptomatic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (
  • detectable in persons with acute, chronic, and resolved infection. (
  • [ 32 ] Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is standard diagnostic testing for confirmation of acute infection. (
  • Thirty-four acute sera were obtained from patients suspected of having dengue virus infection and 20 normal sera were obtained from primary-school children. (
  • A cell-associated viremia results in infection of all lymphatic tissues, which is followed by infection of respiratory, GI, and urogenital epithelium, as well as the CNS and optic nerves. (
  • Mathematical Model of the Role of Asymptomatic Infection in Outbreaks of Some Emerging Pathogens. (
  • 4 An HAV-infected person can be viremic up to six weeks through their clinical course and excrete virus in stool for up to two weeks prior to becoming symptomatic, making identifying exposures particularly difficult. (
  • Evolution and epidemiologic dynamics of dengue virus in Nicaragua during the emergence of chikungunya and Zika viruses. (
  • We propose that HCPro recruits VCS, which serves as a scaffolding platform to assemble an RNP complex around viral RNA, to which AGO1 binds through HCPro. (
  • The part of the Cas9 enzyme that cuts the DNA is inhibited until the guide RNA binds specifically. (
  • The disease is caused by the West Nile virus, a positive-strand RNA flavivirus. (
  • The instant invention also provides nucleic acids, compositions, and methods effective against paramyxovirus infection. (
  • Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) was employed with a set of universal primers and probe based on the 3' non-coding region of the dengue viral RNA sequence. (
  • HIV RNA and cytokine mRNA expression vary during HIV disease progression . (
  • HIV RNA expression is greatest in the intermediate stage of the disease . (
  • [ 6 ] When the virus infects these structures of the central nervous system, it may be described as neuroinvasive disease. (
  • For more information, see the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) fact sheet on West Nile virus , links to state and local government web sites on West Nile virus , and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) article on mosquito control . (
  • Epidemiologic research on the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic requires diagnostic technologies and the capacity to interpret results of clinical and population tests for active infection, disease and for history of exposure. (
  • Infection and disease affect different populations differently, and age is one of the most important dimensions that impacts all aspects of epidemic spread and health consequences. (
  • however, when this disease affects populations with already poor health (e.g., hepatitis B and C infections, chronic liver disease), infection can lead to serious outcomes, including death. (
  • The bottom line is that bats are potentially special when it comes to hosting viruses," said Mike Boots, a disease ecologist and UC Berkeley professor of integrative biology. (
  • Boots and UC Berkeley colleague Wayne Getz are among 23 Chinese and American co-authors of a paper published recently in the journal EcoHealth that argues for better collaboration between U.S. and Chinese scientists who are focused on disease ecology and emerging infections. (
  • Detailed knowledge of the molecular biology of SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial for understanding of viral replication, host responses and disease progression. (
  • On 29 June 2015, Liberia's respite from Ebola virus disease (EVD) was interrupted for the second time by a renewed outbreak ("flare-up") of seven confirmed cases. (
  • Hafren, A., Lõhmus, A, and Mäkinen, K. (2015) "Formation of Potato virus A-induced RNA granules and viral translation are interrelated processes required for optimal virus accumulation" PLOS Pathogens, 11(12):e1005314. (
  • Such pathogens include hepatitis C virus, which has been detected on the oral mucosal surface (2) and in saliva of infected patients (3), and human papilloma virus and Staphylococcus aureus, which have been cultured from clinicians' gloves after treatment of patients (4,5). (
  • Previous studies demonstrated that mucosal HIV p24 antigen content varied during the progression of HIV infection . (
  • Here we demonstrate the importance to viral replication of a subunit interface in the viral RNA polymerase, thereby providing a new set of potential drug binding sites entirely independent of surface antigen type. (
  • [ 5 ] WNV infection manifests as two clinical syndromes: West Nile fever (WN fever) and West Nile encephalitis (WNE). (
  • Targeting viral genome synthesis as broad-spectrum approach against RNA virus infections. (
  • The recent emergence in Asia of avian influenza related to highly pathogenic forms of the human virus has highlighted the urgent need for new effective treatments 1 . (
  • The RNA pellet enzymes: avian myeloblastosis virus-reverse was washed with 75% ethanol. (
  • Genetic diversity, phylogeography, and evolutionary dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) viruses. (
  • The guide RNA can be engineered to match any sequence in a genome that is of interest to scientists. (
  • For example, scientists worry about the possibility that the guide RNA may attach to places in the genome that are a close match but not a 100 percent match. (
  • The guide RNA the bacteria make are sequences that recognize portions of the genome of viruses that commonly invade them. (
  • This Health Alert Network (HAN) Advisory alerts public health departments, healthcare facilities, and programs providing services to affected populations about these outbreaks of hepatitis A infections and provides guidance to assist in identifying and preventing new infections. (
  • 12,13 Outbreaks of hepatitis A infections among homeless persons have occurred in other countries, but large outbreaks among the homeless have not been described previously in the United States. (
  • Infections with other viruses (e.g., cytomegalovirus, rubella, parvovirus) around the time of conception have been associated with congenital infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes, although the exact timing of infection relative to conception was sometimes uncertain ( 5 - 9 ). (
  • Qualitative RT-PCR for HCV RNA Test to detect HCV RNA by amplification of viral genetic sequences. (
  • A negative immunoglobulin IgM serologic test does not rule out infection due to lack of precise timing to detect presence of antibody response. (
  • These methods are simple to perform, In this study, we have used NASBA and but generally require paired sera samples for PCR to detect dengue viral RNA in the the measurement of the rising antibody titers patients' sera and compared the process for and have high cross-reaction with other determining the coupling of NASBA flaviviruses(1,2). (
  • In presence of concern for cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses, plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) provide quantitative virus-specific antibody titers for dengue, Zika, and other flaviviruses. (
  • Although distinct, Ebola virus (EBOV) genomes from both flare-ups exhibit significantly low genetic divergence, indicating a reduced rate of EBOV evolution during persistent infection. (
  • Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. (
  • NHANES testing for markers of infection with hepatitis viruses will be used to determine secular trends in infection rates across most age and racial/ethnic groups, and will provide a national picture of the epidemiologic determinants of these infections. (
  • The NAAT should be repeated on newly extracted RNA from the same specimen to rule out false-positive test results. (
  • 2 Severe infections can result in cholestatic hepatitis, relapsing hepatitis, and fulminant hepatitis leading to death. (
  • determining the viruses is virus isolation in tissue culture or mosquito, followed by immunofluorescent staining or ELISA typing, Materials and methods using specific monoclonal antibodies. (
  • Influenza A virus is a major human and animal pathogen with the potential to cause catastrophic loss of life. (
  • These defenses are not directed against any one pathogen but instead, provide a guard against all infection. (
  • I have used genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics to increase our knowledge on the fruit responses after the infection of the pathogen or after elicitation of induced resistance, and on the mechanisms of virulence and pathogenicity of the pathogen. (
  • 10, 11, 12] Changes to immune and cardiorespiratory systems in pregnancy increase susceptibility for certain infections and place women at risk for influenza-associated complications. (
  • We describe the crystal structure of a large fragment of one subunit (PA) of influenza A RNA polymerase bound to a fragment of another subunit (PB1). (
  • Epidemiology of spotted fever group and typhus brain tissue samples from stillborn infants and from pla- group rickettsial infection in the Amazon basin of Peru. (
  • In addition, NHANES provides the means to better define the epidemiology of other hepatitis viruses. (
  • The epidemiology of canine distemper is complicated by the large number of species susceptible to infection. (
  • Molecular insights into the function of the viral RNA silencing suppressor HC-pro" The Plant Journal , 85, 30-45. (
  • Viral RNA was cation (NASBA) is an isothermal RNA precipitated by the addition of 500 µl amplification technique (usually at 41oC). (
  • Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe complications from influenza infection as compared with non-pregnant women and the general population. (
  • Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which infects and kills T cells, can also allow the virus to become active again. (
  • Growing the virus in cell culture, or eggs, produces a larger volume and concentration of virus than what was in the original sample. (
  • This invention relates to peptides, compositions and methods involving these peptides for the inhibition of membrane fusion by paramyxoviruses and, in particular, membrane fusion mediated by Hendra virus and Nipah virus. (
  • As people age, growth and division (proliferation) of T cells are diminished, reducing the immune system's ability to control the virus, which can allow its reactivation. (
  • For example certain drugs, such as chemotherapies used to treat blood cancers like multiple myeloma or drugs that prevent rejection of a transplanted organ, impair the immune system and can lead to virus reactivation. (
  • Some bats - including those known to be the original source of human infections - have been shown to host immune systems that are perpetually primed to mount defenses against viruses. (
  • While bats can tolerate viruses like these, when these bat viruses then move into animals that lack a fast-response immune system, the viruses quickly overwhelm their new hosts, leading to high fatality rates. (
  • One key trick of many bats' immune systems is the hair-trigger release of a signaling molecule called interferon-alpha, which tells other cells to "man the battle stations" before a virus invades. (
  • I have also participated in the study of differential tomato transcriptomic responses induced by Pepino mosaic virus isolates, and in the characterization of the tomato FRUITFULL transcription factor that regulates ethylene-independent aspects of fruit ripening. (
  • By testing a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population, NHANES will provide the most reliable estimates of age-specific prevalence needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies to prevent these infections. (
  • HCV infection and its complications prevalence respectively in 2015 [6] . (
  • Variation in the expression of human immunodeficiency virus RNA and cytokine mRNA in rectal mucosa during the progression of infection. (
  • HIV Human immunodeficiency virus. (
  • Translational repression is a mechanism employed by RNA silencing to regulate gene expression. (
  • The primary means of hepatitis A virus (HAV) transmission in the United States is typically person-to-person through the fecal-oral route (i.e., ingestion of something that has been contaminated with the feces of an infected person). (
  • From January 2017 to April 2018, CDC has received more than 2,500 reports of hepatitis A infections associated with person-to-person transmission from multiple states. (
  • This 1976 high-powered, transmission electron microscopic (SEM) image reveals ultrastructural morphology exhibited by the mumps virus (MuV). (
  • Reduced evolutionary rate in reemerged Ebola virus transmission chains. (