DEAD-box RNA Helicases
RNA, Small Interfering
Molecular Sequence Data
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Respiratory Syncytial Viruses
West Nile virus
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections
Simian virus 40
Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype
Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus
DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases
Hepatitis B virus
Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype
Comparative study of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy in juvenile sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax infected in different ways. (1/218)The transmission of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) was investigated in juvenile sea bass (3 g) Dicentrarchus labrax by using cell culture supernatant (SSN-1 cell line) containing nodavirus. Five methods of infection were tested: intramuscular injection (IM), intraperitoneal injection (IP), oral infection, bath exposure and cohabitation of healthy fish with infected fish. Some differences were observed in time of disease onset and severity of symptoms depending on the mode of infection used. Clinical symptoms such as whirling swimming and lethargic or hyperactive behaviour were generally reproduced, except for fish infected via oral and IP infection. First mortalities occurred 3 d after IM and IP infection and 6 d after for the other modes of infection. Cumulative mortalities were also variable: 100% after IM infection, 10% after IP infection, 32% for bath exposure, 43% after cohabitation and 24% via oral infection. Histopathologically, vacuolation was observed in the central nervous tissues and in the retina. The observed lesions were more or less severe depending on the mode of infection, the sampling time and the organs: lesions on the surviving fish (42 days post infection, d p.i.) seemed to be generally more conspicuous in the retina than in the brain of the same fish. In most cases, the presence of nodavirus was confirmed in the same samples of brain and retina by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The virus was not detected in other organs examined. The present results suggest that 2 forms of VER can be induced: IM injection leads to an acute form (severe nervous disorders with high and fast mortality) whereas oral infection, bath exposure and cohabitation induce a subacute form (less severe disorders and weak daily mortality). This experiment demonstrates experimentally induced horizontal transmission of VER in sea bass for the first time. (+info)
Transmission of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) to yolk-sac larvae of the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus: occurrence of nodavirus in various organs and a possible route of infection. (2/218)The susceptibility of the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus yolk-sac larvae to viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) was investigated by waterborne challenge experiments with nodavirus. Transfer of VER was indicated by several lines of evidence. A significantly higher cumulative mortality was observed after challenge with virus compared to mock challenge, and increasing doses of virus resulted in shorter incubation periods. When the challenge was performed on the day after hatching, the time from inoculation to the time when 50% of the larvae were dead (LT50) ranged from 26 to 32 d. Postponement of challenge for 13 d reduced the LT50 to 14 d, indicating that the susceptibility of the larvae to the present nodavirus strain was low during the first 2 wk after hatching. The progression of the infection was monitored by sequential immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. On Day 18 after hatching the initial signs of infection were observed as a prominent focus of immunolabelling in the caudal part of the brain stem. In the same larvae immunolabelled single cell lesions were observed in the stratified epithelium of the cranial part of the intestine. The portal of entry into the larvae may thus have been the intestinal epithelium, while the route of infection to the CNS may have been axonal transport to the brain stem through cranial nerves such as the vagus nerves. Later in the infection, lesions became more severe and widespread and were also found throughout the brain and spinal cord and in the retina, cranial ganglia, intestine, liver, olfactory epithelium, yolk-sac epithelium, gills and pectoral fins. The mortality in all virus-challenged groups was 100%. This study thus demonstrates that the present nodavirus strain is able to replicate and cause VER in Atlantic halibut yolk-sac larvae at temperatures as low as 6 degrees C. (+info)
Pathogenesis of borna disease virus: granulocyte fractions of psychiatric patients harbor infectious virus in the absence of antiviral antibodies. (3/218)Borna disease virus (BDV) causes acute and persistent infections in various vertebrates. During recent years, BDV-specific serum antibodies, BDV antigen, and BDV-specific nucleic acid were found in humans suffering from psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, viral antigen was detected in human autopsy brain tissue by immunohistochemical staining. Whether BDV infection can be associated with psychiatric disorders is still a matter of debate; no direct evidence has ever been presented. In the present study we report on (i) the detection of BDV-specific nucleic acid in human granulocyte cell fraction from three different psychiatric patients and (ii) the isolation of infectious BDV from these cells obtained from a patient with multiple psychiatric disorders. In leukocyte preparations other than granulocytes, either no BDV RNA was detected or positive PCR results were obtained only if there was at least 20% contamination with granulocytes. Parts of the antigenome of the isolated virus were sequenced, demonstrating the close relationship to the prototype BDV strains (He/80 and strain V) as well as to other human virus sequences. Our data provide strong evidence that cells in the granulocyte fraction represent the major if not the sole cell type harboring BDV-specific nucleic acid in human blood and contain infectious virus. In contrast to most other reports of putative human isolates, where sequences are virtually identical to those of the established laboratory strains, this isolate shows divergence in the region previously defined as variable in BDV from naturally infected animals. (+info)
Molecular characterization of a ranavirus isolated from largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. (4/218)An iridovirus, isolated from largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides following a die-off among adult fish and provisionally designated largemouth bass virus (LMBV), was characterized by analysis of viral protein synthesis in infected cells, viral DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP), and sequence determination of the major capsid protein and viral DNA methyltransferase genes. All 3 approaches yielded results consistent with the suggestion that LMBV was a member of the genus Ranavirus. Moreover, LMBV was nearly identical to 2 isolates from Southeast Asia which had been previously detected in imported ornamental fish. It remains to be determined whether infection of largemouth bass resulted from exposure to an imported virus, or whether the presence of similar viruses in southeast Asia and the southeastern United States indicates that iridovirus species are not geographically limited as suggested earlier, but rather globally distributed. (+info)
Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. (5/218)We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a global threat to wildlife populations. (+info)
Pathogenicity of nodavirus strains from striped jack Pseudocaranx dentex and Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus, studied by waterborne challenge of yolk-sac larvae of both teleost species. (6/218)The present study shows that differences in pathogenicity exist among fish nodavirus strains. In challenge trials, a Japanese strain (SJ93Nag) was highly virulent to larvae of the striped jack Pseudocaranx dentex but replication was not detected in larvae of Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus at 6 degrees C. Conversely, a Norwegian nodavirus strain (AH95NorA) that was highly virulent to the Atlantic halibut larvae did not replicate in striped jack larvae at 20 degrees C. Occurrence of the disease viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) and cumulative mortality were significantly different in the 2 species when challenged with the 2 nodavirus strains. The presence of nodavirus in nervous tissue was monitored by immunohistochemical methods. Our results support the view that the genetic diversity among nodavirus strains reflects the existence of different viral phenotypes which may be adapted to infect different host species and/or for replicating at different temperatures. Fish nodaviruses represent surveyable pathogens well suited for studying the relation between viral genotypic and phenotypic properties such as host specificity, temperature optima, neuroinvasiveness and neurovirulence. (+info)
Surface disinfection of Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus eggs with ozonated sea-water inactivates nodavirus and increases survival of the larvae. (7/218)Disinfection by ozonation of sea-water may reduce the risk of transmission of nodavirus, a major fish pathogen, via Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus eggs. In the present study, eggs at 4 d prior to hatching were exposed to nodavirus and then to ozonated sea-water using different concentrations (0.3 to 10 mg l-1) and exposure times (0.5 to 10 min). None of the larvae from virus-exposed eggs washed with ozonated sea-water developed viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), which was detected in all dead larvae from eggs exposed to nodavirus but not washed with ozonated sea-water. In the non-treated control group about 20% of the dead larvae developed the disease. This suggests that the halibut eggs taken from a large-scale production facility were already contaminated with nodavirus. The egg groups which had been treated with 4 mg O3 l-1 for 0.5 min or with lower total ozone exposures had a higher survival and no adverse effects on the development of the larvae after hatching were observed. Although a slight delay in hatching was found, after 2 d the cumulative hatching had normalised. In the egg groups with high total exposure (4 mg O3 l-1 for 1 min or higher total ozone exposures) a pronounced negative effect on hatching was observed. Our results indicate that the egg surface may be important in the transfer of nodavirus and that nodavirus associated with the surface of the egg may be inactivated by ozonated sea-water. (+info)
Enteric virus infections and diarrhea in healthy and human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. (8/218)Forty-three stool samples from 27 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive children and 38 samples from 38 HIV-negative children, collected during a 15-month period, were examined for enteric viruses. Diagnostic assays included enzyme immunoassays for rotavirus, adenovirus, and Norwalk virus; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for picobirnavirus and atypical rotavirus; and PCR for astrovirus and enterovirus. Specimens from HIV-positive children were more likely than those of HIV-negative children to have enterovirus (56 versus 21%; P < 0.0002) and astrovirus (12 versus 0%; P < 0.02), but not rotavirus (5 versus 8%; P > 0.5). No adenoviruses, picobirnaviruses, or Norwalk viruses were found. The rates of virus-associated diarrhea were similar among HIV-positive and HIV-negative children. Enteroviruses were excreted for up to 6 months in HIV-positive children; however, no evidence for prolonged excretion of poliovirus vaccine was observed. These results suggest that although infection with enterovirus and astrovirus may be frequent in HIV-infected children, enteric viruses are not associated with the diarrhea frequently suffered by these children. (+info)
1. Influenza (flu): Caused by the influenza virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches.
2. HIV/AIDS: Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is an RNA virus that attacks the body's immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
3. Hepatitis B: Caused by the hepatitis B virus, which is an RNA virus that infects the liver and can cause inflammation, scarring, and cancer.
4. Measles: Caused by the measles virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause fever, cough, and a rash.
5. Rabies: Caused by the rabies virus, which is an RNA virus that attacks the central nervous system and can cause brain damage and death.
6. Ebola: Caused by the Ebola virus, which is an RNA virus that affects the blood vessels and can cause fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and bleeding.
7. SARS-CoV-2: Caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is an RNA virus that affects the respiratory system and can cause COVID-19.
RNA virus infections are often difficult to treat and can be highly contagious, so it's important to take precautions to prevent transmission and seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract and causes symptoms such as sneezing, running nose, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections.
3. Measles: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, rashes, coughing, and redness of the eyes.
4. Rubella (German measles): A mild viral infection that can cause fever, rashes, headache, and swollen lymph nodes.
5. Chickenpox: A highly contagious viral infection that causes fever, itching, and a characteristic rash of small blisters on the skin.
6. Herpes simplex virus (HSV): A viral infection that can cause genital herpes, cold sores, or other skin lesions.
7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A viral infection that attacks the immune system and can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
8. Hepatitis B: A viral infection that affects the liver, causing inflammation and damage to liver cells.
9. Hepatitis C: Another viral infection that affects the liver, often leading to chronic liver disease and liver cancer.
10. Ebola: A deadly viral infection that causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.
11. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): A viral infection that can cause severe respiratory illness, including pneumonia and respiratory failure.
12. West Nile virus: A viral infection that can cause fever, headache, and muscle pain, as well as more severe symptoms such as meningitis or encephalitis.
Viral infections can be spread through contact with an infected person or contaminated surfaces, objects, or insects such as mosquitoes. Prevention strategies include:
1. Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
3. Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing.
4. Avoiding sharing personal items such as towels or utensils.
5. Using condoms or other barrier methods during sexual activity.
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viral infections, such as HPV and hepatitis B.
7. Using insect repellents to prevent mosquito bites.
8. Screening blood products and organs for certain viruses before transfusion or transplantation.
Treatment for viral infections depends on the specific virus and the severity of the illness. Antiviral medications may be used to reduce the replication of the virus and alleviate symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, or mechanical ventilation.
Prevention is key in avoiding viral infections, so taking the necessary precautions and practicing good hygiene can go a long way in protecting oneself and others from these common and potentially debilitating illnesses.
Orthomyxoviridae infections are a group of viral infections caused by the Orthomyxoviridae family of viruses, which includes influenza A and B viruses, as well as other related viruses. These infections can affect both humans and animals and can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe.
The most common type of Orthomyxoviridae infection is seasonal influenza, which occurs when the virus is transmitted from person to person through the air or by contact with infected surfaces. Other types of Orthomyxoviridae infections include:
1. Pandemic influenza: This occurs when a new strain of the virus emerges and spreads quickly around the world, causing widespread illness and death. Examples of pandemic influenza include the Spanish flu of 1918 and the Asian flu of 1957.
2. Avian influenza: This occurs when birds are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected birds or their droppings.
3. Swine influenza: This occurs when pigs are infected with the virus and can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected pigs or their droppings.
4. H5N1 and H7N9: These are two specific types of bird flu viruses that have caused serious outbreaks in humans in recent years.
Symptoms of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, muscle aches, and fatigue. In severe cases, these infections can lead to pneumonia, bronchitis, and other respiratory complications, as well as hospitalization and even death.
Diagnosis of Orthomyxoviridae infections is typically made through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) or viral culture. Treatment is generally focused on relieving symptoms and supporting the immune system, with antiviral medications may be used in severe cases.
Prevention of Orthomyxoviridae infections can include avoiding close contact with infected birds or pigs, wearing protective clothing and gear when handling animals, and practicing good hygiene such as washing hands frequently. Vaccines are also available for some species of birds and pigs to protect against these viruses.
Overall, Orthomyxoviridae is a family of viruses that can cause serious illness in humans and other animals, and it's important to take precautions to prevent exposure and spread of these viruses.
RSV infections can cause a range of symptoms, including:
* Runny nose
* Decreased appetite
* Apnea (pauses in breathing)
* Blue-tinged skin and lips (cyanosis)
* Inflammation of the lower respiratory tract (bronchiolitis)
In severe cases, RSV infections can lead to hospitalization and may require oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation. In rare cases, RSV infections can be life-threatening, particularly in premature babies and infants with underlying medical conditions.
There is no specific treatment for RSV infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed in severe cases. Treatment focuses on relieving symptoms and managing the infection, such as providing hydration and nutrition, administering oxygen therapy, and monitoring vital signs.
Prevention measures for RSV infections include:
* Frequent handwashing, especially after contact with an infected person or their secretions
* Avoiding close contact with anyone who has RSV infection
* Keeping children home from school or daycare if they are showing symptoms of RSV infection
* Practicing good hygiene, such as avoiding sharing utensils or personal items with anyone who is infected
There is currently no vaccine available to protect against RSV infections, but researchers are working on developing one.
Craig E. Cameron
Bacteriophage experimental evolution
Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1
Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase
COVID-19 drug repurposing research
Maurice Green (virologist)
Carrot virus Y
Sonja M. Best
Coronavirus nucleocapsid protein
Bacillus virus phi29
Diseases of poverty
White clover mosaic virus
Ross River virus
Sunn-hemp mosaic virus
Bean pod mottle virus
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1
Pattern recognition receptor
Walleye dermal sarcoma virus
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Hepatitis c virus infecti4
- If the blood test for hepatitis C antibody is negative, then there is no hepatitis C virus infection and no further action needed. (cdc.gov)
- If the blood test for hepatitis C antibody is positive, then there needs to be a follow-up RNA blood test for hepatitis c virus infection. (cdc.gov)
- If the RNA is positive, then there is hepatitis C virus infection. (cdc.gov)
- [ 8 ] Other age-adjusted risk factors positively correlated with death due to WNE include chronic kidney disease, hepatitis C virus infection, and immunosuppression. (medscape.com)
- Zika virus has dogs in Ecuador. (cdc.gov)
- She is involved in developing clinical guidance for healthcare providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible exposure to Zika virus. (cdc.gov)
- Dr. Oduyebo is also involved with the US Zika Pregnancy Registry, and provides technical assistance to support state, tribal, local and territorial health departments collecting information about pregnancy and infant outcomes following laboratory evidence of confirmed or possible Zika virus infection during pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
- Dr. Berry-Bibee is a practicing OB-GYN and a guest researcher at the CDC, currently serving on CDC's Zika Virus Emergency Response on the Pregnancy and Birth Defects Task Force Contraception Access Team. (cdc.gov)
- CDC has updated its interim guidance for persons with possible Zika virus exposure who are planning to conceive ( 1 ) and interim guidance to prevent transmission of Zika virus through sexual contact ( 2 ), now combined into a single document. (cdc.gov)
- Guidance for care for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure was previously published ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
- Possible Zika virus exposure is defined as travel to or residence in an area of active Zika virus transmission ( http://www.cdc.gov/zika/geo/index.html ), or sex* without a condom † with a partner who traveled to or lived in an area of active transmission. (cdc.gov)
- Based on new though limited data, CDC now recommends that all men with possible Zika virus exposure who are considering attempting conception with their partner, regardless of symptom status, § wait to conceive until at least 6 months after symptom onset (if symptomatic) or last possible Zika virus exposure (if asymptomatic). (cdc.gov)
- Recommendations for women planning to conceive remain unchanged: women with possible Zika virus exposure are recommended to wait to conceive until at least 8 weeks after symptom onset (if symptomatic) or last possible Zika virus exposure (if asymptomatic). (cdc.gov)
- Couples with possible Zika virus exposure, who are not pregnant and do not plan to become pregnant, who want to minimize their risk for sexual transmission of Zika virus should use a condom or abstain from sex for the same periods for men and women described above. (cdc.gov)
- Women of reproductive age who have had or anticipate future Zika virus exposure who do not want to become pregnant should use the most effective contraceptive method that can be used correctly and consistently. (cdc.gov)
- Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of congenital microcephaly and serious brain abnormalities ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- The risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal Zika virus infection around the time of conception is unknown. (cdc.gov)
- To date, there have been no published reports of adverse pregnancy outcomes after periconceptional Zika virus infection. (cdc.gov)
- Zika virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. (cdc.gov)
- Zika virus can also be transmitted through sex without a condom. (cdc.gov)
- The risk for sexual transmission of Zika virus from a person infected with Zika virus remains unknown. (cdc.gov)
- Most reported sexual transmissions have been from persons with symptomatic Zika virus infections, including from men to female sex partners ( 10 - 12 ), from a man to his male sex partner ( 13 ), and from a woman to her male sex partner ( 14 ). (cdc.gov)
- Two new reports describe one presumed and one more definitive case of sexual transmission from men with asymptomatic Zika virus infection to female sex partners ( 15 , 16 ). (cdc.gov)
- Sexual transmission of Zika virus has been associated with condomless anal sex and vaginal sex and possibly also with fellatio ( 17 ). (cdc.gov)
- Among reported cases of sexually transmitted Zika virus infection, the longest reported period between sexual contact that might have transmitted Zika virus and symptom onset was 32-41 days (based on an incubation period of 3-12 days) ( 18 ). (cdc.gov)
- Data on the detection of Zika virus RNA in semen can inform estimates of the periods during which sexual transmission might occur. (cdc.gov)
- Confirmation of Zika virus infection based on diagnostic testing is challenging due to test sensitivity, specificity, and the epidemiologic prevelance of Zika. (medscape.com)
- Diagnostic testing of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is based on molecular and serologic methods. (medscape.com)
- A negative NAAT for Zika virus does not rule out infection due to transient viremia during active infection. (medscape.com)
- IgM antibody can remain positive for up to 12 weeks or longer in patients with history of Zika virus infection making it difficult to interpret recent or acute infection. (medscape.com)
- Zika virus IgM antibody assays can be used on serum, plasma, whole blood, or cerebrospinal fluid. (medscape.com)
- Differentiation from other flaviviruses and late diagnosis of Zika virus infection more than 3 months from illness is possible with PRNT. (medscape.com)
- As the prevelance of Zika virus infection has declined, potential detection of false-positive test results is likely. (medscape.com)
- Prompt diagnosis and laboratory confirmation of Zika virus infection is challenging. (medscape.com)
- Zika virus infection is diagnosed based on detection and isolation of Zika virus RNA from serum using nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). (medscape.com)
- After the initial week of illness, serologic testing for virus-specific immunoglobin M (IgM) and neutralizing antibodies against Zika virus infection can be performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (medscape.com)
- In patients within 7 days of symptom onset, a positive serum NAAT for Zika is suggestive of the presence of acute Zika virus infection. (medscape.com)
- In patients within 7 days of symptom onset, a negative serum NAAT and IgM antibody testing is suggestive of absence of Zika virus infection. (medscape.com)
- In patients more than 7 days to 12 weeks from symptom onset, a negative IgM antibody testing is suggestive of absence of Zika virus infection. (medscape.com)
- A 4-fold higher titer based on PRNT results might not differentiate anti-Zika virus antibodies from cross-reacting antibodies in all persons with previous infection or vaccination against a related flavivirus. (medscape.com)
- A viral disease transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes infected with Zika Virus. (bvsalud.org)
- The Zika virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected mosquito of the genus Aedes , mainly Aedes aegypti . (bvsalud.org)
- Transmission associated with blood transfusion is possible, since the RNA of Zika virus was identified in asymptomatic blood donors during a current surge. (bvsalud.org)
- There is strong evidence of a possible association of infection by Zika virus in pregnant women in Brazil and the occurrence of microcephaly in newborn infants. (bvsalud.org)
- About 1 in 5 people infected with the Zika virus become symptomatic. (bvsalud.org)
- Based on the typical clinical features, differential diagnosis for infection by Zika virus is widespread. (bvsalud.org)
- There is no vaccine and no specific antiviral treatment available for the condition of the Zika virus. (bvsalud.org)
- Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, non-steroidal should be avoided until dengue can be discarded to reduce the risk of hemorrhage.When traveling to countries where the Zika virus or other viruses transmitted by mosquitoes have been reported, the recommendation is to use insect repellent, long sleeves and pants, and stay in places with air conditioning or window and door fitted with insect screens. (bvsalud.org)
- The fact that the species of Aedes mosquitoes that transmit the Zika virus are found throughout the world, it is likely that the outbreak from spreading to other countries. (bvsalud.org)
- Human macrophage-colony stimulating factor: alternative RNA and protein processing from a single gene. (nih.gov)
- 1993). The second glycoprotein is the fusion protein (F), a type I membrane glycoprotein, which facilitates the membrane fusion event between the virion and host cell during virus infection (reviewed in Lamb, 1993). (justia.com)
- When the guide RNA binds to the genome, the Cas9 protein cuts the DNA. (acsh.org)
- The researchers also noted that when the guide RNA did bind non-specifically, the Cas9 protein disengaged from the DNA almost immediately. (acsh.org)
- In the the Nature paper, researchers noted that when the guide RNA does bind correctly, only then does the Cas9 protein undergo specific changes to its structure (known as conformational changes), which enable it to cut the DNA. (acsh.org)
- When the guide RNA detects the virus, the Cas9 protein chops up the viral genome, thus inhibiting the infection. (acsh.org)
- If the system worked too non-specifically, then the guide RNA could bind to portions of the bacteria's own genome and the Cas9 protein would self-attack the bacteria. (acsh.org)
- Lastly, we identified heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) as a protein relevant for the infection. (mdc-berlin.de)
- Because of the high rate of asymptomatic infection with these viruses, information about the prevalence of these diseases is needed to monitor prevention efforts. (cdc.gov)
- The Culex mosquito, common in the eastern United States, is the primary vector responsible for infecting humans with West Nile virus. (medscape.com)
- The Australian black flying fox is a reservoir of Hendra virus, which can be transmitted to horses and sometimes humans. (scitechdaily.com)
- Bats' fierce immune systems drive viruses to higher virulence, making them deadlier in humans. (scitechdaily.com)
- The Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus, is a host to the Marburg virus, which can infect monkeys and cross over into humans to cause a deadly hemorrhagic fever. (scitechdaily.com)
- The project, Bat One Health, explores the link between loss of bat habitat and the spillover of bat viruses into other animals and humans. (scitechdaily.com)
- Nonhuman primates and humans are probably the main reservoirs of the virus, and anthroponotic transmission (man-vector-man) occurs during outbreaks. (bvsalud.org)
- Peiris, J. S., de Jong, M. D. & Guan, Y. Avian influenza virus (H5N1): a threat to human health. (nature.com)
- Fodor, E., Mingay, L. J., Crow, M., Deng, T. & Brownlee, G. G. A single amino acid mutation in the PA subunit of the influenza virus RNA polymerase promotes the generation of defective interfering RNAs. (nature.com)
- Kawaguchi, A., Naito, T. & Nagata, K. Involvement of influenza virus PA subunit in assembly of functional RNA polymerase complexes. (nature.com)
- Deng, T., Sharps, J. L. & Brownlee, G. G. Role of the influenza virus heterotrimeric RNA polymerase complex in the initiation of replication. (nature.com)
- 3D structure of the influenza virus polymerase complex: localization of subunit domains. (nature.com)
- 18, 19, 20] Pregnant women were more than four times as likely to be hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza virus in 2009 compared with the general population, and though pregnant women represent only 1% of the U.S. population, they accounted for 5.9% of ICU admissions and 5.7% of deaths associated with the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus. (medscape.com)
- Influenza virus is a significant risk for newborns and infants due to their incompletely developed immune systems. (medscape.com)
- While studies are inconclusive on the impact of maternal influenza virus on fetal and neonatal outcomes, infants under 6 months have higher rates of hospitalization and increased mortality associated with influenza infection relative to infants greater than 6 months and children in other age groups. (medscape.com)
- A syringe will then be inserted into the hole, and inject influenza virus into a specific cavity (a sac) inside the egg. (cdc.gov)
- There the influenza virus will grow and multiply. (cdc.gov)
- Quantitative assays for HCV RNA Tests to detect HCV RNA concentration (viral load) by amplification of viral genetic sequences or by signal amplification. (cdc.gov)
- High molecular weight ribonucleoprotein complexes associated with PVA infection, which contain in addition to helper component-proteinase (HCPro) many viral and host proteins , have many of these proteins in common with the PVA-induced RNA granules . (helsinki.fi)
- Importantly, these proteins are required for the systemic spread of viral infection and the formation of stable viral particles. (helsinki.fi)
- Horisberger, M. A. The large P proteins of influenza A viruses are composed of one acidic and two basic polypeptides. (nature.com)
- Braam, J., Ulmanen, I. & Krug, R. M. Molecular model of a eucaryotic transcription complex: functions and movements of influenza P proteins during capped RNA-primed transcription. (nature.com)
- The incorporation of biologically active host proteins into HIV-1 is a well-established phenomenon, particularly due to the budding mechanism of viral egress in which viruses acquire their external lipid membrane directly from the host cell. (mdpi.com)
- characterized by detection of HCV RNA greater than or equal to 6 months after newly acquired infection. (cdc.gov)
- NASBA was used for the detection of the viral RNA in sera of patients clinical y diagnosed as having dengue virus infection, and compared with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (who.int)
- NASBA will be useful in the early detection of acute dengue virus infection. (who.int)
- However, it generally requires a thermal cycler, which is expensive, and takes more than 12 hours for RNA extraction detection(3). (who.int)
- Hepatitis viruses constitute a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the acute and chronic consequences of these infections. (cdc.gov)
- Co-infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) in persons with acute or chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to fulminant hepatitis. (cdc.gov)
- Terms and Abbreviations Used in This Publication Acute hepatitis C Newly acquired symptomatic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. (cdc.gov)
- detectable in persons with acute, chronic, and resolved infection. (cdc.gov)
- [ 32 ] Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is standard diagnostic testing for confirmation of acute infection. (medscape.com)
- Thirty-four acute sera were obtained from patients suspected of having dengue virus infection and 20 normal sera were obtained from primary-school children. (who.int)
- A cell-associated viremia results in infection of all lymphatic tissues, which is followed by infection of respiratory, GI, and urogenital epithelium, as well as the CNS and optic nerves. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Mathematical Model of the Role of Asymptomatic Infection in Outbreaks of Some Emerging Pathogens. (cdc.gov)
- 4 An HAV-infected person can be viremic up to six weeks through their clinical course and excrete virus in stool for up to two weeks prior to becoming symptomatic, making identifying exposures particularly difficult. (cdc.gov)
- Evolution and epidemiologic dynamics of dengue virus in Nicaragua during the emergence of chikungunya and Zika viruses. (cdc.gov)
- The disease is caused by the West Nile virus, a positive-strand RNA flavivirus. (medscape.com)
- The instant invention also provides nucleic acids, compositions, and methods effective against paramyxovirus infection. (justia.com)
- Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) was employed with a set of universal primers and probe based on the 3' non-coding region of the dengue viral RNA sequence. (who.int)
- HIV RNA and cytokine mRNA expression vary during HIV disease progression . (bvsalud.org)
- HIV RNA expression is greatest in the intermediate stage of the disease . (bvsalud.org)
- [ 6 ] When the virus infects these structures of the central nervous system, it may be described as neuroinvasive disease. (medscape.com)
- For more information, see the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) fact sheet on West Nile virus , links to state and local government web sites on West Nile virus , and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) article on mosquito control . (medscape.com)
- Epidemiologic research on the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic requires diagnostic technologies and the capacity to interpret results of clinical and population tests for active infection, disease and for history of exposure. (mcgill.ca)
- Infection and disease affect different populations differently, and age is one of the most important dimensions that impacts all aspects of epidemic spread and health consequences. (mcgill.ca)
- however, when this disease affects populations with already poor health (e.g., hepatitis B and C infections, chronic liver disease), infection can lead to serious outcomes, including death. (cdc.gov)
- The bottom line is that bats are potentially special when it comes to hosting viruses," said Mike Boots, a disease ecologist and UC Berkeley professor of integrative biology. (scitechdaily.com)
- Boots and UC Berkeley colleague Wayne Getz are among 23 Chinese and American co-authors of a paper published recently in the journal EcoHealth that argues for better collaboration between U.S. and Chinese scientists who are focused on disease ecology and emerging infections. (scitechdaily.com)
- Detailed knowledge of the molecular biology of SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial for understanding of viral replication, host responses and disease progression. (mdc-berlin.de)
- On 29 June 2015, Liberia's respite from Ebola virus disease (EVD) was interrupted for the second time by a renewed outbreak ("flare-up") of seven confirmed cases. (cdc.gov)
- Hafren, A., Lõhmus, A, and Mäkinen, K. (2015) "Formation of Potato virus A-induced RNA granules and viral translation are interrelated processes required for optimal virus accumulation" PLOS Pathogens, 11(12):e1005314. (helsinki.fi)
- Such pathogens include hepatitis C virus, which has been detected on the oral mucosal surface (2) and in saliva of infected patients (3), and human papilloma virus and Staphylococcus aureus, which have been cultured from clinicians' gloves after treatment of patients (4,5). (who.int)
- Previous studies demonstrated that mucosal HIV p24 antigen content varied during the progression of HIV infection . (bvsalud.org)
- Here we demonstrate the importance to viral replication of a subunit interface in the viral RNA polymerase, thereby providing a new set of potential drug binding sites entirely independent of surface antigen type. (nature.com)
- [ 5 ] WNV infection manifests as two clinical syndromes: West Nile fever (WN fever) and West Nile encephalitis (WNE). (medscape.com)
- Targeting viral genome synthesis as broad-spectrum approach against RNA virus infections. (cdc.gov)
- The recent emergence in Asia of avian influenza related to highly pathogenic forms of the human virus has highlighted the urgent need for new effective treatments 1 . (nature.com)
- The RNA pellet enzymes: avian myeloblastosis virus-reverse was washed with 75% ethanol. (who.int)
- Genetic diversity, phylogeography, and evolutionary dynamics of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) viruses. (cdc.gov)
- The guide RNA can be engineered to match any sequence in a genome that is of interest to scientists. (acsh.org)
- For example, scientists worry about the possibility that the guide RNA may attach to places in the genome that are a close match but not a 100 percent match. (acsh.org)
- The guide RNA the bacteria make are sequences that recognize portions of the genome of viruses that commonly invade them. (acsh.org)
- This Health Alert Network (HAN) Advisory alerts public health departments, healthcare facilities, and programs providing services to affected populations about these outbreaks of hepatitis A infections and provides guidance to assist in identifying and preventing new infections. (cdc.gov)
- 12,13 Outbreaks of hepatitis A infections among homeless persons have occurred in other countries, but large outbreaks among the homeless have not been described previously in the United States. (cdc.gov)
- Infections with other viruses (e.g., cytomegalovirus, rubella, parvovirus) around the time of conception have been associated with congenital infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes, although the exact timing of infection relative to conception was sometimes uncertain ( 5 - 9 ). (cdc.gov)
- Qualitative RT-PCR for HCV RNA Test to detect HCV RNA by amplification of viral genetic sequences. (cdc.gov)
- A negative immunoglobulin IgM serologic test does not rule out infection due to lack of precise timing to detect presence of antibody response. (medscape.com)
- These methods are simple to perform, In this study, we have used NASBA and but generally require paired sera samples for PCR to detect dengue viral RNA in the the measurement of the rising antibody titers patients' sera and compared the process for and have high cross-reaction with other determining the coupling of NASBA flaviviruses(1,2). (who.int)
- In presence of concern for cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses, plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) provide quantitative virus-specific antibody titers for dengue, Zika, and other flaviviruses. (medscape.com)
- Although distinct, Ebola virus (EBOV) genomes from both flare-ups exhibit significantly low genetic divergence, indicating a reduced rate of EBOV evolution during persistent infection. (cdc.gov)
- Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. (bvsalud.org)
- NHANES testing for markers of infection with hepatitis viruses will be used to determine secular trends in infection rates across most age and racial/ethnic groups, and will provide a national picture of the epidemiologic determinants of these infections. (cdc.gov)
- The NAAT should be repeated on newly extracted RNA from the same specimen to rule out false-positive test results. (medscape.com)
- 2 Severe infections can result in cholestatic hepatitis, relapsing hepatitis, and fulminant hepatitis leading to death. (cdc.gov)
- determining the viruses is virus isolation in tissue culture or mosquito, followed by immunofluorescent staining or ELISA typing, Materials and methods using specific monoclonal antibodies. (who.int)
- Influenza A virus is a major human and animal pathogen with the potential to cause catastrophic loss of life. (nature.com)
- These defenses are not directed against any one pathogen but instead, provide a guard against all infection. (khanacademy.org)
- I have used genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics to increase our knowledge on the fruit responses after the infection of the pathogen or after elicitation of induced resistance, and on the mechanisms of virulence and pathogenicity of the pathogen. (csic.es)
- 10, 11, 12] Changes to immune and cardiorespiratory systems in pregnancy increase susceptibility for certain infections and place women at risk for influenza-associated complications. (medscape.com)
- We describe the crystal structure of a large fragment of one subunit (PA) of influenza A RNA polymerase bound to a fragment of another subunit (PB1). (nature.com)
- Epidemiology of spotted fever group and typhus brain tissue samples from stillborn infants and from pla- group rickettsial infection in the Amazon basin of Peru. (cdc.gov)
- In addition, NHANES provides the means to better define the epidemiology of other hepatitis viruses. (cdc.gov)
- The epidemiology of canine distemper is complicated by the large number of species susceptible to infection. (merckvetmanual.com)
- Molecular insights into the function of the viral RNA silencing suppressor HC-pro" The Plant Journal , 85, 30-45. (helsinki.fi)
- Viral RNA was cation (NASBA) is an isothermal RNA precipitated by the addition of 500 µl amplification technique (usually at 41oC). (who.int)
- Pregnant women are at increased risk for severe complications from influenza infection as compared with non-pregnant women and the general population. (medscape.com)
- Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which infects and kills T cells, can also allow the virus to become active again. (medlineplus.gov)
- Growing the virus in cell culture, or eggs, produces a larger volume and concentration of virus than what was in the original sample. (cdc.gov)
- This invention relates to peptides, compositions and methods involving these peptides for the inhibition of membrane fusion by paramyxoviruses and, in particular, membrane fusion mediated by Hendra virus and Nipah virus. (justia.com)
- As people age, growth and division (proliferation) of T cells are diminished, reducing the immune system's ability to control the virus, which can allow its reactivation. (medlineplus.gov)
- For example certain drugs, such as chemotherapies used to treat blood cancers like multiple myeloma or drugs that prevent rejection of a transplanted organ, impair the immune system and can lead to virus reactivation. (medlineplus.gov)
- Some bats - including those known to be the original source of human infections - have been shown to host immune systems that are perpetually primed to mount defenses against viruses. (scitechdaily.com)
- While bats can tolerate viruses like these, when these bat viruses then move into animals that lack a fast-response immune system, the viruses quickly overwhelm their new hosts, leading to high fatality rates. (scitechdaily.com)
- One key trick of many bats' immune systems is the hair-trigger release of a signaling molecule called interferon-alpha, which tells other cells to "man the battle stations" before a virus invades. (scitechdaily.com)
- I have also participated in the study of differential tomato transcriptomic responses induced by Pepino mosaic virus isolates, and in the characterization of the tomato FRUITFULL transcription factor that regulates ethylene-independent aspects of fruit ripening. (csic.es)
- By testing a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population, NHANES will provide the most reliable estimates of age-specific prevalence needed to evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies to prevent these infections. (cdc.gov)
- HCV infection and its complications prevalence respectively in 2015  . (who.int)
- Translational repression is a mechanism employed by RNA silencing to regulate gene expression. (helsinki.fi)
- The primary means of hepatitis A virus (HAV) transmission in the United States is typically person-to-person through the fecal-oral route (i.e., ingestion of something that has been contaminated with the feces of an infected person). (cdc.gov)
- From January 2017 to April 2018, CDC has received more than 2,500 reports of hepatitis A infections associated with person-to-person transmission from multiple states. (cdc.gov)
- This 1976 high-powered, transmission electron microscopic (SEM) image reveals ultrastructural morphology exhibited by the mumps virus (MuV). (cdc.gov)
- Reduced evolutionary rate in reemerged Ebola virus transmission chains. (cdc.gov)