A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.
The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.
A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA present in neoplastic tissue.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.
Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.
The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).
Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).
The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.
Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.
Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.
Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.
A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying valine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.
Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).
A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tryptophan to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.
A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying leucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Gene silencing: plants and viruses fight it out. (1/25126)

Plants can become 'immune' to attack by viruses by degrading specific viral RNA, but some plant viruses have evolved the general capacity to suppress this resistance mechanism.  (+info)

Structural basis for the specificity of the initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription. (2/25126)

Initiation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription requires specific recognition of the viral genome, tRNA3Lys, which acts as primer, and reverse transcriptase (RT). The specificity of this ternary complex is mediated by intricate interactions between HIV-1 RNA and tRNA3Lys, but remains poorly understood at the three-dimensional level. We used chemical probing to gain insight into the three-dimensional structure of the viral RNA-tRNA3Lys complex, and enzymatic footprinting to delineate regions interacting with RT. These and previous experimental data were used to derive a three-dimensional model of the initiation complex. The viral RNA and tRNA3Lys form a compact structure in which the two RNAs fold into distinct structural domains. The extended interactions between these molecules are not directly recognized by RT. Rather, they favor RT binding by preventing steric clashes between the nucleic acids and the polymerase and inducing a viral RNA-tRNA3Lys conformation which fits perfectly into the nucleic acid binding cleft of RT. Recognition of the 3' end of tRNA3Lys and of the first template nucleotides by RT is favored by a kink in the template strand promoted by the short junctions present in the previously established secondary structure.  (+info)

A premature termination codon interferes with the nuclear function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner. (3/25126)

Premature translation termination codon (PTC)-mediated effects on nuclear RNA processing have been shown to be associated with a number of human genetic diseases; however, how these PTCs mediate such effects in the nucleus is unclear. A PTC at nucleotide (nt) 2018 that lies adjacent to the 5' element of a bipartite exon splicing enhancer within the NS2-specific exon of minute virus of mice P4 promoter-generated pre-mRNA caused a decrease in the accumulated levels of P4-generated R2 mRNA relative to P4-generated R1 mRNA, although the total accumulated levels of P4 product remained the same. This effect was seen in nuclear RNA and was independent of RNA stability. The 5' and 3' elements of the bipartite NS2-specific exon enhancer are redundant in function, and when the 2018 PTC was combined with a deletion of the 3' enhancer element, the exon was skipped in the majority of the viral P4-generated product. Such exon skipping in response to a PTC, but not a missense mutation at nt 2018, could be suppressed by frame shift mutations in either exon of NS2 which reopened the NS2 open reading frame, as well as by improvement of the upstream intron 3' splice site. These results suggest that a PTC can interfere with the function of an exon splicing enhancer in an open reading frame-dependent manner and that the PTC is recognized in the nucleus.  (+info)

High level inhibition of HIV replication with combination RNA decoys expressed from an HIV-Tat inducible vector. (4/25126)

Intracellular immunization, an antiviral gene therapy approach based on the introduction of DNA into cells to stably express molecules for the inhibition of viral gene expression and replication, has been suggested for inhibition of HIV infection. Since the Tat and Rev proteins play a critical role in HIV regulation, RNA decoys and ribozymes of these sequences have potential as therapeutic molecular inhibitors. In the present study, we have generated several anti-HIV molecules; a tat-ribozyme, RRE, RWZ6 and TAR decoys and combinations of decoys, and tested them for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro. We used T cell specific CD2 gene elements and regulatory the HIV inducible promoter to direct high level expression and a 3' UTR sequence for mRNA stabilization. We show that HIV replication was most strongly inhibited with the combination TAR + RRE decoy when compared with the single decoys or the tat-ribozyme. We also show that the Tat-inducible HIV promoter directs a higher level of steady-state transcription of decoys and inhibitors and that higher levels of expression directly relate to increased levels of inhibition of HIV infection. Furthermore, a stabilization of the 3' end of TAR + RRE inhibitor transcripts using a beta-globin 3' UTR sequence leads to an additional 15-fold increase in steady-state RNA levels. This cassette when used to express the best combination decoy inhibitor TAR + RRE, yields high level HIV inhibition for greater than 3 weeks. Taken together, both optimization for high level expression of molecular inhibitors and use of combinations of inhibitors suggest better therapeutic application in limiting the spread of HIV.  (+info)

Reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction for detecting p40 RNA of Borna disease virus, without risk of plasmid contamination. (5/25126)

Several methods for the detection of Borna disease virus (BDV) RNA have been reported, one being the reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) method. However, due to the possibility of contamination of the cloned DNA in a reaction tube, false-positive results might be obtained by RT-nested PCR. To detect only BDV RNA without anxiety of contamination, we developed an RT-nested PCR system using "mRNA selective PCR kit". Using this system, cDNA of BDV p40 in the plasmid (up to 5 x 10(7) molecules) was not amplified. BDV specific sequence was amplified from total RNA (more than 50 pg) of MDCK/BDV cells, which were persistently infected with BDV. These results indicate that this mRNA selective RT-nested PCR system can specifically amplify target RNA as distinguished from plasmid contaminated.  (+info)

Enteroviral RNA replication in the myocardium of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. (6/25126)

BACKGROUND: Previous studies dealing with the detection of enteroviral RNA in human endomyocardial biopsies have not differentiated between latent persistence of the enteroviral genome and active viral replication. Enteroviruses that are considered important factors for the development of myocarditis have a single-strand RNA genome of positive polarity that is transcribed by a virus-encoded RNA polymerase into a minus-strand mRNA during active viral replication. The synthesis of multiple copies of minus-strand enteroviral RNA therefore occurs only at sites of active viral replication but not in tissues with mere persistence of the viral genome. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated enteroviral RNA replication versus enteroviral RNA persistence in endomyocardial biopsies of 45 patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis. Using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with Southern blot hybridization, we established a highly sensitive assay to specifically detect plus-strand versus minus-strand enteroviral RNA in the biopsies. Plus-strand enteroviral RNA was detected in endomyocardial biopsies of 18 (40%) of 45 patients, whereas minus-strand RNA as an indication of active enteroviral RNA replication was detected in only 10 (56%) of these 18 plus-strand-positive patients. Enteroviral RNA was not found in biopsies of the control group (n=26). CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that a significant fraction of patients with left ventricular dysfunction and clinically suspected myocarditis had active enteroviral RNA replication in their myocardium (22%). Differentiation between patients with active viral replication and latent viral persistence should be particularly important in future studies evaluating different therapeutic strategies. In addition, molecular genetic detection of enteroviral genome and differentiation between replicating versus persistent viruses is possible in a single endomyocardial biopsy.  (+info)

HIV-associated nephropathy is a late, not early, manifestation of HIV-1 infection. (7/25126)

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can be the initial presentation of HIV-1 infection. As a result, many have assumed that HIVAN can occur at any point in the infection. This issue has important implications for appropriate therapy and, perhaps, for pathogenesis. Since the development of new case definitions for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and better tools to assess infection, the relationship of HIVAN to the time of AIDS infection has not been addressed. In this study, we reassessed the stage of infection at the time of HIVAN diagnosis in 10 patients, and we reviewed all previously published cases applying the new case definitions to assess stage of infection. METHODS: HIVAN was confirmed by kidney biopsy in HIV seropositive patients with azotemia and/or proteinuria. CD4+ cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number were measured. We also reviewed all published cases of HIVAN to determine if AIDS-defining conditions, by current Centers for Disease Control definitions, were present in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN. RESULTS: Twenty HIV-1 seropositive patients with proteinuria and an elevated creatinine concentration were biopsied. HIVAN was the single most common cause of renal disease. CD4+ cell count was below 200/mm3 in all patients with HIVAN, fulfilling Centers for Disease Control criteria for an AIDS-defining condition. HIV-1 plasma RNA was detectable in all patients with HIVAN. In reviewing previous reports, an AIDS-defining condition was present in virtually all patients with HIVAN. CONCLUSION: HIVAN develops late, not early, in the course of HIV-1 infection following the development of AIDS. This likely accounts for the poor prognosis noted in previous publications and has implications for pathogenesis. In addition, given the detectable viral RNA levels, highly active antiretroviral therapy is indicated in HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral therapy may improve survival as well as alter the natural history of HIVAN.  (+info)

A multistate, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A. National Hepatitis A Investigation Team. (8/25126)

BACKGROUND: We investigated a large, foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A that occurred in February and March 1997 in Michigan and then extended the investigation to determine whether it was related to sporadic cases reported in other states among persons who had consumed frozen strawberries, the food suspected of causing the outbreak. METHODS: The cases of hepatitis A were serologically confirmed. Epidemiologic studies were conducted in the two states with sufficient numbers of cases, Michigan and Maine. Hepatitis A virus RNA detected in clinical specimens was sequenced to determine the relatedness of the virus from outbreak-related cases and other cases. RESULTS: A total of 213 cases of hepatitis A were reported from 23 schools in Michigan and 29 cases from 13 schools in Maine, with the median rate of attack ranging from 0.2 to 14 percent. Hepatitis A was associated with the consumption of frozen strawberries in a case-control study (odds ratio for the disease, 8.3; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.1 to 33) and a cohort study (relative risk of infection, 7.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.1 to 53) in Michigan and in a case-control study in Maine (odds ratio for infection, 3.4; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.0 to 14). The genetic sequences of viruses from 126 patients in Michigan and Maine were identical to one another and to those from 5 patients in Wisconsin and 7 patients in Arizona, all of whom attended schools where frozen strawberries from the same processor had been served, and to those in 2 patients from Louisiana, both of whom had consumed commercially prepared products containing frozen strawberries from the same processor. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a large outbreak of hepatitis A in Michigan that was associated with the consumption of frozen strawberries. We found apparently sporadic cases in other states that could be linked to the same source by viral genetic analysis.  (+info)

The group of Negative-Stranded RNA Viruses (NSVs) includes many human pathogens, like the influenza, measles, mumps, respiratory syncytial or Ebola viruses, which produce frequent epidemics of disease and occasional, high mortality outbreaks by transmission from animal reservoirs. The genome of NSVs consists of one to several single-stranded, negative-polarity RNA molecules that are always assembled into mega Dalton-sized complexes by association to many nucleoprotein monomers. These RNA-protein complexes or ribonucleoproteins function as templates for transcription and replication by action of the viral RNA polymerase and accessory proteins. Here we review our knowledge on these large RNA-synthesis machines, including the structure of their components, the interactions among them and their enzymatic activities, and we discuss models showing how they perform the virus transcription and replication programmes. - Highlights: • Overall organisation of NSV RNA synthesis machines. • Structure and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of negative-stranded hepatitis C virus RNA using a novel strand-specific reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. AU - Mizutani, Tetsuya. AU - Ikeda, Masanori. AU - Saito, Satoru. AU - Sugiyama, Kazuo. AU - Shimotohno, Kunitada. AU - Kato, Nobuyuki. PY - 1998/2/1. Y1 - 1998/2/1. N2 - We developed a novel single-tube reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the specific detection of negative-stranded hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. By using in vitro synthesized positive- and negative-stranded HCV RNAs, it was demonstrated that as few as 50 copies of negative-stranded HCV RNA could be specifically detected with a set of primers that amplify a 232-base pair sequence unique to the 5-non-coding region of HCV RNA, while 108 copies of positive-stranded HCV RNA were not detected. In addition, we demonstrated that this method allows the detection as few as 100 copies of negative-stranded HCV RNA even with the coexistence of a 100-fold excess of ...
387440791 - EP 0832191 A4 2000-11-15 - RECOMBINANT VIRAL NUCLEIC ACIDS - [origin: WO9640867A1] The present invention relates to a recombinant viral nucleic acid selected from a (+) sense, single stranded RNA virus possessing a native subgenomic promoter encoding for a first viral subgenomic promoter, a nucleic acid sequence that codes for a viral coat protein whose transcription is regulated by the first viral subgenomic promoter, a second viral subgenomic promoter and a second nucleic acid sequence whose transcription is regulated by the second viral subgenomic promoter. The first and second viral subgenomic promoters of the recombinant viral nucleic acid do not have homologous sequences relative to each other. The recombinant viral nucleic acid provides the particular advantage that it systematically transcribes the second nucleic acid in the host. Host organisms encompassed by the present invention include procaryotes and eucaryotes, particularly animals and plants. The present invention also relates
Two copies of unspliced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) are preferentially selected for packaging by the group-specific antigen (Gag) polyprotein into progeny virions as a dimer during the late stages of the viral lifecycle. Elucidating the RNA features responsible for selective recognition of the full-length gRNA in the presence of an abundance of other cellular RNAs and spliced viral RNAs remains an area of intense research. The recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure by Keane et al. [1] expands upon previous efforts to determine the conformation of the HIV-1 RNA packaging signal. The data support a secondary structure wherein sequences that constitute the major splice donor site are sequestered through base pairing, and a tertiary structure that adopts a tandem 3-way junction motif that exposes the dimerization initiation site and unpaired guanosines for specific recognition by Gag. While it remains to be established whether this structure is conserved in the context
Polivirüsün hücresel yaşam döngüsü (1) CD155 reseptörüne bağlanmasıyla başlar. Virüs endositozla alınır, ve viral RNA serbest kalır (2). Translation of the viral RNA occurs by an IRES-mediated mechanism (3). The polyprotein is cleaved, yielding mature viral proteins (4). The positive-sense RNA serves as template for complementary negative-strand synthesis, producing double-stranded replicative form (RF) RNA(5). Many positive strand RNA copies are produced from the single negative strand (6). The newly synthesized positive-sense RNA molecules can serve as templates for translation of more viral proteins (7) or can be enclosed in a capsid (8), which ultimately generates progeny virions. Lysis of the infected cell results in release of infectious progeny virions (9).[2] ...
The |i|Quick|/i|-RNA Viral Kit is a quick, purification system for viral RNA from plasma, serum, cell culture media, cellular suspensions, urine, blood, saliva and any other biological samples stored in DNA/RNA Shield™. DNA/RNA Shield™ ensures nucleic acid stability during sample storage/transport at ambient temperatures (4-25¬∞C). The reagent effectively lyses cells and inactivates nucleases and infectious agents (virus). The kit also features a specialized buffer system that facilitates complete viral particle lysis for efficient RNA isolation from samples containing enteroviruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, HIV, HCV, influenza A virus, flaviviruses, measles virus, parainfluenza virus, parvovirus (a ssDNA virus), etc. Viral RNA is bound to the column, washed and eluted. The isolated high-quality viral RNA is ready for all downstream applications such as Next-Gen Sequencing, hybridization-based and RT/PCR detection.
This review is centered on the major strategies used by plant RNA viruses to produce the proteins required for virus multiplication. The strategies at the level of transcription presented here are synthesis of mRNA or subgenomic RNAs from viral RNA templates, and cap-snatching. At the level of translation, several strategies have been evolved by viruses at the steps of initiation, elongation and termination. At the initiation step, the classical scanning mode is the most frequent strategy employed by viruses; however in a vast number of cases, leaky scanning of the initiation complex allows expression of more than one protein from the same RNA sequence. During elongation, frameshift allows the formation of two proteins differing in their carboxy terminus. At the termination step, suppression of termination produces a protein with an elongated carboxy terminus. The last strategy that will be described is co- and/or post-translational cleavage of a polyprotein precursor by virally encoded ...
24. -T. and Nevins, J. R. Mol. Cell. BioI. Mol. Cell. BioI. 3: 2058-2065. 25. Feldman, L. , Imperiale, M. J. and Nevins, J. R. Sci. USA 79: 4952-4956. 1982. 28. Akusjarvi, G. and Persson, H. 29. Shaw, A. R. and Ziff, E. B. Nature 290: 113-118. Nature 292: 420-426. Cell 22: 905-916. 1983. Proc. Natl. Acad. 26. Fraser, N. , Nevins, J. , Ziff, E. B. and Darnell, J. E. BioI. 129: 643-656. 1979. 27. Nevins, J. R. and Wilson, M. C. 1: J. Mol. 1981. 1981. 1980. 30. Alt, F. , Bothwell, A. L. , Koshland, M. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. J. Initiation of protein synthesis: evidence for messenger RNA independent binding of methionyl-transfer RNA to the 40 S ribosomal subunit. J. Mol. BioI. 76:379-403, 1973. , Bose, K. K. Protein synthesis in rabbit reticulocytes: characteristics of a Met-tRNAfMet binding factor. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 48:1-9, 1972. , Kyner, D. and Acs,~. Protein initiation in eukaryotes: formation and function of a ternary complex composed of a ...
A study of sexual transmission of Zika virus among mice (link to paper) demonstrates beautifully that viral nucleic acid detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is not the same as infectious virus.. Male mice were infected with Zika virus and then mated with female mice. Efficient sexual transmission of the virus from males to females was observed. This observation in itself is very interesting but is not the focus of my comments.. To understand the dynamics of sexual transmission, the authors measured Zika virus shedding in seminal fluid - by both PCR, to detect viral RNA, and by plaque assay, to detect infectious virus. The results are surprising (see figure - drawn in my hotel room).. Zika virus RNA persisted in semen for up to 60 days - far longer than did infectious virus, which could not be detected after about three weeks.. Many laboratories choose to assay the presence of viral genomes by PCR. This is an acceptable technique as long as the limitations are understood - it detects ...
Upon entry, the host cell senses an invasion. Recent evidence suggests that structured viral RNAs can act as Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) that are recognized by host Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRR) to activate cell signaling. An immediate goal of the laboratory is to understand how specific viral RNA-protein interactions influence the viral life cycle and the host immune response. The triphosphate group found at the 5 end of some viral RNA transcripts (5 3P) has been described recently as an important determinant of self versus non-self that allows cells to distinguish between viral and cellular RNAs. Our results suggest that the 5 3P cannot be the only determinant because some RNAs with a 5 3P are potent activators, while others cause no activation of innate immune signaling. We have identified a non-structured region in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) 3 untranslated region RNA that activates innate immune signaling by interacting with the RNA helicase RIG-I. We ...
The extra length that dimer RNA provides is critical in encouraging PKR to pair up and function properly. The length needed for one PKR to bind to RNA is fifteen base pairs, said Philip Bevilacqua, professor of chemistry, Penn State, one of the lead scientists on the project along with James Cole, associate professor, University of Connecticut. To get two PKRs to bind and dimerize, you need an RNA strand that is twice as long. Coles laboratory provided evidence of dimerization of RNA and PKR. In their experiments at Penn State, the scientists found the dimer RNA activated PKR from 9 to 118 times more than the single strand RNA, depending on the RNA type. TAR RNA dimerization activated the most PKR when the TAR did not exhibit structural defects. The researchers report their findings in a recent issue of the Journal of Molecular Biology. Adding these defects decreases the number of places where PKR can bind to the RNA, Heinicke explained. RNAs that showed the greatest degree of symmetry ...
The genomes of RNA viruses often contain RNA structures that are crucial for translation and RNA replication and may play additional, uncharacterized roles during the viral replication cycle. RNA structure with single-nucleotide resolution. In combination with orthogonal evolutionary analyses, we uncover several conserved RNA structures in the open reading frame of the viral genome. The…
NanoString has launched the nCounter RNA:Protein PanCancer Immune Profiling Panel.The entire nCounter line of instruments can analyze the panel, which measures both RNA and protein expression in samples containing as few as 150,000 cells. The new panel combines the measurement of 30 proteins with 770 RNA measurements specifically for immuno-oncology studies. The RNA measurements look at genes indicated in the hallmarks of cancer and the protein measurements focus on cell surface and immune checkpoint targets.
Id like to determine viral RNA level changes in virus producing cell culture transfected with as-DNA. Can anybody provide me with a protocol and anything to be noted in the operation? Thanks in advance.. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
We have recently discovered that HIV-1 Integrase protein regulates particle maturation, a role completely independent of its catalytic activity. This involves the binding of integrase to viral RNA molecules, which ensures the encapsidation of viral RNA and IN in the viral core. Remarkably, integrase-RNA interactions can be targeted by a novel class of compounds that are currently in clinical trials. Our goal is to discover novel compounds that directly target integrase-RNA interactions and determine their mechanism of action, which will be of great value in the clinical setting.. ...
Patients are stratified by screening plasma viral RNA results (50,000 copies/ml or below vs above 50,000 copies/ml) and randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms. Group 1 receives IDV 3 times daily plus d4T/3TC twice daily. Group 2 receives IDV/NFV/d4T/3TC twice daily. Patients remain on study medications for 24 weeks and are seen at the clinic once every 4 weeks after entering the study. At each clinic visit, blood samples are taken to evaluate CD4 cell count and plasma HIV RNA levels ...
Dear All, I am looking for a reliable method for the quantitation of in vitro transcribed RNA. If its quick and cheap alls the better. Also does anyone else have problems with the Ambion capped RNA making kit, Ithink they call it the mMESSAGE mMACHINE. We seem t get such variable results in term of yield its untrue, even when we make RNA from the same sample of linearised DNA (But on different days) Robert R. Woodward Email rw200 at cus.cam.ac.uk d ...
http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Drexel&SrcApp=hagerty_opac&KeyRecord=0042-6822&DestApp=JCR&RQ=IF_CAT_ ...
The one-step RT-ddPCR kit for probes, introduced by Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc., provides researchers with the ability to measure target RNA molecules with precision and sensitivity for applications such as gene expression analysis, miRNA analysis, and viral load quantitation.
BMV development was studied in well defmed physiological conditions, avoiding the use of antibiotics or excision of the roots. For an adequate labelling, to distinguish between host and viral RNAs, different periods of exposure to 32p were required, depending upon the post-inocu1ation time of infected plants and corresponding age of healthy controL Within the period of normal outlook of the plants, the rate of 32p· incorporation into BMV RNA was much higher than into barley nboso-mal RNA in infected tissue or in comparable healthy tissue.Analysis of the replicative structures isolated from infected plants revealed that only the three largest RNAs (A,K,B) had their own replicative intermediates (R I). This material was shown to con-tain a certain amount of intact viral RNA species, which were stable when treated with heat and for-mamide, excluding the possibility of hidden breaks. read more ...
Regarding HIV following statement not TRUE DNA retrovirus The genome of HIV is diploid, composed of 2 identical single stranded positive sense RNA copies. In association with viral RNA is the reverse transcriptase enzyme which is the characteristic
Regarding HIV following statement not TRUE DNA retrovirus The genome of HIV is diploid, composed of 2 identical single stranded positive sense RNA copies. In association with viral RNA is the reverse transcriptase enzyme which is the characteristic
[The episode starts with tons of virus organisms on Gumballs fur, then one of them stands on a hill-like lump of fur] Virus: Brothers, weve mutated many times over for this moment, but now we are ready. Today, we take this body; tomorrow, the REST OF THE WORLD! [The virus army starts cheering...
USP15 Participates in Hepatitis C Virus Propagation through Regulation of Viral RNA Translation and Lipid Droplet Formation. Kusakabe S, Suzuki T, Sugiyama Y, Haga S, Horike K, Tokunaga M, Hirano J, Zhang H, Chen DV, Ishiga H, Komoda Y, Ono C, Fukuhara T, Yamamoto M, Ikawa M, Satoh T, Akira S, Tanaka T, Moriishi K, Fukai M, Taketomi A, Yoshio S, Kanto T, Suzuki T, Okamoto T, Matsuura Y. J Virol. 2019 Mar 5;93(6). pii: JVI.01708-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.01708-18. Print 2019 Mar 15. ...
STDcheck.com offers the only HIV RNA early detection test that can give results as soon as 9 to 11 days post exposure to HIV. Know your HIV status sooner!
Consequently, despite the very simple reality that these RNA species are labeled as unstable, processing of many CUTs seems for being somewhat slow. domyhomeworkfor.me DNA can be a form of nucleic acid and it truly is composed of billions of nucleotides and a few certain amino acids. These organisms reside in
Get accurate address, phone no, timings & timeline info of Metropolis Healthcare Ltd, Borivali West, Mumbai. Connect with us at +9193212727xx.
Tusq X Plus-ன் பயன்பாடுகள், மருந்தளவு, பக்க விளைவுகள், நன்மைகள், தொடர்புகள் மற்றும் எச்சரிக்கைகள் ஆகியவற்றை கண்டுபிடியுங்கள்.
Tusq X Plus-ன் பயன்பாடுகள், மருந்தளவு, பக்க விளைவுகள், நன்மைகள், தொடர்புகள் மற்றும் எச்சரிக்கைகள் ஆகியவற்றை கண்டுபிடியுங்கள்.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mizoribine inhibits hepatitis C virus RNA replication. T2 - Effect of combination with interferon-α. AU - Naka, Kazuhito. AU - Ikeda, Masanori. AU - Abe, Ken Ichi. AU - Dansako, Hiromichi. AU - Kato, Nobuyuki. N1 - Funding Information: We thank T. Nakamura, A. Morishita, and T. Maeta for their helpful experimental assistance. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for the third-term comprehensive 10-year strategy for cancer control, and for research on hepatitis from the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare of Japan, and by Grants-in-Aid for scientific research from the Organization for Pharmaceutical Safety and Research (OPSR).. PY - 2005/5/13. Y1 - 2005/5/13. N2 - Interferon (IFN)-α monotherapy, as well as the more effective combination therapy of IFN-α and ribavirin, are currently used for patients with chronic hepatitis C caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, although the mechanisms of the antiviral effects of these reagents on HCV remain ambiguous, and side ...
Summary of Facts and Submissions. I. European patent No. 0 846 181 with the title cDNA corresponding to the antigenome of nonsegmented negative strand RNA viruses, and process for the production of such viruses encoding additional antigenically active proteins was granted on European patent application No. 96928446.2 (published as WO 97/06270). The patent was granted with 21 claims.. II. Claim 1 of the patent as granted read as follows:. 1. A method for the production of an infectious non-segmented negative-strand RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae comprising. (a) introducing a cDNA molecule contained in a plasmid, wherein said cDNA molecule comprises the entire (+)-strand sequence of said negative- strand RNA virus operatively linked to an expression control sequence, which allows the synthesis of anti-genomic RNA transcripts bearing the authentic 3 -termini, and wherein said cDNA molecule consists of an integral multiple of six nucleotides, into a helper cell expressing an ...
A positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus (or (+)ssRNA virus) is a virus that uses positive sense, single-stranded RNA as its genetic material. Single stranded RNA viruses are classified as positive or negative depending on the sense or polarity of the RNA. The positive-sense viral RNA genome can also serve as messenger RNA and can be translated into protein in the host cell. Positive-sense ssRNA viruses belong to Group IV in the Baltimore classification. Positive-sense RNA viruses account for a large fraction of known viruses, including many pathogens such as the hepatitis C virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and SARS and MERS coronaviruses, as well as less clinically serious pathogens such as the rhinoviruses that cause the common cold. Positive-sense ssRNA viruses have genetic material that can function both as a genome and as messenger RNA; it can be directly translated into protein in the host cell by host ribosomes. The first proteins to be expressed after infection serve genome ...
In this study we developed a novel highly adapted HCV replicon that harbors two synergistic mutations in NS3 and one in NS5A. The ECF of this RNA was ∼5 × 105 CFU per μg of RNA, which is ∼20-fold higher than that of the best-adapted replicon we described recently (29). By analyzing this and several other HCV RNAs that differed with respect to their levels of cell culture adaptation, we found a clear correlation between the ECF and RNA replication as determined by two different transient-transfection assays. These results demonstrate that cell culture-adaptive mutations increase RNA replication. They also provide an explanation of how adaptive replicons are generated. As shown with the parental replicon carrying the luciferase gene, this nonadapted RNA replicated only transiently and at a low level in transfected cells. During this time, mutations must have been generated by the viral RNA polymerase that in a few instances were adaptive. By increasing the level of RNA replication, cells ...
A negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus (or (-)ssRNA virus) is a virus that uses negative sense, single-stranded RNA as its genetic material. Single stranded RNA viruses are classified as positive or negative depending on the sense or polarity of the RNA. The negative viral RNA is complementary to the mRNA and must be converted to a positive RNA by RNA polymerase before translation. Therefore, the purified RNA of a negative sense virus is not infectious by itself, as it needs to be converted to a positive sense RNA for replication. These viruses belong to Group V on the Baltimore classification. In addition, negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses have complex genomic sequences, cell cycles, and replication habits that use various protein complexes to arrange in specific conformations and carry out necessary processes for survival and reproduction of their genomic sequences. The complexity of negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses carries into its ability to suppress the innate immune ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Importance of the positive-strand RNA secondary structure of a murine coronavirus defective interfering RNA internal replication signal in positive-strand RNA synthesis. AU - Repass, John F.. AU - Makino, Shinji. PY - 1998/10. Y1 - 1998/10. N2 - The RNA elements that are required for replication of defective interfering (DI) RNA of the JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) consist of three discontinuous genomic regions: about 0.46 to 0.47 kb from both terminal sequences and an internal 58-nucleotide (nt)-long sequence (58-nt region) present at about 0.9 kb from the 5 end of the DI genome. The internal region is important for positive-strand DI RNA synthesis (Y. N. Kim and S. Makino, J. Virol. 69:4963-4971, 1995). We further characterized the 58-nt region in the present study and obtained the following results. (i) The positive-strand RNA structure in solution was comparable with that predicted by computer modeling. (ii) Positive-strand RNA secondary structure, but not ...
Both genomic and subgenomic replicative intermediates (RIs) and replicative-form (RF) structures were found in 17CL1 mouse cells that had been infected with the A59 strain of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), a prototypic coronavirus. Seven species of RNase-resistant RF RNAs, whose sizes were consistent with the fact that each was derived from an RI that was engaged in the synthesis of one of the seven MHV positive-strand RNAs, were produced by treatment with RNase A. Because the radiolabeling of the seven RF RNAs was proportional to that of the corresponding seven positive-strand RNAs, the relative rate of synthesis of each of the MHV positive-strand RNAs may be controlled by the relative number of each of the size classes of RIs that are produced. In contrast to alphavirus, which produced its subgenome-length RF RNAs from genome-length RIs, MHV RF RNAs were derived from genome- and subgenome-length RIs. Only the three largest MHV RF RNAs (RFI, RFII, and RFIII) were derived from the RIs that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NMR structure of stem-loop SL2 of the HIV-1 Ψ RNA packaging signal reveals a novel A-U-A base-triple platform. AU - Amarasinghe, Gaya K.. AU - De Guzman, Roberto N.. AU - Turner, Ryan B.. AU - Summers, Michael F.. PY - 2000/5/26. Y1 - 2000/5/26. N2 - The genome of the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) contains a stretch of ~120 nucleotides known as the ψ-site that is essential for RNA packaging during virus assembly. These nucleotides have been proposed to form four stem-loops (SL1-SL4) that have both independent and overlapping functions. Stem-loop SL2 is important for efficient recognition and packaging of the full-length, unspliced viral genome, and also contains the major splice-donor site (SD) for mRNA splicing. We have determined the structure of the 19-residue SL2 oligoribonucleotide by heteronuclear NMR methods. The structure is generally consistent with the most recent of two earlier secondary structure predictions, with residues G1-G2-C3-G4 and C6-U7 forming ...
Poliovirus RNA replicates in membrane-associated replication complexes in the cytoplasm of infected cells. By using a reversible inhibitor of poliovirus RNA replication, it is possible to synchronize viral RNA replication. The processing of the viral polyprotein results in the formation of the individual viral proteins along with stable intermediates in the processing pathway. To expand the utility of the in vitro complementation assay, experiments were designed to determine if all of the viral replication proteins could be provided in trans to support the replication of mutant RNA templates. The authors engineered two transcript RNAs (DJB2 and DJB15) that contained large out-of-frame deletions in the polyprotein coding sequence. The results to date using the in vitro complementation assay indicate that the 5 cloverleaf, the 3 nontranslated region (NTR), and the poly(A) tail are the minimum sequences required for negative-strand synthesis. Previous studies have shown that the 5 cloverleaf plays an
Figure 2 shows the genome organization of GRV; those of other umbraviruses are very similar. For each RNA, there is at the 5′ end a very short non-coding region preceding ORF1, which encodes a putative product of 31-37 kDa. ORF2, which slightly overlaps the end of ORF1, could encode a product of 63-65 kDa but lacks an AUG initiation codon near its 5′ end. However, immediately before the stop codon of ORF1 there is a 7 nt sequence that is associated with frameshifting in several plant and animal viruses, and it seems probable that ORF1 and ORF2 are translated as a single polypeptide of 94-98 kDa by a mechanism involving a −1 frameshift. The predicted product contains, in the ORF2 region, sequence motifs characteristic of viral RdRp. A short untranslated region separates ORF2 from ORF3 and ORF4, which overlap each other almost completely in different reading frames and each yield a putative product of 26-29 kDa. The ORF4 product contains sequences characteristic of plant virus MPs. The ORF3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of full-length HIV-1 genomes directly from plasma viral RNA. AU - Fang, Guowei. AU - Weiser, Barbara. AU - Visosky, Aloise A.. AU - Townsend, Laura. AU - Burger, Harold. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in plasma reflects the replicating virus population at any point in time in vivo. Studies of the relationship of the complete HIV-1 genome to pathogenesis therefore need to focus on plasma virions. Since dual infections and recombination can occur in vivo, cloning an intact plasma virus genome as a single full-length molecule is desirable. For these reasons, we developed an efficient method to clone full-length HIV-1 genomes directly from plasma viral RNA. This method used reverse transcription and long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Virion-associated RNA was isolated from plasma samples and then reverse- transcribed to make cDNA for PCR amplification. Two different strategies were employed to amplify the ...
Viral RNA load in the nasopharyngeal swabs peaked early at median 7.56 (range 6.19-10.56) log10 copies/mL and decreased over time (p,0.001 for trend) (Figure, panel A). The positivity of the specimens was 75% during week 2 and 55% during week 3 (Appendix Table 2). In comparison, the median initial fecal RNA load was 7.68 (range ,4.10-10.27) log10 copies/mL and remained steadily high (p = 0.148 for trend) for ,3 weeks (Figure, panel B). Fecal positivity remained ,80%. The median RNA load in fecal samples was significantly higher than that for nasopharyngeal swab specimens during week 2 (7.26 vs. 6.19 log10 copies/mL; p = 0.006) and week 3 (7.61 versus 5.49 log10 copies/mL; p = 0.006). Except for 1 case, the RNA load in saliva declined rapidly with time (p = 0.003 for trend) (Figure, panel C). Positivity in saliva samples was 80% in week 1 but dropped sharply to 33% in week 2 and 11% in week 3.. We collected urine specimens from the 12 patients after a median of 3 (range 0-8) days and plasma ...
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Hepatitis C trojan (HCV) is an enveloped, positive strand RNA computer virus of about 9. attributable to inherently different properties of low density particles, to association of these particles with factors stimulating fusion, or to co-floatation of factors enhancing fusion activity in genus of the Flaviviridae family (1). Based on sequence comparison, patient isolates are classified into seven genotypes, differing in their nucleotide sequence by 30C35% (2C5). The two viral surface proteins, E1 (residues 192C383) and E2 (residues 384C746), are processed by transmission peptidases of the endoplasmic reticulum from a 3,000-amino acid-long polyprotein encoded by the HCV genome (examined in Ref. 2). The E1 (31 kDa) and E2 (70 kDa) proteins are glycosylated in their large amino-terminal ectodomains (6) and are anchored in the viral membrane by their carboxyl-terminal transmembrane domains. E1 and E2 form a heterodimer stabilized by noncovalent interactions. This oligomer is usually thought to be ...
Early biochemical experiments established that the minimal RNA synthesis machinery of NNS RNA viruses comprises the N encased genomic RNA associated with the viral polymerase, an L-P complex (Emerson and Yu, 1975; Mellon and Emerson, 1978). The atomic structure of N‐RNA complexes from VSV and rabies virus provided evidence that the RNA must somehow be dissociated from N for copying by the polymerase (Albertini et al, 2006; Green et al, 2006). The co‐crystal structure of the PCTD of VSV with the N‐RNA complex led to a model in which P brings L to the RNA template by binding directly between N molecules, and this interaction is perhaps also required to keep L associated with the N‐RNA during copying (Green and Luo, 2009). By now providing the first direct evidence that L can actually use RNA in the absence of the N and P, we have defined the minimal RNA synthesis components as L and RNA. We conclude that while N and P play important roles in viral RNA synthesis they are not essential for ...
In these studies, we found that paralogous viral RNA structures originating from duplications in the 3′ UTR of flavivirus genomes are under different selective pressures in different hosts. The data support the hypothesis that duplicated DB elements, present in most MBFV genomes, conserve redundant functions, but also have evolved divergent host-specific activities that modulate viral RNA replication. Our work provides mechanistic details by which DB structures regulate viral genome conformation by either enhancing or competing with long-range RNA-RNA interactions that promote viral RNA synthesis. We propose a model in which different requirements for viral replication in mosquito and human cells may explain the conservation of duplicated RNA structures in flavivirus 3 UTRs.. Formation of two DB structures with PK interactions in the DENV genome was originally predicted (15-17) and then supported by chemical and enzymatic probing (5, 24, 51). Interestingly, predictions of RNA folding ...
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded plus-sense RNA virus that is transmitted by blood-to-blood contact, and infects the human liver. HCV has a unique dependence on the liver-specific microRNA miR-122, where miR-122 binds the 5´ un-translated region of the viral RNA at two tandem sites and increases viral RNA abundance. The mechanisms of augmentation are not yet fully understood, but the interaction is known to stabilize the viral RNA, increase translation from the viral internal ribosomal entry site (IRES), and result in increased viral yield. In an attempt to create a small animal model for HCV, we added miR-122 to mouse cell lines previously thought non-permissive to HCV, which rendered these cells permissive to the virus, additionally showing that miR-122 is one of the major determinants of HCV hepatotropism. We found that some wild-type and knockout mouse cell lines - NCoA6 and PKR knockout embryonic fibroblasts - could be rendered permissive to transient HCV sub-genomic, but not ...
Nonsegmented negative-strand (NNS) RNA viruses initiate infection by delivering into the host cell an extremely specific RNA synthesis machine comprising the genomic RNA completely encapsidated from the viral nucleocapsid protein and from the viral polymerase. cap-forming actions. The capping enzyme maps to a globular site, which can be juxtaposed towards the band, as well as the cap methyltransferase maps to a far more distal and connected globule flexibly. Upon P binding, L goes through a substantial rearrangement that may reveal an optimal placing of its practical domains for transcription. The structural map of L provides fresh insights in to the interrelationship of its different domains, and their rearrangement on P binding thats likely very important to RNA synthesis. As the set up of conserved areas involved with catalysis can be homologous, the structural insights acquired for VSV L most likely extend to all or any NNS RNA infections. rows in Fig. 4with averages 8C10 in Fig. 1row in ...
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The HCV replication complex. After clathrin-mediated endocytosis, fusion of HCV with cellular membranes, and uncoating the viral nucleocapsid, the single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of the virus of approximately 9600 nucleotides is released into the cytoplasm to serve as a messenger RNA for the HCV polyprotein precursor. The HCV genome contains a single large open reading frame encoding for a polyprotein of approximately 3100 amino acids. The translated section of the HCV genome is flanked by the strongly conserved HCV 3′ and 5′ untranslated regions (UTR). The 5′ UTR is comprised of four highly structured domains forming the internal ribosome entry site (IRES), which is a virus-specific structure to initiate HCV mRNA translation. From the initially translated polyprotein, the structural HCV protein core (C) and envelope 1 and 2 (E1, E2); p7; and the six nonstructural HCV proteins NS2, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5A and NS5B, are processed by both viral and host proteases. The core protein ...
The overall goal of our research is to understand the structure and function of RNA molecules. Most of our early work focused on ribosomal RNA (rRNA), characterizing the role of the RNA in protein synthesis (Vila et al 1994, Thompson et al 2001). More recently, we have turned our attention to understanding the structure and function of viral RNA molecules, particularly enteroviral genomic RNA. We have conducted studies to learn the structure of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) RNA found in picornaviruses (Kim et al., 2005, Bailey and Tapprich 2007) and we have determined virulence determinants in picornal genomic RNA (Prusa et al. 2014). In our initial studies we have used chemical modification and primer extension to deduce the structure of the IRES elements in coxsackievirus B3. This analysis has been completed for virulent wild type viruses, attenuated mutant viruses and avirulent viruses. We have shown localized structural changes in the IRES RNA that correlate with virulence. These ...
Coronaviruses are positive-strand RNA viruses that are important infectious agents of both animals and humans. A common feature among positive-strand RNA viruses is their assembly of replication-transcription complexes in association with cytoplasmic membranes. Upon infection, coronaviruses extensively rearrange cellular membranes into organelle-like replicative structures that consist of double-membrane vesicles and convoluted membranes to which the nonstructural proteins involved in RNA synthesis localize. Double-stranded RNA, presumably functioning as replicative intermediate during viral RNA synthesis, has been detected at the double-membrane vesicle interior. Recent studies have provided new insights into the assembly and functioning of the coronavirus replicative structures. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the biogenesis of the replicative structures, the membrane anchoring of the replication-transcription complexes, and the location of viral RNA synthesis, with particular
RNA viruses infecting vertebrates differ fundamentally in their ability to establish persistent infections with markedly different patterns of transmission, disease mechanisms and evolutionary relationships with their hosts. Although interactions with host innate and adaptive responses are complex and persistence mechanisms likely multi-factorial, we previously observed associations between bioinformatically predicted RNA secondary formation in genomes of positive-stranded RNA viruses with their in vivo fitness and persistence. To analyse this interactions functionally, we transfected fibroblasts with non-replicating, non-translated RNA transcripts from RNA viral genomes with differing degrees of genome-scale ordered RNA structure (GORS). Single-stranded RNA transcripts induced interferon-β mediated though RIG-I and PKR activation, the latter associated with rapid induction of antiviral stress granules. A striking inverse correlation was observed between induction of both cellular responses with
Once transcribed, the nascent full-length RNA of HIV-1 must travel to the appropriate host cell sites to be translated or to find a partner RNA for copackaging to form newly generated viruses. In this report, we sought to delineate the location where HIV-1 RNA initiates dimerization and the influence of the RNA transport pathway used by the virus on downstream events essential to viral replication. Using a cell-fusion-dependent recombination assay, we demonstrate that the two RNAs destined for copackaging into the same virion select each other mostly within the cytoplasm. Moreover, by manipulating the RNA export element in the viral genome, we show that the export pathway taken is important for the ability of RNA molecules derived from two viruses to interact and be copackaged. These results further illustrate that at the point of dimerization the two main cellular export pathways are partially distinct. Lastly, by providing Gag in trans, we have demonstrated that Gag is able to package RNA from either
This observation argues that RNPs are not randomly incorporated into virions, and is consistent with the presence of specific signals in each RNA segment that enable the RNPs to be packaged as a complete set. The mechanisms by which these signals are recognized, and how they ensure incorporation of one copy of each RNA segment into the particle, are not known.. There is clear evidence for a selective mechanism during the packaging of the bacteriophage ψ6 genome. Viral particles contain one copy each of a S, M, and L dsRNA segment. All particles contain a complete complement of genome segments, as indicated by the fact that every virus particle is infectious. Only the S RNA segment can enter newly formed particles; once that segment is packaged, then the M RNA can enter. The L RNA can only enter particles that contain both the S and M segments. Precise packaging is therefore the result of a serial dependence of packaging of the RNA segments.. Muramoto, Y., Takada, A., Fujii, K., Noda, T., ...
Viral RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Assay. The Viral RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase Assay is developed using a RNA polymerase in the Flaviviridae,. a family of positive, single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses. The assay is based on measurement of the. RNA molecules synthesized by the RNA polymerase using RNA as a template in the presence of NTPs.. The assay can be performed in a 384-well or 96-well plate format for tests of theenzyme activities of RNA. polymerases in the Flaviviridae family and high throughput screening of inhibitors. ...
Protein and RNA synthesis are inhibited when VSV infects certain cells. UV-inactivation analysis of the virus indicates that transcription of two regions of the viral genome are required for efficient inhibition. The larger of the two viral products represents transcription of approximately 1500 nucleotides and may represent the N protein gene, while the smaller product is approximately 40 nucleotides long. The latter product is thought to be encoded at the 3-proximal end of the genome.^ Two viral mutants have been shown to be deficient in the expression of the smaller transcription product and result in less efficient inhibition of both protein and RNA synthesis. Analysis of these mutants and the UV-inactivated wild-type virus have allowed for the establishment of conditions where the effects of either the large or the small transcription product can be observed independent of the other. This will allow for the correlation of a viral product with inhibition, and thereby establish the causative
My group uses X-ray crystallography as a central technique to study the structure-function relationships of complexes involving RNA of various kinds in eukaryotic cells. This includes the transcription/replication machinery of segmented negative strand RNA viruses (e.g. influenza), complexes involved in sorting of Pol II transcripts into their appropriate processing pathways and innate immune system pattern recognition receptors, notably the response to viral RNA via Rig-I like helicases.. Keywords: Protein-RNA recognition / aminoacyl tRNA synthetases / RNA metabolism / virus structure / influenza virus polymerase / innate immunity / Rig-I like helicases / X-ray crystallography. Subject area(s): Microbiology, Virology & Pathogens , RNA , Structural Biology & Biophysics. ...
role of rna-protein interactions in the internal initiation of translation of plus-strand rna viruses : a novel target for antiviral therapeutics
Although changing therapies is a common strategy in the treatment of HIV disease, guidelines are needed to help clinicians and patients decide when a change in antiretroviral therapy is indicated. The technology of measuring HIV RNA in plasma has been suggested as a tool for monitoring clinical drug efficacy. However, uncertainty remains about whether aggressive antiretroviral treatment to lower HIV RNA and maintain low levels for as long as possible will confer clinical benefit in comparison with management based on monitoring CD4 counts and HIV-related symptoms.. Patients are randomized to a decision making strategy for initiating or changing therapy based on current clinical practice alone vs. decision making based on plasma HIV RNA quantitation in addition to current clinical practice in patients with ,= 300 CD4+ cells/mm3. All patients in the RNA arm as well as a subset (n = 183) of those in the CCP arm will have a plasma HIV RNA quantitation drawn every 4 months. The results of these ...
The armored L-RNA (2,248 bp) expressed by our two-plasmid coexpression system differs in several respects from the virus-like particles previously described by Pickett and Peabody (17). These authors also used a two-plasmid expression system; their goal was to determine whether the 21-nt Operator (pac site) would confer MS2-specific packageability on nonbacteriophage RNA in vivo. The E. coli was induced such that the Operator-lacZ hybrid RNA was coexpressed with the MS2 coat protein. The specificity of the Pickett and Peabody bacteriophage packaging system, however, was poor since the host E. coli RNA was packaged in preference to the Operator-lacZ RNA. In other studies, Pickett and Peabody modified the packaging of the Operator-lacZ RNA by changing the ratios of coat protein to Operator-lacZ RNA produced in E. coli. By increasing the concentration of the Operator-lacZ RNA and decreasing the concentration of the coat protein, these researchers were able to encapsulate mainly the Operator-lacZ ...
The 3 ends of the S and M messenger RNAs isolated from BHK21 cells infected with Germiston virus were analyzed by mapping with RNase T2 or nuclease S1. The transcription termination signal was found to be located approximately 115 and 80 nucleotides upstream from the 3 end of the S and M genomic RNA templates, respectively. Both mRNAs were found to possess several adenosine residues at their 3 ends, but were not polyadenylated. They have acquired at their 5 end a heterologous 12- to 18-nucleotide-long sequence, which is not coded for by the virus. Sequencing of the 5 terminal region from single molecules cloned into pBR327 revealed that these primers are rich in C and G residues and possess a U or a C adjacent to the viral sequence.
The bunyavirus genome is monomeric and consists of three segments of linear negative-sense (or ambisense, depending on the genus) RNA. The terminal sequences of each segment are base-paired. Because of this, the RNAs form non-covalently closed circles. The nucleotide sequences at the 3-terminus and the 5-terminus are complimentary, forming panhandle structures. The 5-terminus is not capped. The complete genome is 10500-22700 nucleotides long. The three segments of the genome are labeled L, M, and S. The L segment is 6300-12000 nucleotides long and encodes the viral RNA polymerase. The M segment is 3500-6000 nucleotides long and encodes two glycoproteins as a single gene product that is usually co-translationally cleaved. The S segments is 1000-2200 nucleotides long and encodes the coat protein. (sources: Descriptions of Plant Viruses, ICTVdB) ...
Genome RNA replication of all (+)RNA viruses takes place in close association with rearranged intracellular membranes. We are only beginning to understand the biogenesis and ultrastructure of these virus-induced membrane structures. In collaboration with the virology groups of LUMC (Prof. Dr. Eric Snijder) and the University of Utrecht (Prof. Dr. Frank van Kuppeveld), EM and tomography approaches will be used to gain more insight into the architecture of the rearranged membranes, the localization of the viral replication enzymes, and the localization of host factors that are hijacked by picornavirus to facilitate replication of their RNA genome.. Host institute ...
The multiscale model of hepatitis C virus (HCV) dynamics, which includes intracellular viral RNA (vRNA) replication, has been formulated in recent years in order to provide a new conceptual framework for understanding the mechanism of action of a variety of agents for the treatment of HCV. We present a robust and efficient numerical method that belongs to the family of adaptive stepsize methods and is implicit, a Rosenbrock type method that is highly suited to solve this problem. We provide a Graphical User Interface that applies this method and is useful for simulating viral dynamics during treatment with anti-HCV agents that act against HCV on the molecular level.
Recent studies have shown that replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is dependent on miR-122 expression.[20] miR-122 regulates HCV by binding directly to two adjacent sites close to the 5 end of HCV RNA.[21] Although these experiments were conducted using genotype 1a and 1b HCV RNA, the miR-122 binding sites are highly conserved across different genotypes, and miR-122 is also required for replication of infectious type 2a HCV.[22] As miRNAs generally function to repress gene expression by binding to 3UTR sites, this positive regulation of viral replication via a 5UTR represents a novel function for miR-122. The mechanism of regulation is not yet clear. miR-122 stimulates translation of HCV RNA, but not to a sufficient extent to explain its effects on viral replication, indicating that a second stage of the viral replication cycle must also be regulated.[23][24] HCV RNA synthesis is not affected by miR-122, suggesting that regulation of other processes such as RNA stability may occur.[25][26] ...
Hiv rna pcr test - What is the window period for p42 antigen/ antibody dual 4th gen HIV test? And the window period for HIV RNA PCR test? When can it be conclusive? See below. Please consult this site for a detailed answer. Nucleic acid tests are conclusive about a month after acquiring infection. Http://www. Sfaf. Org/hiv-info/testing/hiv-test-window-periods. Html
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Plays an essential role in viral RNA transcription and replication by forming the heterotrimeric polymerase complex together with PB1 and PB2 subunits. The complex transcribes viral mRNAs by using a unique mechanism called cap-snatching. It consists in the hijacking and cleavage of host capped pre-mRNAs. These short capped RNAs are then used as primers for viral mRNAs. The PB2 subunit is responsible for the binding of the 5 cap of cellular pre-mRNAs which are subsequently cleaved after 10-13 nucleotides by the PA subunit that carries the endonuclease activity.
Single-stranded RNA viruses have evolved to survive extremely high mutation rates.The ubiquity and effect of ssRNA viral diseases makes an understanding of the theoretical and mechanical underpinnings of rapid viral evolution vital to our ability to control them. In this body of work, we explore some of the ways in which ssRNA viruses can uncouple the rate at which variation is generated (mutation rate) from the rate at which variation is observed (measured rate of molecular evolution).. ...
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a RNA hepatovirus (in the picornavirus family) - It is a naked capsid (unenveloped), linear single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus with a cubic (icosahedral) symmetry -it replicates in the cytoplasm of the intestinal mucosa by using viral RNA polymerase. -The virus is transmitted by the fecal-oral route -More than 90% of…
Description: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293 ...
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Nucleic acids are polymers of nucleotides, including DNA and RNA. DNA/RNA synthesis is an anabolic mechanism generally involving the chemical reaction of phosphate, pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base. Certina enzymes are required to facilitate the event. Defects or deficiencies in these enzymes can lead to a variety of diseases, and a lot of chemicals that affect DNA/RNA synthesis are used in diseases relating to cell proliferation, such as cancers and microbial infections.
Ilkka Julkunen, Department of Virology, University of Turku and Virology Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland, will give a seminar on Mechanisms of activation of innate immune responses in viral RNA and virus infection stimulated human cells Host: Malin Flodström Tullberg
You searched for: Exhibit Tags phage Remove constraint Exhibit Tags: phage Format Text Remove constraint Format: Text Subject Nucleic Acid Hybridization Remove constraint Subject: Nucleic Acid Hybridization Subject RNA Remove constraint Subject: RNA ...
You searched for: Format Text Remove constraint Format: Text Subject Nucleic Acid Hybridization Remove constraint Subject: Nucleic Acid Hybridization Subject RNA Remove constraint Subject: RNA ...
They promote viral RNA destruction. MicroRNA attach to viral-RNA because they are complementary. Then the complex is recognised ... Micro-RNA[edit]. MicroRNA are small RNA fragments produced in the host cells thanks to a specific enzymatic mechanism. ... Viral replication is nuclear. DNA-templated transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by ... Wasps perhaps use microRNA to control the viral genes they carry.. *PolyDNAvirus can also use PTGS to interfere with the host's ...
Viral genomes, which are usually RNA, take over the cell machinery and make both new viral RNA and the protein coat of the ... They are transfer RNA (tRNA) and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). tRNA[change , change source]. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a short molecule of ... RNA is physically different from DNA: DNA contains two intercoiled strands, but RNA only contains one single strand. RNA also ... Protein synthesis RNAs[change , change source]. Messenger RNA[change , change source]. The structure of a mature eukaryotic ...
Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by viral initiation, and ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Kanamori, Y; Nakashima N (2001). "A tertiary structure model of the internal ... Many of the Dicistroviridae genomes contains structured RNA elements. For example, the Cripaviruses have an internal ribosome ... Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. ...
Binding of Rev to viral RNAs containing the RRE allows for mRNA export out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm by a mechanism ... Hope TJ (May 1997). "Viral RNA export". Chemistry & Biology. 4 (5): 335-44. doi:10.1016/s1074-5521(97)90124-1. PMID 9195877. ... HIV-1 genes are expressed from either completely spliced RNA or from intron-containing RNA. The export of fully spliced mRNAs ( ... Rev-directed export of viral RNAs is similar to the mechanism by which snRNAs and the 5s rRNAs are exported, as opposed to the ...
The viral replicative form of the Endornaviridae is dsRNA. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Dolja, Valerian V (2001). "Capsid-Less RNA Viruses". eLS. doi:10.1002/ ... For Vicia faba endornavirus, the RNA genome has been associated with some pleomorphic cytoplasmic membrane vesicles. Viral ... Double-stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. As the replicative dsRNA form is relatively stable, it ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. Translation takes place by leaky scanning, and RNA ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment to host receptors, which mediates ... Feline calicivirus "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. ... They are positive-sense, single stranded RNA which is non-segmented. There are currently seven species in this family, divided ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the virus to host receptors, which ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Jones, MS.; Lukashov ... Translation takes place by -1 ribosomal frameshifting, viral initiation, and ribosomal skipping. The virus exits the host cell ...
Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method of transcription. The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV Taxonomy ... the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the virus to host receptors, which ... "Viral meningitis in Kansas City-area babies probed". The Kansas City Star. The Associated Press. August 13, 2014. Viralzone: ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Shakeel, Shabih; ...
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral G glycoproteins to host ... Replication follows the negative stranded RNA virus replication model. Negative stranded rna virus transcription, using ... The virus exits the host cell by budding, and tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. The virus is ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Afonso, Claudio L.; ...
Viral replication is nuclear. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the viral GP glycoproteins to host ... Replication follows the negative stranded RNA virus replication model. Negative stranded RNA virus transcription, using ... The viral family is named after the city of Borna in Saxony, Germany, which is where a large number of animals were lost to the ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. Amarasinghe, Gaya K.; Bào, Yīmíng; Basler, Christopher F.; Bavari, Sina; Beer, ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the virus to host receptors, which ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 13 August 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 13 August 2015. Viralzone: ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method ... ". "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Kelly AG, Netzler NE, White PA (2016) Ancient recombination events and the ...
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded RNA ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Peever, Tobin; Liu, ... "Hypovirulence of Chestnut Blight Fungus Conferred by an Infectious Viral cDNA". Science. 257: 800-803. doi:10.1126/science. ...
Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded rna virus transcription is the method ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic, and is lysogenic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. ... The virus exits the host cell by tripartite non-tubule guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
Positive stranded RNA virus transcription, using the premature termination model of subgenomic RNA transcription is the method ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Wu, J. X.; Wang, Q; ... The virus exits the host cell by tubule-guided viral movement. Plants serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are ...
"Tentative identification of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of dsRNA viruses and their relationship to positive strand RNA viral ... ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or other enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes.[1] Overall, RNA helps synthesize ... RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase was established in vitro by several laboratories by 1965; however, the RNA synthesized by these ... RNA sugar-phosphate backbone forms with assistance from RNA polymerase to form an RNA strand. ...
"Tentative identification of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of dsRNA viruses and their relationship to positive strand RNA viral ... ribosomal RNA (rRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), or enzymatic RNA molecules called ribozymes.[1] Overall, RNA helps synthesize, ... Role of RNA Polymerase in Post-Transcriptional changes in RNA[edit]. Image showing RNA polymerase interacting with different ... RNA synthesis by RNA polymerase was established in vitro by several laboratories by 1965; however, the RNA synthesized by these ...
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded rna ... They were able to identify viral plaques from this and then subsequently sequence their genomes. "ICTV Report Cystoviridae". " ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. "NCBI Taxonomy Browser: Cystoviridae". NCBI. Retrieved 19 June 2016. Silander OK, ... "Intermediates in the assembly pathway of the double-stranded RNA virus phi6". EMBO J. 16 (14): 4477-87. doi:10.1093/emboj/16.14 ...
Positive stranded RNA virus transcription is the method of transcription. Fungi serve as the natural host. "Viral Zone". ExPASy ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. Replication follows ... the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. ...
Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Replication follows the positive stranded RNA virus replication model. Positive stranded RNA ... There are currently only two species in this genus including the type species Saccharomyces 20S RNA narnavirus. Genomes are ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: Narnavirus ICTV. ...
Replication follows the double-stranded RNA virus replication model. Double-stranded rna virus transcription is the method of ... Viral replication is cytoplasmic. Entry into the host cell is achieved by penetration into the host cell. ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: 2014 Release". Retrieved 15 June 2015. Viralzone: ...
Neuroinflammation During RNA Viral Infections. Klein RS, Garber C, Funk KE, Salimi H, Soung A, Kanmogne M, Manivasagam S, Agner ... CCR5 limits cortical viral loads during West Nile virus infection of the central nervous system. Durrant DM, Daniels BP, ... Another goal of the Klein lab is to understand how glial cells regulate T cell activity in viral infections and autoimmune ... CSF1R antagonism limits local restimulation of antiviral CD8+ T cells during viral encephalitis. Funk KE, Klein RS. Journal of ...
4th step: Minus- strand RNAs are synthesized.. *5th step: Plus- strand RNAs and viral proteins are synthesized. Virions ... RNA 2 and RNA 3) and a subgenomic RNA (RNA 4) which is obtained by transcription of the negative- sense strand of RNA 3. RNA 1 ... RNA 4 encodes the capsid. Beside encapsidation and its role in movement the viral coat protein also plays a role in the ... Tenllado F.; Bol J. (2000). "Genetic dissection of the multiple functions of alfalfa mosaic virus coat protein in viral RNA ...
... interaction with host RNA 3. APOBEC3G interaction with viral RNA 4. Interaction of APOBEC3G with HIV-1 Gag proteins. ... It is predicted that reverse transcription is also negatively affected by APOBEC3G binding to viral RNA and causing steric ... thus leading to aberrant viral 3' long terminal repeat (LTR) DNA ends. These viral DNA ends are inefficient substrates for ... CD1 is catalytically inactive, but very important for binding to DNA and RNA and is key to defining the 5'->3' processivity of ...
Viral escape from antisense RNA. Mol. Microbiol. 28:835-846. Hibma, A. M., S. A. Jassim, and M. W. Griffiths. 1997. Infection ... Viral escape from Merril, C. R., B. Biswas, R. Carlton, N. C. Jensen, G. J. Creed, S. Zullo, and S. Adhya. 1996. Long- ... Evolvability of an RNA virus is determined by its mutational neighbourhood. Nature 406:625-628. Wichman, H. A., L. A. Scott, C ... Altered 3'-terminal RNA structure in phage Q_ adapted to host factor-less Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:10239 ...
6. Late genes are now transcribed by the host's RNA polymerase. 7. Synthesis of the new virons Viral protein C binds to ... Replication of the viral genome Viral protein A cleaves replicative form I DNA strand at the origin of replication (ori) and ... Unlike protein A it is capable of cleaving the phi X viral DNA in the presence of single-stranded binding protein of the host. ... There are a number of steps in the life cycle 1. Adsorption to the host via specific receptor(s) 2. Movement of the viral DNA ...
RNA editing APOBEC3G Viral infectivity factor Michael Wentzel (12 January 2004). "UR Invests in Anti-HIV Startup". Rochester ... The company is also researching drugs that protect A3G from Viral infectivity factor (ViF). ViF is a protein created by HIV ... James H Miller; Vlad Presnyak; Harold C Smith (27 July 2007). "The dimerization domain of HIV-1 viral infectivity factor Vif is ... A3G combats HIV infection by interacting with and mutating the virus' RNA. The mutations genetically damage the virus protein ...
Xin-Cheng Qin et al.: A tick-borne segmented RNA virus contains genome segments derived from unsegmented viral ancestors, in: ... 3 RNA-Viren *3.1 Doppelsträngige RNA-Viren (dsRNA, double stranded RNA). *3.2 Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit negativer Polarität ( ... ss(−)RNA: negative single-stranded RNA). *3.3 Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit positiver Polarität (ss(+)RNA: positive single ... Einzelstrang-RNA-Viren mit negativer Polarität (ss(−)RNA: negative single-stranded RNA)[Bearbeiten , Quelltext bearbeiten]. ...
... meningitis and other viral haemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD.[1] Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or ... viral RNA, or antibodies in blood[1]. Differential diagnosis. Malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis, other viral ... detecting the viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)[6][23] and detecting proteins by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ... The viral RNA polymerase, encoded by the L gene, partially uncoats the nucleocapsid and transcribes the genes into positive- ...
The genome of an organism is the whole of its hereditary information encoded in its DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). This ... Smallest non-viral genome, Feb 2007 Bacterium, Escherichia coli 4×106 Best-researched bacterium.[7] ... 1976). "Complete nucleotide-sequence of bacteriophage MS2-RNA - primary and secondary structure of replicase gene". Nature. 260 ...
Ribavirin is a prodrug which appears to interfere with viral replication by inhibiting RNA-dependent nucleic acid synthesis, ... Lassa fever, also known as Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF), is a type of viral hemorrhagic fever caused by the Lassa virus.[1] ... Viral Hemorrhagic Fever Consortium Lassa fever Archived 4 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Page accessed April 6, 2016 ... Clinically, Lassa fever infections are difficult to distinguish from other viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola and Marburg ...
"Dopamine-dependent neurodegeneration in rats induced by viral vector-mediated overexpression of the parkin target protein, ...
... which serves as a molecular signal to stall the exonuclease and is the only viral requirement for subgenomic flavivirus RNA ( ... The sfRNAs are a result of incomplete degradation of the viral genome by the exonuclease and are important for viral ... "An RNA Pseudoknot Is Required for Production of Yellow Fever Virus Subgenomic RNA by the Host Nuclease XRN1". Journal of ... Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause ...
... strand RNA genome is replicated through a double-stranded RNA intermediate that is formed using viral RDRP (RNA-Dependent RNA ... It has both icosahedral virus particles, viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and protease and viral replication proteins. But ... Also, the 3' end elements of viral RNA are significant and efficient for RNA replication of picornaviruses. The 3' end of ... The mRNA encodes RNA dependent RNA polymerase. This polymerase makes complementary minus strands of RNA, then uses them as ...
... were split off as a third domain because of the large differences in their ribosomal RNA structure. The particular RNA ... the impact of viral infection is higher on archaea than on bacteria and virus-induced lysis of archaea accounts for up to one- ... although there are many introns in their transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA genes,[146] and introns may occur in a few protein- ... Werner F (September 2007). "Structure and function of archaeal RNA polymerases". Mol. Microbiol. 65 (6): 1395-404. doi:10.1111/ ...
... and viral genes.[8][2] The TATA box was found in protein coding genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II.[2] ... the TATA box is found at RNA polymerase II promoter regions, although some in vitro studies have demonstrated that RNA ... "RNA polymerase III accurately initiates transcription from RNA polymerase II promoters in vitro". The Journal of Biological ... TATA-binding protein (TBP) can be recruited in two ways, by SAGA, a cofactor for RNA polymerase II, or by TFIID.[11] When ...
RNA interference (RNAi) and small-RNA biology; DNA replication; RNA splicing; signal transduction; genome structure; non-coding ... A.D. Hershey and Martha Chase, "Independent Functions of Viral Protein and Nucleic Acid in Growth of Bacteriophage," J. General ... Adrian Krainer, studies RNA splicing and developed nusinersen for treatment of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). ... Gregory Hannon (currently at CRUK Cambridge Institute), research on RNA interference, Member of the National Academy of ...
This is mostly shown for plant RNA viruses. Viroplasm is the location within the infected cell where viral replication and ... Viral evolution Viral replication Novoa, R. R.; Calderita, G.; Arranz, R.; Fontana, J.; Granzow, H.; Risco, C. (Feb 2005). " ... A viroplasm is an inclusion body in a cell where viral replication and assembly occurs. They may be thought of as viral ... Some of the membrane components are used for viral replication while some others will be modified to produce viral envelopes, ...
RNA virus. CBV. HAV (A). HCV (C). HDV (D). HEV (E). HGV (G). ... viral pneumonia. DNA virus. *Epstein-Barr virus *EBV infection/ ... RNA virus. HCV Hepatocellular carcinoma. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma. HTLV-I Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. ... RNA virus. MeV Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. LCV Lymphocytic choriomeningitis. Arbovirus encephalitis. Orthomyxoviridae ... The Spi-B factor was shown to be crucial in initiating viral replication in certain strains of transgenic mice.[10] The protein ...
The N protein contributes to viral replication, and coats the genomic RNA within the virion. Presently the soybean thrips ( ... The L segment is 9010 nt and encodes for the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The M segment is 4955 nt and to encode for ... The genome of SVNV is a negative sense single stranded RNA virus (Group V) that has three segments (S, M, and L segments). ... Like other members of Bunyavirales, this virus is enveloped and has a negative sense single-stranded RNA (−ssRNA) genome ...
... viral burden - viral core - viral culture - viral envelope - viral load - viremia - viricide - virion - virology - virus - ... RNA) - ribosome - RNA - route of administration - RT-PCR - RTI - Ryan White C.A.R.E. act ... messenger RNA - metabolism - metastasis - MHC - microbes - microbicide - Microsporidiosis - mitochondria - mitochondrial ...
RNA binding. • protein heterodimerization activity. • nucleic acid binding. • protein kinase binding. • core promoter binding. ... viral process. • DNA damage response, signal transduction by p53 class mediator resulting in cell cycle arrest. • regulation of ... RNA polymerase II transcription coactivator activity. • transcription factor binding. • activating transcription factor binding ... 2006). «Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions.». Cell Res. 15 (11-12): 923-34 ...
... and use of endonuclease digestion of PCR-amplified RNA to demonstrate lack of mRNA expression from the second allele". American ...
... of BDNF into the lateral ventricles doubled the population of newborn neurons in the adult rat olfactory bulb and viral ... RNA expression pattern. More reference expression data. Gene ontology. Molecular function. • receptor binding. • neurotrophin ...
This step will also make viral enzymes and capsid proteins (8). Viral RNA will be made in the nucleus. These pieces are then ... RNA: consists of a dimer RNA. It has a cap at the 5' end and a poly(A) tail at the 3' end. The RNA genome also has terminal ... Next, some of these RNA molecules are translated into viral proteins. For example, the gag gene is translated into molecules of ... The host cell then treats the viral DNA as part of its own genome, transcribing and translating the viral genes along with the ...
೪೧.೦ ೪೧.೧ Eddy SR (December 2001). "Non-coding RNA genes and the modern RNA world". Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (12): 919-29. doi: ... Hershey, AD; Chase, M (1952). "Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage". The Journal ... ೯೦.೦ ೯೦.೧ Claverie JM (September 2005). "Fewer genes, more noncoding RNA". Science 309 (5740): 1529-30. Bibcode:2005Sci... ... Domingo, E; Escarmís, C; Sevilla, N; Moya, A; Elena, SF; Quer, J; Novella, IS; Holland, JJ (June 1996). "Basic concepts in RNA ...
"Haemorrhagic fevers, Viral". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 27 July 2019. Retrieved 19 June 2019.. ... but there is increasing evidence from DNA and RNA sequencing, that measles, smallpox, influenza, HIV, and diphtheria came to ... Other haemorrhagic fevers (Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, Dengue fever, Lassa fever, Marburg viral haemorrhagic fever, Rift ...
RNA interference has been used to silence the expression of individual efflux transporters, either transiently[9] or long-term. ... viral transfection research, and lipid transport.[5] ... in Caco-2 cells using lentiviral vector-based short hairpin RNA ... "Investigation of the involvement of P-gp and MRP2 in the efflux of ximelagatran and its metabolites by using short hairpin RNA ...
Norman Pirie FRS (1907-1997): British biochemist and virologist co-discoverer in 1936 of viral crystallization, an important ... milestone in understanding DNA and RNA.[272]. *Henri Poincaré (1854-1912): French mathematician, theoretical physicist, ...
Through the process of viral infection into hosts the three domains of life evolved.[83][84] Another interesting proposal is ... Atkins JF, Gesteland RF, Cech T (2006). The RNA world: the nature of modern RNA suggests a prebiotic RNA world. Plainview, N.Y ... of RNAs with molecular properties predicted for RNAs of the RNA World constitutes an additional argument supporting the RNA ... Properties of RNA[edit]. The properties of RNA make the idea of the RNA world hypothesis conceptually plausible, though its ...
This also leads to decreased levels of RNA-binding protein in the nucleus, which may mean that their target RNA transcripts do ... In August 2014, a challenge went viral online, commonly known as the "ALS Ice Bucket Challenge".[131] Contestants fill a bucket ... Other RNA metabolism genes associated with ALS include ANG, SETX, and MATR3.[10] ... The zebrafish has transparent embryos that can be injected with DNA or RNA and has a lifespan of up to two years.[79] Induced ...
For example, the Influenza A virus produces NS1 protein, which can bind to host and viral RNA, interact with immune signaling ... which degrades viral RNA.[23] Some viruses evade this by producing molecules which interfere with IFN production. ... RNA silencing mechanisms are also important in the plant systemic response, as they can block virus replication.[40] The ... When host cells die, either by programmed cell death (also called apoptosis) or by cell injury due to a bacterial or viral ...
Alternately, trans-splicing of two non-functional RNA molecules may produce a single, functional RNA. Similarly, at the protein ... "Viral quasispecies evolution". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. 76 (2): 159-216. doi:10.1128/mmbr.05023-11. PMC ...
2002). "Male viral load and heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 subtype E in northern Thailand". J. Acquir. Immune. Defic. Syndr ... 2005). "Mitochondrial DNA and retroviral RNA analyses of archival oral polio vaccine (OPV CHAT) materials: evidence of macaque ... Blankson JN, Persaud D, Siliciano RF (2002). "The challenge of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 infection". Annu. Rev. Med. 53: 557- ... Hurwitz BE, Klaus JR, Llabre MM, et al. (January 2007). "Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with ...
Sardanyés J. (2014) Viral RNA Replication Modes: Evolutionary and Dynamical Implications. In: Corral Á., Deluca A., Font-Clos F ... J. Sardanyés, F. Martínez, J.A. Daròs, S.F. Elena, Dynamics of alternative modes of RNA replication for positive-sense RNA ... L. Chao, C.U. Rang, L.E. Wong, Distribution of spontaneous mutants and inferences about the replication mode of the RNA ... F. Martínez, J. Sardanyés, J.A. Daròs, S.F. Elena, Dynamics of a plant RNA virus intracellular accumulation: stamping machine ...
To target the RNA of HCV, we engineered a small RNA, which we term an RNA-targeting guide RNA (rgRNA). The rgRNA is similar in ... Additionally, an rgRNA complementary to a portion of the 3′ UTR, necessary for replication of viral RNA, decreased viral ... 2009) RNA-guided RNA cleavage by a CRISPR RNA-Cas protein complex. Cell 139(5):945-956. ... Overall, programmable Cas9-mediated viral RNA targeting likely represents one of myriad potential applications of FnCas9 in RNA ...
RNA-based Therapeutics and Vaccines: Bioprocessing Technology Trends. Join us as we review the current dynamics in the RNA ... Viral vector gene therapy products present a unique challenge for viral safety. Careful selection and testing of raw material, ... RNA-based Therapeutics and Vaccines: Bioprocessing Technology Trends. Learn about the current dynamics in the RNA therapeutics/ ... An Integrated Approach to Ensure Viral Vector and Gene Therapy Commercial Readiness. The need for process development for viral ...
These modifications -- chemical tags known as methyl groups -- influence viral replication and the human immune response. ... of California San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that Zika virus infection leads to modifications of both viral and ... the researchers removed the human enzymes responsible for adding methyl groups to viral RNA. Without m6A, the viral RNA was ... the cell modifies viral RNA with m6A as a means to get rid of the infection. RNA tagged with m6A is a beacon for human enzymes ...
Replicon RNA vectors have also been subjected to clinical trials. Overall, immunization with self-replicating RNA viruses ... Immunization of mice, chicken, pigs and primates with virus-like particles, naked RNA or layered DNA/RNA plasmids has provided ... Administration of replicon RNA vectors has resulted in strong immune responses and generation of neutralizing antibodies in ... Moreover, recombinant particles and replicon RNAs have been encapsulated by liposomes to improve delivery and targeting. ...
Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) detect viral RNA as a non-self pattern in the cytoplasm and ... detect viral RNA as a non-self pattern in the cytoplasm and activate downstream signaling. Detection of viral RNA also ... Viral RNA detection by RIG-I-like receptors Curr Opin Immunol. 2015 Feb;32:48-53. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2014.12.012. Epub 2015 Jan ... Among the three RLR family members RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) recognize distinct viral RNA ...
RNAdvance Viral and RNAdvance Viral XP, preform with documented data and downstream RT-PCR workflows. ... See how Beckman Coulters viral RNA extraction reagent kits, ... Viral RNA Extraction Performance Data. RNAdvance Viral and ... Product Information: Viral RNA Extraction Reagent Kits. RNAdvance Viral Reagent Kit - 768 Preps. Part number: C63510 ... Viral RNA extraction begins with lysis of the viral capsid from a variety of sample inputs, including saliva and nasopharyngeal ...
Many RNA viruses are known to be associated with gastroenteritis; however, the enteric RNA viral community present in healthy ... and viral RNA was extracted and cloned into shotgun viral cDNA libraries for sequencing analysis. The vast majority of the ... RNA viral community in human feces: prevalence of plant pathogenic viruses.. Zhang T1, Breitbart M, Lee WH, Run JQ, Wei CL, Soh ... C) RNA viruses were directly detected by RT-PCR from the total RNA of fecal sample 2: PMMV (lane 1), MCMV (lane 2), PBV, ...
However, the mRNAs are not complete copies of the viral (-) strand RNAs - they are missing sequen ... These molecules are then transported back to the cytoplasm, where they direct the synthesis of viral proteins. ... strand influenza viral RNAs enter the nucleus, they serve as templates for the synthesis of mRNAs. ... All influenza viral RNA synthesis is carried out by the viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase. The cap plus10-13 nucleotides are ...
Bevilacqua »HIV-1 genome »Molecular Biology »PKR »RNA »RNA dimers »TAR »double-stranded RNAs »genetic material »human cells » ... Further reports about: , Bevilacqua , HIV-1 genome , Molecular Biology , PKR , RNA , RNA dimers , TAR , double-stranded RNAs , ... One way for this to happen is for the viral RNA to first form linked pairs called dimers. These RNA dimers then allow separate ... Link uncovered between viral RNA and human immune response. 06.08.2009. In its fight against an intruding virus, an enzyme in ...
VIRAL RNA Extraction Kit. The CE marking confirms that PHASIFY™ VIRAL complies with the European In-Vitro Diagnostic Devices ... The PHASIFY™ VIRAL RNA Extraction Kit is designed to purify and concentrate viral RNA in patient viral transport media samples ... Utilizing PHASIFY™ VIRAL RNA extraction can result in 15-30-fold greater amount of viral RNA for standard RT-qPCR analyses, ... of the total viral RNA available for analyses. That suggests the current viral RNA extraction kits play a major role in ...
A) Viral RNA and viral replication protein (3A, 3Dpol) subcellular distribution in early stages of CVB3 RNA replication.. (B) ... Viral RNA and viral replication protein (3A, 3Dpol) subcellular distribution at peak stages of CVB3 RNA replication. See also . ... J and K) PI4KIIIβ activity regulates viral RNA synthesis. Cell-free PV RNA translation (J) and synthesis (K) assays performed ... Viral reorganization of the secretory pathway generates distinct organelles for RNA replication.. Hsu NY1, Ilnytska O, Belov G ...
... scientists at the Morgridge Institute for Research have generated near atomic resolution images of a major viral protein ... In each positive-strand RNA virus, most of the viral genes are devoted to a single process: replicating the viral RNA genome. ... This prior work further showed that the key viral protein that induces the replication vesicles and copies the viral RNA ... The viral RNA replication protein that forms the crown is an extremely large, multi-domain, multi-functional protein, nearly ...
Purigen Biosystems Announces Early Access Program For Ionic Pure Viral RNA Kit - read this article along with other careers ... Pure Viral RNA kit. The new kit enables users of the Ionic Purification System to extract high yields of high-quality RNA from ... The same viral RNA extraction and purification protocol was used by a finalist team of scientists from Purigen and the Stanford ... Purigen Biosystems Announces Early Access Program For Ionic Pure Viral RNA Kit. Published: Jun 08, 2021 ...
RNA-based probes that detect point mutations in target RNA, can be applied in living cells, offering a convenient means of ... Home OMICs Genotyping RNA Probes Reveal Point Mutations, May Ease Detection of Disease Genes, Viral... ... RNA Probes Reveal Point Mutations, May Ease Detection of Disease Genes, Viral Strains. ... The upper slide shows a SNIPR whose exposed section of RNA binds with a cells healthy RNA, seen on the left. Here the SNIPR ...
quantitative viral RNA assay - (Jun/08/2001 ). Id like to determine viral RNA level changes in virus producing cell culture ...
Why Zika viral RNA and not infectious virus would persist for so long is an important and unanswered question that should ... Viral RNA is not infectious virus!. 17 February 2017. by Vincent Racaniello ... The non-infectious RNA detected by plaque assay is likely fragments of RNA, not the entire genome - PCR only assays for short ... Viral RNA would not constitute a threat to transmission, while infectious virus would. ...
The PureLink Viral Mini Kit is specifically designed to isolate high-q ... The PureLink Viral RNA/DNA Mini Kit provides a rapid and efficient method to simultaneously purify viral RNA/DNA from fresh or ... The PureLink® Viral RNA/DNA Mini Kit provides a rapid and efficient method to simultaneously purify viral RNA/DNA from fresh or ... The PureLink® Viral RNA/DNA Mini Kit contains enough reagents for 50 reactions.. Kit Contents:. • 32 ml Viral Lysis buffer (L22 ...
How the influenza virus achieves efficient viral RNA replication. Find all the Institut Pasteur news and projects on its ... Viral sequence integrated in mosquito genome controls infection by related virus A new endogenous viral element (EVE) has been ... How the influenza virus achieves efficient viral RNA replication Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus. Copyright: Institut Pasteur ... How the influenza virus achieves efficient viral RNA replication. *Human contact plays big role in spread of some hospital ...
The nucleotide sequence of the gene from which messenger RNA mole- cules are transcribed is in a form that can be translated by ... The Interactions of Viral Proteins with Rous Sarcoma Virus RNA and Possible Control of Reverse Transcription, Translation and ... The Interaction between Viral Messenger RNA and Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2, a Protein Involved in Translational Control ... This volume is devoted to current studies in the field of cellular and viral messenger RNA. The studies presented provide an ...
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A Viral RNA Structural Element Alters Host Recognition of Nonself RNA Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... A Viral RNA Structural Element Alters Host Recognition of Nonself RNA. By Jennifer L. Hyde, Christina L. Gardner, Taishi Kimura ... A Viral RNA Structural Element Alters Host Recognition of Nonself RNA. By Jennifer L. Hyde, Christina L. Gardner, Taishi Kimura ... As an example, 2-O methylation of the 5′ cap of viral RNA subverts mammalian antiviral responses by evading restriction of ...
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Reply to Finol: Viral small RNA from Dengue virus and its regulatory role in different serotypes. Mazhar Hussain and Sassan ... Reply to Finol: Viral small RNA from Dengue virus and its regulatory role in different serotypes ... Are viral small RNA regulating Dengue virus replication beyond serotype 2? - July 14, 2014 ...
A new study by University of Kentucky researchers shows promise for developing ultrastable RNA nanoparticles that may help ... treat cancer and viral infections by regulating cell function and binding to cancers without harming surrounding tissue. ... Their RNA nanoparticles can include small interfering RNA for silencing genes, micro-RNA for regulating gene expression, ... New study shows promise in using RNA nanotechnology to treat cancers and viral infections. University of Kentucky ...
... via transcriptional slippage of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). We herein show that clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV ... Deep sequencing of ClYVV RNA from infected plants endorses the slippage by viral RdRp. Our findings unveil a virus strategy ... RNA viruses use various strategies to condense their genetic information into small genomes. Potyviruses not only use the ... The RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase NIb of Potyviruses Plays Multifunctional, Contrasting Roles during Viral Infection *Wentao ...
  • F. Martínez, J. Sardanyés, J.A. Daròs, S.F. Elena, Dynamics of a plant RNA virus intracellular accumulation: stamping machine versus geometric replication. (springer.com)
  • J. Sardanyés, S.F. Elena, Quasispecies spatial models for RNA viruses with different replication modes and infection strategies. (springer.com)
  • J. Sardanyés, F. Martínez, J.A. Daròs, S.F. Elena, Dynamics of alternative modes of RNA replication for positive-sense RNA viruses. (springer.com)
  • J. Sardanyés, R.V. Solé, S.F. Elena, Replication mode and landscape topology differentially affect RNA virus mutational load and robustness. (springer.com)
  • These modifications -- chemical tags known as methyl groups -- influence viral replication and the human immune response. (eurekalert.org)
  • Without m6A, the viral RNA was more stable and viral replication increased, as compared to human cells with normal methylation enzymes. (eurekalert.org)
  • Viral reorganization of the secretory pathway generates distinct organelles for RNA replication. (nih.gov)
  • Many RNA viruses remodel intracellular membranes to generate specialized sites for RNA replication. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show how RNA viruses can manipulate multiple components of the cellular secretory pathway to generate organelles specialized for replication that are distinct in protein and lipid composition from the host cell. (nih.gov)
  • These findings reveal how RNA viruses can selectively exploit specific elements of the host to form specialized organelles where cellular phosphoinositide lipids are key to regulating viral RNA replication. (nih.gov)
  • A) Viral RNA and viral replication protein (3A, 3D pol ) subcellular distribution in early stages of CVB3 RNA replication. (nih.gov)
  • B) Viral RNA and viral replication protein (3A, 3D pol ) subcellular distribution at peak stages of CVB3 RNA replication. (nih.gov)
  • F) Arf1 and GBF1 facilitate viral RNA replication. (nih.gov)
  • G) Functional ER exit sites facilitate viral RNA replication. (nih.gov)
  • Advanced cryo-EM imaging reveals high-resolution side and top views of the viral RNA replication "crown" complex structure. (newswise.com)
  • Using an advanced technique called cryoelectron microscope (cryo-EM) tomography, Ahlquist and his team built upon their previous work , which first revealed the existence of this crown-like viral RNA replication complex. (newswise.com)
  • Given this massive investment of resources, viral RNA genome replication is arguably one of the most important processes in infection, and It is already a major target for virus control," Ahlquist says. (newswise.com)
  • Within an infected cell, viral RNA replication occurs at modified cellular membranes, often in association with spherules, virus-induced vesicles approximately 50-100 nanometers in size. (newswise.com)
  • Ahlquist and his team previously showed that in each such genome replication complex, a copy of the viral RNA genome or chromosome is protected inside the spherule vesicle to function as a replication template. (newswise.com)
  • The replication complex repeatedly copies this archival viral RNA chromosome to produce new progeny genomes that are released through a membranous neck on the vesicle into the cytoplasm, where they are incorporated as the payload of new infectious virions. (newswise.com)
  • This prior work further showed that the key viral protein that induces the replication vesicles and copies the viral RNA resides in a striking ring or crown structure that sits atop the cytoplasmic side of the spherule neck that connects with the cytoplasm. (newswise.com)
  • The new higher resolution cryo-EM images and complementary results show that the crown is composed of twelve copies of the key viral RNA replication protein arranged like staves in a barrel. (newswise.com)
  • The viral RNA replication protein that forms the crown is an extremely large, multi-domain, multi-functional protein, nearly 1000 amino acids in size. (newswise.com)
  • Using an approach that combined a genetically engineered, site-specific tag with labeling by nanoscale gold particles visible in cryo-EM, the researchers found that the C-terminal polymerase end of the viral RNA replication protein is positioned at the apex of the crown, leaving the N-terminal capping domain at the bottom of the structure to interact with the membrane. (newswise.com)
  • New insights on how subunits of the influenza virus polymerase co-evolve to ensure efficient viral RNA replication are provided by a study published October 3 in the PLOS Pathogens journal, by researchers from the Institut Pasteur and the CNRS (French National Center for Scientific Research). (pasteur.fr)
  • Enhancing fundamental knowledge about the RNA-polymerase of influenza viruses, which is an enzyme that consists of three subunits (i.e., a heterotrimer) and ensures transcription and replication of the viral genome, is essential to reach the goal of better prevention and treatment of disease. (pasteur.fr)
  • They showed that the polymerase subunits co-evolve to ensure not only optimal inter-subunit cooperation within the heterotrimer, but also proper levels dimerization - the process by which pairs of heterotrimers attach together -- which appears to be essential for efficient viral RNA replication. (pasteur.fr)
  • Are viral small RNA regulating Dengue virus replication beyond serotype 2? (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, in order to understand the functionality of viral lncRNA, Sztuba-Solinska and her team have been addressing the relationship between the various aspects of lncRNA conformation, i.e. secondary structure, tertiary interactions, epitranscriptomic modifications, and lncRNA functionality during viral replication and pathogenesis. (auburn.edu)
  • CPs have been shown to regulate the infection processes of RNA viruses, including RNA replication and gene expression. (dovepress.com)
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that phosphorylation of viral CPs is involved in the regulation of the viral infection process from enabling virion disassembly to regulation of viral protein synthesis and replication. (dovepress.com)
  • Flaviviruses are known to cause remodeling of intracellular membranes into small cavities, where replication of the viral RNA takes place. (diva-portal.org)
  • Nonstructural (NS) proteins are not part of the virus coat and are thought to participate in the formation of these viral replication compartments (RCs). (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, we used tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) as a model for the flaviviruses and developed a stable human cell line in which the expression of NS proteins can be induced without viral RNA replication. (diva-portal.org)
  • We propose that the NS proteins drive the remodeling of ER membranes and that viral RNA, RNA replication, viral polymerase, and TBEV structural proteins are not required. (diva-portal.org)
  • Similar to other flaviviruses, TBEV exploits intracellular membranes to build RCs for viral replication. (diva-portal.org)
  • To study how TBEV induces membrane remodeling, we developed an inducible stable cell system expressing the TBEV NS polyprotein in the absence of viral RNA replication. (diva-portal.org)
  • The multiscale model of hepatitis C virus (HCV) dynamics, which includes intracellular viral RNA (vRNA) replication, has been formulated in recent years in order to provide a new conceptual framework for understanding the mechanism of action of a variety of agents for the treatment of HCV. (frontiersin.org)
  • biphasic model [ 20 ] that was introduced in 1998 and treated the infected cell as a "black box," producing virions but without any consideration of the intracellular viral RNA replication and degradation within the infected cell [ 26 , 27 , 42 ]. (frontiersin.org)
  • Is the Subject Area "Viral replication" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • All killer virus-infected cells as well as nearly all nonkillers harbor the replication-competent L-A dsRNA viral genome, which functions as a helper virus for satellites, such as M dsRNA. (genetics.org)
  • Early growth response-1 facilitates enterovirus 71 replication by direct binding to the viral genome RNA. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We further reveal that EV71-activated EGR1, in turn, regulates the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) of EV71 to enhance viral replication. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Moreover, EGR1 protein co-localizes with EV71 RNA in the cytoplasm of infected cells to facilitate viral replication. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Our results reveal an important new role of EGR1 in viral infection, provide new insight into the novel mechanism underlying the regulation of EV71 replication, and suggest a potential application of EGR1 in the control of EV71 infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The viral DI RNA associates with multiple viral proteins during replication, and is therefore expected to form heterogeneous RNA-protein complexes. (illinois.edu)
  • In addition, the antiviral 'arsenal' of the host cells includes specialised RNA-binding proteins that recognise viral RNA and intermediaries of replication. (bmglabtech.com)
  • For RNA viral genomes, the information encoded in the sequence extends well-beyond their protein coding role to the role of intra-sequence base pairing in viral packaging, replication, and gene expression. (umn.edu)
  • This TLR-independent induction of IFN-αβ after SV infection is replication dependent and mediated by the RNA helicase, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and not the related family member, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5. (jimmunol.org)
  • Successful host defense against virus infection relies on the rapid production of IFN-αβ and the subsequent transcription of hundreds of so-called IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), 4 the products of which lead to a cellular antiviral state and prevent viral replication. (jimmunol.org)
  • TLRs are one class of PRRs capable of detecting viral particles or products of viral replication. (jimmunol.org)
  • Many negative-strand RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm and are unlikely to expose structures produced during viral replication to TLRs (e.g., dsRNA, a product of viral replication). (jimmunol.org)
  • Accordingly, TLR-mediated sensing of viruses by endosomally localized TLRs occurs without the requirement for viral replication. (jimmunol.org)
  • While most mutations are known to originate in replication errors, difficulties of capturing the underlying dynamics have left the mechanochemical basis of viral mutagenesis unresolved. (tudelft.nl)
  • To determine whether persistent RNA was capable of resuming unrestricted replication in the absence of the continuous presence of antiviral antibodies, viral titers were measured in the brains of scid mice at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months after antibody treatment. (asm.org)
  • Replication of infectious virus isolated from scid mouse brain could be restricted by repeat treatment with immune serum, indicating that viral reactivation is not due to antibody-escape mutations. (asm.org)
  • Encapsidation of viral RNA in Picornavirales: studies on cowpea mosaic virus demonstrate dependence on viral replication. (jic.ac.uk)
  • RNA-free virus-like particles (eVLPs) can be generated by transiently co-expressing the RNA-2-encoded coat protein precursor (VP60) with the RNA-1-encoded 24K protease, in the absence of the replication machinery (Saunders et al. (jic.ac.uk)
  • We have made use of the ability to produce assembled capsids of CPMV in the absence of replication to examine the putative linkage between RNA replication and packaging in the Picornavirales We have created a series of mutant RNA-1 and RNA-2 molecules and have assessed the effect of the mutations on both the replication and packaging of the viral RNAs. (jic.ac.uk)
  • We demonstrate that mutations that affect replication have a concomitant impact on encapsidation, and that RNA-1 -mediated replication is required for encapsidation of both RNA-1 and RNA-2. (jic.ac.uk)
  • This close coupling between replication and encapsidation provides a means for the specific packaging of viral RNAs. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, we demonstrate that this feature of CPMV can be used to specifically encapsidate custom RNA by placing a sequence of choice between the RNA-2 sequences required for replication.IMPORTANCE The mechanism whereby members of the order Picornavirales specifically package their genomic RNAs is poorly understood. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Research with monopartite members of the order, such as poliovirus, have indicated that packaging is linked to replication, though the presence of 'packaging signals' along the length of the viral RNA has also been suggested. (jic.ac.uk)
  • Thanks to the bipartite nature of the CPMV genome which allows the manipulation of RNA-1 without modifying RNA-2, we show here that this specificity is due to a functional linking between the two processes of viral replication and encapsidation. (jic.ac.uk)
  • These RNA sections, known as untranslated RNA, are essential for regulating the replication of the virus. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Untranslated RNA contain junction points and bulges - essentially small holes in the structure- which are normally recognised by proteins or other pieces of RNA - events that are critical for viral replication to occur. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • These compounds are precursors to inhibitors of RNA-dependent RNA viral replication and are useful for the treatment of RNA-dependent RNA viral infection. (patents.com)
  • Also disclosed are methods of inhibiting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, inhibiting RNA-dependent RNA viral replication, and/or treating RNA-dependent RNA viral infection with the nucleoside aryl phosphoramidates of the present invention. (patents.com)
  • Our findings suggest that AUF1 restriction of poliovirus and CVB3 replication uses a common mechanism through the viral IRES, which is distinct from the canonical role that AUF1 plays in regulated mRNA decay in uninfected host cells. (asm.org)
  • As part of the alteration of the host cell landscape to promote virus replication, picornaviruses modify lipid metabolism and reorganize membrane architecture to form replication complexes, downregulate host cell transcription and translation to redirect cellular resources to favor viral replication, and disrupt nucleocytoplasmic trafficking to relocate nuclear proteins required for replication into the cytoplasm ( 1 - 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Triggered by double-stranded RNAs that form during viral RNA synthesis, the innate immune system is the best-described process that restricts virus replication, and as a result, picornaviruses have evolved numerous strategies to counteract this response ( 5 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • However, the dependence on cellular proteins to promote each step of the virus replication cycle provides opportunities for viral interactions with cellular restriction factors. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest that UV-LEDs inhibit host cell replication and transcription of viral RNA. (flutrackers.com)
  • Formation of viral particles and packaging of genomic retroviral RNA into these particles are important steps in the late phase of the viral replication cycle. (bio-protocol.org)
  • It specifically provides the roles of viral proteins and RNA sequences in RNA replication, and describes the kinetics and products of RNA replication in infected cells. (asmscience.org)
  • Next, it explains the sites and compositions of viral replication complexes (RCs) in infected cells. (asmscience.org)
  • The HBV RNA encapsidation signal epsilon (HBV_epsilon) is an element essential for HBV virus replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viruses with RNA as their genetic material which also include DNA intermediates in their replication cycle are called retroviruses, and comprise Group VI of the Baltimore classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some genes of RNA virus are important to the viral replication cycles and mutations are not tolerated. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three distinct groups of RNA viruses depending on their genome and mode of replication: Double-stranded RNA viruses (Group III) contain from one to a dozen different RNA molecules, each coding for one or more viral proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positive-sense ssRNA viruses (Group IV) have their genome directly utilized as mRNA, with host ribosomes translating it into a single protein that is modified by host and viral proteins to form the various proteins needed for replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Viral protein involved in the SYnthesis of multiple copies of the viral RNA genome. (uniprot.org)
  • We now demonstrate that Cas9 from the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella novicida (FnCas9) can be reprogrammed to target a specific RNA substrate, the genome of the +ssRNA virus, hepatitis C virus, in eukaryotic cells. (pnas.org)
  • But these findings are also something researchers should keep in mind as they are designing new Zika virus vaccines and treatments that target the viral genome -- some approaches won't work unless they take methylation into account. (eurekalert.org)
  • The PMMV-like viral genome sequence segments from Lib 1 (A), Lib 2 (B), and Lib 3 (C) were aligned with the reference PMMV genome sequence (6,357 bp). (nih.gov)
  • Newswise - For the first time, scientists at the Morgridge Institute for Research have generated near atomic resolution images of a major viral protein complex responsible for replicating the RNA genome of a member of the positive-strand RNA viruses, the large class of viruses that includes coronaviruses and many other pathogens. (newswise.com)
  • In each positive-strand RNA virus, most of the viral genes are devoted to a single process: replicating the viral RNA genome. (newswise.com)
  • This protein contains RNA polymerase and RNA capping domains- two enzymatic domains that are conserved across numerous positive-strand RNA viruses for synthesizing new viral genome copies-plus other domains for multimerizing, binding membranes and other functions. (newswise.com)
  • The non-infectious RNA detected by plaque assay is likely fragments of RNA, not the entire genome - PCR only assays for short stretches of RNA. (virology.ws)
  • To maintain genome integrity, segmented double-stranded RNA viruses of the Reoviridae family must accurately select and package a complete set of up to a dozen distinct genomic RNAs. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • It is thought that the high fidelity segmented genome assembly involves multiple sequence-specific RNA-RNA interactions between single-stranded RNA segment precursors. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Mathematical modeling is also improving our understanding of intracellular viral genome dynamics [ 25 - 28 ] and the quantitative events that underlie the immune response to pathogens [ 6 , 9 ]. (frontiersin.org)
  • The viral genome is composed of two viral RNA's: RNA 1 and RNA 2. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • We show that [KIL-d] does not reside on the double-stranded RNA genome of killer virus. (genetics.org)
  • Therefore, [KIL-d] appears to interact with the nucleus in order to exert its effects on gene expression by the killer virus RNA genome. (genetics.org)
  • This regulation appears to involve the nucleus of the host cell and is the first example that we are aware of in which an epigenetic phenomenon alters phenotypic expression of a viral RNA genome. (genetics.org)
  • Two poliovirus mutants were isolated that contain an oligonucleotide linker insertion in the 2C-coding region of the viral genome. (asm.org)
  • HIV-1 RNA genome dimerizes on the plasma membrane in the presence of Gag protein. (umassmed.edu)
  • RNA is a central molecule in RNA virus biology, acting not only as a messenger of protein synthesis, but also as a genome. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Double-stranded RNA triggers the RNA silencing pathway and most plant viruses use a double-stranded RNA to replicate their genome. (proteopedia.org)
  • Development of rapid and broadly applicable methods for complete viral genome sequencing is highly desirable to fully understand all aspects of these infectious agents as well as for surveillance of viral pandemic threats and emerging pathogens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, standard RT-PCR methods are not adequate for the generation of templates suitable for sequencing low-copy viral RNA samples, where labor-intensive methods such as nested PCR ( 15 ) or single-genome amplification (SGA) ( 16 , 17 ) are typically required. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Finally, it should consistently generate sequence coverage for the entire target region, typically the protein coding region, CDS, of a viral genome. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Codon modification of HIV-1 pol correlated with an enhanced dimer stability of the viral RNA genome, which was associated with a reduction of viral cDNA synthesis both during HIV-1 infection and in a cell free reverse transcription assay. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This length-sensing property allows the cell to detect the strands of RNA that are often part of a viral genome or a byproduct of infection. (yalescientific.org)
  • Viral sequence integration into the mammalian genome has long been perceived as a health risk. (diva-portal.org)
  • For viral RNA, the positive-strand RNA genome is shown. (asmscience.org)
  • For example, the region of the hepatitis C virus genome that encodes the core protein is highly conserved, because it contains an RNA structure involved in an internal ribosome entry site. (wikipedia.org)
  • Negative-sense ssRNA viruses (Group V) must have their genome copied by an RNA replicase to form positive-sense RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Theoretical and computational models revealed that while SMR may provide RNA viruses with mutational robustness, GR may confer a dynamical advantage against genomes degradation. (springer.com)
  • Here, recent advances in the investigation of the RM in positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses are reviewed. (springer.com)
  • Careful selection and testing of raw material, inclusion of viral reduction steps and the use of upstream barriers can result in products that are safe from adventitious viruses. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In contrast to humans, the entire genomes of some viruses, including Zika and HIV, are made up of RNA instead of DNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • These viruses hijack the host's cellular machinery to translate its RNA to proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • Single-stranded RNA viruses of both positive and negative polarity have been used as vectors for vaccine development. (mdpi.com)
  • Overall, immunization with self-replicating RNA viruses provides high transient expression levels of antigens resulting in generation of neutralizing antibody responses and protection against lethal challenges under safe conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • RNA viral community in human feces: prevalence of plant pathogenic viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we present a comparative metagenomic analysis of the RNA viruses found in three fecal samples from two healthy human individuals. (nih.gov)
  • For this study, uncultured viruses were concentrated by tangential flow filtration, and viral RNA was extracted and cloned into shotgun viral cDNA libraries for sequencing analysis. (nih.gov)
  • The vast majority of the 36,769 viral sequences obtained were similar to plant pathogenic RNA viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Viral RNA enters human cells when attacking viruses inject their genetic material into the cells and force them to manufacture future generations of viruses. (innovations-report.com)
  • The positive-strand RNA viruses addressed in this work are the largest of six genetic classes of viruses and include many important pathogens such as the Zika, dengue and chikungunya viruses, as well as coronaviruses like SARS-CoV-2, cause of the current COVID-19 pandemic. (newswise.com)
  • Viral vector systems, based on adeno-associated viruses and lentiviruses, are ideally suited to mediate RNAi because they can safely transduce a wide range of tissues and provide sustained levels of gene expression. (omicsonline.org)
  • But I want to make sure I don't explain +strand RNA viruses inaccurately! (virology.ws)
  • The PureLink® Viral Mini Kit is specifically designed to isolate high-quality viral nucleic acids from a variety of RNA and DNA viruses within 45 minutes using low elution volumes that allow sensitive downstream analysis. (thermofisher.com)
  • Their observations reveal that influenza polymerase dimerization as a feature that can restrict the reassortment of genomic viral RNA segments, a major evolutionary mechanism of influenza viruses, and could become an attractive target for antiviral drug development. (pasteur.fr)
  • The discovery of messenger RNA more than twenty years ago led to a series of studies on its organization and function in cells in the presence of infecting viruses. (springer.com)
  • Special attention was paid by the authors to the molecular organization of mRNA species, to the processing of mRNA molecules, and to the different strategies employed by DNA and RNA viruses in the synthesis of their mRNA. (springer.com)
  • The differences between, and similarities of, the strategies of mRNA synthesis devised by various DNA and RNA viruses are described herein. (springer.com)
  • Although interferon (IFN) signaling induces genes that limit viral infection, many pathogenic viruses overcome this host response. (sciencemag.org)
  • These results identify an evasion mechanism by which viruses use RNA structural motifs to avoid immune restriction. (sciencemag.org)
  • RNA viruses use various strategies to condense their genetic information into small genomes. (nature.com)
  • Viruses that possess single-stranded, mRNA-sense genomes are called positive-strand RNA viruses. (nature.com)
  • While most mRNAs in eukaryotic cells are monocistronic, positive-strand RNA viruses encode multiple proteins in single polycistronic genomes. (nature.com)
  • Potyviruses belong to the family Potyviridae in the picornavirus-like supergroup of positive-strand RNA viruses, and comprise one of the largest genera of plant viruses. (nature.com)
  • The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the efficacy of viral vector-mediated RNAi in the retina using recombinant adeno-associated viruses (AAV) and lentiviruses that contain silencing hairpin cassettes to target four genes in murine photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). (bl.uk)
  • Dr. Joanna Sztuba-Solinska focuses her research on viruses and RNA. (auburn.edu)
  • Positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses comprise many (re-)emerging human pathogens that pose a public health problem. (mdpi.com)
  • The positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses (+ssRNA) comprise many pathogens that are a serious threat to human health. (mdpi.com)
  • Small RNAs regulate a large set of gene expression in all plants and constitute a natural immunity against viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • Small RNA based genetic engineering (SRGE) technology had been explored for crop protection against viruses for nearly 30 years. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review we summarized the efforts generating viral resistance with SRGE in different crops, analyzed the evolution of the technology, its efficacy in different crops for different viruses and its application status in different crops. (frontiersin.org)
  • Plant viruses impose serious threats to wide range of crops in modern agriculture and it is estimated that economic loss caused by viral pathogen ranks the second compared to those caused by other pathogens ( Simon-Mateo and Garcia, 2011 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • RNA interference, or RNA silencing, has developed in plants as a defence against viruses. (sciencephoto.com)
  • This review focuses on the regulatory roles that phosphorylation of CPs has in the life cycle of viruses with RNA genomes. (dovepress.com)
  • Double-stranded RNA viruses are the largest family of viruses (others include retroviruses and papilloma viruses). (ucla.edu)
  • However, viruses encode a limited number of proteins able to interact with RNA and thus hijack cellular RNA-binding proteins to replicate and spread. (bmglabtech.com)
  • One function of RNA silencing, which is also called post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) or RNA interference (RNAi), is to act in surveillance against molecular parasites, such as viruses. (proteopedia.org)
  • There are many kinds of viruses that utilize RNA as a critical component of their life cycle, such as retroviruses, single-stranded plus or minus sense RNA viruses, and double-stranded RNA viruses. (umsystem.edu)
  • Two viruses that are studied in this thesis are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is a retrovirus, and hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is a single-stranded plus sense RNA virus. (umsystem.edu)
  • Taken together, my thesis work has elucidated how many viruses manipulate and utilize their RNA structure to modulate their outcome. (umsystem.edu)
  • RNA viruses have specific mutation rates that balance the conflicting needs of an evolutionary response to host antiviral defenses and avoidance of the error catastrophe. (tudelft.nl)
  • Lysis of DNA/RNA viruses using the Viral Lysis Buffer is fast and efficient. (bioquote.com)
  • RNA viruses are the causative agents for AIDS, influenza, SARS, and other serious health threats. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Currently, reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with primers designed to amplify specific viral RNA sequences is the most common method for amplifying RNA viruses prior to sequencing and other downstream applications. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • manuscript submitted) and Illumina ( 12-14 ) sequencing of RT-PCR amplicons for RNA viruses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • During infection with RNA viruses, 5′-di- or -triphosphates accompanying specific single or double-stranded RNA motifs trigger signaling of intracellular RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and initiate the antiviral response. (asm.org)
  • A new approach to tackling viruses by targeting the 'control centre' in viral RNA could lead to broad spectrum anti-viral drugs and provide a first line of defence against future pandemics, according to new research at the University of Birmingham. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Experiments backed up by computer modelling have already shown this to be effective against SARS-CoV-2 and the HIV viruses and we anticipate it will also be effective against a wide range of other viruses, offering an important first step towards a broad spectrum anti-viral drug. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Dr Zania Stamataki , of the University of Birmingham's Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy and also co-lead author, said: "The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has stressed the pressing need for the development on new antiviral treatments, particularly for RNA viruses. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Extraction of viral DNA/RNA from environmental samples as part of the analytical procedure in quantifying waterborne viruses, is of great importance. (iwaponline.com)
  • Recent works have shown that viruses have evolved to manipulate many of these same RNA networks to support their own replications ( 5 , 6 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, synonymous codons are rarely used with equal frequency and patterns of codon usage can vary between individual genes and even complete genomes, and the genomes of RNA viruses are no exception. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We hypothesize that host cells express viral peptides from open reading frames in integrated sequences to boost adaptive B cell and T cell responses long after replicating viruses are cleared. (diva-portal.org)
  • In support of this hypothesis, we examine previous literature describing (1) viruses that infect acutely (e.g., vaccinia viruses and orthomyxoviruses) followed by unexplained, long-term persistence of viral nucleotide sequences, viral peptides, and virus-specific adaptive immunity, (2) the high frequency of endogenous viral genetic elements found in animal genomes, and (3) mechanisms with which animal host machinery supports foreign sequence integration. (diva-portal.org)
  • AUF1 relocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during infection by these viruses due to the disruption of nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by viral proteinases. (asm.org)
  • Binding to different sites within the viral RNA suggests that AUF1 may negatively regulate infection by these viruses using different mechanisms. (asm.org)
  • The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) classifies RNA viruses as those that belong to Group III, Group IV or Group V of the Baltimore classification system of classifying viruses and does not consider viruses with DNA intermediates in their life cycle as RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • All RNA viruses encoding an RNA-directed RNA polymerase, known as of May 2020, form a monophyletic group now known as the realm Riboviria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The majority of such RNA viruses fall into the kingdom Orthornavirae and the rest have a positioning not yet defined. (wikipedia.org)
  • The realm does not contain all RNA viruses: Deltavirus, Asunviroidae, and Pospiviroidae are taxa of RNA viruses that have been mistakenly included in 2019, but corrected in 2020. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA viruses can be further classified according to the sense or polarity of their RNA into negative-sense and positive-sense, or ambisense RNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ambisense RNA viruses resemble negative-sense RNA viruses, except they translate genes from their negative and positive strands. (wikipedia.org)
  • In recent years, progress has been made in determining atomic and subnanometer resolution structures of a number of key viral proteins and virion capsids of several dsRNA viruses, highlighting the significant parallels in the structure and replicative processes of many of these viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • page needed] RNA viruses generally have very high mutation rates compared to DNA viruses, because viral RNA polymerases lack the proofreading ability of DNA polymerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genetic diversity of RNA viruses is one reason why it is difficult to make effective vaccines against them. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal RNA viruses are classified by the ICTV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using small CRISPR RNAs that provide specificity, Cas proteins recognize and degrade nucleic acids. (pnas.org)
  • These RNA-directed endonuclease machineries use small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) that provide sequence specificity and Cas proteins to recognize and degrade nucleic acids ( 4 ⇓ ⇓ - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Given the ability of specific Cas9 proteins to be reprogrammed to target and cleave DNA in numerous biological systems ( 7 , 9 , 10 ), we hypothesized that FnCas9 could be retargeted to a distinct RNA in eukaryotic cells and lead to its inhibition. (pnas.org)
  • In human cells, RNA is the genetic material that carries instructions from the DNA in a cell's nucleus out to the cytoplasm, where molecular machinery uses those instructions to build proteins. (eurekalert.org)
  • These molecules are then transported back to the cytoplasm, where they direct the synthesis of viral proteins. (virology.ws)
  • This enzyme, which consists of the viral proteins PA, PB1, and PB2, is present in every virus particle. (virology.ws)
  • The key lies in a virus' RNA -- a long molecular chain often used to make proteins -- and how it regulates an enzyme called protein kinase R (PKR), according to researchers from Penn State, the University of Connecticut and the University of Beijing. (innovations-report.com)
  • Specific viral proteins modulate effector recruitment by Arf1 GTPase and its guanine nucleotide exchange factor GBF1, promoting preferential recruitment of phosphatidylinositol-4-kinase IIIbeta (PI4KIIIbeta) to membranes over coat proteins, yielding uncoated phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) lipid-enriched organelles. (nih.gov)
  • The purified viral RNA/DNA is devoid of proteins and nucleases, and is suitable for use in downstream applications that allow viral detection and genotyping. (thermofisher.com)
  • CRM I appears to be involved in the nucleocytoplasmic translocation of the vast majority of viral and cellular proteins that have subsequently been found to contain a Rev-type leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES). (waterstones.com)
  • LncRNAs perform their functions through structure-mediated interactions with DNA, other RNAs and proteins. (auburn.edu)
  • RNA is no longer perceived as an inert molecule that simply passes information from DNA to proteins, but rather as a target for the development novel therapies" she stated. (auburn.edu)
  • Our current work shows the versatility of nanoscaffold applications that allows their controlled functionalization with different aptamers, fluorescent dyes, and proteins for biosensing purposes as well as simultaneous delivery of various siRNAs and RNA-DNA hybrids to diseased cells,' says Afonin. (nanowerk.com)
  • Coat proteins (CPs) are the most abundant protein produced during a viral infection. (dovepress.com)
  • These are mediated by virus-encoded non-structural proteins with RNA chaperone-like activities, such as rotavirus (RV) NSP2 and avian reovirus sigma NS. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • To understand the mechanisms underlying such selectivity in promoting inter-molecular duplex formation, we compared RNA-binding and helix-unwinding activities of both proteins. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The capsid and capsid-RNA polymerase proteins constitute the helper function that L-A dsRNA provides for M dsRNA satellite viral genomes. (genetics.org)
  • The 2C mutants could be complemented in trans by mutants with mutations in other viral proteins. (asm.org)
  • We demonstrate specific capture of viral DI RNA molecules using SiMPull, and could quantitatively measure the presence of interacting viral proteins. (illinois.edu)
  • Therefore, cellular RNA-binding proteins are critical players in the virus-host cell battlefield. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Unfortunately, the complement of cellular RNA-binding proteins that engage with viral RNA remains largely unknown. (bmglabtech.com)
  • In this webcast, the speakers will describe a recently developed approach, called viral RNA interactome capture (vRIC), to comprehensively discover the proteins that interact with viral RNA in infected cells with high specificity and depth. (bmglabtech.com)
  • To test if these cellular proteins are important for virus infection, the researchers then developed a high-throughput viral fitness assay to follow viral gene expression kinetics in near real time. (bmglabtech.com)
  • This is unusual because most proteins use loops and helices to bind double-stranded RNA, for example, see 1di2 , 2zi0 , 2hvy or 2az0 . (proteopedia.org)
  • Stimulation of the antiviral response depends on the sensing of viral pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by specialized cellular proteins. (asm.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV1) Rev has been reported to act by inducing the nucleocytoplasmic transport of unspliced and singly spliced RNAs that encode viral structural proteins. (nii.ac.jp)
  • By deep sequencing the purified VP35-bound RNA, we identified the SeV copy-back defective interfering (DI) RNA, previously identified as a robust RIG-I activator, as the isRNA bound by multiple filovirus VP35 proteins, including the VP35 protein from the West African outbreak strain (Makona EBOV). (jcvi.org)
  • Coupling these techniques with mathematical modeling and bioinformatics has uncovered a previously unsuspected role for genomic RNA in regulating formation of viral capsids, revealing multiple, dispersed RNA sequence/structure motifs [packaging signals (PSs)] that bind cognate coat proteins cooperatively. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • While most drugs in development target the virus's proteins, we have identified molecules capable of tackling the most fundamental part of the virus - its RNA. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Proteins are often thought to be the prime regulator of biological systems, but it is now appreciated that RNA has a much greater role in the regulation of biological processes than previously thought ( 1 , 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • To accomplish the unique task of RNA-dependent RNA polymerization in infected cells, enteroviruses encode several proteins required for viral RNA synthesis. (asmscience.org)
  • The positive-sense RNA molecule then acts as viral mRNA, which is translated into proteins by the host ribosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The replicated genomes provide support for further viral transcription or are assembled into progeny virions. (uniprot.org)
  • Many laboratories choose to assay the presence of viral genomes by PCR. (virology.ws)
  • We propose that this protein-mediated RNA selection mechanism may underpin the high fidelity assembly of multi-segmented RNA genomes in Reoviridae. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • These mathematical results yield insights into the interaction of local and global constraints in RNA secondary structures, and suggest new directions in understanding the folding of RNA viral genomes. (umn.edu)
  • To explore whether Sindbis virus genomes persist in mouse brain after the clearance of infectious virus, we used reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction amplification methods to detect Sindbis virus RNA in brain samples from immunocompetent BALB/c and antibody-treated immunodeficient scid/CB17 mice. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we describe sequence-independent amplification for samples containing ultra-low amounts of viral RNA coupled with Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly optimized for viral genomes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The methods presented here are scalable to large numbers of samples and capable of generating full or near full length viral genomes from clone and clinical samples with low amounts of viral RNA, without prior sequence information and in the presence of substantial host contamination. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Massively parallel sequencing allows for rapid and low-cost deep sequencing of viral genomes and provides an opportunity to gain greater insight into viral evolution, fitness, emergence and transmission. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Immunostimulatory defective viral genomes (iDVGs) from Sendai virus (SeV) are among the most potent natural viral triggers of antiviral immunity. (asm.org)
  • The bias of A-rich codons in HIV-1 pol is thought to be a record of hypermutations in viral genomes that lack biological functions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Using codon modifications to reduce the amount of A-rich sequences within HIV-1 genomes, we have reduced the flexibility of RNA sequences in pol to analyze the functional significance of these A-rich 'structurally poor' RNA elements in HIV-1 pol . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Human cells modify viral RNA with m6A as a means to get rid of the infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that Zika virus infection leads to modifications of both viral and human genetic material. (eurekalert.org)
  • When Zika virus infects a human cell, Rana's team found, the cell modifies viral RNA with m6A as a means to get rid of the infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, they found that this host response to Zika viral infection also induced specific m6A modifications on human RNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • To unravel the role of m6A in Zika virus infection of human cells growing in the laboratory, the researchers removed the human enzymes responsible for adding methyl groups to viral RNA. (eurekalert.org)
  • If this enzyme were absent from virions, they would never initiate infection, because the (-) strand viral RNAs cannot be translated into protein, and the cell has no enzymes which can copy such long RNA molecules. (virology.ws)
  • D) GBF1 and viral RNA are colocalized in HeLa cells during CVB3 infection. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the presence of Zika virus RNA in seminal fluid for at least 60 days after infection, these mice are not likely to transmit virus after a few weeks. (virology.ws)
  • Such RNA is not infectious under the conditions of a plaque assay, nor is it likely to initiate infection in another person by transmission. (virology.ws)
  • An analysis of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection control and establishing a definite causal load by patient age [cited 2020 May 3]. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, the detection of yellow fever viral RNA by RT-PCR testing before postvaccination day 3 or after day 13 could represent wild-type infection (acquired either before vaccination or later if there is vaccine failure) or yellow fever vaccine-associated viscerotropic disease (YEL-AVD), a rare but serious AEFI in which the vaccine-derived virus proliferates in multiple organs after primary vaccination. (cdc.gov)
  • Since interferons have been implicated in inflammatory diseases and immunopathology in addition to their protective role in infection, antagonizing the immune response may have an ambiguous effect on the clinical outcome of the viral disease. (mdpi.com)
  • Approximately 71 million people worldwide are affected by chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection, which is the primary cause of liver cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver transplant [ 1 ]. (frontiersin.org)
  • HIV RNA (viral load) and CD4 T lymphocyte (CD4) cell count are the two surrogate markers of antiretroviral treatment (ART) responses and HIV disease progression that have been used for decades to manage and monitor HIV infection. (nih.gov)
  • For further discussion on HIV-2 RNA monitoring in patients with HIV-1/HIV-2 coinfection or HIV-2 mono-infection, see HIV-2 Infection . (nih.gov)
  • Development of Strand-Specific Real-Time RT-PCR to Distinguish Viral RNAs during Newcastle Disease Virus Infection," The Scientific World Journal , vol. 2014, Article ID 934851, 10 pages, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • There, the viral envelope undergoes fusion with endosomal membranes, thereby releasing the nucleocapsid into the cytoplasm and allowing infection to proceed. (ovid.com)
  • In this study, we show that the tumor susceptibility gene 101 (Tsg101) subunit of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT)-I complex, which mediates receptor sorting into multivesicular endosomes, is dispensable for viral envelope fusion with endosomal membranes and viral RNA transport to late endosomes but is necessary for infection. (ovid.com)
  • Early growth response-1 (EGR1) is a multifunctional transcription factor that regulates diverse biological functions, including inflammation, apoptosis, differentiation, tumorigenesis, and even viral infection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We find that vDNA produced during RNA virus infection of Drosophila and mosquitoes is present in both linear and circular forms. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The decrease was unaffected by increasing the multiplicity of infection and was a consequence of an overall decrease in all viral RNA species. (caltech.edu)
  • RNA sequences from both the nonstructural region (NSP1 gene) and structural regions (E2 gene) of Sindbis virus were detected in the brains of all BALB/c and antibody-treated scid mice examined at 1, 2, and 3 months after infection. (asm.org)
  • Obtaining genomic sequence from such samples can provide valuable insights into viral attenuation, response to host immune pressure and drug treatment during infection, disease severity, transmission and epidemic spread. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Utilizing a SeV infection model, we demonstrate that both viral isRNA and host RNAs are bound to Ebola and Marburg VP35s in cells. (jcvi.org)
  • HBV infection may increase HCC risk through the generation of functional viral-human chimeric transcripts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The invention also describes pharmaceutical compositions containing such nucleoside aryl phosphoramidates alone or in combination with other agents active against RNA-dependent RNA viral infection, in particular HCV infection. (patents.com)
  • MDA5 is a cytosolic protein that detects viral RNA upon infection by a virus. (yalescientific.org)
  • By binding to RNA, MDA5 initiates a cascade of reactions, including the activation of MAVS, a protein that prompts the release of infection-fighting interferon. (yalescientific.org)
  • We revealed 1)accumulation of RLRs in stress granule-like aggregates to trigger antiviral signaling, 2) inhibition of viral infection via induction of specific microRNA, which downregulates viral receptor expression and 3)possible interaction of RIG-I with endogenous self RNA. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In some cases, integration translates to chronic viral infection, and in other instances, oncogenic gene mutations occur. (diva-portal.org)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that AUF1 binds to poliovirus and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) RNA during infection, with binding shown to occur within the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of the 5′ noncoding region (NCR) or the 3′ NCR, respectively. (asm.org)
  • AUF1 is shown to negatively regulate translation of a poliovirus and CVB3 IRES reporter RNA during infection but not in uninfected cells. (asm.org)
  • Purified RNA of a positive-sense virus can directly cause infection though it may be less infectious than the whole virus particle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yet point mutations, which are genomic errors involving a single base in a length of DNA or RNA, are of intense interest everywhere. (genengnews.com)
  • However, alphaviruses replicate efficiently in cells expressing Ifit1 even though their genomic RNA has a 5′ cap lacking 2'-O methylation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Specifically, the highly replicative sendai virus sub-genomic defective interfering (DI) RNA is targeted. (illinois.edu)
  • It has been previously reported that a human host factor, RNA helicase A (RHA), is packaged into HIV virions by binding to the primer binding site (PBS) segment of the 5'untranslated region in the HIV genomic RNA. (umsystem.edu)
  • Instead of focusing on changes in host gene expression at sites near viral genomic integration sites, Lau and colleagues tested whether HBV insertion events in HCC cell lines could lead to the generation of viral-human chimeric transcripts or activate the transcription of silent repetitive sequences. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Selective packaging of HIV-1 genomic RNA (gRNA) requires the presence of a cis -acting RNA element called the 'packaging signal' (Ψ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Nonetheless in infected cells, the full-length viral RNA (genomic RNA or gRNA) is encapsidated with very high selectivity. (elifesciences.org)
  • Our data showed that codon modification of HIV-1 sequences led to a suppression of virus infectivity by 5-100-fold, and this defect does not correlate with, viral entry, viral protein expression levels, viral protein profiles or virion packaging of genomic RNA. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Further, this targeting results in inhibition of viral protein production. (pnas.org)
  • Cells can chemically modify RNA to influence protein production. (eurekalert.org)
  • Or, according to Heinicke, "once activated by certain RNAs, PKR stops protein synthesis in the infected cell and ultimately causes cell death. (innovations-report.com)
  • The riboregulators rely on conformational changes that occur upon binding of a target RNA to activate protein production. (genengnews.com)
  • If the binding of a cell's mutant RNA with the trigger strand is exact, the SNIPR unfolds, allowing sequence access by the ribosome-the machinery required to translate RNA into protein. (genengnews.com)
  • Here, binding causes the SNIPR to unfold, exposing the ribosome, which reads the sequence and translates the RNA message into protein. (genengnews.com)
  • As an example, 2'-O methylation of the 5′ cap of viral RNA subverts mammalian antiviral responses by evading restriction of Ifit1, an IFN-stimulated gene that regulates protein synthesis. (sciencemag.org)
  • PIPO is expressed as a fusion protein with the N-terminal half of P3 (P3N-PIPO) via transcriptional slippage of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). (nature.com)
  • Expression of N, the viral polymerase protein (L), and a minireplicon containing a reporter gene was sufficient to reconstitute functional virus nucleocapsids. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that, in mammalian cells, the bunyavirus NSs protein controls the activity of the viral polymerase by a highly conserved mechanism. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular model of the p19 protein (yellow) from a Tombusvirus, suppressing a double-stranded, small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecule (red and blue). (sciencephoto.com)
  • Deletion and mutation studies in the N- and C-terminus of protein alpha have identified protein regions required for the packaging of FHV viral RNAs. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The identified protein regions involved in packaging viral RNAs bind random cellular RNA with high affinity and standard methods of identifying RNA-protein interactions such as gel shift mobility assays will be unable to discriminate between specific and unspecific binding. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Due to the difficulty in differentiating between specific and unspecific binding a new method for studying RNA-protein interactions was developed using a surface based detection approach. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The surface based system monitors real-time binding, whereby specific and unspecific RNA-protein interactions will be distinguished through comparison of relative association rates for each binding interaction. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • A well studied RNA-protein interaction, the HIV-1 Rev-RRE, was used to develop the methodology for the surface based system. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The high-affinity and specificity of the Rev-RRE binding has been well characterized and was used as a model system to gauge the sensitivity of the surface based detection system, which can be further used to characterize various RNA-protein interactions. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Both mutants have a severe temperature-sensitive defect in viral RNA synthesis but little effect on the types of viral protein that are made. (asm.org)
  • Protein 2C is also the locus of the guanidine resistance and dependence mutants, a drug whose action also affects viral RNA synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Thus, protein 2C is one that is needed continually for viral RNA synthesis and, at least with these temperature-sensitive alleles, can be provided in trans. (asm.org)
  • Protein and RNA molecules interact with multiple protein partners to perform essential cellular processes such as post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA. (illinois.edu)
  • Using a similar principle, the objective of this study is to extend the SiMPull assay to isolate and study single cellular RNA-protein complexes. (illinois.edu)
  • Utilizing a biological system of virally infected mammalian cells, the substrate targeted in the study are viral RNA-protein complexes. (illinois.edu)
  • Therefore, this study provides evidence for the applicability of SiMPull to isolate and study single cellular RNA-protein interactions. (illinois.edu)
  • In one such evasion strategy, the plant viral protein p19 suppresses a plant's anti-viral RNA silencing response. (proteopedia.org)
  • includes both protein and RNA in the complex. (proteopedia.org)
  • These two conformations have been suggested to play a role in minus sense synthesis and viral protein translation, respectively. (umsystem.edu)
  • With 5 million reads, we capture 96 to 100% of the viral protein coding region of HIV, respiratory syncytial and West Nile viral samples from as little as 100 copies of viral RNA. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Ebola virus VP35 protein binds viral immunostimulatory and host RNAs identified through deep sequencing. (jcvi.org)
  • Although HBx-LINE1 encoded a protein, these effects on cell motility and β-catenin activity were unchanged by the addition of a stop codon to prevent protein translation, strongly suggesting that HBx-LINE1 functions as a long noncoding RNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We used fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and quenching data to monitor the binding of recombinant HIV-1 Gag protein to Cy5-tagged 190-base RNAs. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, we show here that under physiologically relevant salt concentrations, this protein binds to Ψ and non-Ψ RNAs with very similar, nanomolar affinities. (elifesciences.org)
  • This vast difference between mRNA and non-protein coding RNA transcription suggests (a) the existence of an uncharacterized functional RNA-based regulation network and/or (b) the presence of a large quantity of non-functional-junk RNA transcripts within the cell. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Whereas most protein binding is dependent on specific chemical structures, MDA5-RNA signaling seems largely to be governed by the physical property of RNA length. (yalescientific.org)
  • Journal Article] Foreign RNA induces the degradation of mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS)the role of intracellular antiviral factors. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The regions shown to be critical for encapsidation of the RNA in the viral lifecycle are the bulge, upper stem and tri-loop which interact with the terminal protein domain of the HBV viral polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the (-) strand influenza viral RNAs enter the nucleus , they serve as templates for the synthesis of mRNAs. (virology.ws)
  • The enzyme cannot copy the (-) strand RNA template without a small piece of RNA that aligns on the template RNA and provides a starting point for RNA synthesis. (virology.ws)
  • The primers for influenza viral mRNA synthesis are produced from the cell's own collection of mRNA molecules. (virology.ws)
  • The influenza viral RNA polymerase actually cleaves cell mRNAs near their 5′-ends, generating the primers it requires for RNA synthesis. (virology.ws)
  • How quickly does RNA synthesis occur? (virology.ws)
  • Isolation of poliovirus 2C mutants defective in viral RNA synthesis. (asm.org)
  • Temperature shift experiments showed that the 2C function is continuously required for viral RNA synthesis to proceed. (asm.org)
  • Our data provided direct evidence that the HIV-1 A-rich pol sequence is not merely an evolutionary artifact of enzyme-induced hypermutations, and that HIV-1 has adapted to rely on A-rich RNA sequences to support the synthesis of viral cDNA during reverse transcription, highlighting the utility of using 'structurally poor' RNA domains in regulating biological process. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We demonstrate that AUF1 knockdown in human cells results in increased viral translation, RNA synthesis, and virus production. (asm.org)
  • Open questions about the mechanism of viral synthesis include the nature o f the RNA primers for positive- and negative-strand RNA synthesis, the source of specificity for the viral template RNA, and the relationship between translation and RNA synthesis, which may occur simultaneously in the infected host cell cytoplasm. (asmscience.org)
  • Viral RNA Synthesis, p 95-112. (asmscience.org)
  • Flavivirus is a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viral genus, with members causing severe diseases in humans such as tick-borne encephalitis, yellow fever, and dengue fever. (diva-portal.org)
  • This nucleic acid is usually single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) but may be double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • The nucleotide sequence of the gene from which messenger RNA mole- cules are transcribed is in a form that can be translated by cellular ribosomes into the amino acid sequence of a particular polypeptide, the product of the gene. (springer.com)
  • This volume is devoted to current studies in the field of cellular and viral messenger RNA. (springer.com)
  • This book should be of interest to all students of cellular and viral genes and scientists in the field. (springer.com)
  • The Quick -DNA/RNA Viral Kit is a fast viral DNA/RNA purification kit for viral DNA and RNA from plasma, serum, cell culture media, cellular suspensions, urine, blood, saliva and any other biological samples stored in DNA/RNA Shield. (zymoresearch.com)
  • Thus, the 'structural' role of RNA in virion assembly can be provided by either gRNA or by cellular RNAs. (elifesciences.org)
  • In infected cells, the gRNA is competing with a large excess of cellular RNAs and spliced viral RNAs for encapsidation, and evidently has a strong advantage in this competition. (elifesciences.org)
  • The efficiency of the incorporation of viral or cellular RNAs into viral particles can be studied using a quantitative Reverse Transcriptase-PCR (RT-qPCR)-based approach. (bio-protocol.org)
  • PLEASANTON, Calif.--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Purigen Biosystems , Inc. , a leading provider of next-generation technologies for extracting and purifying nucleic acids from biological samples, today announced the launch of an early access program for its Ionic® Pure Viral RNA kit. (biospace.com)
  • Purifies viral nucleic acids from human and animal samples, including plasma, serum, saliva, and urine, using magnetic bead technology amenable to high-throughput operations. (fishersci.com)
  • The Thermo Scientific MagJET Viral DNA and RNA Kit is designed for fast and efficient purification of viral nucleic acids from various human and animal liquid samples such as plasma, serum, saliva and urine, as well as from nasal, buccal and urogenital swabs and blood. (fishersci.com)
  • Yield of nucleic acids was evaluated by RT-qPCR and qPCR, and compared with spiked DNA (linearized plasmid DNA, 10 5 copies/sample) and RNA (RNA transcript, 10 6 copies/sample) copy number. (fishersci.com)
  • MagBead Viral RNA Lysis Buffer is intended for the isolation and purification of total nucleic acids (DNA/RNA) from biological specimens for performance evaluation in vitro diagnostic procedures. (neuromics.com)
  • Viral nucleic acids are the predominant trigger of type I IFNs (reviewed in Ref. 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Utilizing small guiding RNAs, Cas9 can be targeted to specific DNA sequences of interest, where it catalyzes DNA cleavage. (pnas.org)
  • However, the mRNAs are not complete copies of the viral (-) strand RNAs - they are missing sequences from both the 5′- and 3′-ends. (virology.ws)
  • Yellow fever structural gene sequences were detected by use of 35 S-labeled negative-sense RNA probe (but not by immunocytochemistry) in 11 of 17 livers from children with fatal illness during the 1965 epidemic in Senegal. (ajtmh.org)
  • Bioinformatic analysis predicted that A-rich sequences are generally associated with minimal local RNA structures. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is safe to assume that the microRNA network is not likely to be the last example demonstrating how organisms have developed ingenious ways to regulate biological process via RNA sequences. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • RNA structures are primarily determined by the nucleotide contents of the RNA sequences. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • However, research also shows that animal cells can benefit from integrated viral sequences (e.g., to support host cell development or to silence foreign invaders). (diva-portal.org)
  • Here we propose that, comparable with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats that provide bacteria with adaptive immunity against invasive bacteriophages, animal cells may co-opt integrated viral sequences to support immune memory. (diva-portal.org)
  • There are now many examples of the use of viral vector-mediated RNAi to inhibit gene expression in animal models of disease, and in many cases proof-of-principle has been demonstrated. (omicsonline.org)
  • SNIPRs provide over 100-fold differences in gene expression in response to target RNAs differing by a single nucleotide in Escherichia coli and resolve single epitranscriptomic marks in vitro," the article's authors wrote. (genengnews.com)
  • Their RNA nanoparticles can include small interfering RNA for silencing genes, micro-RNA for regulating gene expression, aptamer for targeting cancer cells, or a ribozyme that can catalyze chemical reactions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Rev-RRE interaction regulates viral gene expression by controlling the export of spliced and unspliced mRNAs into the cytoplasm. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Thus, the [KIL-d] effect on viral gene expression is epigenetic in nature. (genetics.org)
  • In a mouse model of Sindbis virus encephalitis, we have previously shown that clearance of infectious virus is mediated by antibody-induced restriction of viral gene expression rather than by cytotoxic destruction of virally infected cells. (asm.org)
  • Our investigation clearly shows that both proviral DNA and intracellular RNA are amplified simultaneously in the COBAS Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor assay and that proviral DNA contributes to the elevated VL in plasma frozen in PPTs. (asm.org)
  • UV-LED irradiations did not alter hemagglutination titer, but decreased accumulation of intracellular total viral RNA in infected MDCK cells was observed. (flutrackers.com)
  • Additionally, UV-LED irradiations suppressed the accumulation of intracellular mRNA (messenger RNA), vRNA (viral RNA), and cRNA (complementary RNA), as measured by strand-specific RT-PCR. (flutrackers.com)
  • Because RNA-dependent RNA polymerases are not found in mammalian cells, they are an excellent target for inhibition by antiviral compounds. (virology.ws)
  • and enteroviral RNA polymerases specifically bind PI4P. (nih.gov)
  • Detection of viral RNA also activates stress responses resulting in stress granule-like aggregates, which facilitate RLR-mediated antiviral immunity. (nih.gov)
  • Attested by the company, PHASIFY ™ VIRAL improves input sample quality, enabling earlier detection, improved overall sensitivity and bolsters confidence in COVID-19 diagnostic test results. (yahoo.com)
  • Clinical studies have also shown PHASIFY ™ VIRAL increases true positive detection compared to conventional solid phase extraction. (yahoo.com)
  • Such assays require sufficient yields of high-quality RNA to reach target thresholds for detection. (biospace.com)
  • Because they can be designed to trigger colorimetric reactions, SNIPRs may simplify applications such as human genotyping, virus detection, and viral strain identification. (genengnews.com)
  • The isolated high-quality viral DNA/RNA are ready for all downstream applications such as Next-Gen Sequencing, hybridization-based and RT/PCR detection. (zymoresearch.com)
  • Using the RNA sequence information of DI RNA, we designed several short complementary DNA probes to capture single DI RNA molecules for detection with single molecule fluorescence microscopy. (illinois.edu)
  • However, traditional viral detection methods rely on prior sequence or antigen knowledge. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In general, a strong association was observed between two different viral DNA/RNA extraction kits and detection frequency of targets ( P = 0.017). (iwaponline.com)
  • It is activated by long stretches of double-stranded RNA. (innovations-report.com)
  • As a part of our built-in immune response, PKR can recognize viral double-stranded RNAs and inhibit their production. (innovations-report.com)
  • RNA interference (RNAi) is a highly conserved post-transcriptional gene silencing process triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in eukaryotic cells. (bl.uk)
  • Double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) are widespread in plant pathogenic fungi, but their functions in fungal hosts remain mostly unclear, with a few exceptions. (apsnet.org)
  • In separate studies published in the peer-reviewed journals eLife and Nature, scientists at the California NanoSystems Institute at UCLA have revealed the three-dimensional atomic structure of a double-stranded RNA, or dsRNA, virus. (ucla.edu)
  • p19 binds with high affinity to the double-stranded RNA silencing mediator, called siRNA , and this binding sequesters the siRNA, preventing its participation in later steps of RNA silencing. (proteopedia.org)
  • The synthetic R N A substrate mimics the 21-nt double-stranded siRNAs that occur in the double-strand RNA-induced RNAi silencing pathway. (proteopedia.org)
  • A unique characteristic of MDA5 caught the interest of Berke and Modis: it only signals effectively with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) of at least two kilobases. (yalescientific.org)
  • One of these includes RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNA replicase), which copies the viral RNA to form a double-stranded replicative form. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful gene silencing mechanism that if properly harnessed has the potential to revolutionize medical interventions. (omicsonline.org)
  • Sequencing of several cDNA clones derived from 6.0-kbp dsRNA revealed the presence of a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDRP) gene. (apsnet.org)
  • Both toxin and resistance substances are produced by processing of the single preprotoxin polypeptide produced by translation of viral transcripts of M dsRNA. (genetics.org)
  • Upon placing an MDA5-RNA mixture under a microscope, they observed formation of MDA5 filaments along the dsRNA. (yalescientific.org)
  • In turn, this dsRNA directs the formation of new viral RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The upper slide shows a SNIPR whose exposed section of RNA binds with a cell's healthy RNA, seen on the left. (genengnews.com)
  • We demonstrate that octameric NSP2 binds structured RNAs with high affinity, resulting in efficient intramolecular RNA helix disruption. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Hexameric sigma NS oligomerizes into an octamer that binds two RNAs, yet it exhibits only limited RNA-unwinding activity compared to NSP2. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Utilizing NMR, we demonstrated that RHA binds to the monomeric 5'UTR at the bottom of the TAR hairpin, which is different from how it binds during viral packaging. (umsystem.edu)
  • At physiological ionic strength, Gag binds with very similar, nanomolar affinities to both Ψ-containing and control RNAs. (elifesciences.org)
  • They are also developing small molecules to target specific RNA structures as a means to treat Zika virus infections. (eurekalert.org)
  • Of course, additional molecules of the viral RNA polymerase are made in infected cells, but the enzyme that is brought in with the virion is crucial for initiating the infectious cycle. (virology.ws)
  • SNIPRs, easy-to-build molecules that can detect point mutations in RNA, have been developed by scientists at Arizona State University (ASU). (genengnews.com)
  • The efficient gene silencing achieved by these short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules and the cumulative understanding of the RNAi pathway has prompted the development of hairpin expression vectors capable of mediating stable gene silencing in vitro and in vivo. (bl.uk)
  • Subsequently, she uses state-of-the-art RNA-centric techniques, like SHAPE-MaP and RNA antisense purification to address PAN lncRNA structure, function and interactions with other molecules. (auburn.edu)
  • RNA silencing is a gene inactivation system in many eukaryotes that relies on tiny RNAs as the targeting molecules. (proteopedia.org)
  • The technique proposed by the team uses cylindrically-shaped molecules which can block the function of a particular section at one end of the RNA strand. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • The cylindrical molecules are attracted to these holes, and once they slide into them, the RNA closes around them, forming a precise fit, which consequently will interfere with the virus's ability to replicate. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • The cylindrical molecules have been the subject of previous research , led by Professor Hannon, which focussed on finding a way to control the way the cylinder interacts with DNA and RNA. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Vincent, I was told awhile back that + strand RNA virus genetic material could be infectious on its own as it is effectively mRNA, so that were it to get into a host cell it could still be used on its own to make infectious virus. (virology.ws)
  • I'm not sure how you can get mRNA (viral or otherwise) to ribosomes inside a cell without using endosomal/fusion pathway. (virology.ws)
  • Positive-sense viral RNA is similar to mRNA and thus can be immediately translated by the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Negative-sense viral RNA is complementary to mRNA and thus must be converted to positive-sense RNA by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase before translation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work reveals a versatile and portable RNA-targeting system that can effectively function in eukaryotic cells and be programmed as an antiviral defense. (pnas.org)
  • Among the three RLR family members RIG-I and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) recognize distinct viral RNA species with differential molecular machinery and activate signaling through mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS, also known as IPS-1/VISA/Cardif), which leads to the expression of cytokines including type I and III interferons (IFNs) to restrict viral propagation. (nih.gov)
  • RIG-1-like receptors(RLRs)are viral RNA sensors, which initiate antiviral innate immunity. (nii.ac.jp)
  • There are few excuses for failing to measure viral infectivity by plaque assays. (virology.ws)
  • Commercially available HIV-1 RNA assays do not detect HIV-2 viral load. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of the results of five kinds of assays of HCV antibodies and HCV RNA. (annals.org)
  • Discrepancies in viral load (VL) measurements obtained in different plasma collection tubes have underscored the importance of specimen collection and handling in the determination of accurate results in HIV viral load assays. (asm.org)
  • Elevated HIV-1 viral loads in plasma specimens collected and frozen in PPTs and quantified in the standard and ultrasensitive Roche COBAS Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor assays ( 2 , 4 , 13 ) have led investigators to believe that it may have an impact on therapeutic management of HIV-infected patients ( 1 , 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Within a cell, these riboregulators activate when they encounter a target RNA sequence, that is an RNA sequence containing a point mutation, which typically corresponds to a point mutation in one of the cell's genes. (genengnews.com)
  • The PureLink® Viral RNA/DNA Mini Kit provides a rapid and efficient method to simultaneously purify viral RNA/DNA from fresh or frozen cell-free biological fluids (plasma, serum, cerebrospinal fluid) and cell culture supernatants. (thermofisher.com)
  • Viral analysis of biological and environmental samples requires the use of advanced technologies to assure assay effectiveness. (thermofisher.com)
  • Target a specific viral RNA or DNA sequence and capture only that specific nucleic acid sequence directly from crude lysates or other biological fluids. (thermofisher.com)
  • To overcome these fabrication issues, the use of naturally occurring biological materials - such as RNA or DNA - for drug formulation may become the next big step in nanoparticulate therapy development. (nanowerk.com)
  • The researchers also discovered the biological nano-switch that turns on transcription - the process by which RNA self-replicates - and compared the switch's structure in the "off" and "on" states to determine why environmental conditions activate it. (ucla.edu)
  • Quantitative analysis reveals a new pause state that modulates polymerase fidelity and so ties viral polymerase pausing to the biological function of optimizing virulence. (tudelft.nl)
  • The existence of these vast quantities of non-coding RNAs in cells implies the significance of these differential RNA species in the regulation of biological processes ( 1 , 4 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • RNA was extracted from transport media spiked with Exact Diagnostics SARS-CoV-2 Standard at concentrations of 1 and 2 copies/µL RNA and run in quadruplicates. (beckman.com)
  • RNA was extracted from SeraCare positive controls (AccuPlex™ SARS-CoV-2 Reference Material Kit) at concentrations of 0.3, 1 and 3 copies/µL RNA and run in triplicate via RT-PCR. (beckman.com)
  • 4 The minimal change in viral load considered to be statistically significant (2 standard deviations) is a three-fold change (equivalent to a 0.5 log 10 copies/mL change). (nih.gov)
  • At the threshold of at least 1000 copies/mL, 34 (19%) infants were classified as infected by plasma RNA compared with 35 (20%) by DBS RNA. (ucsf.edu)
  • At the threshold of at least 10,000 copies/mL, 31 (18%) infants were classified as infected by plasma RNA compared with 31 (18%) for DBS RNA. (ucsf.edu)
  • With the exception of one specimen (with RNA in plasma and DNA but not RNA on DBS), there was complete concordance between DBS RNA and DBS DNA at the DBS RNA threshold of at least 1000 copies/mL. (ucsf.edu)
  • Of 36 samples that tested positive by DBS DNA, four (11.1%) had DBS RNA levels of 1000-10,000 copies/mL from patients aged 0, 1, 7, and 15 months. (ucsf.edu)
  • There were also three patients aged 10, 13, and 14 months, negative by DBS DNA, with DBS RNA not detected and plasma RNA levels of 70, less than 40, and 237 copies/mL, respectively. (ucsf.edu)
  • Durability of response was defined as the time from the initiation of therapy to the point at which plasma HIV RNA displayed a sustained increase of at least 0.6 log 10 copies/ml from the nadir value. (ovid.com)
  • Quick recovery of viral DNA/RNA from plasma, serum and other samples. (zymoresearch.com)
  • and chemically stable, which makes the nanoparticles resistant to RNase (an enzyme, which cleaves RNA) digestion in the blood serum. (eurekalert.org)
  • Both spin-column and 96-well plate kits are designed for fast and easy isolation of viral RNA or DNA from cell-free samples such as serum, plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, and cell culture supernatant. (thermofisher.com)
  • Most of these appear to represent false-positive results because HCV RNA is usually absent from the serum. (annals.org)
  • Viral reactivation was seen in scid mice treated with hyperimmune serum or a low dose of monoclonal antibody to the E2 envelope glycoprotein, but not in mice treated with a high dose of monoclonal antibody to E2. (asm.org)
  • The GRS Viral DNA/RNA Purification Kit provides an efficient and fast method for the purification of high quality viral DNA and RNA from cell-free media (e.g. from serum, body fluids, and the supernatant of viral infected cell cultures). (bioquote.com)
  • The E.Z.N.A.® Viral RNA Kit is designed for the isolation of viral DNA and viral RNA from cell-free fluids such as plasma, serum, urine and cell culture supernatant. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Mag-Bind® Viral DNA/RNA Kit is designed for the rapid and reliable isolation of viral RNA and viral DNA from whole blood, serum, plasma, saliva and other body fluids. (omegabiotek.com)
  • The RNAdvance Viral reagent kits are ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolation chemistries built on SPRI paramagnetic bead-based technology. (beckman.com)
  • The study uses RNA (ribonucleic acid) as a building block for the bottom-up fabrication of nanostructures. (eurekalert.org)
  • An RNA virus is a virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virus-specific siRNA responses are amplified via the reverse transcription of viral RNA to viral DNA (vDNA). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • CP phosphorylation also affects viral trafficking and virion assembly. (dovepress.com)
  • Comparisons of the largest oligonucleotides derived by ribonuclease T1 digestion of these 40 S DEN virion RNA species indicate that there are few, if any, large oligonucleotides that are homologous between any two of the four dengue prototype strains. (ajtmh.org)
  • Preliminary analyses of the 40 S RNA 5′ terminal sequence of DEN 3 virion RNA indicate that it has the composition of m7GpppAmpXp. (ajtmh.org)
  • each virion can be transcribed to several positive-sense RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA (miRNA) highlights a complex and dynamic coordination network that exists through RNA elements. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • SPRI technology enables purification of high-quality RNA with demonstrated compatibility with up to 200 µL of saliva or swab transport media. (beckman.com)
  • This chapter summarizes what is known about how a single viral RNA molecule can be selectively amplified into thousands of RNA progeny in infected cells. (asmscience.org)
  • A study of sexual transmission of Zika virus among mice ( link to paper ) demonstrates beautifully that viral nucleic acid detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is not the same as infectious virus. (virology.ws)
  • However, CDC and the Angola Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program conducted an investigation of patients with a history of yellow fever vaccination and symptoms of yellow fever disease whose specimens tested positive for yellow fever viral RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to assess whether such cases could represent vaccine failure or AEFIs. (cdc.gov)
  • SARS‐CoV‐2 RNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (mja.com.au)
  • Dried blood spots have been used successfully for DNA and RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to diagnose infant HIV( 3 ) and to determine HIV RNA concentration( 4 ) under laboratory conditions. (ucsf.edu)
  • Sensitive and highly consistent isolation of viral RNA and DNA from cell-free samples. (thermofisher.com)
  • High-quality viral DNA/RNA is ready for RT-PCR, sequencing, etc. (zymoresearch.com)
  • The PHASIFY ™ VIRAL product can facilitate greater SARS-CoV-2 RNA yields. (yahoo.com)
  • Nasopharyngeal swab specimens tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in all 12 children, and 11 (92%) had positive RNA in their fecal specimens ( Appendix Table 2). (cdc.gov)
  • Removing DNA and RNA can improve downstream processing later on - and the only effective biochemical method is enzymatic cleavage, using our Benzonase® endonuclease. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) detect viral RNA as a non-self pattern in the cytoplasm and activate downstream signaling. (nih.gov)
  • RNA purified using the E.Z.N.A.® Viral RNA method is ready for all downstream applications such as RT-PCR. (tebu-bio.com)
  • The same mathematical model for natural infections is here further analyzed, and we prove that the interior equilibrium involving coexistence of both positive and negative viral strands is globally asymptotically stable. (springer.com)
  • Sept. 4, 2012) -- A new study by University of Kentucky researchers shows promise for developing ultrastable RNA nanoparticles that may help treat cancer and viral infections by regulating cell function and binding to cancers without harming surrounding tissue. (eurekalert.org)
  • The overall goal of Sztuba-Solinska research is to find "weak-spots" in viral lncRNA interactome network that can be targeted with novel therapeutic strategies to combat viral infections. (auburn.edu)
  • There is a significant need for new therapeutic approaches to combat diseases such as cancer and viral infections,' says Bruce A. Shapiro , Ph.D., a Senior Investigator at the Center for Cancer Research,National Cancer Institute (NCI). (nanowerk.com)
  • However, research addressing the effect of host innate immune evasion on the pathology caused by viral infections is less prevalent in the literature, though very relevant and interesting. (mdpi.com)
  • and viral infections have emerged as an imperative global hazard. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Although virtually all cell types can produce type I IFN, plasmacytoid DCs are by far the most potent and are responsible for most of the systemically measurable IFN-α produced early during viral infections ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems are prokaryotic RNA-directed endonuclease machineries that act as an adaptive immune system against foreign genetic elements. (pnas.org)
  • The studies presented provide an insight into molecular and genetic aspects of messenger RNA. (springer.com)
  • Little is known about the relationship between recovery from acute viral encephalitis and the clearance of viral genetic material from the central nervous system. (asm.org)
  • In the early infant diagnosis group, 39 (22%) participants had detectable plasma RNA compared with 35 (20%) by DBS RNA. (ucsf.edu)
  • In it, you mention: "DAS181, or Fludase, is unique in that it incorporates a sialidase that removes sialic acids from mucosal membranes, thereby preventing viral attachment via the HA glycoprotein. (virology.ws)
  • Store all components except for Carrier RNA at room temperature. (thermofisher.com)
  • Carrier RNA should be stored at −20°C. (thermofisher.com)
  • Store Carrier RNA in the original aluminum bag at -20deg.C. Once open, store Proteinase K solution at -20deg.C. MagJET Magnetic Beads should be stored at 4deg.C. Other components of the kit should be stored at room temperature (15deg. (fishersci.com)
  • The GRS Viral DNA/RNA Purification Kit is optimized to eliminate the need of an internal control or carrier RNA. (bioquote.com)
  • Viral RNA extraction begins with lysis of the viral capsid from a variety of sample inputs, including saliva and nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal swabs. (beckman.com)
  • We conclude that Tsg101, through selective interactions with its partners including Hrs and Alix, may link receptor sorting and lysosome targeting to the back-fusion process involved in viral capsid release. (ovid.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Small interfering RNAs" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Immunization of mice, chicken, pigs and primates with virus-like particles, naked RNA or layered DNA/RNA plasmids has provided protection against challenges with lethal doses of infectious agents and administered tumor cells. (mdpi.com)
  • We are eager to get this new kit into the hands of clinical lab scientists and to work closely with them to showcase the versatility of our Ionic system and the potential benefits our RNA purification method can have in the fight against infectious diseases. (biospace.com)
  • Viral RNA is not infectious virus! (virology.ws)
  • To understand the dynamics of sexual transmission, the authors measured Zika virus shedding in seminal fluid - by both PCR, to detect viral RNA, and by plaque assay, to detect infectious virus. (virology.ws)
  • Zika virus RNA persisted in semen for up to 60 days - far longer than did infectious virus, which could not be detected after about three weeks. (virology.ws)
  • Why Zika viral RNA and not infectious virus would persist for so long is an important and unanswered question that should definitely be studied. (virology.ws)
  • Viral RNA would not constitute a threat to transmission, while infectious virus would. (virology.ws)
  • The lesson from this study is very clear - in novel experimental or epidemiological studies it is important to prove that any viral nucleic acid detected by PCR is actually infectious virus. (virology.ws)
  • What you are saying here makes logical sense to me regardless of the answer to this, presence of RNA alone wouldn't be proof it is actively doing anything infectious. (virology.ws)
  • strand RNA is indeed infectious, but only when introduced into cells under certain conditions. (virology.ws)
  • DNA/RNA Shield ensures nucleic acid stability during sample storage/transport at ambient temperatures (4°C-25°C). The reagent effectively lyses cells and inactivates nucleases and infectious agents (virus). (zymoresearch.com)
  • Next, Rana and team will investigate the role of RNA modifications in the viral life cycle, and how the human immune response is altered by various Zika virus strains. (eurekalert.org)
  • Administration of replicon RNA vectors has resulted in strong immune responses and generation of neutralizing antibodies in various animal models. (mdpi.com)
  • In its fight against an intruding virus, an enzyme in our immune system may sense certain types of viral RNA pairs, according to scientists. (innovations-report.com)
  • These results demonstrate that Sindbis virus can persist long term in a nonproductive form in mouse brain and suggest that the humoral immune response plays an important role in preventing viral reactivation. (asm.org)
  • The findings were extended to a group of singly spliced viral mRNAs that produce Env in the following biochemical analyses. (nii.ac.jp)
  • SNIPRs are RNA-based structures capable of identifying point mutations that can affect human health. (genengnews.com)
  • Different RMs are expected to produce different evolutionary and dynamical outcomes in viral quasi-species due to differences in the mutations accumulation rate. (springer.com)
  • Mutations within the 5′-UTR affecting RNA structural elements enabled restriction by or antagonism of Ifit1 in vitro and in vivo. (sciencemag.org)
  • The first analysis included 29 patients receiving either monotherapy or combination therapy with the protease inhibitor ritonavir whose plasma HIV RNA levels rebounded from the point of greatest decline with mutations associated with resistance to ritonavir. (ovid.com)
  • This activates RNA transcription. (ucla.edu)
  • And because CPV can replicate and transcribe its RNA within the intact virus and in the absence of cells, it provides a great tool to probe RNA transcription in action and at the atomic level. (ucla.edu)
  • The energy released from breaking down ATP causes further changes to the shell that activate RNA transcription. (ucla.edu)
  • Delivery of inhibitory RNAs to target tissues needs to be safe, efficient, and for many diseases, long-lasting, in order to exploit this endogenous mechanism for therapeutic purposes. (omicsonline.org)
  • Using the RNA nanotechnology pioneered by Guo, the researchers constructed ultrastable X-shaped RNA nanoparticles using re-engineered RNA fragments to carry up to four therapeutic and diagnostic modules. (eurekalert.org)
  • We have addressed these issues, and now it is possible to produce RNA nanoparticles that are highly stable both chemically and thermodynamically in the test tube or in the body with great potential as therapeutic reagents. (eurekalert.org)
  • Using RNA as a therapeutic modality brings to bear an entirely new approach, which not only allows for the construction of uniform scaffolds for attachment of functional entities, but also permits the use of all the different types of functionalities that are inherent in natural RNAs. (nanowerk.com)
  • To assess relative utility of viral load testing in determining therapeutic choice by the surrogate marker of CD4 cell counts after 48 weeks of therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is hypothesized that among HIV-infected patients whose baseline CD4 count is in the range of 300 to 750 cells/mm3, those patients who incorporate initial and periodic viral RNA measurements in their therapeutic decisions will have higher CD4 counts after 48 weeks than patients whose therapeutic decisions do not incorporate initial and periodic viral RNA measurements. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Elevated HIV-1 viral load (VL) observed in specimens frozen in situ in plasma preparation tubes (PPTs) compared to EDTA plasma specimens may affect therapeutic monitoring of HIV-infected patients. (asm.org)
  • This has important implications for our understanding of the fundamental molecular biology of Picornavirales,and opens the door to novel research and therapeutic applications in the field of custom RNA packaging and delivery technologies. (jic.ac.uk)
  • However, the exact mechanism by which MDA5 recognizes segments of viral RNA has long been unclear. (yalescientific.org)
  • The new kit enables users of the Ionic Purification System to extract high yields of high-quality RNA from swabs, biofluids, and transport media with a simple, automated workflow. (biospace.com)
  • Thus, the formation of inter-segment RNA-RNA interactions is governed by both helix-unwinding capacity of the chaperones and stability of RNA structure. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Several conserved serine and threonine residues in p19 mediate key interactions with 2'-hydroxyls specifying RNA as the substrate, rather than DNA. (proteopedia.org)
  • This view only shows part of the network of interactions with the ribose sugar 2'-hydroxyls of the RNA. (proteopedia.org)
  • Each 'reading' helix is connected to the structured core of p19 by a short flexible loop and several side-chain interactions this presumably allows some flexibility in the positioning of the RNA end-capping tryptophan residues. (proteopedia.org)
  • Dynamical experimental quantification of Turnip mosaic virus RNA strands, together with a nonlinear mathematical model, indicated the SMR model for this pathogen. (springer.com)
  • Single strands of these RNAs did not activate PKR. (innovations-report.com)
  • The same processes occur for all eight segments of influenza viral RNA. (virology.ws)
  • The enzyme that reproduces influenza RNA is known as an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. (virology.ws)
  • The influenza viral RNA polymerase is a primer-dependent enzyme. (virology.ws)
  • Influenza A virus preferentially snatches noncoding RNA caps. (umassmed.edu)
  • An avidin coated sensor surface was applied to couple the small biotinylated Rev peptide to the surface followed by binding its complementary RRE RNA. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • DVG 70-114 enhances viral sensing by the host cell independently of the long stretches of complementary RNA flanking the iDVGs, and it retains its stimulatory potential when transferred to otherwise inert viral RNA. (asm.org)
  • Overall, programmable Cas9-mediated viral RNA targeting likely represents one of myriad potential applications of FnCas9 in RNA targeting in eukaryotic cells. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that FnCas9 can be directed by an engineered RNA-targeting guide RNA to target and inhibit a human +ssRNA virus, hepatitis C virus, within eukaryotic cells. (pnas.org)
  • During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19) epidemic, the continued presence of viral RNA in the upper airways of infected people has been reported. (mja.com.au)
  • These Dynabeads® have an optimized surface chemistry for viral nucleic acid purification and provide efficient kinetics and a high sensitivity. (thermofisher.com)
  • Notably, the first age-based multiscale mathematical model for HCV kinetics has been developed [ 25 , 40 , 41 ] providing a more comprehensive understanding of viral treatment response kinetics observed in patients treated with IFN, HCV protease inhibitors (telaprevir and danoprevir), or the HCV NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir as well as modes of action of these drugs. (frontiersin.org)
  • We analyzed the viral RNA load kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 in various clinical specimens in children with COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
  • Computationally designed RNA and RNA-DNA based nanorings presented in this work have multiple advantages in diagnostics and delivery of functional moieties to diseased cells,' Shapiro tells Nanowerk. (nanowerk.com)
  • Figure 1: Functional RNA nanoparticles. (nanowerk.com)
  • Extensive in vitro and in vivo characterizations of the resulting functional RNA nanoparticles were carried out at NCI in collaborations with Drs. Eric Freed s (NCI-Frederick), Jakob Reiser s (FDA), Wah Chiu s (Baylor College of Medicine), Luc Jaeger s (UCSB), Wade Grabow (SPU) laboratories. (nanowerk.com)
  • The PHASIFY ™ VIRAL RNA Extraction Kit is designed to purify and concentrate viral RNA in patient viral transport media samples, and is intended as part of global efforts in detecting and controlling the COVID-19 disease. (yahoo.com)
  • She grows infected cells, extracts total RNA and captures target PAN RNA with oligonucleotide probes. (auburn.edu)
  • She has published one of only two papers that used SHAPE-MaP, a new method that allows researchers to probe the structure of any RNA of interest inside the living cells or within viral particle. (auburn.edu)
  • In order to elucidate the function of NSs, we established a plasmid-based minireplicon system using mammalian cells that express large amounts of T7 RNA polymerase. (nih.gov)
  • To evaluate, in HIV-infected patients whose baseline CD4 count is 300 to 750 cells/mm3, whether an antiretroviral treatment regimen based upon clinical evaluation and CD4 counts plus HIV RNA viral load is more effective than a treatment regimen based upon clinical evaluation and CD4 counts without the use of HIV RNA viral load information. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Nonpermissive cells infected with {varphi}X174 gene D amber mutants synthesized some sixfold less viral RNA than permissive cells. (caltech.edu)
  • yet, there are no data that identify viral immunostimulatory RNAs (isRNA) or host RNAs bound to VP35 in cells. (jcvi.org)
  • The kit is also suitable for the isolation of total RNA from cultured cells, tissues and bacteria. (tebu-bio.com)
  • Co-lead author Dr Pawel Grzechnik , of the University of Birmingham's School of Biosciences, said: "The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has revealed how important is RNA biology to understand molecular processes taking place in our cells, to find ways to suppress pathogens and to make efficient and safe vaccines. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • After isolation of cytoplasmic RNA from either infected or transfected cells and extraction of virus particle-associated RNA, specific RNA levels present in both fractions are determined. (bio-protocol.org)
  • Add fresh medium to the transfected or infected cells and place them in the incubator until cytoplasmic RNA isolation. (bio-protocol.org)
  • SNIPRs (Single-Nucleotide-Specific Programmable Riboregulators) can identify any RNA sequence based on a single nucleotide difference. (genengnews.com)
  • Replicon RNA vectors have also been subjected to clinical trials. (mdpi.com)
  • A detailed assessment of the utility and extend of RNAi in the retina using different viral vectors and hairpin designs is presented in this thesis. (bl.uk)
  • Our previous work demonstrated that the Cas9 endonuclease from Francisella novicida (FnCas9) is capable of targeting endogenous bacterial RNA. (pnas.org)
  • We provide a Graphical User Interface that applies this method and is useful for simulating viral dynamics during treatment with anti-HCV agents that act against HCV on the molecular level. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this work, we tried to elucidate molecular machinery underlying RNA recognition by RLRs and physiological significance of RLR-mediated signaling. (nii.ac.jp)