Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Viruses whose nucleic acid is DNA.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
The type species of MORBILLIVIRUS and the cause of the highly infectious human disease MEASLES, which affects mostly children.
A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.
A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The type species of LYSSAVIRUS causing rabies in humans and other animals. Transmission is mostly by animal bites through saliva. The virus is neurotropic multiplying in neurons and myotubes of vertebrates.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.

Comparative study of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax infected in different ways. (1/218)

The transmission of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) was investigated in juvenile sea bass (3 g) Dicentrarchus labrax by using cell culture supernatant (SSN-1 cell line) containing nodavirus. Five methods of infection were tested: intramuscular injection (IM), intraperitoneal injection (IP), oral infection, bath exposure and cohabitation of healthy fish with infected fish. Some differences were observed in time of disease onset and severity of symptoms depending on the mode of infection used. Clinical symptoms such as whirling swimming and lethargic or hyperactive behaviour were generally reproduced, except for fish infected via oral and IP infection. First mortalities occurred 3 d after IM and IP infection and 6 d after for the other modes of infection. Cumulative mortalities were also variable: 100% after IM infection, 10% after IP infection, 32% for bath exposure, 43% after cohabitation and 24% via oral infection. Histopathologically, vacuolation was observed in the central nervous tissues and in the retina. The observed lesions were more or less severe depending on the mode of infection, the sampling time and the organs: lesions on the surviving fish (42 days post infection, d p.i.) seemed to be generally more conspicuous in the retina than in the brain of the same fish. In most cases, the presence of nodavirus was confirmed in the same samples of brain and retina by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The virus was not detected in other organs examined. The present results suggest that 2 forms of VER can be induced: IM injection leads to an acute form (severe nervous disorders with high and fast mortality) whereas oral infection, bath exposure and cohabitation induce a subacute form (less severe disorders and weak daily mortality). This experiment demonstrates experimentally induced horizontal transmission of VER in sea bass for the first time.  (+info)

Transmission of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) to yolk-sac larvae of the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus: occurrence of nodavirus in various organs and a possible route of infection. (2/218)

The susceptibility of the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus yolk-sac larvae to viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) was investigated by waterborne challenge experiments with nodavirus. Transfer of VER was indicated by several lines of evidence. A significantly higher cumulative mortality was observed after challenge with virus compared to mock challenge, and increasing doses of virus resulted in shorter incubation periods. When the challenge was performed on the day after hatching, the time from inoculation to the time when 50% of the larvae were dead (LT50) ranged from 26 to 32 d. Postponement of challenge for 13 d reduced the LT50 to 14 d, indicating that the susceptibility of the larvae to the present nodavirus strain was low during the first 2 wk after hatching. The progression of the infection was monitored by sequential immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. On Day 18 after hatching the initial signs of infection were observed as a prominent focus of immunolabelling in the caudal part of the brain stem. In the same larvae immunolabelled single cell lesions were observed in the stratified epithelium of the cranial part of the intestine. The portal of entry into the larvae may thus have been the intestinal epithelium, while the route of infection to the CNS may have been axonal transport to the brain stem through cranial nerves such as the vagus nerves. Later in the infection, lesions became more severe and widespread and were also found throughout the brain and spinal cord and in the retina, cranial ganglia, intestine, liver, olfactory epithelium, yolk-sac epithelium, gills and pectoral fins. The mortality in all virus-challenged groups was 100%. This study thus demonstrates that the present nodavirus strain is able to replicate and cause VER in Atlantic halibut yolk-sac larvae at temperatures as low as 6 degrees C.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of borna disease virus: granulocyte fractions of psychiatric patients harbor infectious virus in the absence of antiviral antibodies. (3/218)

Borna disease virus (BDV) causes acute and persistent infections in various vertebrates. During recent years, BDV-specific serum antibodies, BDV antigen, and BDV-specific nucleic acid were found in humans suffering from psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, viral antigen was detected in human autopsy brain tissue by immunohistochemical staining. Whether BDV infection can be associated with psychiatric disorders is still a matter of debate; no direct evidence has ever been presented. In the present study we report on (i) the detection of BDV-specific nucleic acid in human granulocyte cell fraction from three different psychiatric patients and (ii) the isolation of infectious BDV from these cells obtained from a patient with multiple psychiatric disorders. In leukocyte preparations other than granulocytes, either no BDV RNA was detected or positive PCR results were obtained only if there was at least 20% contamination with granulocytes. Parts of the antigenome of the isolated virus were sequenced, demonstrating the close relationship to the prototype BDV strains (He/80 and strain V) as well as to other human virus sequences. Our data provide strong evidence that cells in the granulocyte fraction represent the major if not the sole cell type harboring BDV-specific nucleic acid in human blood and contain infectious virus. In contrast to most other reports of putative human isolates, where sequences are virtually identical to those of the established laboratory strains, this isolate shows divergence in the region previously defined as variable in BDV from naturally infected animals.  (+info)

Molecular characterization of a ranavirus isolated from largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. (4/218)

An iridovirus, isolated from largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides following a die-off among adult fish and provisionally designated largemouth bass virus (LMBV), was characterized by analysis of viral protein synthesis in infected cells, viral DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), and sequence determination of the major capsid protein and viral DNA methyltransferase genes. All 3 approaches yielded results consistent with the suggestion that LMBV was a member of the genus Ranavirus. Moreover, LMBV was nearly identical to 2 isolates from Southeast Asia which had been previously detected in imported ornamental fish. It remains to be determined whether infection of largemouth bass resulted from exposure to an imported virus, or whether the presence of similar viruses in southeast Asia and the southeastern United States indicates that iridovirus species are not geographically limited as suggested earlier, but rather globally distributed.  (+info)

Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. (5/218)

We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations.  (+info)

Pathogenicity of nodavirus strains from striped jack Pseudocaranx dentex and Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus, studied by waterborne challenge of yolk-sac larvae of both teleost species. (6/218)

The present study shows that differences in pathogenicity exist among fish nodavirus strains. In challenge trials, a Japanese strain (SJ93Nag) was highly virulent to larvae of the striped jack Pseudocaranx dentex but replication was not detected in larvae of Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus at 6 degrees C. Conversely, a Norwegian nodavirus strain (AH95NorA) that was highly virulent to the Atlantic halibut larvae did not replicate in striped jack larvae at 20 degrees C. Occurrence of the disease viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) and cumulative mortality were significantly different in the 2 species when challenged with the 2 nodavirus strains. The presence of nodavirus in nervous tissue was monitored by immunohistochemical methods. Our results support the view that the genetic diversity among nodavirus strains reflects the existence of different viral phenotypes which may be adapted to infect different host species and/or for replicating at different temperatures. Fish nodaviruses represent surveyable pathogens well suited for studying the relation between viral genotypic and phenotypic properties such as host specificity, temperature optima, neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence.  (+info)

Surface disinfection of Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus eggs with ozonated sea-water inactivates nodavirus and increases survival of the larvae. (7/218)

Disinfection by ozonation of sea-water may reduce the risk of transmission of nodavirus, a major fish pathogen, via Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus eggs. In the present study, eggs at 4 d prior to hatching were exposed to nodavirus and then to ozonated sea-water using different concentrations (0.3 to 10 mg l-1) and exposure times (0.5 to 10 min). None of the larvae from virus-exposed eggs washed with ozonated sea-water developed viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), which was detected in all dead larvae from eggs exposed to nodavirus but not washed with ozonated sea-water. In the non-treated control group about 20% of the dead larvae developed the disease. This suggests that the halibut eggs taken from a large-scale production facility were already contaminated with nodavirus. The egg groups which had been treated with 4 mg O3 l-1 for 0.5 min or with lower total ozone exposures had a higher survival and no adverse effects on the development of the larvae after hatching were observed. Although a slight delay in hatching was found, after 2 d the cumulative hatching had normalised. In the egg groups with high total exposure (4 mg O3 l-1 for 1 min or higher total ozone exposures) a pronounced negative effect on hatching was observed. Our results indicate that the egg surface may be important in the transfer of nodavirus and that nodavirus associated with the surface of the egg may be inactivated by ozonated sea-water.  (+info)

Enteric virus infections and diarrhea in healthy and human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. (8/218)

Forty-three stool samples from 27 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive children and 38 samples from 38 HIV-negative children, collected during a 15-month period, were examined for enteric viruses. Diagnostic assays included enzyme immunoassays for rotavirus, adenovirus, and Norwalk virus; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for picobirnavirus and atypical rotavirus; and PCR for astrovirus and enterovirus. Specimens from HIV-positive children were more likely than those of HIV-negative children to have enterovirus (56 versus 21%; P < 0.0002) and astrovirus (12 versus 0%; P < 0.02), but not rotavirus (5 versus 8%; P > 0.5). No adenoviruses, picobirnaviruses, or Norwalk viruses were found. The rates of virus-associated diarrhea were similar among HIV-positive and HIV-negative children. Enteroviruses were excreted for up to 6 months in HIV-positive children; however, no evidence for prolonged excretion of poliovirus vaccine was observed. These results suggest that although infection with enterovirus and astrovirus may be frequent in HIV-infected children, enteric viruses are not associated with the diarrhea frequently suffered by these children.  (+info)

ABSTRACT: Homogenate of tissue from juveniles of Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus suffering from viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) was used to challenge smolt of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar with an initial average weight of 110 g. The nodavirus was administered in the form of an intraperitoneal injection, and the fish were kept for 134 d post challenge. Genotype characterisation of the nodavirus was performed by sequencing the RNA1 and RNA2 segments, and a quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR) assay was developed. Tissues from different organs were stained by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Samples were collected at random on Days 7, 25, 45, 69, 125 and 134 after challenge. Mortality, clinical signs and pathology of VER were observed only in the challenged group. The Q-PCR detected positive fish only in the challenged group, all of which were positive on all days of sampling. An increase in relative virus concentrations was observed from Day 7 to Day 25 post challenge. The increased ...
Author summary The regulation of type I interferon signaling pathway is dynamic sequential processes and must be tightly regulated to keep balance between antiviral immune and hyper-inflammatory responses. The precise regulation mechanisms of the innate immune signaling pathway are still worth studying. Here, we found a novel role of the interferon-inducible p200 family protein IFI204 that specifically inhibits the IRF7-mediated type I interferon production by negative control of the transcriptional activity of IRF7 in the nucleus at the late stage of RNA virus infection. Previous studies showed that IFI204 is involved in DNA sensing during DNA virus infection to initiate antiviral immune responses. We demonstrate that IFI204 can inhibit IRF7-mediated activation of type I IFN responses induced by RNA virus infection, which is in contrast with its role in IRF3 activation in cGAS-STING DNA sensing pathway during DNA virus infection. Such negative regulation may help to avoid hyper-inflammatory responses
Semin Immunol. 2009 Aug;21(4):215-22. doi: 10.1016/j.smim.2009.05.001. Epub 2009 Jun 17. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Review
Implements robust cure models for survival analysis by incorporate a weakly informative prior in the logistic part of cure models. Estimates prognostic accuracy, i.e. AUC, k-index and c-index, with bootstrap confidence interval for cure models.. ...
Production of Red-spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Capsid Protein Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Surface Display ;kpubs;
ABSTRACT: Betanodaviruses, the causative agents of viral nervous necrosis in marine fish, have bipartite positive-sense RNA genomes. The viruses have been classified into 4 distinct types based on nucleotide sequence similarities in the variable region (the so-called T4 region) of the smaller genomic segment RNA2 (1.4 kb). Betanodaviruses have marked host specificity, although the primary structures of the viral RNAs and encoded proteins are similar among the viruses. We have previously demonstrated, using reassortants between striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV) and redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), that RNA2, which encodes the coat protein, strictly controls host specificity. However, because RNA2 is large, we were unable to propose a mechanism underlying this RNA2-based host specificity. To identify the RNA2 region that controls host specificity, we constructed RNA2 chimeric viruses from SJNNV and RGNNV and tested their infectivity in the original host fish, striped ...
Localization of RNA replication to intracellular membranes is a universal feature of positive-strand RNA viruses. The betanodavirus greasy grouper (Epinephelus tauvina) nervous necrosis virus (GGNNV) is a positive-RNA virus with one of the smallest genomes among RNA viruses replicating in fish cells. To understand the localization of GGNNV replication complexes, we generated polyclonal antisera against protein A, the GGNNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Protein A was detected at 5 h postinfection in infected sea bass cells. Biochemical fractionation experiments revealed that GGNNV protein A sedimented with intracellular membranes upon treatment with an alkaline pH and a high salt concentration, indicating that GGNNV protein A is tightly associated with intracellular membranes in infected cells. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and bromo-UTP incorporation studies identified mitochondria as the intracellular site of protein A localization and viral RNA synthesis. In addition, protein A fused ...
Viruses in Betanodavirus are non-enveloped, with icosahedral geometries, and T=3 symmetry. The diameter is around 30 nm. Genomes are linear and segmented, bipartite, around 21.4kb in length.[8]. The crystal structure of a betanodavirus- T=3 Grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV)-like particle has been determined by X-ray crystallography. The virus-like particle contains 180 subunits of the capsid protein, and each capsid protein (CP) shows three major domains: (i) the N-terminal arm, an inter-subunit extension at the inner surface; (ii) the shell domain (S-domain), a jelly-roll structure; and (iii) the protrusion domain (P-domain) formed by three-fold trimeric protrusions. [10]. ...
SWISS-MODEL Template Library (SMTL) entry for 4rft.1. T=1 subviral particle of Grouper nervous necrosis virus capsid protein deletion mutant (delta 1-34 & 218-338)
Immunocytochemical Study on Blood and Organ Suspension of Tiger Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) Infected with Field Isolate of Viral Nervous Necrosis
Nodavirus is one of the most important diseases in farming of sea bass in the Mediterranean and causes viral nervous necrosis (VNN). VNN affects all production stages and causes a significant financial impact due to the high mortality rates and reduction of growth performance. The new vaccine, Alpha Ject micro 1 Noda, has been available as an emergency vaccine* in some Mediterranean countries since 2014. The results from commercial scale use have so far been promising.. Pharmaq president Morten Nordstad, said: Alpha Ject micro 1 Noda has been developed in response to fish farmers needs in the Mediterranean to fight against the most common viral disease affecting farmed sea bass in the Mediterranean. Pharmaq is committed to the continuous development and supply of innovative health solutions for fish farmers globally.. ...
Wolbachia are vertically transmitted, obligatory intracellular bacteria that infect a great number of species of arthropods and nematodes. In insects, they are mainly known for disrupting the reproductive biology of their hosts in order to increase their transmission through the female germline. In Drosophila melanogaster, however, a strong and consistent effect of Wolbachia infection has not been found. Here we report that a bacterial infection renders D. melanogaster more resistant to Drosophila C virus, reducing the load of viruses in infected flies. We identify these resistance-inducing bacteria as Wolbachia. Furthermore, we show that Wolbachia also increases resistance of Drosophila to two other RNA virus infections (Nora virus and Flock House virus) but not to a DNA virus infection (Insect Iridescent Virus 6). These results identify a new major factor regulating D. melanogaster resistance to infection by RNA viruses and contribute to the idea that the response of a host to a particular ...
Wolbachia are vertically transmitted, obligatory intracellular bacteria that infect a great number of species of arthropods and nematodes. In insects, they are mainly known for disrupting the reproductive biology of their hosts in order to increase their transmission through the female germline. In Drosophila melanogaster, however, a strong and consistent effect of Wolbachia infection has not been found. Here we report that a bacterial infection renders D. melanogaster more resistant to Drosophila C virus, reducing the load of viruses in infected flies. We identify these resistance-inducing bacteria as Wolbachia. Furthermore, we show that Wolbachia also increases resistance of Drosophila to two other RNA virus infections (Nora virus and Flock House virus) but not to a DNA virus infection (Insect Iridescent Virus 6). These results identify a new major factor regulating D. melanogaster resistance to infection by RNA viruses and contribute to the idea that the response of a host to a particular ...
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process ...
Viral contamination in biopharmaceutical manufacturing can lead to shortages in the supply of critical therapeutics. To facilitate the protection of bioprocesses, we explored the basis for the susceptibility of CHO cells to RNA virus infection. Upon infection with certain ssRNA and dsRNA viruses, CHO cells fail to generate a significant interferon (IFN) response. Nonetheless, the downstream machinery for generating IFN responses and its antiviral activity is intact in these cells: treatment of cells with exogenously-added type I IFN or poly I:C prior to infection limited the cytopathic effect from Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), and Reovirus-3 virus (Reo-3) in a STAT1-dependent manner. To harness the intrinsic antiviral mechanism, we used RNA-Seq to identify two upstream repressors of STAT1: Gfi1 and Trim24. By knocking out these genes, the engineered CHO cells exhibited activation of cellular immune responses and increased resistance to the RNA viruses ...
Current Research and Scholarly Interests The biochemistry of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase function, the cell biology of the membrane rearrangements induced by positive-strand RNA virus infection of human cells, and the genetics of RNA viruses, which, with their high error rates, live at the brink of error catastrophe, are investigated in the Kirkegaard laboratory. ...
Type I interferons are critical in antiviral immune responses, but increased type I interferons have also been associated with autoimmune diseases, including type I diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The RNA sensing molecule interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1) is a cytosolic receptor that recognizes single and double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and confers protection in the context of RNA virus infection. When activated by its RNA ligands, IFIH1 induces production of type I interferons and interferon-stimulated genes. Activating mutations in IFIH1 have been documented in early onset auto-inflammatory disorders, whereas loss-of-function variants of IFIH1 have been associated with decreased susceptibility to autoimmunity. Gorman et al. focused their studies on the rs1990760, a risk allele of IFIH1 associated with multiple autoimmune disorders that has a frequency of ~57% in European populations. The variant causes a single amino acid change, A946T, in the C-terminal ...
The RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) RIG-I, MDA5, and LGP2 play a major role in pathogen sensing of RNA virus infection to initiate and modulate antiviral immunity. The RLRs detect viral RNA ligands or processed self RNA in the cytoplasm to trigger innate immunity and inflammation and to impart gene expr …
Vnn1 - mouse gene knockout kit via CRISPR, 1 kit. |dl||dt|Kit Component:|/dt||dd|- |strong|KN319235G1|/strong|, Vnn1 gRNA vector 1 in |a href=
Vnn3 - Model 9270 C57BL/6 from Taconics GEM Collection. Genetically engineered mouse models for research. See the specs for these mice & start an order today.
ATLANTIC halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) is a large, commercially valuable flatfish that is distributed throughout the North Atlantic (Haug 1990) and has excellent potential for production in aquaculture. Atlantic halibut aquaculture is still in its infancy and, since husbandry and production methods are not completely optimized, genetic contributions to halibut broodstock performance are largely unexplored. Analyses of genetic variability in F1 fish retained as future aquaculture broodstock have demonstrated the presence of large family groups among these fish (Stefansson et al. 2001; Jackson et al. 2003), which could easily lead to inbreeding if crosses are not closely monitored. Additionally, the long time (5-7 years) until sexual maturation in halibut (Haug 1990) means that decades will be required to achieve production gains through standard broodstock selection.. In an effort to accelerate halibut broodstock productivity through genetic selection, a coordinated breeding scheme that ...
We used (1) ultracentrifugation followed by RT-PCR and (2) real-time RT-PCR to detect and quantify nodaviruses in seawater in which Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus larvae/fry had been held at rearing facilities. Evaluated against in vitro propagated viruses, the viral concentration corresponded to 1.6 × 104 TCID50 (50% tissue culture infectious dose) ml-1. Evaluated against in vitro transcribed RNA, the concentration was estimated at 2 × 107 virus particles ml-1 seawater ...
The monoclonal antibody (Mab) against Nodavirus (also know as VNN) is specific for this virus. The MAb has been tested by ELISA with Betanodavirus isolated from four different fish species, including European Sea Bass, Atlantic cod, halibut and Striped Jack.The Mab reacted with Nodavirus isolated from European Sea Bass that has been shown to belong to the RGNNV (red spotted groupe rnervous necrosis virus) cluster. It also reacted against Nodavirus isolated from Atlantic cod and halibut that have been shown to belong to the BFNNV (Barfin flounder nervous necrosis virus) cluster. The Mab did not react with SJNNV (striped jack nervous necrosis virus). SJNNV has been shown to be phylogenetically quite different to the other Nodavirus clusters.. ...
Fishes have adapted to almost all aquatic habitats on Earth, and they can be found living at temperatures from close to −2°C in the polar regions to +44°C in some African lakes (Nelson, 2006). However, no single species can tolerate the entire temperature range and individual species have evolved the capacity to function within species-specific thermal windows that can be quite narrow (Nelson, 2006). Consequently, there is great concern over the ability of fish to acclimate and adapt to the current ocean warming resulting from rising levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases (Caldeira and Wickett, 2003; Haugan and Drange, 1996; Levitus et al., 2000; Turley et al., 2010). Indeed, biological effects attributed to rising ocean temperatures, such as reduced growth rate and shifts in distribution and abundance, have already been observed for various marine fish species (Perry et al., 2005; Pörtner and Knust, 2007; Southward et al., 1995).. The Atlantic halibut [Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Linnaeus ...
The objective of the Project is the development of PCR microarrays for assessment of gene expression profiles related to sea bass resistance against viral nervous necrosis. The European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is one of the most important farmed species of aquaculture in the Mediterranean, with 153.182 tons of annual production. One of the main problems in sea bass farming is the development of diseases, including viral nervous necrosis (VNN). VNN is caused by beta-nodavirus strains and there is no effective treatment or widely available vaccine for the disease. Selective reproduction of resistant individuals is an alternative approach towards disease elimination, with the potential for increase of survival at least 12.5% ​​per generation. In the context of the present Project, PCR microarrays will be developed as a molecular tool to assess the resilience of farmed sea bass populations to VNN for genetic improvement, with commercial exploitation potential. The microarrays will be ...
Gomes AS, Jordal A-EOlderbakk, Olsen K, Harboe T, Power DM, Rønnestad I. Neuroendocrine control of appetite in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus): changes during metamorphosis and effects of feeding. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2015;183:116-25. doi:10.1016/j.cbpa.2015.01.009 ...
The major part of the driving force for water influx appears to be the generation of the large FAA pool, which reaches a peak concentration of 250 mmol kg−1 at a wet mass of 8-11 mg oocyte-1, coinciding with the period of maximal oocyte swelling (Fig. 3). By ovulation, the FAA concentrations had declined to the levels commonly found for the pelagic eggs of marine fish (Rønnestad and Fyhn, 1993; Matsubara and Koya, 1997; Rønnestad et al., 1999; Finn et al., 2000; Gunasekera and De Silva, 2000; Reith et al., 2001; Wright and Fyhn, 2001). Taken together, the FAAs, which occur almost exclusively in the yolk compartment of Atlantic halibut (Rønnestad et al., 1993; Finn et al., 1995a), contribute 50 % of the yolk osmotic pressure, while the sum of the inorganic ions contributes the other half. This supports earlier work, arguing that neither inorganic solutes (Watanabe and Kuo, 1986; LaFleur and Thomas, 1991; Wallace et al., 1992) nor organic solutes (Greeley et al., 1986; Thorsen et al., 1993) ...
An experimental microdiet prepared using an internal gelation method was used to partially replace the traditional live feed (Artemia) for larval Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus L. Three t
At the end of yolksac stage (36 days after hatching) halibut larvae were offered the prey organism Artemia salina at different densities ranging from 1 to 100.000 litre ^- 1. The feeding experiment was carried out in 11 black plastic tanks (10 litre) each containing 20 larvae. The optimal prey concentration in the initial first feeding situation was found to be in the range of 700 - 7.000 Artemia litre^- 1 ...
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miR-155 is generally believed to be a multifunctional miRNA (9, 10). It is transcribed from a noncoding gene named BIC gene, which is highly conserved in many species and broadly expressed in various organs, tissues, and cell types, indicating its versatile functions in various biological processes. It has been demonstrated that miR-155 plays important roles in physiological conditions (e.g., circulation, hematopoiesis, immunity, and inflammation), as well as pathological conditions (e.g., neoplastic diseases and cardiovascular disorders). Up until now, there were only two reports about the roles of miR-155 in viral infection: one was about the miR-155 ortholog named miR-K12-11 encoded by Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpes virus (30); the other was the induced miR-155 expression during EBV infection (31). Both of the viruses belong to the herpesvirus family, DNA virus. The induced miR-155 and the viral ortholog miR-K12-11 were both found to participate in the biological process of the indicated ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Aromatase plays a key role in sex differentiation of gonads. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of ovarian aromatase from protogynous hermaphrodite red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara), and prepared the corresponding anti-EaCyp19a1a antiserum. Western blot and immunofluorescence studies revealed ovary-specific expression pattern of EaCyp19a1a in adults and its dynamic expression change during artificial sex reversal. EaCyp19a1a was expressed by follicular cells of follicular layer around oocytes because strong EaCyp19a1a immunofluorescence was observed in the cells of ovaries. During artificial sex reversal, EaCyp19a1a expression dropped significantly from female to male, and almost no any positive EaCyp19a1a signal was observed in testicular tissues. Then, we cloned and sequenced a total of 1967 bp T-flanking sequence of EaCyp19a1a promoter, and showed a number of potential binding sites for some transcriptional factors, such as SOX5, GATA gene family, CREB, AP1, FOXL1, C/EBP, ...
Something that causes the mechanism of this viral infection is the bonding between VNN adhesin and its receptor molecule in grouper organs. Viral adhesin can be in the form of viral basic component namely coat protein and nucleic acid. Coat protein of VNN is primary factor in mechanism of virus infect the host (humpback grouper) where the protein have a role in attachment of viral to host receptor. It has been known that one of adhesin of VNN is haemaglutinin. Further development both adhesin and its receptor can be exploited to produce a protein material for a diagnostic tools to virus infection and so its prevention for fish cultured industry. For this purpose, the research objective is to identify how a role and expression of receptor protein from grouper brain, heart and kidney mediated by nervous, heart and nephrose cells in infection mechanism of VNN ...
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The views of the writers and readers of are the sole responsibility of the author or authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the owner, editor, webmaster, transmitter, or any of the other writers or respondents whose work appears at Vanguard News Network. VNN does not advocate any unlawful or criminal acts, nor should any statement made by anyone at VNN be taken as incitement, threat, or conspiracy to commit any unlawful or criminal acts. The views expressed at VNN do constitute free speech as protected by the First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States.. ...
The views of the writers and readers of are the sole responsibility of the author or authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the owner, editor, webmaster, transmitter, or any of the other writers or respondents whose work appears at Vanguard News Network. VNN does not advocate any unlawful or criminal acts, nor should any statement made by anyone at VNN be taken as incitement, threat, or conspiracy to commit any unlawful or criminal acts. The views expressed at VNN do constitute free speech as protected by the First Amendment of the Constitution of the United States.. ...
This graph shows the total number of publications written about RNA Viruses by people in this website by year, and whether RNA Viruses was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
An Evolutionary Screen Highlights Canonical and Noncanonical Candidate Antiviral Genes within the Primate TRIM Gene Family Journal Article ...
Use Bio-Rads PrimePCR assays, controls, templates for your target gene. Every primer pair is optimized, experimentally validated, and performance guaranteed.
Daniel, E., 1992. Lipids in the eggs of captive Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). B.Sc. (Hons) Thesis, Biochemistry Department, Memorial University of Newfoundland. Evans, R.P., 1994. Biochemical composition and phospholipase A2 activity in the eggs of captive Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). B.Sc. (Hons) Thesis, Biochemistry Department, MUN. Qingjun, L., 1994. Lipid class and carbohydrate concentrations in marine colloids. M.Sc. Thesis, Chemistry Department, MUN. Yang, Z., 1995. Development of a gas chromatographic method for profiling neutral lipids in marine samples. M.Sc. Thesis, Chemistry Department, MUN. Zhu, P., 1998. Biochemical composition of eggs and larvae of captive Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). M.Sc. Thesis, Biochemistry Department, MUN Budge, S.M., 1999. Fatty acid biomarkers in a cold water marine environment. Ph.D. Thesis, Chemistry Department, MUN (Awarded title of Fellow of the School of Graduate Studies in recognition of her outstanding ...
Pearl gentian grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus × Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, is a hybrid species with increasing market requirement in China. A disease outbreak occurred i
Molecular Immunology ; Volume 54. p. 443-452. 2013. Krasnov, Aleksei; Kileng, Øyvind; Skugor, Stanko; Jørgensen, Sven Martin; Afanasyev, Sergey; Timmerhaus, Gerrit; Sommer, Ann-Inger; Jensen, Ingvill. ...
The cause of ongoing mortality in barramundi Lates calcarifer (Bloch) in seawater culture was identified as Streptococcus iniae by biochemical and physiological tests. This is the first published record of this bacterial species in Australia and the first confirmed report of S. iniae causing mortality in barramundi. The bacterium was highly pathogenic for barramundi when challenged by bath exposure. The pathogen was found to have a LD sub(50) of 2.5 x 10 super(5) and 3.2 x 10 super(4) colony-forming units at 48 h and 10 d respectively. Experimental challenge of barramundi resulted in high levels of mortality (,40%) within a 48 h period. Ten days after the challenge, S. iniae could not be isolated from kidney, spleen, liver or eye of surviving fish. However, the organism was easily isolated from the brain of both moribund and healthy fish, indicating that barramundi can carry the bacterium asymptomatically.. ...
Looking for online definition of avian hepatitis B-like virus in the Medical Dictionary? avian hepatitis B-like virus explanation free. What is avian hepatitis B-like virus? Meaning of avian hepatitis B-like virus medical term. What does avian hepatitis B-like virus mean?
Background: Myostatin (MSTN) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily that negatively regulates growth of skeletal muscle tissue. The gene encoding for the MSTN peptide is a consolidate candidate for the enhancement of productivity in terrestrial livestock. This gene potentially represents an important target for growth improvement of cultured finfish.. Results: Here we report molecular characterization, tissue expression and sequence variability of the barramundi (Lates calcarifer) MSTN-1 gene. The barramundi MSTN-1 was encoded by three exons 379, 371 and 381 bp in length and translated into a 376-amino acid peptide. Intron 1 and 2 were 412 and 819 bp in length and presented typical GT...AG splicing sites. The upstream region contained cis-regulatory elements such as TATA-box and E-boxes. A first assessment of sequence variability suggested that higher mutation rates are found in the 5 flanking region with several SNPs present in this species. A putative micro RNA target ...
Pleuronectidae, also known as righteye flounders, are a family of flounders. They are called righteye flounders because most species lie on the sea bottom on their left sides, with both eyes on their right sides.[1] The Paralichthyidae are the opposite, with their eyes on the left side. A small number of species in Pleuronectidae can also have their eyes on the left side, notably the members of the genus Platichthys.[2][3] Their dorsal and anal fins are long and continuous, with the dorsal fin extending forward onto the head. Females lay eggs that float in mid-water until the larvae develop, and they sink to the bottom.[4] They are found on the bottoms of oceans around the world, with some species, such as the Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus, being found down to 2,000 m (6,600 ft). The smaller species eat sea-floor invertebrates such as polychaetes and crustaceans, but the larger righteye flounders, such as H. hippoglossus, which grows up to 4.7 m (15 ft) in length,[5] feed on ...
In the present study, we evaluated four commonly used housekeeping genes, viz., actin-β, elongation factor-1α (EF1α), acidic ribosomal protein (ARP), and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as internal references for quantitative analysis of immune genes in nervous necrosis virus (NNV)-infected seven-band grouper, Hyporthodus septemfasciatus. Expression profiles of the four genes were estimated in 12 tissues of healthy and infected seven-band grouper. Expression stability of the genes was calculated using the delta Ct method, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and geNorm algorithms. Consensus ranking was performed using RefFinder, and statistical analysis was done using GraphpadPrism 5.0. Tissue-specific variations were observed in the four tested housekeeping genes of healthy and NNV-infected seven-band grouper. Fold change calculation for interferon-1 and Mx expression using the four housekeeping genes as internal references presented varied profiles for each tissue. EF1α and actin-β was the
Precise control of interferons (IFNs) is crucial to maintain immune homeostasis. Here, we demonstrated that homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) was required for the production of type I IFNs in response to RNA virus infection. HIPK2 deficiency markedly impaired IFN production in macrophages after vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection, and HIPK2-deficient mice were more susceptible to lethal VSV disease than were wild-type mice. After VSV infection, HIPK2 was cleaved by active caspases, which released a hyperactive, N-terminal fragment that translocated to the nucleus and further augmented antiviral responses. In part, HIPK2 interacted with ELF4 and promoted its phosphorylation at Ser369, which enabled Ifn-b transcription. In addition, HIPK2 production was stimulated by type I IFNs to further enhance antiviral immunity. These data suggest that the kinase activity and nuclear localization of HIPK2 are essential for the production of type I IFNs. ...
Plays an important role in the maintenance of the Golgi complex, in membrane trafficking, in exocytosis, through its interaction with myosin VI and Rab8. Links myosin VI to the Golgi complex and plays an important role in Golgi ribbon formation. Negatively regulates the induction of IFNB in response to RNA virus infection. Plays a neuroprotective role in the eye and optic nerve. Probably part of the TNF-alpha signaling pathway that can shift the equilibrium toward induction of cell death. May act by regulating membrane trafficking and cellular morphogenesis via a complex that contains Rab8 and hungtingtin (HD). Mediates the interaction of Rab8 with the probable GTPase-activating protein TBC1D17 during Rab8-mediated endocytic trafficking, such as of transferrin receptor (TFRC/TfR); regulates Rab8 recruitnment to tubules emanating from the endocytic recycling compartment. Autophagy receptor that interacts directly with both the cargo to become degraded and an autophagy modifier of the MAP1 LC3 family;
11-KT are the principal androgens (2). Several studies in teleosts (Hippoglossus hippoglossus, Cyprinus carpio) depicts high levels of 11-KT during ...
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection triggers a rapid induction of host innate immune responses. The type I interferon (IFN) signal pathway is a central aspect of host defense which induces a wide range of antiviral proteins to control infection of incoming pathogens. In some cases, viral invasion also induces DNA damage response, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum stress, cytoplasmic stress granules and other innate immune responses, which in turn affect viral infection. However, HSV-1 has evolved multiple strategies to evade host innate responses and facilitate its infection. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings on the molecular mechanisms utilized by HSV-1 to counteract host antiviral innate immune responses with specific focus on the type I IFN signal pathway.
Halibut has arrived! Time to add grade A Alaskan Halibut to your menu! Wild caught from the continental shelf areas of remote Alaska, we are now delivering the highest quality Alaskan Halibut directly to our customers. Alaskan halibut are flat funny looking fish that swim the continental shelf ares in remote Alaska. Halibut sets the flavor standard for delicious tasting fish, and Captain Tony is supplying the highest quality, most remote and pristine fresh catches. The meat of this large-species halibut (up to 500lb per fish) is white, flaky and perfect. Typically baked or grilled, you cant get a better fish to cook with.This sustainably harvested abundant natural resource is an excellent source of protein. 100% all natural product comes directly from nature with no preservatives. These skinless boneless portions come individually vacuum packed. Perfectly sized portions are approximately 6oz and serve 1-2 people.
Role of pepsin in modifying the allergenicity of bhetki (Lates calcarifer) and mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) fish.: The effect of pepsin digestion on the al
1/72 Kh-41 (3M80) Moskit (SSN-22 Sunburn) Russian tactical anti-ship guided missile for: Su-27, Su-32FN, Su-27K(Su-33 ...
Cooking halibut or any fish for that matter is actually easier when it is baked. I find that it retains more of its flakiness and juiciness when it is baked to perfection. All you have to do is season it, then pop it in the oven. And voila! Healthy dinner in just 20 minutes!. Other than baking, halibut can also be broiled, boiled, grilled, sauteed, poached or steamed. Hubby loves his steamed fish, tho. But be careful when cooking this kind of delicate fish; the meat dries out quickly so you shouldnt take your eyes off of it.. ...
Halibut vs Squid as food - In-Depth Nutrition Comparison. Compare Halibut to Squid as food by vitamins and minerals using the only readable nutrition comparison tool.
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His research considers RNA virus infections. Cameron developed lethal mutagenesis; an alternative mechanism of action of ... Cameron, Craig E.; Andino, Raul; Crotty, Shane (2001). "RNA virus error catastrophe: Direct molecular test by using ribavirin ... The modified virus fluoresces when it is replicating, allowing researchers to monitor the replication of viruses in thousands ... During his undergraduate research he noticed that physicians were not ready to deal with viruses. The viruses that Cameron ...
A3G combats HIV infection by interacting with and mutating the virus' RNA. The mutations genetically damage the virus protein ... RNA editing APOBEC3G Viral infectivity factor Michael Wentzel (12 January 2004). "UR Invests in Anti-HIV Startup". Rochester ... which allowed A3G to function normally and halt the spread of the virus. The company is also researching drugs that protect A3G ... and render HIV unable to replicate which halts the spread of the virus. In laboratory testing, OyaGen was able to use drug ...
"Activation of MDA5 requires higher-order RNA structures generated during virus infection". Journal of Virology. 83 (20): 10761- ... "Activation of MDA5 Requires Higher-Order RNA Structures Genereated during Virus Infection". Journal of Virology. 83 (20): 10761 ... MDA5, an RNA helicase, is known to be activated by complex high molecular weight dsRNA transcribed from the viral genome. In a ... The RNA fragments produced by RNAse L have double stranded regions, as well as specific markers, that allow them to be ...
"Mycophenolic acid inhibits dengue virus infection by preventing replication of viral RNA". Virology. 304 (2): 211-21. doi: ... such as activation of latent viral infections, including shingles, other herpes infections, cytomegalovirus, and BK virus ... A combination of mycophenolate and ribavirin has been found to stop infection by and replication of dengue virus in vitro. It ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an alert that people are at increased risk of opportunistic infections, ...
Lafon, M. (2016). Reiss, Carol Shoshkes (ed.). Neurotropic Viral Infections (Vol. 1): Neurotropic RNA Viruses (2nd edn). https ... Lathe has also argued that infection may play a role in Alzheimer disease, and has worked with Rudy Tanzi and Rob Moir at ... The prion theory has been widely questioned, and the prion (PrP) protein is now recognized to be an RNA-binding protein. Darlix ... Itzhaki, Ruth F; Lathe, Richard (1 January 2018). "Herpes Viruses and Senile Dementia: First Population Evidence for a Causal ...
The reduced infection was due to the presence of CHV1, an RNA virus that infects C. parasitica. CHV1 spread naturally ... However, the virus was so efficient at attenuating fungal growth that it prevented spreading of the virus from an infected ... "Viruses. 10 (12): 687. doi:10.3390/v10120687. PMC 6315935. PMID 30513977.. *^ Anagnostakis SL (2000) Revitalization of the ... have resistance to infection by C. parasitica: the infection usually does not kill these Asian chestnut species. Within 40 ...
RNA-directed RNA polymerase (NS5B) inhibitor treatment of hepatitis C virus infection". Drugs of the Future. 34 (4): 282-290. ... Specifically, PSI-6130 inhibits the hepatitis C virus RNA dependant RNA polymerase called NS5B. PSI-6130 is currently being ... 2006). "Inhibition of hepatitis C replicon RNA synthesis by beta-D-2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-2'-C-methylcytidine: a specific inhibitor ... a potent inhibitor of hepatitis C virus replication". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 48 (17): 5504-8. doi:10.1021/jm0502788. ...
Guo J, Peters KL, Sen GC (2000). "Induction of the human protein P56 by interferon, double-stranded RNA, or virus infection". ... "Enhanced Expression of Interferon-Regulated Genes in the Liver of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: Detection ... Lafage M, Clauss I, Couez D, Simonetti J, Wathelet MG, Huez G (Jul 1992). "The interferon- and virus-inducible IFI-56K and IFI- ... Late activation of interferon-induced genes IFI-54k and IFI-56k in human RH cells infected with tick-borne encephalitis virus ...
Co-infection weakens selection against epistatic mutations in RNA viruses. Genetics Montville, R., R. Froissart, S. K. Remold, ... Evolvability of an RNA virus is determined by its mutational neighbourhood. Nature 406:625-628. Wichman, H. A., L. A. Scott, C ... Fitness of RNA virus decreased by Muller's ratchet. Nature 348:454-455. Turner, P. E., and L. Chao. 2003. Escape from ... Evolution by small steps and rugged landscapes in the RNA virus _6. Genetics 151:921-927. Klovins, J., N. A. Tsareva, M. H. de ...
Sun Y, Leaman DW (2005). "Involvement of Noxa in cellular apoptotic responses to interferon, double-stranded RNA, and virus ... infection". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (16): 15561-8. doi:10.1074/jbc.M412630200. PMID 15705586. Ceballos E, Muñoz-Alonso MJ, Berwanger ...
Various candidates have been implicated, including upper respiratory tract infection by some novel RNA virus. Despite intensive ... While the specific cause is unknown, it is thought to result from an excessive immune system response to an infection in ... A plausible explanation is that it may be caused by an infection that triggers an inappropriate immunologic cascade in a small ... In 2020, reports of a Kawasaki-like disease following exposure to SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19, emerged in ...
Berkhout B, Haasnoot J (2006). "The interplay between virus infection and the cellular RNA interference machinery". FEBS Lett ... Ahlquist P (2002). "RNA-dependent RNA polymerases, viruses, and RNA silencing". Science 296 (5571): 1270-3. PMID 12016304. doi: ... Stram Y, Kuzntzova L (2006). "Inhibition of viruses by RNA interference". Virus Genes 32 (3): 299-306. PMID 16732482. doi: ... "Silencing of hepatitis A virus infection by small interfering RNAs". J Virol 80 (11): 5599-610. PMC 1472172. PMID 16699041. doi ...
Diamond MS, Zachariah M, Harris E. Mycophenolic acid inhibits dengue virus infection by preventing replication of viral RNA. ... 在美國食品藥品監督管理局(FDA)已發出警告,指接受黴酚酸酯和黴酚酸的患者受機會性感染的風險有所增加,例如激活潛在的病毒感染,如帶狀皰疹、其他單純皰疹感染、鉅細胞
... 's pro-vial effect is present in the Sindbis virus (a positive sense RNA virus) infection model. HnRNPA1 has been found ... In the case of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a positive sense RNA virus, hnRNPA1 interacts with a crucial region near the 3' end of ... HnRNPA1 is involved in the life cycle of DNA, positive sense RNA, and negative sense RNA viruses are multiple stages post- ... promoting synthesis of negative-strand RNA. HnRNPA1 has a similar role in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection in ...
"Diverse responses of the bivalve-killing dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama to infection by a single-stranded RNA virus ...
Shiraki K, Daikoku T (February 2020). "Favipiravir, an anti-influenza drug against life-threatening RNA virus infections". ... In a study published in the Scientific Reports, Syrian hamster model for Nipah virus infection was used, which closely mirrors ... June 2009). "T-705 (favipiravir) and related compounds: Novel broad-spectrum inhibitors of RNA viral infections". Antiviral ... The mechanism of its actions is thought to be related to the selective inhibition of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.[ ...
Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein and Its Binding to Viral RNA during Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection Inhibits Virus ... Known for his studies in the fields of RNA virus replication and vaccine development, Vrati is an elected fellow of the ... Kalia, Manjula; Khasa, Renu; Sharma, Manish; Nain, Minu; Vrati, Sudhanshu (1 January 2013). "Japanese Encephalitis Virus ... molecular mechanisms of virus replication, assembly, egress as well as the clinical development of an oral rotavirus vaccine. ...
If these viruses each contain an RNA segment with a lethal damage, multiple infection can lead to reactivation providing that ... In segmented RNA viruses, "mating" can occur when a host cell is infected by at least two virus particles. ... Multiplicity reactivation has been reported to occur in influenza virus infections after induction of RNA damage by UV- ... Influenza virus, whose genome consists of 8 physically separated single-stranded RNA segments, is an example of this type of ...
In: Cellular signaling and innate immune responses to RNA virus infections. (2009) Washington, DC: ASM Press. pp. 287-299. ... The L segment encodes for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Batai virus is geographically spread throughout Asia and Europe. It ... Classified via the Baltimore scheme, Batai virus is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus. The orthobunyavirus genome has ... Batai orthobunyavirus (BATV) is a RNA virus belonging to order Bunyavirales, genus Orthobunyavirus. Batai virus (BATV) is an ...
Some evidence suggests that the drug's actions are more effective at preventing infections from RNA viruses than infections ... "Antiviral activity of arbidol against influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, coxsackie virus and ... Umifenovir inhibits membrane fusion of influenza virus. Umifenovir prevents contact between the virus and target host cells. ... B and poliovirus infection of mammalian cells when introduced either in advance of viral infection or during infection. As of ...
October 2009). "Activation of MDA5 requires higher-order RNA structures generated during virus infection". Journal of Virology ... the genomic RNA of dsRNA viruses as well as replicative intermediates of both positive and negative sense RNA viruses. MDA5 has ... July 2004). "The RNA helicase RIG-I has an essential function in double-stranded RNA-induced innate antiviral responses". ... Byszewska M, Śmietański M, Purta E, Bujnicki JM (2014-12-02). "RNA methyltransferases involved in 5' cap biosynthesis". RNA ...
As was later shown, this activity was not due to infection by RNA tumor viruses, but rather to endogenous reverse transcriptase ... Later, Green's research extended to the RNA tumor viruses (tumor inducing viruses with an RNA genome). Before reverse ... He coupled this basic research to the effort to detect RNA tumor viruses in human cancer. Tremendous effort was directed to the ... Grandgenett, D. P.; Gerard, G. F.; Green, M. (1973). "A Single Subunit from Avian Myeloblastosis Virus with Both RNA-Directed ...
Rubino, L. & Russo, M. (2010). Properties of a novel satellite RNA associated with tomato bushy stunt virus infections. J Gen ... Plant satellite RNAs and virusoids depend on their respective helper viruses for replication, while the helper viruses ... Abouhaidar.Self-cleaving circular RNA associated with rice yellow mottle virus is the smallest viroid-like RNA. Virology, 241, ... Circular RNAs: diversity of form and function. RNA 20:1829-1842; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA ...
Additionally, m6A has been reported to impact viral infections. Many RNA viruses including SV40, adenovirus, herpes virus, Rous ... Several more recent studies have revealed that m6A regulators govern the efficiency of infection and replication of RNA viruses ... sarcoma virus, and influenza virus have been known to contain internal m6A methylation on virus genomic RNA. ... "Dynamics of Human and Viral RNA Methylation during Zika Virus Infection". Cell Host & Microbe. 20 (5): 666-673. doi:10.1016/j. ...
During latent infection a viral RNA transcript inhibits expression of the herpes virus ICP0 gene via an antisense RNA mechanism ... encoded by the DNA of herpes viruses. It is produced by herpes viruses during the earliest stage of infection, when the virus ... The RNA transcript is produced by the virus and accumulates in host cells during latent infection; it is known as Latency ... "Pseudorabies virus EPO is functionally homologous to varicella-zoster virus ORF61 protein and herpes simplex virus type 1 ICPO ...
In a productive infection, the provirus is transcribed into messenger RNA which directly produces new virus, which in turn will ... In inactive viral infections the virus will not replicate itself but through replication of its host cell. This state can last ... Not only eukaryotic viruses integrate into the genomes of their hosts; many bacterial and archaeal viruses also employ this ... A latent infection results when the provirus is transcriptionally silent rather than active. A latent infection may become ...
Best investigates the mechanisms underpinning early immune activation after infection with RNA viruses and how emerging viruses ... Her virus models include emerging flaviviruses (such as Zika virus and encephalitis) and filoviruses (Ebola virus). In 2011, ... She investigated virus-host interactions involved in flavivirus pathogenesis. It was during this time that she developed her ... Best researches interactions between pathogenic viruses and the host immune response using flavivirus as a model. Best earned a ...
Each HIV retrovirus particle contains two RNA genomes, but, after an infection, each virus generates only one provirus. After ... By contrast, RNA polymerases synthesize RNA from ribonucleotides from either RNA or DNA. When synthesizing new DNA, DNA ... Primers consist of RNA or DNA bases (or both). In DNA replication, the first two bases are always RNA, and are synthesized by ... Some viruses also encode special DNA polymerases, such as Hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase. These may selectively replicate ...
The virus is associated with swelling in plant vein tissues. They are negative single stranded RNA viruses. Infection occurs ... "Negative-strand RNA viruses: the plant-infecting counterparts". Virus Res. 162 (1-2): 184-202. doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2011.09. ... reveals its relation to nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses". Virology. 297 (2): 289-97. doi:10.1006/viro.2002.1420. PMID ... The genome consists of a bi-segmented linear, single-stranded negative sense RNA. The first segment is about 6350-7000 ...
Ebola and Marburg Viruses: A View of Infection Using Electron Microscopy. Columbi Ohii: Battelle Press. ISBN 978-1-57477-131-2. ... et sua genoma per RNA unius fili sensu negativo scribunt. Duo notissima familiae genera sunt Ebolavirus et Marburgvirus. Ambo ... Virus Taxonomy-Sixth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Archives of Virology Supplement. 10. Vienna ... Virus Taxonomy-Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Academic Press. pp. 539-48 ...
... detecting its RNA or proteins, or detecting antibodies against the virus in a person's blood.[98] Isolating the virus by cell ... Following infection, immune cells carry the virus to nearby lymph nodes where further reproduction of the virus takes place.[54 ... The four are Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV) and one simply called Ebola virus (EBOV, ... The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus, was later identified as a new type of virus ...
Confirmation is by laboratory testing to detect the virus's RNA, antibodies for the virus, or the virus itself in cell culture. ... The virus is present in urine for between three and nine weeks after infection, and it can be transmitted in semen for up to ... Lujo virus. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad "Lassa fever". WHO. March 2016 ... The Lassa virus is one of several viruses identified by WHO as a likely cause of a future epidemic. They therefore list it for ...
... is caused by yellow fever virus, a 40- to 50-nm-wide enveloped RNA virus, the type species and namesake of the ... The mechanism of action of ribavirin in reducing liver pathology in yellow fever virus infection may be similar to its activity ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ... The virus is an RNA virus of the genus Flavivirus.[7] The disease may be difficult to tell apart from other illnesses, ...
Virus RNA polymerases use VPg as primer. VPg as primer uses both minus and plus strand RNA synthesis. Picornavirus replication ... This was the first time that infection virus had been produced from molecular building blocks in the cells. Polyprotein ... deformed wing virus, acute bee paralysis virus, Drosophila C virus, Rhopalosiphum padi virus, and Himetobi P virus. Several ... This family includes Infectious flacherie virus and SeIV-1 virus. Another virus is Nora virus from Drosophila melanogaster. ...
... the latter virus has the largest currently reported ssDNA genome. Defenses against these viruses may involve RNA interference ... the impact of viral infection is higher on archaea than on bacteria and virus-induced lysis of archaea accounts for up to one- ... Archaea can be infected by double-stranded DNA viruses that are unrelated to any other form of virus and have a variety of ... Archaea were split off as a third domain because of the large differences in their ribosomal RNA structure. The particular RNA ...
... the TATA box is found at RNA polymerase II promoter regions, although some in vitro studies have demonstrated that RNA ... MicroRNAs also play a role in replicating viruses such as HIV-1.[44] Novel HIV-1-encoded microRNA have been found to enhance ... "Expression and nuclear localization of the TATA-box-binding protein during baculovirus infection". The Journal of General ... "RNA polymerase III accurately initiates transcription from RNA polymerase II promoters in vitro". The Journal of Biological ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... Most calicivirus infections do not call for medical attention, but those who are immunocompromised may need to be hospitalized ... Newbury-1 virus Genus Norovirus; type species: Norwalk virus Genus Sapovirus; type species: Sapporo virus Genus Vesivirus; type ... Norwalk virus Genus: Sapovirus Sapporo virus Genus: Vesivirus Feline calicivirus Vesicular exanthema of swine virus Two ...
The number and the size of viroplasms depend on the virus, the virus isolate, hosts species, and the stage of the infection. ... Plant viruses induce the rearrangement of membranes structures to form the viroplasm. This is mostly shown for plant RNA ... Viroplasms are formed early during the infection; in many cases, the cellular rearrangements caused during virus infection lead ... Viroplasms have been found in the cauliflower mosaic virus, rotavirus, vaccinia virus and the rice dwarf virus. These appear ...
... activation with cellular viremia and plasma HIV RNA levels in asymptomatic patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus ... In Janossy G, Autran B. Miedema F (eds): Immunodefiency in HIV Infection and AIDS, Karger Publishers, Basel, 1992:185-194. D. ...
Adenovirus infection. RNA virus. Rotavirus. Norovirus. Astrovirus. Coronavirus. Hepatitis. DNA virus. HBV (B). RNA virus. CBV. ... DNA virus. JCV Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic ... RNA virus. HCV Hepatocellular carcinoma. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma. HTLV-I Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. ... The initial site of infection may be the tonsils,[4] or possibly the gastrointestinal tract.[5] The virus then remains latent ...
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[۳۳] ۱۹۹۲ رادولف مارکوس[۱] United States "for his contributions to the ... "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[۶۱] ... "for his discovery of پریونs - a new biological principle of infection"[۷۴] ... "for his discovery of آران‌ای سرکوبگر - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[۷۹] ...
The NSs protein is also a non-structural protein and contributes to suppression of RNA silencing during plant infection. ... Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV, previously: Soybean vein necrosis associated virus SVNaV) is a plant pathogenic virus of ... The genome of SVNV is a negative sense single stranded RNA virus (Group V) that has three segments (S, M, and L segments). The ... Portions of the virus that are believed to be critical for the spread of this virus, based on what is known for other members ...
RNA virus. *Robert Frost. *Ron Tandberg. *Rose. *Lionel Rose. *Rotifer. *Royal Institution ...
... herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) - herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) - herpes varicella zoster virus (VZV) - herpes viruses - highly ... RNA) - ribosome - RNA - route of administration - RT-PCR - RTI - Ryan White C.A.R.E. act ... acute HIV infection - Acute HIV Infection and Early Diseases Research Program (AIEDRP) - ADAP - ADC - adenopathy - adherence - ... human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV- ...
At that point, the infection will persist indefinitely. In most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is ... Such viruses are either single stranded RNA (e.g. HIV) or double stranded DNA (e.g. Hepatitis B virus) viruses. ... Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus infections are treated with biologics, including the only ... RNA: consists of a dimer RNA. It has a cap at the 5' end and a poly(A) tail at the 3' end. The RNA genome also has terminal ...
As arqueas poden ser infectadas por virus de ADN bicatenario que non están relacionados con ningún outro tipo de virus e teñen ... Werner F (2007). "Structure and function of archaeal RNA polymerases". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (6): 1395-404. PMID 17697097. doi: ... "Identification and quantification of archaea involved in primary endodontic infections". J. Clin. Microbiol. 44 (4): 1274-82. ... Pietilä MK, Roine E, Paulin L, Kalkkinen N, Bamford DH (2009). "An ssDNA virus infecting archaea; A new lineage of viruses with ...
Nipah virus infection Nipah virus (NiV) bats, pigs direct contact with infected bats, infected pigs ... but there is increasing evidence from DNA and RNA sequencing, that measles, smallpox, influenza, HIV, and diphtheria came to ... Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus horses, donkeys, ... Unidentified infection of the pigs amplified the force of infection, eventually transmitting the virus to farmers and causing ...
If these viruses each contain an RNA segment with a lethal damage, multiple infection can lead to reactivation providing that ... was RNA-based and evolved RNA viruses. Some of the viruses evolved into DNA viruses to protect their genes from attack. Through ... Atkins JF, Gesteland RF, Cech T (2006). The RNA world: the nature of modern RNA suggests a prebiotic RNA world. Plainview, N.Y ... In segmented RNA viruses, "mating" can occur when a host cell is infected by at least two virus particles. ...
This also leads to decreased levels of RNA-binding protein in the nucleus, which may mean that their target RNA transcripts do ... A number of infectious diseases can sometimes cause ALS-like symptoms,[4] including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T ... respiratory tract infections, and a weak cough. Respiratory failure is the most common cause of death in ALS.[5] ... Other RNA metabolism genes associated with ALS include ANG, SETX, and MATR3.[10] ...
RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication.[40] The ... "Inhibition of the type I interferon response in human dendritic cells by dengue virus infection requires a catalytically active ... For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ... "Induction of type I interferon by RNA viruses: cellular receptors and their substrates". Amino Acids. 38 (5): 1283-99. doi: ...
Bell DM (1997). "Occupational risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in healthcare workers: an overview.". Am. J. Med. ... 2005). "Mitochondrial DNA and retroviral RNA analyses of archival oral polio vaccine (OPV CHAT) materials: evidence of macaque ... 1990). "Infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among recipients of antibody-positive blood donations". Ann ... Alimonti JB, Ball TB, Fowke KR (2003). "Mechanisms of CD4+ T lymphocyte cell death in human immunodeficiency virus infection ...
Infection[edit]. Vesicular stomatitis virus is believed to be taken up by the autophagosome from the cytosol and translocated ... "Subversion of cellular autophagosomal machinery by RNA viruses". PLoS Biol. 3 (5): e156. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0030156. PMC ... A subset of viruses and bacteria subvert the autophagic pathway to promote their own replication.[63] Galectin-8 has recently ... maintenance-level autophagy from autophagic cell death during influenza A infection". Virology. 452-453 (March 2014): 175-190. ...
RNA polymerase. A member of a family of enzymes that are essential to life: they are found in all organisms and many viruses.. ... The variety of biological pathogens capable of causing infections includes certain bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, ... in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the enzyme RNA polymerase. Both RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, which ... One of the four main nitrogenous bases found in both DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, thymine, and uracil (in RNA); it ...
Lu H, Ye MQ, Thung SN, Dash S, Gerber MA (December 2000). "Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA sequences in cholangiocarcinomas ... "Hepatitis C virus infection as a likely etiology of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma". Cancer Science. 95 (7): 592-5. doi: ... "Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatitis C and B virus infection, alcohol intake, and hepatolithiasis: a case-control ... Infection with the bacteria Helicobacter bilis and Helicobacter hepaticus species can cause biliary cancer.[27] ...
For virus-associated tumors, such as cervical cancer and a subset of head and neck cancers, epitopes derived from viral open ... An autoantigen is usually a normal protein or protein complex (and sometimes DNA or RNA) that is recognized by the immune ... infection with the malaria pathogen Plasmodium spp.) it is dispersed over a relatively large number of parasite antigens.[8] ... This includes parts (coats, capsules, cell walls, flagella, fimbriae, and toxins) of bacteria, viruses, and other ...
Martínez, edited by Miguel Angel (2010). RNA interference and viruses : current innovations and future trends. Norfolk: Caister ... Lawn SD (2004). "AIDS in Africa: the impact of co-infections on the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection". J. Infect. Dis. 48 (1): 1 ... O grupo de Montagnier denominou o seu novo virus illado virus asociado á linfadenopatía (LAV).[181] Como estes dous virus se ... Alimonti JB, Ball TB, Fowke KR (2003). "Mechanisms of CD4+ T lymphocyte cell death in human immunodeficiency virus infection ...
response to virus. • positive regulation of osteoclast differentiation. • negative regulation of cytokine secretion involved in ... negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of NF-kappaB transcription factor ... "Programmed death-1-induced interleukin-10 production by monocytes impairs CD4+ T cell activation during HIV infection". Nat. ... positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • positive regulation of leukocyte adhesion to arterial ...
"Effects of deletions in the N-terminal basic arm of brome mosaic virus coat protein on RNA packaging and systemic infection". ... Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a small (28 nm, 86S), positive-stranded, icosahedral RNA plant virus belonging to the genus ... Hepatitis E virus, Sindbis virus, and arboviruses (which cause certain types of encephalitis). Many of the positive-strand RNA ... "Sindbis virus proteins nsP1 and nsP2 contain homology to nonstructural proteins from several RNA plant viruses". Journal of ...
... and all 3 particles with the different RNAs are required for infection to take place. This strategy is adopted by viral genera ... Plant viruses are viruses that affect plants. Like all other viruses, plant viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that ... Some viruses (e.g. tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)) have RNA sequences that contain a "leaky" stop codon. In TMV 95% of the time the ... 75% of plant viruses have genomes that consist of single stranded RNA (ssRNA). 65% of plant viruses have +ssRNA, meaning that ...
Neuroviral Infections: RNA Viruses and Retroviruses presents an… ... Neuroviral Infections: RNA Viruses and Retroviruses presents an up-to-date overview of the general principles of infections and ... major neuroviral infections caused by RNA viruses and retroviruses. It is designed for virologists, specialists in infectious ... Rabies Virus Neurovirulence. Claire L. Jeffries, Ashley C. Banyard, Derek M. Healy, Daniel L. Horton, Nicholas Johnson, and ...
Diseases : Influenza A, Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections, Rhinovirus Infection , RNA Virus Infections ... 2 Abstracts with RNA Virus Infections Research. Filter by Study Type. In Vitro Study. ... Curcumin inhibits an RNA Virus (EV71) in intestinal epithelial cells.Dec 31, 2017. ... respiractory syncytial virus and influenza A virus in cell cultures. Jun 01, 2001. ...
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that Zika virus infection leads to ... Zika virus infection alters human and viral RNA Findings may influence vaccine and therapy development ... Zika virus infection alters human and viral RNA. University of California - San Diego ... They are also developing small molecules to target specific RNA structures as a means to treat Zika virus infections. ...
Inborn errors in RNA polymerase III underlie severe varicella zoster virus infections. ... Inborn errors in RNA polymerase III underlie severe varicella zoster virus infections. ... Varicella zoster virus (VZV) typically causes chickenpox upon primary infection. In rare cases, VZV can give rise to life- ... We report 4 cases of acute severe VZV infection affecting the central nervous system or the lungs in unrelated, otherwise ...
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that Zika virus infection leads to ... They are also developing small molecules to target specific RNA structures as a means to treat Zika virus infections. ... the cell modifies viral RNA with m6A as a means to get rid of the infection. RNA tagged with m6A is a beacon for human enzymes ... are made up of RNA instead of DNA. These viruses hijack the hosts cellular machinery to translate its RNA to proteins. Rana ...
RIG-I-like receptors: sensing and responding to RNA virus infection.. Nakhaei P1, Genin P, Civas A, Hiscott J. ... RNA virus infection is also detected through TLR-independent mechanisms. Early viral replicative intermediates are detected by ... containing viral RNA and transmits signals that induce type I interferon-mediated host immunity against virus infection. In ... two recently characterized cystolic viral RNA receptors-RIG-I and MDA-5. Both are DExDH/box RNA helicases, and RIG-I ...
... then focus on the interplay between NS-RNA viruses and autophagy during virus infection. We have selected some exemplary NS-RNA ... RNA viruses regulate autophagy and the role of autophagy in NS-RNA viral replication and in immune responses to virus infection ... then focus on the interplay between NS-RNA viruses and autophagy during virus infection. We have selected some exemplary NS-RNA ... RNA viruses regulate autophagy and the role of autophagy in NS-RNA viral replication and in immune responses to virus infection ...
Optineurin negatively regulates the induction of IFNbeta in response to RNA virus infection.. Mankouri J1, Fragkoudis R, ... Optineurin Negatively Regulates the Induction of IFNβ in Response to RNA Virus Infection ... Optineurin Negatively Regulates the Induction of IFNβ in Response to RNA Virus Infection ... Optineurin Negatively Regulates the Induction of IFNβ in Response to RNA Virus Infection ...
However, research addressing the effect of host innate immune evasion on the pathology caused by viral infections is less ... Given their genetic flexibility, these viruses have therefore developed multiple strategies to evade the innate immune response ... Already many molecular mechanisms of innate immune evasion by +ssRNA viruses have been identified. ... viruses comprise many (re-)emerging human pathogens that pose a public health problem. Our innate immune system and, in ...
Clearance of measles virus (MeV) involves rapid elimination of infectious virus during the rash followed by slow elimination of ... viral RNA. To characterize cellular immune responses during … ... of T Cell Responses during Measles Virus Infection and RNA ... Clearance of measles virus (MeV) involves rapid elimination of infectious virus during the rash followed by slow elimination of ... 8 and 18-24 weeks after infection. IFN-γ-secreting cells were most abundant early and IL-17-secreting cells late. Both CD4+ and ...
... Xusheng Qiu ... "Development of Strand-Specific Real-Time RT-PCR to Distinguish Viral RNAs during Newcastle Disease Virus Infection," The ...
Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that Zika virus infection leads to ... They are also developing small molecules to target specific RNA structures as a means to treat Zika virus infections. Explore ... Zika virus infection alters human and viral RNA. by University of California - San Diego ... the cell modifies viral RNA with m6A as a means to get rid of the infection. RNA tagged with m6A is a beacon for human enzymes ...
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been extracted from tissue of European mountain ash trees ( Sorbus aucupariaL.) showing typical ... Double-stranded RNA pattern and partial sequence data indicate plant virus infection associated with the ringspot disease of ... The putative virus remains still unidentified.. Keywords. Degenerate Oligonucleotide Plant Virus Infection Sorbus Aucuparia ... particularly to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of members of the family Bunyaviridae, but without high similarity to a known ...
To this end, we performed a small interfering RNA functional screen and found that 15 of these host proteins altered HSV-1 ... Recently, we performed the first comprehensive characterization of the mature herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in which up ... Altogether, these findings underscore the power and biological relevance of combining proteomics and RNA interference to ... they replicated more poorly in subsequent infections in wild type cells. This highlights for the first time that both the ...
We exposed D. melanogaster to two challenges of a virus known to produce an antiviral RNAi response, to examine whether any ... Results In this experiment we found no evidence that prior exposure to Drosophila C Virus (DCV) protects flies from a ... in Drosophila melanogaster is an ideal candidate for providing a specific and acquired response to subsequent infection. ... RNA viruses Is the Subject Area "RNA viruses" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
In this review we focused on different ways viruses antagonize coding and noncoding RNAs in the host cell to its advantage. ... Besides mRNAs, host cells also express a variety of noncoding RNAs, including small RNAs, that may also be subject to ... Many viruses dampen host protein expression and attempt to evade the host anti-viral defense machinery. Host gene expression is ... formation including selective degradation of translationally competent messenger RNAs. ...
Subgenomic Negative-Strand RNA Function during Mouse Hepatitis Virus Infection. Ralph S. Baric, Boyd Yount ... Subgenomic Negative-Strand RNA Function during Mouse Hepatitis Virus Infection Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... Intracellular RNA was isolated from infected cells and analyzed for the presence of virus-specific mRNAs and RF RNAs. Lanes: 1 ... 1982) Replication of mouse hepatitis virus: negative-stranded RNA and replicative form RNA are of genome length. J. Virol. 44: ...
The Views, as we will very use in the great download cellular signaling and innate immune responses to rna virus infections ... We were to offer in a S. The download cellular signaling and innate immune responses to rna virus infections regards governed ... Spiced Apple download cellular signaling and innate immune responses to rna virus infections were no exercise in Spain or in ... altar-pieces have off, major download cellular signaling and innate immune responses to rna virus infections on. How watch I ...
... ... CitationMiralles, R. [et al.]. Multiple infection dynamics has pronounced effects on the fitness of RNA viruses. "Journal of ... We have employed a two-fold approach to analyse the role played by each of these factors in the evolution of RNA viruses. First ... Several factors play a role during the replication and transmission of RNA viruses. First, as a consequence of their enormous ...
... to analyze the RNA-bound proteome during virus infection. More than 200 cellular RNA-binding proteins change their binding ... System-wide Profiling of RNA-Binding Proteins Uncovers Key Regulators of Virus Infection. ... Many of these RNA-binding proteins regulate viral replication and can be targeted to influence infection outcome. ... To answer these questions, we developed "comparative RIC" and applied it to cells challenged with an RNA virus called sindbis ( ...
Simultaneous Detection and High-Throughput Identification of a Panel of RNA Viruses Causing Respiratory Tract Infections. ... Simultaneous Detection and High-Throughput Identification of a Panel of RNA Viruses Causing Respiratory Tract Infections ... Simultaneous Detection and High-Throughput Identification of a Panel of RNA Viruses Causing Respiratory Tract Infections ... Simultaneous Detection and High-Throughput Identification of a Panel of RNA Viruses Causing Respiratory Tract Infections ...
Preparation of positive dengue virus RNA controls.Standard positive RNA controls were prepared for all four dengue virus ... Detection of Dengue Virus RNA in Patients after Primary or Secondary Dengue Infection by Using the TaqMan Automated ... Detection of Dengue Virus RNA in Patients after Primary or Secondary Dengue Infection by Using the TaqMan Automated ... Detection of Dengue Virus RNA in Patients after Primary or Secondary Dengue Infection by Using the TaqMan Automated ...
Mechanisms of activation of innate immune responses in viral RNA and virus infection stimulated human cells Host: Malin ... CIM seminar: Mechanisms of activation of innate immune responses in viral RNA and virus infection stimulated human cells. ... "Mechanisms of activation of innate immune responses in viral RNA and virus infection stimulated human cells" ...
The cellular RNA helicase UAP56 is required for prevention of double-stranded RNA formation during influenza A virus infection ... Unraveling the role of the MOV10 RNA helicase during influenza A virus infection. Fernando Villalón-Letelier, Patrick C. ... Unraveling the role of the MOV10 RNA helicase during influenza A virus infection ... Unraveling the role of the MOV10 RNA helicase during influenza A virus infection ...
9. The increase in 5S RNA synthesis, relative to other cytoplasmic RNA species, which occurs after pseudorabies virus-infection ... 8. After infection of "resting" cells with pseudorabies virus, 4S RNA synthesis v/as found not to be decreased and possibly ... In this thesis, some effects of pseudorabies virus infection on RNA metabolism in BHK-21/C15 cells were examined; in particular ... Abrahams, Judith C (1972) Pseudorabies virus infection and RNA metabolism in hamster kidney cells. PhD thesis, University of ...
Unique Signatures of Long Noncoding RNA Expression in Response to Virus Infection and Altered Innate Immune Signaling. Xinxia ... Studies of the host response to virus infection typically focus on protein-coding genes. However, non-protein-coding RNAs ( ... Unique Signatures of Long Noncoding RNA Expression in Response to Virus Infection and Altered Innate Immune Signaling ... Unique Signatures of Long Noncoding RNA Expression in Response to Virus Infection and Altered Innate Immune Signaling ...
Possible involvement of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase in cell death by influenza virus infection.. T Takizawa, K ... Possible involvement of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase in cell death by influenza virus infection. ... Possible involvement of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase in cell death by influenza virus infection. ... Possible involvement of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase in cell death by influenza virus infection. ...
Viral Infections and Immunity. Detection of Tissue Culture-Adapted Theilers Virus RNA in Spinal Cord White Matter Cells ... Detection of Tissue Culture-Adapted Theilers Virus RNA in Spinal Cord White Matter Cells Throughout Infection ... Detection of Tissue Culture-Adapted Theilers Virus RNA in Spinal Cord White Matter Cells Throughout Infection ... Detection of Tissue Culture-Adapted Theilers Virus RNA in Spinal Cord White Matter Cells Throughout Infection ...
The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of HCV RNA in saliva of patients with active infection and associating ... HCV-RNA in saliva was associated with the level of serum viral load but not with periodontal or liver disease severity. ... log 4.77 IU/mL (95% CI 4.35-5.19) for patients without HCV in saliva (p = 0.0001). The detection of HCV-RNA in saliva was more ... There are several studies where HCV RNA has been detected in saliva of patients infected with HCV, and epidemiological studies ...
RNA level in plasma was evaluated as a surrogate marker for disease progression in a clinical trial of advanced HIV-1 infection ... Baseline HIV-1 RNA level was an independent predictor of disease progression (relative hazard [RH] for each doubling of HIV-1 ... Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 RNA level in plasma was evaluated as a surrogate marker for disease progression in a ... of Plasma Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA Level With Risk of Clinical Progression in Patients With Advanced Infection. ...
  • Without m6A, the viral RNA was more stable and viral replication increased, as compared to human cells with normal methylation enzymes. (
  • Moreover, leukocytes from 3 of the patients displayed defective IFN production upon VZV infection and reduced control of VZV replication. (
  • Viruses have learned to manipulate the autophagic pathway to ensure their own replication and survival. (
  • We have selected some exemplary NS-RNA viruses and will describe how these NS-RNA viruses regulate autophagy and the role of autophagy in NS-RNA viral replication and in immune responses to virus infection. (
  • We also review recent advances in understanding how NS-RNA viral proteins perturb autophagy and how autophagy-related proteins contribute to NS-RNA virus replication, pathogenesis and antiviral immunity. (
  • Over-expression of optineurin inhibited Sendai-virus (SeV) and dsRNA triggered induction of IFNbeta, whereas depletion of optineurin with siRNA promoted virus-induced IFNbeta production and decreased RNA virus replication. (
  • Given their genetic flexibility, these viruses have therefore developed multiple strategies to evade the innate immune response in order to optimize their replication capacity. (
  • Several factors play a role during the replication and transmission of RNA viruses. (
  • This model employs the classic Lotka-Volterra competition equations but it also incorporates the effect of mutation during RNA replication, the effect of the stochastic sampling at the moment of infectious passage among hosts and, the effect of the type of infection (single, coinfection or superinfection). (
  • RBPs stimulated by the infection redistribute to viral replication factories and regulate the capacity of the virus to infect. (
  • Many of these RNA-binding proteins regulate viral replication and can be targeted to influence infection outcome. (
  • Moloney leukemia virus 10 (MOV10) is an interferon-inducible RNA helicase that has been implicated in a broad range of cellular functions, including modulating the replication of a diverse range of viruses. (
  • However, the mechanisms by which MOV10 promotes or inhibits the replication of particular viruses have not been well defined. (
  • An important goal of influenza A virus (IAV) research is to identify specific host factors that can limit or block particular steps in the virus replication cycle. (
  • It has also been implicated in modulating the replication of different viruses. (
  • It facilitates replication of hepatitis delta virus [ 3 ] but restricts hepatitis C virus [ 2 ]. (
  • The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP) complex of IAV contains the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex as well as nucleoprotein (NP) and is the minimal functional unit for viral RNA transcription and replication. (
  • Influenza defective interfering (DI) particles are replication-incompetent viruses carrying large internal deletion in the genome. (
  • The loss of essential genetic information causes abortive viral replication, which can be rescued by co-infection with a helper virus that possesses an intact genome. (
  • Further investigations on this overwhelming generation of DI-RNA may provide important insights into the understanding of H7N9 viral replication and pathogenesis. (
  • dsRNA could be formed by RNA replication intermediates, by secondary structures in RNA genomes or antigenomes, or by both. (
  • Davey MW , Dalgarno L . Semliki Forest virus replication in cultured Aedes albopictus cells: studies on the establishment of persistence. (
  • Natural RIG-I stimulatory RNAs have variously been proposed to correspond to virus genomes, virus replication intermediates, viral transcripts, or self-RNA cleaved by RNase L. However, the relative contribution of each of these RNA species to RIG-I activation and interferon induction in virus-infected cells is not known. (
  • We show that RIG-I agonists are exclusively generated by the process of virus replication and correspond to full-length virus genomes. (
  • Therefore, nongenomic viral transcripts, short replication intermediates, and cleaved self-RNA do not contribute substantially to interferon induction in cells infected with these negative strand RNA viruses. (
  • Removal of the proteins with enhanced activity from the cell SINV infection was severely affected, highlighting their key role at controlling viral replication. (
  • Wael will study the role of RNA-binding proteins in the replication of viruses in mosquito cells. (
  • In vitro experiments showed that the mRNA levels of DuSTING and IFNs were all upregulated when the DEFs were infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) SH010, while overexpression of DuSTING inhibited the replication of this virus. (
  • We found that two RNA viruses with broad host ranges, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Sindbis virus (SINV), are completely restricted in their replication after entry into Lepidopteran cells. (
  • 15). Specifically, the introduction of mismatches into the lower stem portion of this RE inhibited viral RNA replication, whereas a compensatory mutant containing transposed base pairs was able to replicate to WT levels (15). (
  • Analysis of Theophylline-Induced Replication of a Viral RNA Replicon. (
  • This approach generates a prediction about the agonist or antagonist effect of candidate genes on DENV replication based on the sign of the correlation between gene expression and viral RNA load. (
  • The results reveal a novel association of TGB2 and vRNA with chloroplasts, and suggest viral replication is associated with chloroplast membranes, and that TGB2 plays a novel role in targeting the virus to chloroplasts. (
  • In some plants, successive vegetative propagation of infected tissues and introduction of new genotypes of a virus by vector transmission allows for viral, populations to increase in complexity for hundreds of years allowing co-replication and subsequent recombination of the multiple viral genotypes. (
  • Taken together, our findings reveal that sumoylation of NIb promotes TuMV infection by retargeting NIb from the nucleus to the cytoplasm where viral replication takes place and by suppressing host antiviral responses through counteracting the TuMV infection-induced, SUMO3-activated, NPR1-mediated resistance pathway. (
  • CPs have been shown to regulate the infection processes of RNA viruses, including RNA replication and gene expression. (
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that phosphorylation of viral CPs is involved in the regulation of the viral infection process from enabling virion disassembly to regulation of viral protein synthesis and replication. (
  • The modified virus fluoresces when it is replicating, allowing researchers to monitor the replication of viruses in thousands of cells at a time. (
  • One of the antiviral drugs investigated by Cameron (T-1106) causes virus replication to pause and reverse, preventing efficient replication. (
  • Viruses with RNA as their genetic material which also include DNA intermediates in their replication cycle are called retroviruses, and comprise Group VI of the Baltimore classification. (
  • Some genes of RNA virus are important to the viral replication cycles and mutations are not tolerated. (
  • There are three distinct groups of RNA viruses depending on their genome and mode of replication: Double-stranded RNA viruses (Group III) contain from one to a dozen different RNA molecules, each coding for one or more viral proteins. (
  • Positive-sense ssRNA viruses (Group IV) have their genome directly utilized as mRNA, with host ribosomes translating it into a single protein that is modified by host and viral proteins to form the various proteins needed for replication. (
  • In human cells, RNA is the genetic material that carries instructions from the DNA in a cell's nucleus out to the cytoplasm, where molecular machinery uses those instructions to build proteins. (
  • These viruses hijack the host's cellular machinery to translate its RNA to proteins. (
  • IFN-γ and IL-17-producing cells specific for the hemagglutinin and nucleocapsid proteins appeared in circulation in multiple waves approximately 2-3, 8 and 18-24 weeks after infection. (
  • Finally, a cDNA fragment of 3,737 bp was obtained, which showed homology to viral proteins, particularly to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of members of the family Bunyaviridae , but without high similarity to a known genus. (
  • The compendium of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) has been greatly expanded by the development of RNA-interactome capture (RIC). (
  • More than 200 cellular RNA-binding proteins change their binding activity in response to this challenge, mainly driven by transcript availability. (
  • MOV10 also interacts with ISG, IRAV (FLJ11286), and depletion of either factor during dengue virus infection resulted in increased levels of viral mRNA, suggesting that these proteins may function together to de-stabilize viral RNA [ 7 ]. (
  • The expression of accessory non-structural proteins V and W in Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infections depends on RNA editing. (
  • Positive ssRNA viruses have their genetic material directly translated into usable proteins, while negative ssRNA viruses use an RNA replicase enzyme to convert their genetic material to positive strands before being used to make proteins. (
  • Now, years after original research was published on ssRNA packaging within a cell, the English researchers have shown that viral RNA induces conformational changes in capsid proteins, essentially telling the viral packaging it is ready to bud from the infected cell. (
  • New research from Alfredo Castello's laboratory published in Molecular Cell has discovered that virus infection rewires cellular RNA-binding proteins on a global level. (
  • Figure: A) About two hundred human RNA-binding proteins (coloured dots) are regulated by the infection with SINV. (
  • RNA-binding proteins are a critical component of the cellular machinery that dictate the fate of RNA molecules. (
  • As RNA virus genomes are small, they rely on host RNA-binding proteins to control the life of the viral RNA. (
  • However, which of these host proteins are required for virus infection remains largely unknown. (
  • Alfredo's group developed a novel technique called 'comparative RNA interactome capture' to interrogate which RNA-binding proteins are involved in the infection of a model virus called Sindbis (SINV). (
  • This work uncovered that SINV infection alters the activity of more than 200 cellular RNA-binding proteins, thus rewiring cellular RNA metabolism (Figure 1). (
  • SINV turns off RNA-binding proteins participating in the nuclear life of the RNA, while activates key regulators of protein synthesis, RNA degradation and storage and in innate immunity. (
  • The intimate connection between these host proteins and the virus was confirmed by microscopy, showing that they accumulate at the places in the cell where the SINV replicates co-localising with the viral RNA (Figure 2). (
  • Sindbis virus synthesises massive amounts of viral RNA - explained Manuel Garcia-Moreno -, and these RNA molecules act as spider webs that capture the proteins that the virus needs in the places where they are needed. (
  • It is established that interactions of proteins with RNA play a crucial role at regulating RNA fate. (
  • In other words, proteins can be regulated by RNA. (
  • Jess has assessed whether cellular RNA-binding proteins are incorporated into HIV particles. (
  • She was interested in the understanding the role of a family of tumour suppressors recently classified as RNA-binding proteins by RNA interactome studies. (
  • Once the cell detects atypical signatures related to viruses, such as double-stranded RNA, it secrets signalling proteins to alarm its surrounding cells, known as cytokines [1]. (
  • The interaction of interferon with its receptor induces the expression of antiviral proteins in cytoplasm and nucleus of the cell to combat infection more effectively. (
  • Researchers has studied the functions of interferons for decades and developed recombinant proteins to be used in protein therapies, for example, to treat hepatitis C virus [2]. (
  • The potato mop-top virus (PMTV triple gene block 2 (TGB2 movement proteins fused to monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP-TGB2 was expressed under the control of the PMTV subgenomic promoter from a PMTV vector. (
  • The dl331 mutant of adenovirus serotype 5 fails to produce virus-associated (VA) RNA(I), and cells infected with this mutant do not synthesize proteins efficiently at late times in infection. (
  • Recently, it has been shown that autophagy proteins are proviral factors that favor initiation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (
  • Coat proteins (CPs) are the most abundant protein produced during a viral infection. (
  • In recent years, progress has been made in determining atomic and subnanometer resolution structures of a number of key viral proteins and virion capsids of several dsRNA viruses, highlighting the significant parallels in the structure and replicative processes of many of these viruses. (
  • The positive-sense RNA molecule then acts as viral mRNA, which is translated into proteins by the host ribosomes. (
  • Positive clones were further analysed by using them as hybridisation probes in Northern blots of total plant RNA and in Southern hybridisation with genomic DNA from Sorbus aucuparia leaves. (
  • It has also been proposed that the subgenomic-length negative strands may be synthesized directly from the incoming genomic RNA, either by trans splicing of full-length negative strands or by transcription attenuation within the IG elements ( 3 , 22 , 23 , 30 ). (
  • Moreover, the latter method is able to identify the dengue virus serotype by demonstrating defined sequence homologies in the viral genomic RNA. (
  • We observed differential expression of approximately 500 annotated, long ncRNAs and 1,000 nonannotated genomic regions during infection. (
  • RIG-I detects viral genomic RNA during negative-strand RNA virus infection. (
  • The mechanism of control is unique in that it relies on direct allosteric regulation of a genomic RNA element that functions in a virus-specific process. (
  • Viral coat protein (CP, genomic RNA and fluorescently-labeled TGB2 were detected in plastid preparations isolated from the infected leaves, and viral RNA was localized to chloroplasts in infected tissues. (
  • Nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses initiate infection by delivering into the host cell an extremely specific RNA synthesis machine comprising the genomic RNA completely encapsidated from the viral nucleocapsid protein and from the viral polymerase. (
  • In contrast to humans, the entire genomes of some viruses, including Zika and HIV, are made up of RNA instead of DNA. (
  • First, as a consequence of their enormous mutation rate, complex mixtures of genomes are generated immediately after infection of a new host. (
  • However, there is growing evidence that thousands of non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are transcribed from mammalian genomes. (
  • Recent studies have revealed that DNA forms of arboviral RNA genomes play a significant role in viral persistence in mosquitoes. (
  • Rather, single-stranded RNA viral genomes bearing 5'-triphosphates constitute the natural RIG-I agonists that trigger cell-intrinsic innate immune responses during infection. (
  • Previous research from this group showed that particular viral genomes only induce their own cognate capsid to undergo conformational changes, indicating a genome- and virus-specific directionality. (
  • As one central aspect of preparedness efforts, this review digs into the development of broadly acting antivirals via targeting viral genome synthesis with host- or virus-directed drugs centering around nucleotides, the genomes' universal building blocks. (
  • The regulation of genes and genomes by small RNAs. (
  • Recombination and reassortment of viral genomes are major processes contributing to the creation of new, emerging viruses. (
  • This review focuses on the regulatory roles that phosphorylation of CPs has in the life cycle of viruses with RNA genomes. (
  • Eleutherococcus senticosus root extract exhibits antiviral activity against rhinovirus, respiractory syncytial virus and influenza A virus in cell cultures. (
  • RIG-I is a key mediator of antiviral immunity, able to couple detection of infection by RNA viruses to the induction of interferons. (
  • For directly targeting the viral polymerase, nucleoside and nucleotide analogues (NNAs) have long been at the core of antiviral drug development and this review illustrates different molecular strategies by which NNAs inhibit viral infection. (
  • This reflects two antagonistic processes: the virus hijacking key cellular resources and the antiviral defence mechanisms of the cell. (
  • This work provides a comprehensive snapshot of the virus-host cell battlefield and opens new avenues for the development of antiviral therapies. (
  • Moreover, their study revealed that the cellular protein GEMIN5 binds to the viral RNAs and inhibits their translation, which represents a new antiviral mechanism to control virus infection. (
  • However, the role of duck STING (DuSTING) in antiviral innate immunity, especially in anti-RNA virus infection, has yet to be elucidated. (
  • Certain nutraceuticals may help to reduce the inflammation in the lungs from RNA viruses and others may also help boost type 1 interferon response to these viruses, which is the body's primary way to help create antiviral antibodies to fight off viral infections. (
  • This comprehensive compilation of the altered gene expression profiles and signal transduction pathways in host cells in response to the majority of human/animal RNA viruses opens new directions for basic and clinical research on viral pathogenesis, and also provides valuable biomarkers for researchers to select gene targets in the development of diagnostic tests and antiviral therapeutics for a number of infectious diseases. (
  • Both are DExDH/box RNA helicases, and RIG-I specifically recognizes 5'-triphosphate containing viral RNA and transmits signals that induce type I interferon-mediated host immunity against virus infection. (
  • Moloney leukemia virus 10 (MOV10), a putative member of helicase superfamily (SF)1, is a multifunctional protein involved in a diverse range of cellular functions, including RNA silencing, mRNA translation and innate immunity. (
  • These findings represent the first discovery of the widespread differential expression of long ncRNAs in response to virus infection and suggest that ncRNAs are involved in regulating the host response, including innate immunity. (
  • Our results show that there was a widespread differential regulation of long ncRNAs in response to viral infection, suggesting that these ncRNAs are involved in regulating the host response, including innate immunity. (
  • Thank you for sharing this Infection and Immunity article. (
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Infection and Immunity. (
  • In conclusion, our results indicate that DuSTING is an essential IFN mediator and plays a role in anti-RNA virus innate immunity. (
  • Hantavirus Infection and Innate Immunity (N Sen et al. (
  • abstract = "Filibuvir is a non-nucleoside inhibitor (NNI) of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-directed RNA polymerase (NS5B). (
  • Griffin, Diane E. / Slow clearance of measles virus RNA after acute infection . (
  • It is generally assumed that following acute infection RNA viruses are effectively cleared by the immune system. (
  • While replicating virus has not been detected in joint-associated tissues of patients with persistent arthritis nor in various animal models at convalescent time points, viral RNA is detected months after acute infection. (
  • This study will establish whether the patient population of the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic is suitable for the study of early, acute infection. (
  • But these findings are also something researchers should keep in mind as they are designing new Zika virus vaccines and treatments that target the viral genome -- some approaches won't work unless they take methylation into account. (
  • Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a coronavirus in the Nidovirales order, contains a ∼32-kb linear, single-stranded, positive-polarity RNA genome ( 8 , 21 , 28 ). (
  • The positive-strand mRNAs are arranged in a 3′ coterminal nested set, and each contains a 5′-end ∼72-nucleotide leader RNA sequence which is derived from the 5′ end of the genome ( 20 , 37 ). (
  • The processing of vsRNAs can be from viral dsRNA replicative intermediates, self complementary regions of the viral genome or from the action RNA-dependent RNA polymerases on viral templates. (
  • Analysis of the vsRNas indicate multiple hot spots for small RNA production from the TSWV genome, the location of these hot spots are predominantly conserved across infections of different host species. (
  • Analysis of this engineered viral genome revealed that this RE, located in the 5 untranslated region, specifically mediates efficient accumulation of plus-strands of the virus genome. (
  • The ability to chemically induce a viral process via modulation of virus genome structure could be useful for basic and applied aspects of research. (
  • Cells were cotransfected with viral system based on TBSV that allows for the dose-dependent control of virus genome accumulation via the administration of a small molecule ligand. (
  • Here, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), a tripartite Alfamovirus, and transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants expressing no (wild type), one (P2), or two (P12) viral genome segments were used to test whether the number of genome segments necessary for infection predicts the dose response. (
  • Moreover, for P12 plants, the data support the IAH model, showing that the expression of virus genome segments by the host plant can modulate the infection kinetics of a tripartite virus to those of a monopartite virus. (
  • For example, the region of the hepatitis C virus genome that encodes the core protein is highly conserved, because it contains an RNA structure involved in an internal ribosome entry site. (
  • Negative-sense ssRNA viruses (Group V) must have their genome copied by an RNA replicase to form positive-sense RNA. (
  • Already many molecular mechanisms of innate immune evasion by +ssRNA viruses have been identified. (
  • 2. A 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system was calibrated and used to fractionate low molecular weight cytoplasmic RNA, excellent separation between 5S RNA and 4S RNA being obtained. (
  • 5. In the uninfected, exponentially-growing CI5 cell, a pulse-label of 3H-uridine for a period of about 30-60 min produces cytoplasmic low molecular weight RNA in which almost all of the radioactivity is in 5S RNA and 4S RNA. (
  • The use of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to identify viruses in biologicals differs from current molecular approaches, since its use enables an unbiased approach to detection without the need to design specific primers to preamplify target sequences. (
  • Similar to other molecular methods, however, identification of viral sequences in cells by HTS does not prove viral infection, since this could reflect carryover of inert viral sequences from reagents or other sources or the presence of transcriptionally inactive cellular sequences. (
  • Molecular assay reagents intended to identify yellow fever virus, a single-stranded RNA arbovirus of the genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae, by detecting the ribonucleic acid (RNA) of the target virus. (
  • Molecular assay reagents intended to identify Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, an Alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, by detecting the ribonucleic acid (RNA) of the target virus. (
  • Establishing persistent infection likely involves a number of molecular, cellular and immunological determinants, including the genetics of the viruses, the genetics of their hosts and potential new host species, and many environmental factors, such as other microorganisms. (
  • They have studied different aspects of HIV biology by using cutting edge RNA biology, virology, molecular biology and microscopy techniques. (
  • This project will involve work with primary macrophages and epithelial cells and cell lines, basic molecular biology (cloning, RNA extraction, and qPCR, western blotting), confocal microscopy, and immunological techniques (ELISA, flow cytometry). (
  • and (iv) the small interfering RNA/microRNA-mediated gene silencing pathway, a recently characterized new host defense mechanism against viral infection.Organized into 27 highly accessible and well-illustrated chapters, this volume explores state-of-the-art knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of RNA virus infection and host-virus interactions. (
  • Investigators in the Division of Infectious Diseases and the Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of The George Washington University Medical Center are carrying out a research study to determine why patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection (HIV/HCV) have a more rapid and progressive course of HCV infection, leading to fatty infiltration of the liver and cirrhosis. (
  • The current diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is primarily based on serology, since molecular identification of WNV RNA is unreliable due to the short viremia and absence of detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). (
  • This study reveals a molecular mechanism by which TuMV counteracts the host immune response to establish its infection and opens up a novel avenue for the control of viral disease by compromising this suppression activity. (
  • Is the Subject Area "RNA interference" applicable to this article? (
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is an important mosquito defense mechanism against arbovirus infection. (
  • vDNA formation is more extensive in RNA interference (RNAi)-deficient Aedes albopictus -derived C6/36 cells compared to RNAi-proficient mosquito cells. (
  • RNA interference technology has emerged as a powerful tool for manipulating gene expression in the laboratory. (
  • Detection of virus triggers signalling cascades that induce transcription of type I interferons including IFNbeta, which are pivotal for the initiation of an anti-viral state. (
  • In contrast, the detection of dengue virus RNA by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in human serum or plasma samples is highly indicative of acute dengue fever ( 4 , 5 , 7 , 16 , 22 , 30 ). (
  • The detection of HCV-RNA in saliva was more frequent in patients with relatively high serum viral loads. (
  • Therefore, in the present work we determined the presence of viral RNA in saliva samples of a group of patients with active hepatitis C in order to identify whether detection of salivary HCV is associated with the presence of periodontal disease, severity of liver disease, or the amount of viral RNA in peripheral blood. (
  • Its broad range of detection and analytical sensitivity make it an important tool to ensure that biologicals are free from adventitious viruses. (
  • Viral RNA Degradation Makes Urine a Challenging Specimen for Detection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Patients With Suspected CNS Infection. (
  • Methods:We investigated the use of lysis buffer and a Microsep device to optimize urine storage for detection of JEV RNA by reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). (
  • Results:We demonstrated degradation of JEV RNA in urine after even short storage periods at 4°C or -80°C. Although there was no advantage in using a Microsep concentration device alone, immediate addition of lysis buffer to fresh urine improved the detection of JEV RNA at the limit of detection. (
  • Combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection can suppress viremia to below the detection limit in the vast majority of motivated individuals with access to these drugs. (
  • This study establishes the utility of whole blood in the routine diagnosis of acute WNV infection and suggests that it may provide the highest sensitivity for WNV RNA detection in suspected cases. (
  • Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Occult Infection or Occult HCV RNA Detection? (
  • Our innate immune system and, in particular, the interferon response form the important first line of defence against these viruses. (
  • For example, induction of type I interferon (IFN) in response to vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) occurs independently of helicase and anti-HIV-1 activity [ 5 ]. (
  • ii) They had distinctive kinetic expression profiles in type I interferon receptor and STAT1 knockout mice during SARS-CoV infection, including unique signatures of ncRNA expression associated with lethal infection. (
  • iii) Over 40% were similarly regulated in vitro in response to both influenza virus infection and interferon treatment. (
  • The stimulator of interferon genes (STING) protein has been shown to play a pivotal role in response to both cytosolic RNA and dsDNA to elicit interferon (IFN) production in mammals. (
  • PA-X antagonises MAVS-dependent accumulation of early type I interferon messenger RNAs during influenza A virus infection. (
  • Polymorphisms in the interferon lambda gene locus (IFNL) such as the IFNL4 genetic variants rs12979860 and rs368234815 are predictive of resolution of hepatitis C virus infection, but information about the impact of these variants in other infections is scarce. (
  • Host gene expression is suppressed at several stages of host messenger RNA (mRNA) formation including selective degradation of translationally competent messenger RNAs. (
  • The researchers also reported a dramatic degradation of cellular RNAs while viral RNA accumulates. (
  • Therefore, cellular RNA degradation emerges as a key process supporting viral infection. (
  • The goal of this project is to understand how cellular RNA degradation is triggered and what its consequences in infection are. (
  • Garcia-Moreno, Noerenberg, Ni, and colleagues developed "comparative RNA-interactome capture" to analyze the RNA-bound proteome during virus infection. (
  • To answer these questions, we developed "comparative RIC" and applied it to cells challenged with an RNA virus called sindbis (SINV). (
  • Role of extracellular virus on the maintenance of the persistent infection induced in Aedes albopictus (mosquito) cells by Sindbis virus. (
  • In a recent work we showed that cellular RNA is massively degraded upon Sindbis virus infection, and this appears to apply to a broad range of cytopathic viruses. (
  • Curcumin inhibits an RNA Virus (EV71) in intestinal epithelial cells. (
  • Human cells modify viral RNA with m6A as a means to get rid of the infection. (
  • Cells can chemically modify RNA to influence protein production. (
  • To unravel the role of m6A in Zika virus infection of human cells growing in the laboratory, the researchers removed the human enzymes responsible for adding methyl groups to viral RNA. (
  • A) Serum starved cells were infected with 100 HA units of Sendai virus (SeV), 100 µg/ml poly-I:C or PMA treated (100 ng/ml) and RNA was isolated from cells at the times shown and optineurin mRNA levels determined by Q-PCR. (
  • To characterize cellular immune responses during recovery, we analyzed the appearance, specificity and function of MeV-specific T cells for 6 months after respiratory infection of rhesus macaques with wild type MeV. (
  • Therefore, the cellular immune response evolves during MeV clearance to produce functionally distinct subsets of MeV-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells at different times after infection. (
  • Besides mRNAs, host cells also express a variety of noncoding RNAs, including small RNAs, that may also be subject to inhibition upon viral infection. (
  • Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-infected cells contain full-length and subgenomic-length positive- and negative-strand RNAs. (
  • In this report we demonstrate that the synthesis and molar ratios of subgenomic negative strands are similar in alternative host cells, suggesting that these RNAs function as important mediators of positive-strand synthesis. (
  • In addition to the viral mRNAs, both full-length as well as subgenomic-length negative-strand RNAs and replicative form (RF) RNAs have been detected in porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus-, bovine coronavirus-, and MHV-infected cells ( 13 , 30 , 32-35 ). (
  • In summary, RNA availability controls RBP localization and function in SINV-infected cells. (
  • J. (2019) 476 , 467-481] provides insight regarding the mechanisms by which MOV10 restricts influenza A virus (IAV) infection in host cells. (
  • 1. The concentration of uridine in the medium that allows maximum incorporation of isotopically-labelled uridine into RNA in CI5 cells was determined. (
  • 5. Infection of exponentially-growing cells with pseudorabies virus caused a steady decrease (to 15% of the uninfected level) in incorporation of 3H uridine into RNA by 5 hours after infection. (
  • It was found that in pseudorabies virus-infected cells, such a pulse-label produced radioactive low molecul8.r weight RM mainly of a size between 5S and 4S. (
  • It was also shown that pre-tRNA from uninfected CI5 cells (pulse-labelled for 5-10 min) electrophoresed on 10% polyacrylamide gels as two peaks, analogous to peaks I and XI from the virus-infected cell, 7. (
  • Alterations in level of methylation and nucleotide composition of 4S RNA after infection of "resting" cells were shown to be negligible. (
  • 10. After infection of "resting" cells, it was found that ribosome-associated RNA synthesis did not seem to be further decreased. (
  • However, non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are transcribed in mammalian cells, and the roles of many of these ncRNAs remain enigmas. (
  • We reported previously that influenza virus infection induces the apoptotic death of HeLa cells associated with activation of the Fas gene. (
  • Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing was first applied and long-read sequencing analysis showed that a variety of H7N9 DI-RNA species were present in the patient samples and human bronchial epithelial cells. (
  • Taken together, we reveal the diversity and characteristics of DI-RNAs found in H7N9-infected patients, cells and animals. (
  • In order to avoid the identification of inert viral sequences, we present a methodology based on metabolic RNA labeling and sequencing, which enables the specific identification of newly synthesized viral RNAs in infected cells, resulting in the ability to unambiguously distinguish active infection by DNA or RNA viruses from inert nucleic acids. (
  • In the present study, we report the ability to differentiate Vero cells acutely infected by a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus (tick-borne encephalitis virus) from cells which have been in contact with nonreplicating virus particles. (
  • B-cell-activating factor expressions in salivary epithelial cells after dsRNA virus infection depends on RNA-activated protein kinase activation. (
  • Viral double-stranded RNA triggers Ig class switching by activating upper respiratory mucosa B cells through an innate TLR3 pathway involving BAFF. (
  • Viruses induce high expression of BAFF by salivary gland epithelial cells through TLR- and type-I IFN-dependent and -independent pathways. (
  • Here, we use three approaches to identify physiological RIG-I agonists in cells infected with influenza A virus or Sendai virus. (
  • They discovered that cells lacking the exonuclease XRN1, mediator cellular RNA clearance, become resistant to SINV infection. (
  • We are seeking to appoint a Postdoctoral Research Associate to elucidate, on a proteome-wide scale, the cellular players interplaying with viral RNA in infected cells. (
  • We also reported that chicken MDA5 could interact with STING to construct a MDA5-STING-IFN-β pathway ( 17 ), which is not presence in mammalian cells, for RNA viruses recognition. (
  • This restriction is overcome when cells are co-infected with vaccinia virus (VACV), a vertebrate DNA virus. (
  • Although other reservoirs for HIV-1 exist, the general consensus among experts is that latent virus (HIV DNA in resting memory CD4+ T cells) is the primary barrier to HIV-1 eradication. (
  • Fold change cell-associated HIV RNA in Total CD4 T-Cells. (
  • Positive-strand RNA infections immediate different virus-specific procedures throughout their infection of sponsor cells. (
  • CHIKV-3ʹ-Cre infection of tdTomato reporter mice resulted in a population of tdTomato + cells that persisted for at least 112 days. (
  • Treatment with an antibody against Mxra8, a recently defined host receptor for CHIKV, reduced the number of tdTomato + cells in the chronic phase and diminished the levels of chronic viral RNA, implicating these tdTomato + cells as the reservoir of chronic viral RNA. (
  • Finally, isolation and flow cytometry-based sorting of the tdTomato + fibroblasts from the skin and ankle and analysis for viral RNA revealed that the tdTomato + cells harbor most of the persistent CHIKV RNA at chronic time points. (
  • Therefore, this CHIKV-3ʹ-Cre and tdTomato reporter mouse system identifies the cells that survive CHIKV infection in vivo and are enriched for persistent CHIKV RNA. (
  • The approach followed here, based on using PPV chimeras in which an under-consideration RSS substitutes for HCPro, could further help to study the function of diverse RSSs in a 'highly sensitive' RNA-silencing context, such as that taking place in plant cells during the process of a viral infection. (
  • None of the cells were sensitive to infection by transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), a porcine coronavirus, or to infection mediated by the Spike (S) protein of SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) incorporated into pseudotypes based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). (
  • The resistance to infection was overcome if cells were transfected to express the respective cellular receptor, porcine aminopeptidase N for TGEV or angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 for SARS-CoV. (
  • Notably, all cells were sensitive to infection by two paramyxoviruses (Sendai virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus) and three influenza viruses from different subtypes. (
  • These results indicate that bat cells are more resistant to infection by coronaviruses than to infection by paramyxoviruses, filoviruses and influenza viruses. (
  • Furthermore, these results show a receptor-dependent restriction of the infection of bat cells by CoV. (
  • To better understand these processes we determined the changes in the host gene expression that occur during HCV infection of Huh-7.5 cells. (
  • These results indicate that VA RNA(I) plays a role in suppressing eIF-2α kinase activity during adenovirus infection of HeLa cells. (
  • After the body fights the initial infection, the varicella zoster virus remains in nerve cells for the rest of a person's life. (
  • that keep the virus from infecting other cells. (
  • As people age, growth and division (proliferation) of T cells are diminished, reducing the immune system's ability to control the virus, which can allow its reactivation. (
  • Health factors that impair T cells can also trigger reactivation of the varicella zoster virus. (
  • Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which infects and kills T cells, can also allow the virus to become active again. (
  • Cameron developed a microfluidic device that allowed him to simultaneously monitor thousands of cells infected with viruses. (
  • The positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses (+ssRNA) comprise many pathogens that are a serious threat to human health. (
  • In a paper published ahead of print in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers from the University of Leeds and the University of York have discovered a unique code in single stranded RNA viruses that dictate the packaging instructions of a fully formed virus, providing a potential drug therapy target. (
  • Viral infection initiates an array of changes in host gene expression. (
  • We analyzed the transcriptomic data using an approach that accounts for individual co-variation between viral RNA load and gene expression. (
  • The Castello lab will move to the Centre of Virus Research (CVR) , in the University of Glasgow, between Nov 2020 and July 2021. (
  • PhD in Understanding How Macrophage Sensing of RNA Virus Infection Drives Inflammation 2020 is offered for PhD degree in the field of Medicine, Science and Mathematics. (
  • A new study published on the preprint server medRxiv in July 2020 traces how COVID-19 became the predominant cause of respiratory infection in the period from early January until the present. (
  • All RNA viruses encoding an RNA-directed RNA polymerase, known as of May 2020, form a monophyletic group now known as the realm Riboviria. (
  • The realm does not contain all RNA viruses: Deltavirus, Asunviroidae, and Pospiviroidae are taxa of RNA viruses that have been mistakenly included in 2019, but corrected in 2020. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Small interfering RNAs" applicable to this article? (
  • The production of virus-derived small interfering RNAs (viRNAs) from viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a key event in this host response. (
  • Gaining insight into the pathogenesis of these viruses is thus relevant to thoroughly understand them and identify new treatment and prevention options. (
  • Sera will be used in an in-vitro hepatocyte model of hepatitis C infection to better understand the pathogenesis of HIV/HCV co-infection, and to gain insight into intracellular mechanisms. (
  • establishing named a download cellular signaling and innate immune responses to rna virus infections myself, also elected had me be my hierarchical subject-matter Christianity. (
  • Type I interferons (IFNs) play an essential role in innate immune responses against viral infection ( 1 ). (
  • Virus-host interactions drive a remarkable diversity of immune responses and countermeasures. (
  • A recent study conducted in the Atlanta area reveals that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) related sexual distancing together with clinical service interruption for sexually transmitted diseases can potentially impact the future incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). (
  • Leader RNA sequences are joined to body sequences of each subgenomic-length mRNA at highly conserved intergenic (IG) sites located just upstream from the coding sequences of each viral gene ( 7 , 14 , 27 , 32 ). (
  • In trans , the free leader RNA binds with highly conserved internal IG elements in a full-length minus-strand template to prime transcription of each of the subgenomic mRNAs ( 1 , 3 , 6 , 19 , 25 ). (
  • Using RNAi screening, we show that Lepidopteran RNAi, Nuclear Factor-?B, and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways restrict RNA virus infection. (
  • We confirmed that SREBP promotes DENV infection in the midgut by RNAi-mediated gene knockdown in vivo. (
  • Positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses comprise many (re-)emerging human pathogens that pose a public health problem. (
  • Human +ssRNA viruses that currently have a large impact on public health include dengue virus (DENV) and the more recent (re-)emerging viruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) [ 1 ]. (
  • Single stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses are an incredibly diverse viral group capable of infecting plants and animals. (
  • Common ssRNA viruses causing human disease are picornaviridae (rhinovirus [the common cold], polio), coronoaviridae (SARS, MERS), and filoviridae (Ebola, Marburg). (
  • Further research will determine if cellular RNA helicases such as MOV10 represent suitable targets for the development of novel anti-IAV therapies. (
  • That is good news for the 1 billion rhinovirus infections occurring each year, not to mention other rarer but more deadly infections. (
  • The viruses that Cameron studied included the rhinovirus, the common cold and coxsackievirus. (
  • Moreover, we will employ state-of-the-art virology and RNA biology techniques to characterise these interactions in depth. (
  • Following primary transcription of the subgenomic mRNA, these mRNAs may act as templates for the synthesis of subgenomic-length negative strands containing antileader RNA ( 34 ). (
  • We analysed data from deep RNA sequencing of samples from in vitro and in vivo NDV infections to uncover the patterns of mRNA editing in NDV. (
  • For MACV, the band is embellished by a definite appendage, most likely reflective from the cover stealing mechanism utilized by those infections to create capped mRNA (27). (
  • Positive-sense viral RNA is similar to mRNA and thus can be immediately translated by the host cell. (
  • Negative-sense viral RNA is complementary to mRNA and thus must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase before translation. (
  • Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been extracted from tissue of European mountain ash trees ( Sorbus aucuparia L.) showing typical ringspot and mottling symptoms on leaves and a gradual decay in general. (
  • The dsRNA pattern and the sequence information strongly indicate a virus associated with the mountain ash ringspot disease. (
  • This nucleic acid is usually single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) but may be double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). (
  • In turn, this dsRNA directs the formation of new viral RNA. (
  • Upon infection, DMVs have been shown to harbor the replicase complex of positive-strand RNA viruses such as MHV, poliovirus, and equine arteritis virus. (
  • In this study, Cheng and colleagues show that the core replicase protein of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) targets the nucleus in the virally infected cell and is post-transnationally modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier 3 (SUMO3) in a model plant Arabidopsis. (
  • This modification suppresses the host immune response, alters the subcellular localization of the replicase protein, and as a result, promotes viral infection. (
  • One of these includes RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNA replicase), which copies the viral RNA to form a double-stranded replicative form. (
  • This means that the virus must bring along with it the enzyme RNA replicase. (
  • Viral infection induces the host immune response that restricts viral infection and protects the host. (
  • Background:Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a leading cause of central nervous system (CNS) infections in Asia and results in significant morbidity and mortality. (
  • Necrotizing soft-tissue infections (NSTIs) result in significant morbidity and mortality rates, with as many as 76% of patients dying during their index admission. (
  • HcPro, a multifunctional protein encoded by a plant RNA virus, targets the 20S proteasome and affects its enzymic activities. (
  • [19] Some bacterial infections cause severe abdominal pain and may persist for several weeks. (
  • Early viral replicative intermediates are detected by two recently characterized cystolic viral RNA receptors-RIG-I and MDA-5. (
  • While trans splicing is less attractive since full-length replicative intermediates (RIs) cannot be degraded into subgenomic-length RF RNA ( 3 , 30 ), the transcription attenuation model readily accounts for most of the observations central to coronavirus discontinuous transcription ( 30 ). (
  • The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) classifies RNA viruses as those that belong to Group III, Group IV or Group V of the Baltimore classification system of classifying viruses and does not consider viruses with DNA intermediates in their life cycle as RNA viruses. (
  • The analyses of genes whose expression was decreased upon HCV infection showed that the latter were engaged in the metabolism of lipids and amino acids. (
  • Benedicto I, Molina-Jiménez F, Moreno-Otero R, López-Cabrera M, Majano PL (2011) Interplay among cellular polarization, lipoprotein metabolism and hepatitis C virus entry. (
  • While ZIKV causes acute human diseases, infections of vector mosquitoes are basically non-pathogenic, allowing persistent infections and conferring lifelong ability to transmit the virus. (
  • However, an increasing number of observations indicate that the majority of acute infections can result in the establishment of persistent infection. (
  • Furthermore, the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases may be determined by persistent infections in the human community as well as in wild and domestic animal populations, potentially increasing the zoonotic potential of some viruses. (
  • The purpose of this two-day conference is bringing together scientists working on many different viruses to address and extensively discuss underlying general and specific questions concerning the mechanisms and consequences of persistent RNA virus infections with an emphasis on zoonotic aspects. (
  • Importantly, it also induced chronic disease, including persistent viral RNA and chronic myositis and synovitis similar to wild-type virus. (
  • These processes are especially significant in long-term persistent infections where multiple viral genotypes co-replicate in a single host, generating abundant genotypic variants, some of which may possess novel host-colonizing and pathogenicity traits. (
  • Using a resequencing microarray, we examined a persistent infection by a Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) complex in citrus, a vegetatively propagated, globally important fruit crop, and found that the complex comprised three major and a number of minor genotypes. (
  • These data demonstrate that persistent infection of multiple viral genotypes within a host organism is sufficient to drive the large-scale production of viral genetic variants that may evolve into new and emerging viruses. (
  • [20] However, in poor countries treatment for severe infections is often out of reach and persistent diarrhea is common. (
  • Measles (rubeola) is an infectious disease caused by multiplication of a single-strand ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus of the genus Morbillivirus in the upper respiratory tract and conjunctiva. (
  • An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material. (
  • undetectable HCV RNA after 4 weeks) compared to peg-IFN and ribavirin alone. (
  • HIV and HCV infected, HIV RNA Undetectable(treated) and Detectable HCV RNA. (
  • Interpretation of undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA levels in HIV-hepatitis C virus co-infection. (
  • Individuals with positive hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody titres, normal transaminase levels, and undetectable HCV-RNA levels are generally considered to have cleared the previous hepatitis C infection. (
  • Although Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) does not infect large numbers of people like the afore-mentioned viruses, 35% of diagnosed patients die of MERS [ 2 ], and considering the virus' genetic possibilities, any change that increases transmissibility between humans would mean a serious public health threat that is considered worth preparing for. (
  • In some cases, where these viruses were then efficiently transmitted between humans, they caused large disease outbreaks such as the 1918 flu pandemic or, more recently, outbreaks of Ebola and Coronavirus disease. (
  • The authors draw attention to several randomized clinical studies in humans that have found that over the counter supplements such as n-acetylcysteine (NAC), which is used to treat acetaminophen poisoning and is also used as a mucus thinner to help reduce bronchitis exacerbations, and elderberry extracts, have evidence for shortening the duration of influenza by about two to four days and reducing the severity of the infection. (
  • Members of this group include the rotaviruses, which are the most common cause of gastroenteritis in young children, and picobirnaviruses, which are the most common virus in fecal samples of both humans and animals with or without signs of diarrhea. (
  • Since interferons have been implicated in inflammatory diseases and immunopathology in addition to their protective role in infection, antagonizing the immune response may have an ambiguous effect on the clinical outcome of the viral disease. (
  • The role of viruses in autoreactive B cell activation within tertiary lymphoid structures in autoimmune diseases. (
  • Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and has historically been reported to cause mild symptomatic diseases during human infections. (
  • Viral infections are responsible for huge economic losses in fish farming, and control of these viral diseases in aquaculture remains a serious challenge. (
  • This technology represents a new therapeutic approach for treating aquatic diseases, including viral infections. (
  • Editor-in-Chief of Progress Cardiovascular Diseases Carl Lavie, MD, Ochsner Clinical School-The University of Queensland School of Medicine, New Orleans, added, "Considering the recent interests directed at serious viral infections, especially coronavirus and influenza, this material should be of interest to specialists in cardiovascular diseases but also to a wide range of clinicians outside of our typical readership. (
  • We have used deep sequencing techniques to characterize vsRNAs of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), a member of the genus Tospovirus, which causes economically important diseases in numerous crops in may parts of the world. (
  • Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major causes of chronic liver diseases. (
  • The Danish Study Group of Infections of the Brain is a collaboration between all departments of infectious diseases in Denmark. (
  • In consecutive serum samples from 25 tourists with acute dengue fever, virus-specific RNA was detected by using fully automated TaqMan reverse transcriptase PCR. (
  • Patients with quantifiable HCV-RNA in serum were enrolled in the study. (
  • HCV-RNA in saliva was associated with the level of serum viral load but not with periodontal or liver disease severity. (
  • JEV RNA is rarely detected in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and diagnosis of JEV infection is usually based on serological tests that are frequently difficult to interpret. (
  • Unlike serum or CSF, urine is relatively easy to obtain, but, to date, there has been minimal work on the feasibility of testing urine for JEV RNA. (
  • SummaryTo evaluate the concordance between viremia and antibody testing in hepatitis C virus (HCV) diagnosis, 682 serum or plasma samples collected from patients with known or suspected HCV infection were tested. (
  • In this study, we examined the presence of WNV RNA in serum, plasma, whole-blood, CSF, and urine samples obtained from patients diagnosed with acute WNV infection during an outbreak which occurred in Israel in 2015. (
  • Possible involvement of double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase in cell death by influenza virus infection. (
  • Dengue virus RNA was found in almost all patients (17 of 18), if the samples had been taken soon after the onset of symptoms and before anti-dengue virus antibody had been produced. (
  • RNA was detectable in only one of five persons who had anti-dengue virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies but not yet IgG antibodies. (
  • In two early samples from two frequent travelers obtained 1 and 2 days after the onset of symptoms significant IgG antibody titers were present but there were no anti-dengue virus IgM antibodies. (
  • 5 × 10 6 dengue virus RNA copies (dengue types 1 and 2) was detectable. (
  • These findings of a high viral load in the presence of anti-dengue virus IgG antibody are suggestive of a secondary dengue virus infection. (
  • In the 20 tourists (17 plus 1 plus 2) in whom viral RNA was found, the dengue virus serotype could be related to the area where the infection had taken place. (
  • Most of our patients came from southeast Asia and most frequently had dengue virus type 1 infections (8 of 20). (
  • Due to the vast expansion of air travelling new dengue virus strains may be introduced into a susceptible population in the tropics ( 20 , 21 ). (
  • Both dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies are usually found in the sera from patients with acute primary infections, while the IgM response may be low or sometimes even absent in secondary dengue fever ( 27 ). (
  • Therefore, the antibody response may be difficult to interpret with regard to an acute dengue fever, if other flavivirus infections cannot be excluded by clinical, laboratory, or epidemiological means. (
  • Thus, information on the distribution of the four dengue virus serotypes and even of strains or quasispecies in tropical areas can be obtained ( 15 , 17 ). (
  • Unfortunately, the technique of RT-PCR is handicapped both by time-consuming nested amplification protocols and by false positive reactions which may in part be due to the contamination of dengue virus DNA in the laboratory. (
  • By using the TaqMan principle ( 8 , 11 , 13 ) the increase in dengue virus-specific DNA during amplification can be measured by simultaneously monitoring a fluorescence signal in the tightly sealed test tubes. (
  • The vaccine is based on a live attenuated vaccine developed against dengue virus. (
  • This study will evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a live attenuated chimeric virus, WN/DEN4delta30, which is derived from the DEN4 dengue virus and wild-type WN serotypes. (
  • Dengue virus (DENV) causes more human infections than any other mosquito-borne virus. (
  • Clinical presentations for viral respiratory tract infections are often nonspecific, and a rapid, high-throughput laboratory technique that can detect a panel of common viral pathogens is clinically desirable. (
  • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and the elderly. (
  • The primary objective is to assess the safety of telithromycin (HMR 3647) (20% fine granules) 1g filling sachet in children with infections (Respiratory tract infections, Dermatological in. (
  • In men, these and other sexually transmitted infections may lead to urethritis, inflammation of the urethra. (
  • Inflammation of brain parenchymal tissue as a result of viral infection. (
  • Guillain-barré syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study. (
  • Using next-generation sequencing, we performed a whole-transcriptome analysis of the host response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection across four founder mouse strains of the Collaborative Cross. (
  • propose that certain nutraceuticals may help provide relief to people infected with encapsulated RNA viruses such as influenza and coronavirus. (
  • Over the past few months, a novel RNA coronavirus, now called COVID-19, has broken out in China and has spread to over two dozen countries and infected more than 76,000 people causing more than 2,000 deaths. (
  • Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that Zika virus infection leads to modifications of both viral and human genetic material. (
  • When Zika virus infects a human cell, Rana's team found, the cell modifies viral RNA with m6A as a means to get rid of the infection. (
  • RNA tagged with m6A is a beacon for human enzymes that come along and destabilize it. (
  • In addition, they found that this host response to Zika viral infection also induced specific m6A modifications on human RNA. (
  • These human RNA changes were not present in the absence of Zika virus. (
  • In contrast, silencing the human enzymes that remove methyl groups -- increasing m6A methylation, in other words -- decreased Zika virus production. (
  • Next, Rana and team will investigate the role of RNA modifications in the viral life cycle, and how the human immune response is altered by various Zika virus strains. (
  • M6A (shown here as red balls) is a beacon for human enzymes (yellow moons) that destabilize viral RNA. (
  • Acute respiratory virus infections are among the most common causes of human disease. (
  • Association of Plasma Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 RNA Level With Risk of Clinical Progression in Patients With Advanced Infection. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 RNA level in plasma was evaluated as a surrogate marker for disease progression in a clinical trial of advanced HIV-1 infection. (
  • Despite reports of DI particles present in seasonal influenza A H1N1 infections, their existence in human infections by the avian influenza A viruses, such as H7N9, has not been studied. (
  • Zoonotic spillover, i.e. pathogen transmission from animal to human, has repeatedly introduced RNA viruses into the human population. (
  • And while emerging RNA viruses are introduced more frequently as human activities increasingly disrupt wild-life eco-systems, therapeutic or preventative medicines satisfying the "one drug-multiple bugs"-aim are unavailable. (
  • Many of these infections undergo undetected and the consequences for their animal and human hosts are not well understood. (
  • This is the first comprehensive book on human/animal gene responses to RNA viral infections, including prevalent, emerging and re-emerging RNA viruses such as HIV, SARS-CoV, West Nile virus, influenza virus and many others. (
  • Bats (Chiroptera) host major human pathogenic viruses including corona-, paramyxo, rhabdo- and filoviruses. (
  • Differences in TLR7 and TLR8 signaling program virus-specific responses of human monocytes to infection. (
  • Online Cover This week features a Research Article that describes how distinct pathways stimulated by the related intracellular RNA receptors TLR7 and TLR8 promote virus-specific responses of human monocytes to RNA virus infection. (
  • Human bocavirus infections and co-infections with respiratory syncytial virus and Rotavirus in children with acute respiratory or gastrointestinal disease. (
  • Epidemiology characteristics and phylogenic analysis of human respiratory syncytial virus in patients with respiratory infections during 2011-2016 in southern China. (
  • Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogens that cause acute respiratory infections in children and immunocompromised adults. (
  • Prevalence of influenza A virus (Flu-A), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) was assessed in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs). (
  • Comparison of health care resource utilization among preterm and term infants hospitalized with Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus infections: A systematic review and meta-analysis of retrospective cohort studies. (
  • Data on the variation in the medical resource utilization rate of Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus (HRSV) infected children by gestational age have recently been made available. (
  • Approximately half of the human population carries the virus. (
  • Clearance of measles virus (MeV) involves rapid elimination of infectious virus during the rash followed by slow elimination of viral RNA. (
  • These alterations are mainly driven by the loss of cellular mRNAs and the emergence of viral RNA. (
  • In 30 late samples with both IgG and IgM antibodies viral RNA was no longer demonstrable. (
  • Influenza DI-RNA is known as a defective viral RNA with single large internal deletion. (
  • Moreover, by merging the dose control with temporal modulation, multidimensional analysis of the viral RNA element can be done also. (
  • To study the mechanism of action of ribavirin-based antivirals, Cameron developed an analytical assay that could monitor whether ribavirin could incorporate into viral RNA. (
  • These experiments revealed that ribavirin-TP, which is made of similar building blocks to RNA, is incorporated into the viral RNA. (
  • page needed] RNA viruses generally have very high mutation rates compared to DNA viruses, because viral RNA polymerases lack the proofreading ability of DNA polymerases. (